Page 1

=?6;A2?3?62;19F C2?@6<; .A =.6;:216062;2D@0<:

;Rb_\`aVZbYNaV\[ S\_ =NV[ A<?F :07B;86; :1 1./. 3\b[QR_ ._Vg\[N =NV[ @]RPVNYV`a` 0YV[VPNY 6[`a_bPa\_ :Nf\ 0YV[VP ?\PUR`aR_ ?\PUR`aR_ :V[[R`\aN

=.B9 7 9F;05 :1 1./. 3\b[QR_ ._Vg\[N =NV[ @]RPVNYV`a` 0YV[VPNY 6[`a_bPa\_ :Nf\ 0YV[VP ?\PUR`aR_ ?\PUR`aR_ :V[[R`\aN

;60<92 2 /2?.?1<;6 :1 ?R`RN_PU 1V_RPa\_ ._Vg\[N =NV[ @]RPVNYV`a` ?NQV\Y\Tf ?R`VQR[a :N_VP\]N :RQVPNY 0R[aR_ =U\R[Ve ._Vg\[N

1_ :P7b[XV[ V` N P\[`bYaN[a S\_ @a 7bQR :RQVPNY N[Q /\`a\[ @PVR[aVSVP 1_ 9f[PU V` N P\[`bYaN[a S\_ @a 7bQR :RQVPNY 1_ /R_N_Q\[V UN` [\ _RYRcN[a SV[N[PVNY P\[SYVPa` a\ QV`PY\`R

0

U_\[VP ]NV[ V` N ]N[QRZVP aUNa NSSRPa` N]]_\eVZNaRYf  \S ]R\]YR V[ aUR B[VaRQ @aNaR` N[Q V` R`aVZNaRQ a\ P\`a aUR [NaV\[  OVYYV\[ ]R_ fRN_ V[ ZRQVPNY Re]R[`R` Y\`a

V[P\ZR N[Q QRP_RN`RQ ]_\QbPaVcVaf 0U_\[VP ]NV[ V[aR_SR_R`

dVaU NYY N`]RPa` \S YVSR V[PYbQV[T ]R_`\[NY R[W\fZR[a d\_X N[Q _RYNaV\[`UV]` .YaU\bTU ]NV[ V` b[VcR_`NY aUR RaV\Y\Tf \S ZN[f ]NV[SbY P\[QVaV\[` V` [\a dRYY b[QR_`a\\Q ZNXV[T a_RNaZR[a QVSSVPbYa

6 ; 1 2 = 2 ; 1 2 ; A 9F 1 2 C 2 9 < = 2 1 / F : 0 : . 5 < ; = B / 9 6 @ 5 6 ; 4

=. 6 ; : 2 1 6 0 6 ; 2 ; 2 D @ @ = 2 0 6 . 9 2 1 6 A 6 < ; Â&#x2018; 1 2 0 2 : / 2 ?    &

&


;Rb_\Z\QbYNaV\[ 3\_Z` \S [Rb_\Z\QbYNaV\[ dR_R b`RQ Y\[T ORS\_R aUR QV`P\cR_f \S RYRPa_VPVaf AUR 2Tf]aVN[` SV_`a NaaRZ]aRQ RYRPa_VP `aVZbYNaV\[ a\ a_RNa ]NV[ N` RN_Yf N` " /0 N` `RR[ \[ `a\[R PN_cV[T` QR]VPaV[T RYRPa_VP PNaSV`U ORV[T ]YNPRQ \[ ]R\]YR AUR a\_]RQ\ SV`U dUVPU NY`\ TR[R_ NaR` RYRPa_VP Pb__R[a` dN` b`RQ a\ a_RNa ]NV[ N[Q P\Z Z\[ ZNYNQVR` YVXR URNQNPUR` N[Q N_aU_VaV` Qb_V[T aUR aVZR \S @\P_NaR`! 2YRPa_VP `U\PX` S_\Z aUR`R N[VZNY` PN[ _RNPU  c\Ya` R[\bTU a\ XVYY N UbZN[ NQbYa 6[ N[PVR[a 4_RRPR N[Q ?\ZR aUR `U\PX` S_\Z aUR `]RPVR` A\_]RQ\ [\OVYVN[N dR_R b`RQ N` N a_RNaZR[a S\_ T\ba URNQNPUR N[Q \aUR_ `\b_PR` \S ]NV[! 4_\b[QRQ V[ aUR aUR\_f aUNa [\[[\eV\b` `aVZbYV PN[ _RQbPR [\eV\b` ]NV[ ]R_PR]aV\[ Z\QR_[ [Rb_\Z\Q bYNaV\[ d\_X` Of V[a_\QbPV[T N[ RYRPa_VP Pb__R[a [RN_ aUR `\b_PR \S PU_\[VP ]NV[ VZ]bY`R` \_ NY\[T ]NV[ ]NaU dNf` 6[ &#$ @URNYf V[a_\QbPRQ [Rb_\Z\QbYNaV\[ V[a\ P\[aRZ]\_N_f ZRQVPV[R( U\dRcR_ aUR N]]_\NPU QVQ [\a TNV[ ]\]bYN_Vaf S\_ aUR a_RNaZR[a \S ]NV[ b[aVY aUR ZVQ &%`"# @aVZbYNaV\[ V` ORP\ZV[T V[P_RN`V[TYf ]\]bYN_ S\_ aUR a_RNaZR[a \S _RS_NPa\_f ]NV[ P\[QVaV\[` 6a V` _RcR_`VOYR `NSR P\`aRSSRPaVcR N[Q [\[]UN_ZNP\Y\TVP AUR Z\`a P\ZZ\[ S\_Z` \S `aVZbYNaV\[ \SSR_RQ a\ a_RNa ]NV[ N_R `]V[NY P\_Q `aVZbYNaV\[ @0@ ]R_V]UR_NY [R_cR `aVZb YNaV\[ =;@ Z\a\_ P\_aRe `aVZbYNaV\[ N[Q QRR] O_NV[ `aVZbYNaV\[ AUV` _RcVRd S\Pb`R` \[ @0@ N[Q =;@ :\`a VZ]YN[aNOYR ]bY`R TR[R_Na\_` 6=4` N_R _RPUN_TRNOYR ]_\T_NZZNOYR N[Q PN[ P\[[RPa a\  \_  YRNQ` AUR 6=4 ]_\QbPR` N Y\dc\YaNTR Pb__R[a dUVPU P_RNaR` N `R[`NaV\[ aUNa OY\PX` aUR NOVYVaf \S aUR O_NV[

a\ `R[`R ]_RcV\b`Yf ]R_PRVcRQ ]NV[ AUR V[aR[`Vaf \S aUR `aVZbYNa\_ PN[ OR PUN[TRQ aUR ]NaaR_[ \S aUR RYRPa_V PNY SVRYQ PN[ OR cN_VRQ N[Q aUR `f`aRZ PN[ OR ab_[RQ \[ N[Q \SS N` [RPR``N_f a\ ]_\cVQR \]aVZNY ]NV[ _RYVRS N` Re]R_VR[PRQ Of aUR ]NaVR[a 0b__R[aYf NcNVYNOYR 6=4 QRcVPR` N_R YV`aRQ V[ ANOYR  3Yb\_\`P\]VP VZNTR` \S QRcVPR YRNQ` N_R `U\d[ V[ aUR 3VTb_R . `aVZbYNa\_ a_VNY V` ]R_S\_ZRQ ]_V\_ a\ ]R_ZN[R[aYf VZ]YN[aV[T aUR 6=4 N[Q YRNQ` 6[ N `aVZbYNa\_ a_VNY  \_  YRNQ` P\[aNV[V[T cN_fV[T NZ\b[a` \S RYRPa_\QR` N_R VZ]YN[aRQ ]R_PbaN[R\b`Yf V[a\ aUR R]VQb_NY `]NPR @0@ \_ PY\`R a\ ]NV[TR[R_NaV[T [R_cR` =;@ dVaU Y\PNY N[R` aURaVP N[Q 6C Q_bT `RQNaV\[ 6S ]NV[ N[Q Sb[PaV\[ VZ]_\cR Of N ZN_TV[ \S " \_ Z\_R N``R``RQ \[ N cV`bNY N[N Y\T `PNYR HC.@J N[Q aU_\bTU PN_RSbY Z\[Va\_V[T \S aUR ]NaVR[a \cR_ $ QNf` aUR ]NaVR[a PN[ _RPRVcR ]R_ZN[R[a RYRPa_\QR` N[Q aUR 6=4 PN[ OR `b_TVPNYYf VZ]YN[aRQ

@=6;.9 0<?1 @A6:B9.A6<; @]V[NY P\_Q `aVZbYNaV\[ UN` ]_\cR[ a\ OR N[ RSSRP aVcR a_RNaZR[a Z\QNYVaf V[ VZ]_\cV[T QNVYf Sb[PaV\[ N[Q ^bNYVaf \S YVSR S\_ ZN[f ]NaVR[a` `bSSR_V[T S_\Z `RcR_R [Rb_\]NaUVP ]NV[ \S cN_V\b` PNb`R` Z\`a P\ZZ\[Yf PU_\[VP ONPX N[Q YVZO ]NV[$ ANOYR  5\dRcR_ a_RNa ZR[a \S PU_\[VP [Rb_\]NaUVP ]NV[ V[ aUR _RTV\[ \S aUR SNPR [RPX URNQ N[Q Y\d ONPX N_R PUNYYR[TV[T S\_ ]NV[ `]RPVNYV`a` AUR ]NV[ V` af]VPNYYf _RS_NPa\_f a\ ZN[f \S aUR P\[cR[aV\[NY a_RNaZR[a \]aV\[` V[PYbQV[T ZRQ VPNY aUR_N]VR` [\[`aR_\VQNY N[aVV[SYNZZNa\_f Q_bT` H;@.61`J N[aVP\[cbY`N[a` Y\PNY N[R`aURaVP` N[aVQR ]_R``N[a` N[Q \]VNaR` ]Uf`VPNY aUR_N]f N[Q [R_cR OY\PX` \_ NOYNaV\[`%

ANOYR  0\Z]N_V`\[ \S @ZNYY ?RPUN_TRNOYR 6=4 1RcVPR`

1RcVPR :N[bSNPab_R_

31. /NaaR_f 9VSR

1Nf` /RadRR[ ?RPUN_TR

=\dR_ 1RYVcR_f

2\[ :V[V % PP @a 7bQR :RQVPNY

 f_



0\[`aN[a Pb__R[a

=_RPV`V\[  PP /\`a\[ @PVR[aVSVP

" f_

#

0\[`aN[a Pb__R[a

?R`a\_RB9A?. :RQa_\[VP

& f_

"!

0\[`aN[a c\YaNTR

@VgR

 PP

6=4 VZ]YN[aNOYR ]bY`R TR[R_Na\_ @\b_PR' 0YV[VPVN[·` ZN[bNY S\_ 2\[ :V[V ;Rb_\`aVZbYNaV\[ @f`aRZ =YN[\ AE' @a 7bQR :RQVPNY ;Rb_\`aVZbYNaV\[( % =_RPV`V\[ 6=4 H]_\QbPa O_\PUb_RJ CNYR[PVN 0.' /\`a\[ @PVR[aVSVP( $ ?R`a\_RB9A?. H]_\QbPa O_\PUb_RJ :V[[RN]\YV` :;' :RQa_\[VP( %



6 ; 1 2 = 2 ; 1 2 ; A 9F 1 2 C 2 9 < = 2 1 / F : 0 : . 5 < ; = B / 9 6 @ 5 6 ; 4


3VTb_R 3Yb\_\`P\]VP VZNTR` \S YRNQ` 6ZNTR` ]_\cVQRQ Of ._Vg\[N=NV[P\Z

=2?6=52?.9 ;2?C2 @A6:B9.A6<; =R_V]UR_NY [R_cR `aVZbYNaV\[ V` N af]R \S [Rb_\ Z\QbYNaV\[ aUNa V` ORP\ZV[T V[P_RN`V[TYf ]\]bYN_ S\_ aUR a_RNaZR[a \S ZN[f PNb`R` \S PU_\[VP ]NV[ N[Q ]R_V]UR_NY [Rb_NYTVN` ANOYR  AUV` V[[\cNaVcR a_RNa ZR[a d\_X` Of QRYVcR_V[T Y\dYRcRY RYRPa_VP VZ]bY`R` PY\`R a\ ]NV[TR[R_NaV[T [R_cR` aUNa V[aR_SR_R dVaU aUR ]R_PR]aV\[ \S [\PVPR]aVcR ]NV[& =R_V]UR_NY [R_cR `aVZbYNaV\[ PN[ OR Sb_aUR_ QVcVQRQ V[a\  R[aVaVR` AUR SV_`a V` =;@ \S N[ VQR[aVSVNOYR ]NV[ TR[R_NaV[T [R_cR `bPU N` aUR `PVNaVP [R_cR V[ N ]NaVR[a dVaU S\\a ]NV[ \_ aUR \PPV]VaNY [R_cR` V[ N ]NaVR[a dVaU \PPV]VaNY [Rb_NYTVN AUR `RP\[Q af]R \S =;@ ]R_V]UR_NY [R_cR SVRYQ `aVZbYNaV\[ =;S@ V[c\YcR` aUR

ANOYR  0\[QVaV\[` 2SSRPaVcRYf :N[NTRQ DVaU @]V[NY 0\_Q @aVZbYNaV\[$ 6`PURZVP cN`PbYN_ =R_V]UR_NY cN`PbYN_ QV`RN`R ?RS_NPa\_f N[TV[N 2ZR_TV[T b`R` 0U_\[VP ]N[P_RNaVaV`

`bOPbaN[R\b` ]YNPRZR[a \S RYRPa_VPNY YRNQ` \cR_ aUR TR[R_NYVgRQ N_RN \S ]NV[ RT YbZON_ YRNQ` S\_ NeVNY YbZ ON_ ]NV[ .[ NQcN[aNTR \S =;@ \cR_ @0@ V` aUR NOVYVaf a\ ]YNPR aUR YRNQ QV_RPaYf NQWNPR[a a\ N[ NSSRPaRQ [R_cR \_ V[ aUR N_RN \S ]NV[ N[Q aUR NOVYVaf a\ ]_\cVQR _RYVRS a\ N_RN` aUNa ZNf OR QVSSVPbYa a\ _RNPU dVaU @0@ 5RNQ ;RPX N[Q 3NPVNY =NV[ AUR SV_`a aU_\bTU aUV_Q PR_cVPNY [R_cR _\\a` N_R P\Z Z\[Yf V[c\YcRQ dUR[ N ]NaVR[a ]_R`R[a` dVaU URNQ [RPX N[Q SNPVNY ]NV[ @]V[NY [R_cR _\\a` N_R [\a NYdNf` aUR PNb`R \S aUR`R PR]UNYNQ [Rb_NYTVN` N[Q Zb`PYR P\[ a_NPab_R` =NaVR[a` dU\ UNcR SNVYRQ \aUR_ a_RNaZR[a` S\_ aURV_ ]NV[ UNcR _R`]\[QRQ ]\`VaVcRYf a\ =;@ 6[ $ :RYcV[ Ra NY P\[QbPaRQ N `abQf \S ]NaVR[a` dVaU \PPV]V aNY URNQNPUR` .SaR_ ! dRRX` \S _RPRVcV[T =;@ S\_ aURV_ URNQNPUR` !# \S aUR ]NaVR[a` _NaRQ aUR _RYVRS N` RePRY YR[a N[Q Na  dRRX` [\ ]NaVR[a` R[_\YYRQ V[ aUR `abQf _R]\_aRQ ]\\_ ]NV[ _RYVRS =R_PbaN[R\b` VZ]YN[aNaV\[ \S ]R_V]UR_NY `aVZbYNa\_ YRNQ` UN` ORR[ `U\d[ a\ ]_\cVQR T\\Q a\ RePRYYR[a _R`bYa` V[ a_RNaV[T V[a_NPaNOYR \PPV] VaNY [Rb_NYTVN dUVPU UN` ORR[ N `bTTR`aRQ a_VTTR_ S\_ ZVT_NV[R`% 6[ N PYV[VPNY V[cR`aVTNaV\[ \S ]NaVR[a` _RPRVc V[T =;@ S\_ P_N[V\SNPVNY ]NV[ $  \S aUR ]N_aVPV]N[a` Re]R_VR[PRQ `VT[VSVPN[a VZ]_\cRZR[a V[ ]NV[ V[aR[`Vaf V[ aUR SV_`a Z\[aU`

0U_\[VP ]RYcVP ]NV[ 3NPVNY ]NV[ [bPYRb` PNbQNYV` `aVZbYNaV\[ 6QV\]NaUVP [Rb_\]NaUVP S\\a ]NV[ ;Rb_\]NaUVP ]NV[ /_NPUVNY ]YReb` [Rb_\]NaUf 0\Z]YRe _RTV\[NY ]NV[ `f[Q_\ZR =R_V]UR_NY [Rb_\]NaUf =\`aUR_]RaVP [Rb_NYTVN =\`aYNZV[RPa\Zf `f[Q_\ZR =\`aaU\_NP\a\Zf `f[Q_\ZR =UN[a\Z YVZO ]NV[ ?NQVPbYVaV` PR_cVPNY aU\_NPVP YbZON_ `NP_NY

ANOYR  0\[QVaV\[` AUNa :Nf /R 2SSRPaVcRYf A_RNaRQ Of =;@ N[Q =;S@ .eVNY ]NV[ PR_cVPNY aU\_NPVP YbZON_ `NP_NY 0R_cVP\TR[VP URNQNPUR` 0U_\[VP ]RYcVPaR`aVPbYN_ ]NV[ 0\Z]YRe _RTV\[NY ]NV[ `f[Q_\ZR 6  66 ?@1 :VT_NV[R`PU_\[VP QNVYf URNQNPUR` 00 =;@ =\`aYNZV[RPa\Zf `f[Q_\ZR <PPV]VaNY [Rb_NYTVN 0 =;@ =;S@ ]R_V]UR_NY [R_cR SVRYQ `aVZbYNaV\[( =;@ ]R_V]UR_NY [R_cR `aVZb YNaV\[( ?@1 _RSYRe `fZ]NaURaVP Qf`a_\]Uf

6 ; 1 2 = 2 ; 1 2 ; A 9F 1 2 C 2 9 < = 2 1 / F : 0 : . 5 < ; = B / 9 6 @ 5 6 ; 4




1OaS@S^]`b 0UVRS 0\Z]YNV[a' 0U_\[VP 9\d /NPX =NV[ DVaU\ba ?NQVPbY\]NaUf 5V`a\_f \S ]_R`R[a VYY[R``' AUR ]NaVR[a V` N #%fRN_\YQ ZN[ dVaU N Y\[T UV`a\_f \S Y\dR_ ONPX ]NV[ AUR ]NaVR[a UNQ ORR[ a_RNaRQ dVaU ;@.61` [N_P\aVP` N[Q ]Uf`VPNY aUR_N]f N` dRYY N` R]VQb_NY` N[Q SNPRa V[WRPaV\[` AUR ]NaVR[a b[QR_dR[a `]V[NY Sb`V\[  fRN_` NT\ dVaU\ba `VT[VSVPN[a ]NV[ _RYVRS <[ ]_R`R[aNaV\[ aUR ]NaVR[a QR`P_VOR` aUR ]NV[ N` " \ba \S  \[ aUR C.@ P\[aV[b\b` N[Q QbYY dVaU\ba Y\dR_ Rea_RZVaf _NQVNaV\[

?RcVRd \S @f`aRZ`' ;RTNaVcR =N`a ZRQVPNY UV`a\_f' /NPX ]NV[ UV] ]NV[ N[Q \`aR\]\_\`V` =N`a `b_TVPNY UV`a\_f' 9bZON_ Sb`V\[ Na 9!9" V[ # 5V] _R]YNPRZR[a V[ ! A$ cR_aRO_\]YN`af `RcR_NY fRN_` NT\( ]NaVR[a P\bYQ [\a _RZRZOR_ ReNPa fRN_ 3NZVYf UV`a\_f' [\[P\[a_VOba\_f .YYR_TVR`' ;\ X[\d[ Q_bT NYYR_TVR`

?RYRcN[a .O[\_ZNY =Uf`VPNY 2eNZV[NaV\[ 3V[QV[T` 9bZON_ `]V[R' AR[QR_[R`` a\ ]NY]NaV\[ \cR_ SNPRa W\V[a` dVaU YbZON_ ReaR[`V\[ N[Q _\aNaV\[ @\ZR ]N_N`]V[\b` Zb`PbYNab_R `]N`Z ;\ T_\`` N[Na\ZVP NO[\_ZNYVaVR` 1RP_RN`RQ _N[TR \S Z\aV\[ dVaU YbZON_ ReaR[`V\[ N[Q SYReV\[ Ad\ S\PNY N[Q QV`P_RaR cR_aVPNY N_RN` \S ]NV[ NO\ba aUR `VgR \S N ]NYZ Wb`a YNaR_NY a\ ZVQYV[R Na 9!@ DRYYURNYRQ ZVQYV[R cR_aVPNY V[PV`V\[ S_\Z ]_RcV\b` YbZON_ `]V[NY `b_TR_f

.``R``ZR[a 9bZON_ ]\`aYNZV[RPa\Zf `f[Q_\ZR 0U_\[VP QRTR[R_NaVcR QV`RN`R \S aUR YbZON_ `]V[R 0U_\[VP NeVNY Y\d ONPX ]NV[

0U_\[VP /NPX =NV[ AUR RcNYbNaV\[ N[Q a_RNaZR[a \S ONPX ]NV[ RVaUR_ NPbaR \_ PU_\[VP ]\`R` RP\[\ZVP UN_Q`UV] \[ `\PVRaf N` dRYY N` N[ RZ\aV\[NY N[Q ]Uf`VPNY QR`aVabaV\[ a\ aUR ]NaVR[a /NPX ]NV[ PN[ N_V`R S_\Z N [bZOR_ \S `a_bP ab_R` PNb`V[T V__VaNaV\[ a\ PR[a_NY N[Q\_ ]R_V]UR_NY [R_cR` 9\PNYVgV[T N `]RPVSVP \SSR[QV[T `a_bPab_R [R_cR _\\a SNPRa W\V[a QV`P YVTNZR[a Zb`PYR N` aUR PNb`R \S aUR ]NV[ PN[ OR QVSSVPbYa 6[ =;@ aUR RYRPa_\QR V` ]YNPRQ a\ aUR [R_cR PNb`V[T aUR ]NV[ VZ]_\cV[T aUR YVXRYVU\\Q \S `bSSVPVR[a [\PVPR]aVcR OY\PXNQR . `abQf \S =;S@ S\_ PU_\[VP Y\dR_ ONPX ]NV[ NSaR_ SNVYRQ ONPX `b_TR_f `f[Q_\ZR S\b[Q N `VT[VSVPN[a _RQbP aV\[ V[ ZRN[ C.@ `P\_R` \S !%o! V[ ]NaVR[a` dU\



6 ; 1 2 = 2 ; 1 2 ; A 9F 1 2 C 2 9 < = 2 1 / F : 0 : . 5 < ; = B / 9 6 @ 5 6 ; 4

=YN[ @0@ a_VNY dVaU  YbZON_ R]VQb_NY YRNQ` P\Z]N_RQ dVaU =;@ a_VNY dVaU  YbZON_ NeVNY ]R_PbaN[R\b` YRNQ`

A_VNY AUR ]NaVR[a b[QR_dR[a VZ]YN[aNaV\[ \S N a_VNY `]V[NY P\_Q `aVZbYNa\_ dVaU  R]VQb_NY YRNQ` V[ aUR aU\_NP\YbZON_ _RTV\[ N` dRYY N`  ]R_V]UR_NY SVRYQ YRNQ` V[ aUR YbZON_ _RTV\[ Ad\ @7: <Pa_\QR @a 7bQR :RQVPNY YRNQ` dR_R NQcN[PRQ S_\Z aUR !TNbTR Ab\Uf [RRQYR` Na aUR 99 R]VQb_NY V[aR_ `]NPR a\ aUR V[SR_V\_ O\_QR_ \S aUR A$ cR_aRO_NY O\Qf P\cR_V[T aUR R[aV_R ZVQYV[R \S aUR A% N[Q A& cR_aRO_NY O\QVR` @aVZbYNaV\[ dN` V[VaVNaRQ N[Q aUR ]NaVR[a UNQ P\cR_NTR \cR_ UV` Y\d ONPX V[ aUR N_RN \S ]NV[ N` dRYY N` \cR_ O\aU YRT` AUR`R YRNQ` dR_R aUR[ N[PU\_RQ a\ aUR `XV[ .aaR[aV\[ dN` ab_[RQ a\dN_Q ]YNPRZR[a \S aUR ]R_PbaN[R\b` ]R_V]UR_NY YRNQ` @RcR_NY !TNbTR @a 7bQR :RQVPNY Ab\Uf [RRQYR` dR_R NQcN[PRQ `bOPb aN[R\b`Yf V[ N cR_aVPNY SN`UV\[ ORTV[[V[T Na aUR 9! YRcRY N[Q T\V[T `a_NVTUa Q\d[ \[ RVaUR_ `VQR \S 9! 9" N[Q @ AUR YRNQ` dR_R ]YNPRQ aU_\bTU aUR [RR QYR` N[Q aUR [RRQYR` dR_R `bO`R^bR[aYf dVaUQ_Nd[ YRNcV[T aUR YRNQ` V[ ]YNPR AUR ]NaVR[a UNQ P\cR_NTR \cR_ UV` Y\d ONPX N[Q YRT` cVN UV` @0@ YRNQ` Oba QVQ [\a SRRY aUR `aVZbYN aV\[ dN` OR[RSVPVNY 5R QVQ _R]\_a N[ % _RQbPaV\[ V[ ]NV[SbY `fZ]a\Z` S_\Z aUR ]R_V]UR_NY YRNQ` Qb_ V[T UV` "QNf a_VNY

=R_ZN[R[a 6Z]YN[a =R_ZN[R[a VZ]YN[aNaV\[ dN` ]R_S\_ZRQ dRRX` NSaR_ aUR `bPPR``SbY a_VNY AUR ]NaVR[a ]_R`R[aRQ Na N dRRX S\YY\db] N]]\V[aZR[a dVaU [\ ]NV[ AUR ]NaVR[a `aNaRQ aUNa UR UNQ N $ _RQbPaV\[ V[ ]NV[ N[Q P\Z]YNV[RQ \[Yf \S QV`P\ZS\_a Na aUR `VaR \S V[PV `V\[ 5R _R]\_aRQ _RPRVcV[T  P\cR_NTR \S aUR N_RN \S ]NV[ dVaU aUR ]R_ZN[R[a =;@ N[Q dN` cR_f UN]]f dVaU aUR _R`bYa`

_R]\_aRQ N `bPPR``SbY \baP\ZR  \S  ]NaVR[a` _R]\_aRQ N ]\\_ \baP\ZR& 9RNQ` dR_R ]YNPRQ `bOPbaN[R\b`Yf \cR_ aUR N_RN \S d\_`a ]NV[ =NaVR[a` UNQ NeVNY Y\d ONPX ]NV[ dVaU\ba N _NQVPbYN_ P\Z]\[R[a .OQ\ZV[NY =RYcVP N[Q 6YV\V[TbV[NY =NV[ .OQ\ZV[NY ]RYcVP N[Q VYV\V[TbV[NY ]NV[ N_R P\ZZ\[ N[Q _R`RN_PU \[ aUR RSSVPNPf \S ]NV[ _RYVRS S_\Z =;@ V[ aUR`R P\[QVaV\[` V` V[`bSSVPVR[a 5\dRcR_ N ]R_V]U R_NY [R_cR YVXRYf V` VZ]YVPNaRQ N[Q VS VQR[aVSVRQ \_ VS aUR ]NaVR[a UN` N QV`P_RaR N[Q S\PNY N_RN \S ]NV[ =;@ ZNf ]_\cR OR[RSVPVNY 9RNQ ZVT_NaV\[ UN` ORR[ N P\[`aN[a P\Z]YVPNaV\[ S\_ `\ZR ]NaVR[a` S\YY\dV[T VZ]YN[aNaV\[ V[ @0@ DUR[ YRNQ` ZVT_NaR V[ aUR R]VQb_NY `]NPR S_\Z N[ @0@ aUR


1OaS@S^]`b 0UVRS 0\Z]YNV[a' ?VTUa 9\dR_ 2ea_RZVaf =NV[ 5V`a\_f \S ]_R`R[a VYY[R``' AUR ]NaVR[a V` N "fRN_\YQ ZN[ QVNT[\`RQ dVaU PU_\[VP _VTUa Y\dR_ Rea_RZVaf ]NV[ aUNa ORTN[ NSaR_ `b`aNV[V[T N aVOVNY S_NPab_R V[ N Z\a\_ cRUVPYR NPPVQR[a AUR ]NaVR[a b[QR_dR[a N [bZOR_ \S P\__RPaVcR `b_TR_VR` N[Q _RPR[aYf UN` ORR[ TVcR[ aUR QVNT[\`V` \S _RSYRe `fZ]NaURaVP Qf`a_\]Uf AUR ]NaVR[a QR`P_VOR` ]NV[ V[P_RN`RQ ]R_`]V_NaV\[ aRZ]R_Nab_R PUN[TR` `dRYY V[T Ob_[V[T `R[`NaV\[` N[Q V[P_RN`RQ `R[`VaVgNaV\[ ReaR[QV[T S_\Z aUR YNaR_NY aVOVN _RTV\[ V[a\ aUR S\\a <[ ]Uf`VPNY ReNZV[NaV\[ N QRP_RN`RQ NZ\b[a \S UNV_ \[ aUR _VTUa YRT P\Z]N_RQ dVaU aUR YRSa YRT dN` [\aRQ AUR ]NaVR[a NY`\ QR`P_VOR` aU_\OOV[T `U\\aV[T `UN_] N[Q Ob_[V[T Y\dR_ ONPX ]NV[ aUNa NY`\ QRcRY \]RQ NSaR_ aUR NPPVQR[a 5R `aNaRQ aUNa _V`V[T S_\Z N `VaaV[T ]\`VaV\[ PYVZOV[T `aNV_` N[Q Q_VcV[T ReNPR_ ONaR aUR ]NV[ dUR_RN` `VaaV[T VZ]_\cR` Va 6[ aUR ]N`a aUR ]NaVR[a UN` a_VRQ \]VNaR` NPb ]b[Pab_R `aR_\VQ V[WRPaV\[` N[Q PUV_\]_NPaVP ZN[V] bYNaV\[` S\_ ]NV[ _RYVRS( NYY UNcR ]_\cR[ a\ OR \[Yf Z\QR_NaRYf RSSRPaVcR @V[PR ORP\ZV[T N ]NaVR[a Na \b_ PYV[VP aUR ]NaVR[a b[QR_dR[a _VTUa`VQRQ 9 a\ 9! `fZ]N aURaVP PUNV[ _NQV\S_R^bR[Pf NOYNaV\[ S_\Z dUVPU UR _RPRVcRQ RePRYYR[a Oba aRZ]\_N_f ]NV[ _RYVRS .YaU\bTU ]NV[ P\[a_\Y dN` NPUVRcRQ NPbaRYf aUR ]NaVR[a `aVYY _R^bV_RQ N Z\QR_NaR NZ\b[a \S \]VNaR` N[Q dN` Re]R_VR[PV[T `VT[VSVPN[a ]NV[ .a aUV` ]\V[a aUR \]aV\[ \S @0@ dN` QV`Pb``RQ

?RcVRd \S @f`aRZ`' ;RTNaVcR .YYR_TVR`' 0R]UNYReV[ .b_R\ZfPV[ 9RQR_YR ]R[VPVYYV[ 9f_VPN =SVgR_ =N`a ZRQVPNY UV`a\_f' ?RSYRe `fZ]NaURaVP Qf` a_\]Uf V[ aUR YRSa Y\dR_ Rea_RZVaf PU_\[VP ]NV[ `f[Q_\ZR =N`a `b_TVPNY UV`a\_f' :bYaV]YR `b_TR_VR` a\ aUR _VTUa Y\dR_ Rea_RZVaf NSaR_ PN_ NPPVQR[a

?RYRcN[a .O[\_ZNY =Uf`VPNY 2eNZV[NaV\[ 3V[QV[T` @R[`NaV\[' <cR_ aUR N[aR_V\_ `UV[ N[Q aUR YNaR_NY `UV[ aUR ]NaVR[a UN` [bZO[R`` N[Q ´RYRPa_VPNYµaf]R ]NV[ _NQVNaV[T Q\d[ V[a\ UV` _VTUa S\\a \[ YVTUa a\bPU N[Q ]_R``b_R 5R UN` `\ZR UNV_ Y\`` \cR_ aUR _VTUa N[aR_V\_ `UV[ P\Z]N_RQ dVaU aUR YRSa `VQR N`

`aVZbYNaV\[ P\cR_NTR PUN[TR` N[Q ZNf [\ Y\[TR_ ]_\ cVQR NQR^bNaR ]NV[ _RYVRS .YaU\bTU ]R_V]UR_NY YRNQ` N_R ]_\[R a\ ZVT_NaV\[ aURf N_R Z\_R NPPR``VOYR N[Q RN`VR_ a\ ZN[V]bYNaR V[ \_QR_ a\ _RPRVcR `bSSVPVR[a `aVZbYNaV\[

dRYY N` `\ZR `UV[f `XV[ AUR_R V` N YNPX \S cN_VN[PR V[ aRZ]R_Nab_R dVaU a\bPU AUR ]NaVR[a Q\R` [\a UNcR ]NV[ \[ YVTUa a\bPU @a_NVTUaYRT _NV`R V` ]\` VaVcR \[ aUR _VTUa `VQR dUVPU ZNf OR V[QVPNaVcR \S `\ZR ]NaU\Y\Tf V[ aUR YbZON_ `]V[R @a_NVTUaYRT _NV`R V` [RTNaVcR \[ aUR YRSa `VQR

.``R``ZR[a ?RSYRe `fZ]NaURaVP Qf`a_\]Uf \S aUR _VTUa Y\dR_ Rea_RZVaf .eVNY Y\d ONPX ]NV[ dVaU _VTUa Y\dR_ Rea_RZVaf _NQVPbY\]NaUf

=YN[ @0@ a_VNY dVaU QbNY RYRPa_\QR YRNQ`

A_VNY AUR ]NaVR[a b[QR_dR[a VZ]YN[aNaV\[ \S N a_VNY @0@ dVaU  R]VQb_NY YRNQ` . !TNbTR @a 7bQR :RQVPNY Ab\Uf [RRQYR dN` NQcN[PRQ a\ aUR A 9 V[aR_`]NPR \[ aUR YRSa `VQR N[Q aUR[ \[ aUR _VTUa `VQR AUR %P\[aNPa RYRPa_\QR dN` NQcN[PRQ aU_\bTU aUR Ab\Uf [RRQYR AUR SV_`a YRNQ dN` ]YNPRQ \cR_ aUR ZVQYV[R \S aUR R[aV_R A&A cR_aRO_NY O\Qf dVaU aUR aV] Na aUR V[SR_V\_ N`]RPa \S aUR A% cR_ aRO_NY O\Qf AUR `RP\[Q %P\[aNPa RYRPa_\QR dN` ]YNPRQ aU_\bTU aUR _VTUa`VQRQ [RRQYR AUV` dN` NQcN[PRQ b] Wb`a a\ aUR _VTUa \S ZVQYV[R V[ aUR `NZR QV`a_VObaV\[ dVaU aUR aV] Na aUR V[SR_V\_ O\_QR_ \S aUR A% cR_aRO_NY O\Qf P\cR_V[T aUR R[aV_R A& N[Q A cR_aRO_NY O\Qf @aVZbYNaV\[ dN` aUR[ V[VaVNaRQ AUR ]NaVR[a UNQ P\cR_NTR \cR_ NYY \S UV` ]NV[SbY `fZ] a\Z` V[PYbQV[T UV` Y\d ONPX N[Q V[a\ aUR R[aV_R _VTUa Y\dR_ Rea_RZVaf V[PYbQV[T UV` S\\a AUR [RRQYR` dR_R dVaUQ_Nd[ ]_R``b_R dN` URYQ \cR_ aUR [RRQYR R[a_f `VaR N[Q N `aR_VYR ON[QNTR dN` N]]YVRQ .a aUR "QNf S\YY\db] aUR ]NaVR[a [\aRQ % VZ]_\cRZR[a V[ UV` \cR_NYY ]NV[ `fZ]a\ZNa\Y\Tf 5R SRYa aUR @0@ `VT[VSVPN[aYf QRP_RN`RQ UV` \cR_NYY ]NV[ N[Q V[P_RN`RQ UV` QNVYf Sb[PaV\[ N[Q ^bNYVaf \S YVSR

=R_ZN[R[a 6Z]YN[a =R_ZN[R[a VZ]YN[aNaV\[ dN` ]R_S\_ZRQ ! dRRX` NSaR_ aUR `bPPR``SbY a_VNY AUR ]NaVR[a ]_R`R[aRQ Na N dRRX S\YY\db] N]]\V[aZR[a dVaU [\ ]NV[ .a  N[Q Z\[aU S\YY\db] cV`Va` aUR ]NaVR[a _R]\_aRQ N & _RQbPaV\[ V[ ]NV[ NQQV[T aUNa UR dN` SRRYV[T ORaaR_ aUN[ UR UNQ V[ " fRN_` AUR ]NaVR[a _R]\_aRQ QRP_RN`RQ \]VNaR b`R N[Q V[P_RN`RQ ^bNYVaf \S YVSR

P\cR_NTR 5\dRcR_ aUR Z\`a RcVQR[a OR[RSVa \S =;@ \cR_ @0@ V` aUNa V[ aUR S\_ZR_ aRPU[V^bR aUR YRNQ` N_R ]YNPRQ \ba`VQR \S aUR R]VQb_NY `]NPR aUb` _RQbPV[T aUR _V`X S\_ R]VQb_NY [Rb_\Y\TVP V[`bYa N[Q R]VQb_NY URZ\__UNTR

6 ; 1 2 = 2 ; 1 2 ; A 9F 1 2 C 2 9 < = 2 1 / F : 0 : . 5 < ; = B / 9 6 @ 5 6 ; 4




ANOYR ! 0\[a_NV[QVPNaV\[` S\_ @]V[NY 0\_Q N[Q =R_V]UR_NY ;R_cR @aVZbYNaV\[ 0N_QVNP ]NPRZNXR_QRSVO_VYYNa\_ _RYNaVcR P\[a_NV[QVPNaV\[ @f`aRZVP V[SRPaV\[ NO`\YbaR P\[a_NV[QVPNaV\[ =_RT[N[a \_ YNPaNaV[T d\ZR[ _RYNaVcR P\[a_NV[QVPNaV\[

?RSR_R[PR`  5N_Qa 7 7NP\O`R[ 0 4\YQOR_T 7 ;VPXRY ? /bPUdNYQ 1 =_RcNYR[PR \S PU_\[VP ]NV[ V[ N _R]_R`R[aNaVcR `NZ]YR V[ aUR B[VaRQ @aNaR` =NV[ :RQ %(&$'% %  @aRdN_a D3 ?VPPV 7. 0URR 2 :\_TN[`aRV[ 1 9V]a\[ ? 9\`a ]_\ QbPaVcR aVZR N[Q P\`a QbR a\ P\ZZ\[ ]NV[ P\[QVaV\[` V[ aUR B@ d\_XS\_PR 7.:.  (&%'!! !"!  A_R[aZN[ A9 GVZZR_ZN[ ?@ <PPV]VaNY [R_cR `aVZbYNaV\[' aRPU[VPNY N[Q `b_TVPNY N`]RPa` \S VZ]YN[aNaV\[ 5RNQNPUR %(!%' & $ ! @a\WN[\cVP := .OQV @ @]V[NY P\_Q `aVZbYNaV\[ =NV[ =Uf`VPVN[ ("'"###

3bab_R 0\[`VQR_NaV\[` AUR [bZOR_ \S PR[aR_` b`V[T =;@ S\_ P_N[V\SNPVNY ]NV[ N[Q \aUR_ ]R_V]UR_NY [R_cR `f[Q_\ZR` V` V[P_RN` V[T 6[ aUR Sbab_R N dVQR_ NPPR]aN[PR \S aUV` a_RNaZR[a V` Re]RPaRQ ORPNb`R Va V` ZV[VZNYYf V[cN`VcR PN[ OR a_V NYRQ V` _RcR_`VOYR N[Q UN` NQWb`aNOYR `RaaV[T` AUR`R b[V^bR ^bNYVaVR` ZNf RcR[abNYYf ZNXR =;@ aUR ]_RSR__RQ Z\QNYVaf S\_ \aUR_dV`R V[a_NPaNOYR P\[QVaV\[`& @]V[NY P\_Q `aVZbYNaV\[ PN[ _RQbPR ]NV[ Of N]]_\e VZNaRYf " V[ aUR [RN_ aR_Z( U\dRcR_ P\[a_\cR_`f ReV`a` N` a\ dURaUR_ Va ]_\cVQR` NQR^bNaR Y\[TaR_Z ]NV[ _RYVRS& =R_V]UR_NY [R_cR `aVZbYNaV\[ V` N _RYNaVcRYf [Rd a_RNaZR[a .` N _R`bYa YVaaYR RcVQR[PRON`RQ ZRQ VPV[R `b]]\_a` Va` Y\[TaR_Z RSSVPNPf ;RcR_aURYR`` Va UN` _RYNaVcRYf SRd P\[a_NV[QVPNaV\[` ANOYR ! N[Q aUR ZNW\_Vaf \S ]NaVR[a` dU\ b[QR_T\ =;@ _R]\_a N `VT[VS VPN[a QRP_RN`R V[ ]NV[ N[Q aUR b`R \S ]NV[ ZRQVPNaV\[  Z\[aU` NSaR_ VZ]YN[aNaV\[& AUR_RS\_R =;@ ZNf OR P\[`VQR_RQ N[ RSSRPaVcR ZRN[` \S _RYVRcV[T ]NV[ N[Q QRP_RN`V[T aUR b`R \S ]NV[ ZRQVPNaV\[ ]N_aVPbYN_Yf \]V\VQ`

!

6 ; 1 2 = 2 ; 1 2 ; A 9F 1 2 C 2 9 < = 2 1 / F : 0 : . 5 < ; = B / 9 6 @ 5 6 ; 4

" 1Nf : ;Rb_\Z\QbYNaV\[' `]V[NY P\_Q N[Q ]R_V]UR_NY [R_cR `aVZbYN aV\[ 0b__ ?Rc =NV[ (!"' $! % # @URNYf 0; :\_aVZR_ 7A ?R`dVPX 7/ 2YRPa_VPNY V[UVOVaV\[ \S ]NV[ Of `aVZbYNaV\[ \S aUR Q\_`NY P\YbZ[`' ]_RYVZV[N_f PYV[VPNY _R]\_a .[R`aU .[NYT &#$(!#!'!%&!& $ @b[QN_NW @? 7\U[`a\[R 0 ;\\_R 3 Df[[ = 0N`a_\ : @]V[NY P\_Q `aVZbYNaV\[' . `RcR[ fRN_ NbQVa 7 0YV[ ;Rb_\`PV "( '#!$ % 3_N[gV[V . 9R\[R : :R``V[N 4 Ra NY ;Rb_\Z\QbYNaV\[ V[ a_RNa ZR[a \S _RS_NPa\_f URNQNPUR` ;Rb_\Y @PV %(&`b]]Y ' @#"@#% & CR__VYY` = :VaPURYY / CVcVN[ 1 @V[PYNV_ @ =R_V]UR_NY [R_cR `aVZbYN aV\[' N a_RNaZR[a S\_ PU_\[VP Y\d ONPX ]NV[ N[Q SNVYRQ ONPX `b_TR_f `f[Q_\ZR, ;Rb_\Z\QbYNaV\[ &('#%$"  :RYcV[ 2. 7\_QN[ 3? DRV[R_ ?9 =_VZZ 1 B`V[T ]R_V]UR_NY `aVZ bYNaV\[ a\ _RQbPR aUR ]NV[ \S 0ZRQVNaRQ \PPV]VaNY URNQNPUR`' N ]_RYVZV[N_f _R]\_a =NV[ =Uf`VPVN[ $( '!" !#  ?bOV[ 16 2]VQRZV\Y\Tf N[Q _V`X SNPa\_` S\_ `]V[R ]NV[ ;Rb_\Y 0YV[ $("' "  $

Neuromodulation  

A in-depth explanation of neurostimulation such as spinal cord stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation for treating chronic pain, abdom...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you