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Design Principles for Competencebased Recommender Systems Valerio Bellandi, Paolo Ceravolo, Fulvio Frati, Jonatan Maggesi UniversitĂ degli Studi di Milano, Italy Gabriela Waldhart, Isabella Seeber Leopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, Austria

Collaborative Project – FP7- ICT- 2009 - 257886

Outline  ARISTOTELE Project  Introduction on Recommender Systems

 Recommendations in Competence Management Systems  Analysis of ARISTOTELE Recommender System Scenario  Competence-based Management System  Conclusions

IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


ARISTOTELE Project  Modern knowledge-intensive organizations are step by step realizing that shifting the relevance from tangible to intangible assets increase competitiveness  It is important to consider complex environments that integrate models, processes and technologies with organizational aspects in a systemic approach

 The FP7 ARISTOTELE research project aims at relating learning to organizational processes, as well as to the innovation process management  Three kinds of processes are identified:  organizational processes (marketing & communication, HRM, business)  learning processes (group training sessions)  social collaboration processes (spontaneous formation of groups) IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Recommender Systems - 1  Recommender Systems (RSs) are considered critical in ARISTOTELE approach to exploit interactions in collaborative environments and foster the innovation process 

Basic RS concepts: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Homophily: similarity between sources and recipients Tie strength: intensity of the relationship between the recipient and source Trust: trust relationship between recipient and source Social capital: source’s reputation

 Four main RS categories: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Content-based: RS calculates similarity of related contents Collaborative: RS calculates similarity of user profiles basing on ratings Knowledge-based: RS considers user requirements and domain knowledge Hybrid

ARISTOTELE RS falls in the 4th category, taking care of all RS concepts IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Recommender Systems (RSs) - 2  ARISTOTELE RS try to mix two important aspects of modern RSs  Diversity, Novelty and Serendipity  Give to users suggestions that are not limited to the closest ones, but also those suggestions that apparently are far from the user’s interest, but she should also like it “Serendipity is the art of making an unsought finding” F.P. Adams

 Knowledge-sharing and Solidity  The accuracy of recommendations will be improved with a knowledge assessment service, exploiting users’ implicit and explicit feedbacks on suggestions IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Recommendations in CompMS  ARISTOTELE RS will assist the platform Competence Management System (CompMS)  Typical CompMS process:  Identify the task to be completed  Perform a gap analysis to identify available and missing competences  Use the results to identify the actions to fill the learning gaps

 Integration between RS and CompMS is difficult  Example: suggestions on how a user can improve his CV cannot be directly referred to users having similar CVs  It requires the definition of specific design principles for the algorithms guiding the recommendation process IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Competence-based RS Principles  The analysis started from the introduced RS concepts and ARISTOTELE platform user requirements  Four different analysis dimensions, taken from project user scenarios:    

Competence Based Management Activity and Task Management Collaboration Knowledge

 Result of the analysis will be in terms of preconditions and limitations, to define the boundaries of the ARISTOTELE RS  Preconditions and limitations have been exploited for the design of RS

IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Competence Based Management - 1 

ARISTOTELE will allow the representation and reasoning on related concepts stored in the models 

Contextual information, e.g. a person with specific competences working on a specific task, can be reused to express relations

Precondition 1 - Competence Profiles    

Competence profiles, and the awareness on which competences are required for organizational tasks, are required Competence profiles need to be accessible and updatable by the platform RS must know to what extent a person is capable of fulfilling the task (proficiency) The knowledge base must be designed around the basic concept of competence

Limitation: 

In case competence profiles levels are not available, the RS will not be able to suggest people related information

IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Competence Based Management - 2 Precondition 2 - Tagging/Annotating  The platform needs to provide tagging or annotation functionalities for artifacts, people, and processes  Users need to have the corresponding rights and willingness to annotate available contents  Content-based recommendations are efficient only with the availability of suitable tags or keywords

Limitation:  If users cannot tag or annotate contents or resources, it is likely that recommender results will not reach high accuracy

IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Activity and Task Management - 1  ARISTOTELE supplies a comprehensive workflow management, where people can define, refine, monitor, and assign objects  Workers’ daily tasks can be improved with the help of accurate resource recommendations

 The RS should support community work by recommending appropriate groups that hold necessary expertise or resources  The platform needs to be able to merge information coming from various sources, e.g. social networks, ERPs, CRMs

IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Activity and Task Management - 2 Precondition 3 - Activity/Task Monitoring  RS needs to interface with the platform to extract necessary information about users’ tasks/activities from enterprise systems  These systems need to provide endpoints to extract necessary information about users’ tasks/activities

 Users need to enrich tasks description with set of metadata that will help RS to provide reliable suggestions

Limitation  If activity/task information are not available for recommendation, ARISTOTELE methodologies related to it might be restricted IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Collaboration  User scenarios included possible communication channels: instant messaging, private message, discussion boards, shared workspaces, forums, meetings arrangement, workflow management systems, …  Collaboration should result in annotations of users’ contents by resource rating, tagging, or giving feedback or comments on documents Precondition 4) Willingness to change communication practices  It is necessary that the organizational culture, and therefore people, accept and are willing to use ARISTOTELE communication channels  It is important that the RS will be able to access collaborative resources and contents and give suggestions based on them IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Knowledge - 1  ARISTOTELE core is the handling of explicit/codified knowledge, giving the appropriate support of people to exchange implicit knowledge successfully  The platform needs to support activities to update and share organizational knowledge  Knowledge might also be found or stored outside the organizational boundaries  It is important to find mechanisms to determine trustable and justifiable knowledge sources  The platform needs to reach a critical mass of users and contents to give reliable suggestions IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Knowledge - 2 Precondition 5) Migration of existing knowledge base  There is a need that the existing knowledge base gets migrated into ARISTOTELE  Ontology matching techniques could achieve that same things from diverse systems will be described as one thing  RS must rely on a common metamodel to be able to derive suggestions from different sources

Limitation  If a knowledge base is not available, the platform could have problems in solving the start-up problem and create sufficient positive network effects IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Knowledge - 3 Precondition 6) Context Information  To derive contextual information ARISTOTELE needs to have interfaces to other enterprise systems (CRM, HRM, ERP,…)  Information needs to be mapped among the different sources if they deliver the same semantic information (e.g., worker, client, user, etc.)  It is important to have a common metamodel to uniform all the data

Limitation  If ARISTOTELE cannot draw on information stored elsewhere in the organization, content-based recommendation will be highly limited IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


ARISTOTELE Competence-based RS - 1  Stated preconditions and limitations were inputs for the development of the ARISTOTELE RS  It differs from other common RS by taking as central concept the competences and working experiences of all members of an organizations  Designed to be triggered by a specific stimulus  Giving suggestions on activities and learning plans correlated to the subject  Suggesting a set of alternative objects that, at a first sight, could seem completely unrelated (serendipity)

 RS can introduce novel and unexpected knowledge fields in the ordinary business process IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


ARISTOTELE Competence-based RS - 2

IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Conclusions  We investigated important preconditions and limitations that are considered to have impacts on the design and success of a competence-based Recommender System  Preconditions can be directly used as input factors for the RS  Preconditions can inform the design of RS from a theoretical point of view with the goal to improve the acceptance of recommender results  Currently we are working on:  The implementation of the RS within the ARISTOTELE platform  Validation of the approach through independent experiments  Results of the validation presented during the Innovation Adoption Forum IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Thank you Any questions?


RS Metamodel – CR2S

IEEE DEST-CEE 2012 18-20 June 2012


Design Principles for Competence-based Recommender Systems  

ARISTOTELE presentationat the 6th IEEE International Conference on Digital Ecosystem Technologies - Complex Environment Engineering (IEEE DE...

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