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DIGITAL DESIGN + FABRICATION SM1, 2016 BLURRING COCOON Ariel Jansen Bintang 851772 Lyle Talbot + Group 12


TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION IDEATION MEASURED DRAWING EXERCISE OBJECT ANALYSIS DIGITAL MODEL DIGITAL MODEL PROCESS SKETCH MODEL SKETCH DESIGN #1,#2,#3 CONCLUSIONS DESIGN CONCEPT CONCEPT VISUALIZATION SKETCH DESIGN DEVELOPMENT REFINED SKETCH MODEL 2ND SKIN PROPOSED DESIGN V1 2ND SKIN PROPOSED DESIGN V2 1ST PROTOTYPES CASE STUDY CASE STUDY REFLECTION 2ND SKIN DESIGN DEVELOPMENT DIGITAL PROCESS 2ND PROTOTYPES CONCLUSIONS FABRICATION MODIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT DESIGN DEVELOPMENT + FABRICATION OF PROTOTYPE V.2 READING RESPONSE WEEK 6 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT READING RESPONSE WEEK 7 DESIGN RATIONALE BODY ANALYSIS ELIMINATION AND VARIATION APPLICATION INFILL RATIONALE BOW RATIONALE FINAL DIGITAL MODEL FABRICATION PROCESS 2ND SKIN REFLECTION APPENDIX CREDITS BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3a 1.3b 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 4.0


INTRODUCTION SKIN AND BONE: UMBRELLA Umbrella was the chosen object of exploration for SKIN and BONE material system. Understanding the logic of Skin and Bone by abstracting how an umbrella works, the object becomes the basis of the development for the 2nd skin design.


1.IDEATION


Idea of Skin and Bone were formulated through a series of task which revolves around the subject of an umbrella. The research emphasized the logic of how an umbrella works and what aspects of an umbrella can be taken forward to design something that works as a 2nd Skin to represent personal space. Through drawing, Rhino modelling, actual modelling and readings, 3 initial design ideas are to be presented as the outcome of the module.


1.1 MEASURED DRAWING EXERCISE

SIDE ELEVATION (Opened)SCALE 1:10

TOP ELEVATION (Opened) SCALE 1:10

A

A


1.1 MEASURED DRAWING EXERCISE The chosen object was an umbrella. The skin-and-bone structure of the object indicates the possibility of different configurations which led me to taking 2 different elevations of the object. The way I had done the drawings was through direct measurement of the object and careful tracing of the fabric folds. The section was done by opening up the umbrella and understanding the way each component configures when the umbrella is closed. SECTION A-A (Closed) Scale 1:1

SIDE ELEVATION (Closed) Scale 1:1


1.2 OBJECT ANALYSIS

The components that made up the umbrella are similar to each other but has their own functions. For example, the framework compliments each other where the thicker ones could contain the thinner ones when the umbrella is closed. Most of the components are made of aluminium to conserve strength and lightweightness. Aluminium is also a non-corrosive material which would protect it from high exposure to rain during use.


1.2 OBJECT ANALYSIS In the central bar, the framework compliments each other as well, just like in the hinges. The top bar’s inner diameter fits the middle bar’s diameter. The same thing happens as well with the bottom bar. When the umbrella is lengthened, there’s an indent in the middle and bottom bar to stuck the top bar and middle bar’s extrusion bit.

The fabric which covers the umbrella is made up of lightweight canvas which is water repellant. The canvas is easy to be folded when the umbrella is not in use and doesn’t rip easy. The Canvas is stitched the first framework and the last framework to ensure flexibility of the cloth itself. The grip for the umbrella utilizes indentation to stuck the central bar to the grip. A circular subtraction also happens on the outer side of the grip for handheld purposes.


1.2 OBJECT ANALYSIS

Most of the connection in the hinges are pin jointed. The pin joints enable for easy folding of the framework. Closing and opening the mechanism really works for compactibility of an umbrella. The pin joints are made of brass, which, if in contact with aluminium won’t scratch and corrode each other so much. Pin Joint is a great idea to fold the whole system to become a compact whole when closed. However they are subject to really strong wind and could fold to the other direction of folding, causing failure. To overcome this, manufacturer has made the flexible aluminium a special case in which it is hooked to a hole in the framework. This way the hook could be opened when such accident happens and make an easier reconfiguration to the system.

ARROW SHOWS DIRECTION OF

COMPONENT MOVES UPON OPENING UMBRELLA

The hinge are hooked to the Cap and Hook Fixing which is fixed to the central Bar


1.2 OBJECT ANALYSIS

As the umbrella opens, three angles of the hinges proportionally changes according to the location of the angle. When fully opened, the middle one becomes a straight line which optimally increase the coverage area of the fabric. The last angle and the angle between Central Bar and the framework are slightly tilted to the ground so water doesn’t puddle towards the center of the umbrella. The distance of the last slant is much longer to direct more water out easier.


1.3a DIGITAL MODEL Perpective View

Axonometric View

Rhino material properties give the user the ability to adjust transparency which makes me able to give a ‘ghosted’ look after rendition.

Using the command ‘! _Select _Pause _

SetActiveViewport Top _Rotate 0 45 _ SetActiveViewport Right _Shear w0 w0,0,1 -45 _ SetActiveViewport Top _Zoom _All _Extents’

which basically shears the object, an axon view could be produced. But the object’s shape doesn’t amplify axonometric view visually.

Plan View (not to scale)

Hinges Detail It could be seen that the holes that works as the pin joints are all aligned to give a precise shape. The folding look was all from the manipulated curve points.


1.3b DIGITAL MODEL PROCESS


1.4 SKETCH MODEL

I tried to model the parts of the umbrella hinges using plwood which is rigid enough.

Each joints are pin connected using 2x 1mm circle which are locked with 2x 2mm circle.

The product of the framework results iin a single hinge that fits to a head of a person. It was learnt that to make the mechanism operable, making the middle part fixed is neccessary.

After testing out different materials, the ones that works are the lightweighted ones. Testing the system on a common fabric, it was too heavy so the system was subject to high bending. However, changing the fabric to a lightweight plastic, the mechanism works better and isn’t as subject to failure as the fabric one. Joints are also important to be tough since it will hold up a sufficient lateral load caused by the hinges that doesn’t work exactly planar. Using superglue is the bare minimum to achieve the toughness.


1.4 SKETCH MODEL

The system naked (without a fabric).

The system with the fabric on.

Understanding and having a hands on practice with manufacturing the system has allowed me to understand various things to consider during fabrication such as materials, joints, etc. Furthermore there are many developments available to the system produced such as mirroring the system, or joining more hinges in different directions, etc.


1.5 SKETCH DESIGN #1 WINGS TO FLY AWAY


1.5 SKETCH DESIGN #2 HELIX ELEGANCE


1.5 SKETCH DESIGN #3 THE INROVERT


1.6 REFLECTION

Overall, Module 1 has been a great start to Digital Design and Fabrication. Lectures presented in Module 1 were mainly about Material and Systems. Together, they create a Material System which in my case, is Skin and Bone. Examples given in the lecture suggests that the idea of Skin and Bone doesn’t necessarily need a structure such as that of Anish Kapoor. However, the lack of ‘Bone’ celebration, in my opinion, deters the value of the system since the two are interrelating concept that gives a Rational Design. Understanding the umbrella and how a drawing is important to communicate design ideas, as stated by Adrian Heath, I think is still not enough. This had led me to a 1:1 approach of building the system of the umbrella itself. The phrase ‘If you can’t explain it simply, you don’t understand it well enough’, by Einstein motivated me the most in the exploration of the umbrella construction. Sommer’s idea of a personal space was one that I reflect upon myself, reflecting on how I react to strangers daily. The three sketch designs were my interpretation of how I would materialize my reaction to strangers in the real world. The reading was helpful in terms of triggering the mind.


2.DESIGN


In Module 2, a collaborative effort with Jiayi Chen and Hafiz Azman was done in order to combine different ideas done individually in Module 1. Through Computer Adided Design software such as Rhino, proposal of a design will be made. Furthermore, the proposal will be made in the form of a segment of the prototype. The prototypes are meant to test out whether the design is successful or not.


2.1 CONCEPT

Personal Space is the imaginary volume where a subject can feel comfortable being in it where the volume is something private and not to be interrupted by other people. To us, defining the volume is really difficult since it is something that is totally dependant on the person’s philosophy of life, and more importantly, imaginary. Even though there are many research that concludes to a certain definition like Sommer’s Personal Space (1969), we could argue that it is not applicable to every individual from different backgrounds. We tried a generic approach to the subject where we don’t define the volume, but rather express the volume as something created by a person. Often we create body gestures to define our space and indirectly reminding people that there is a boundary from them to the subject. These motions if captured creates a blurred form.

BLUR /ble:/

‘make or become unclear or less distinct

By this definition, we approached it from 2 directions: 1. Deconstruction of a body which makes a subject less distinct 2. Smearing of a body which makes a subject becomes unclear And why not combine the 2 approaches? What’s learned from the approach is that this personal space is something that’s different from the norms of a human figure, something that is not friendly looking and rather avoided, or approached by some. This notion makes the personal space larger in volume, but smaller when it comes to niche types of people. In the end, what we perceive as a personal space is something that appears unclear and indistinct, but still gives that essence of a human.


2.2 CONCEPT VISUALIZATION


2.3 SKETCH DESIGN DEVELOPMENT From the M1 design concept, we morphed the versions in M2 using the same rules of copying to overlaying and rotating the individual overlays one by one. The use of overlaying individual thin pieces is aimed to create a blurring concept. The sketch study suggested hints of human figure that is trapped behind layers of strip components.


2.4 REFINED SKETCH MODEL


2.5 2nd SKIN PROPOSED DESIGN V1 Through the use of repetition and rotational overlaying, we created a scheme which is comprised of 2 different geometry. The 1st one being a square inscribed in a diamond and the 2nd one being a parabola created through the use of lines coordinated in a diamond. The use of parabole becomes relatable to Scheurer’s “Lost In Parameter Space” where the input of certain points on a diamond connected with lines will create a parabola. Overlaying the two geometries which has created a whole piece erected a piece that is harmonious. Adding skin to the result has allowed us to explore the skin feature of Skin and Bone better. Overall, the end result looks something that shows only hints of subject’s body, visually permeating through gaps between layers of bones.

MORPHING RATIONALE

PLAN

ELEVATION


2.5 2nd SKIN PROPOSED DESIGN V1


2.6 2nd SKIN PROPOSED DESIGN V2 The 1st version however was rather impossible and diminishes the geometrical production effect due to the lack of exposure towards the strands going along each strips. The 2nd version goes through the POINT to LINE to PLANE/ PARABOLA morphing progression. This way we has generated 4 versions of the geometry. Intending to push the geometries further, we created a 2nd hierarchy of forms which combines the 1st forms that has been generated. In the end, the form finding results in modular structures with a connection opportunity between one another. This way we are able to piece things together and determine which piece should go to which senstive area of the personal space and where we inted to blur more.

FRONT ELEVATION

SIDE ELEVATION

TOP ELEVATION MORPHING RATIONALE


2.6 2nd SKIN PROPOSED DESIGN V2


2.7 1st PROTOTYPES #1 Triangle Module

#2 Parabolic Module

The projection was interesting in terms of deforming the surface it projects onto.

The parabolic idea can be emphasized on planar surfaces.

Learning from M1’s success thanks to the model making, we decided to produce prototypes before taking further steps as this will expose the weaknesses and strength of the design path we have chosen.

#3 Hiding Module

Hiding and revealing can be done from different angles of viewing the person.


2.7 1st PROTOYPES #4 Backblur Module

Following the digital file, this module will be upside down.

#5 Locking Joints

Locking joints can fix intersections at varying angles.

#6 Slotting Joints

Slotting Joints allow for a fixed position however still not rigid enough


2.7 1st PROTOTYPES

Nesting for Laser Cut


2.7 1st PROTOTYPES Lessons The prototypes were mostly not satisfying. The rigidity which is still not there makes it hard to achieve the tension we desire. The blurring which we intend to happen also is not revealed yet due to the lack of strings density. Even though some parabolic suggesting figures has emerge, they can only be emphasized on planar surfaces, not suitable for the body of a person. Furthermore, even though the projection could be achieved, they will be beneath the strings, which doesn’t reveal them as much. Overall, the 1st prototypes has given us much lessons as to how we should emphasise more on blurring the person rather than trying to find the form which sits on a person.


2.8 CASE STUDY #1 Tape Vienna by NUMEN TAPE VIENNA utilizes plastic as a translucent skin wrap that creates space which approaches a minimal surface while creating light diffussion at the same time due to the materiality. On our design, we try to implement that effect which could blur out the design even further. Another feature to be taken point on is the parabolic form created naturally through the tensioning of the whole member

PARABOLA LIGHT DIFFUSION

Sketch study of how the installation relies on the context’s structure as anchor points


2.8 CASE STUDY #1 To and Fro Table by Paul Loh The to and Fro table is a really good example of controlling visual penetration which keeps personal space within boundaries of sight as well. The vertical part of the table which are angled creates a really strategic viewing direction to people in the table. Applying the concept to our design will stop visual penetration from other people to the subject while still allowing the subject to see the surrounding in a limited manner

Diagramatic study of how visual penetration can be strategized


2.9 CASE STUDY REFLECTION The two precedents were really useful in terms of how we could achieve our desired blurring effects while being strategic about openings as well. Preserving the modular nature of our design, we need to rethink how the previous design should be reconfigured to fit the additional effect. Through sketch studies which abstractizise our intentions, we produced 4 different modules which work together even though they look disjunctive between one another. The visual enhancement is meant to shock and awe the surrounding people.

Sketch study of a shock and awe experience.


2.9 CASE STUDY REFLECTION


2.10 2nd SKIN DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Using the precedent research, we find it useful to deconstruct everything and reuse modules again in order to apply the precedents optimally. Plastics were put as to cover faces in layers. The body is wrapped wholly with the plastic wrap The head’s rear is covered with protective element The back and front is hid with an anchored layer of plastic

The developed design is more efficient and resolved in a disjunctive manner. Thinking about parametricism, the previous proposal was forming parabola using multiple lines intersecting at different points but now the parabola comes only with the tension of the skin wrap.

Exploded Axon Drawing

Even though every problem has been quite adhered to, another complication that arises is pretty basic. There’s no single clear idea. What’s seen in the design are disjuctive modules that doesn’t correlate with each other in a smooth way.


2.10 2nd SKIN DESIGN DEVELOPMENT


2.10 2nd SKIN DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Side View

Plan View

Axonometric View


2.10 2nd SKIN DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Details #1

Details #2

Details #3


2.11 DIGITAL PROCESS - MESH The 1st attempt to create the soft transition from the body module to the hand was not satisfying because the junction were too visible and doesn’t show a singular object.t


2.11 DIGITAL PROCESS - LOFT_BOOLEAN_FILLET The 2nd attempt which avoids mesh reconstruction is much more satisfying since they don’t force the mesh to be optimized and yet they create a singular element better.


2.12 PROTOTYPES #2 HEAD MODULE The prototype for the head module really achieves the effect we desire. + The ability to contain various layer thickness of the translucent fabric gives us the opportunity to blur more on some point using stronger light diffusion. The specified angle created by the anchors on the modules also allows us to replicate the effect created by the toandfro table by Paul Loh. The module looks good with or without lighting which proves that it works aesthetically in terms of form. The use of 3.0 MDF however, affects the vertical element, causing it to easily flail around.


2.12 PROTOTYPES #2 Through the use of strings that strand in different angles which works as the ‘formwork’ of the skin, the layers has been achieved. It’s hard however to maintain the tension to maximize the surface that it covers (since the skin falls due to gravity. We poke some holes in the skin and anchor those holes to the nearest bone to maintain its span.


2.12 PROTOTYPES #2 BODY MODULE + The prototype for the body showed a built form which gives the desired effect of blurring in general and uniform level. The material used was still the same as the previous prototypes which uses 3.0 mm MDF which is easy to work with. What’s interesting however is the shadows cased and the diffused light which surrounds the body such that it glows the product and the wearer. However, the problem with the module is its rigidity which is really concerning. After the strings are pulled, the bending on horizontal parts happens. After some putting on and taking off, the horizontal part broke and we need to make a new one. The columns/ vertical parts are also in front of the wearer which makes an unsightly look. bending


2.12 PROTOTYPES #2

With the remake, we tried it with a less extreme angle as to avoid the breaking which is cause by the tension. Having this angle will affect the joint with less force, which caused the previous prototype to break. We also tried to limit our tension to a level which still allows tension to happen when the skin is wrapped, but doesn’t cause bending too much.

Same as the head module, we tried to put anchor points on the skin to avoid the skin to slip to the center too much.


2.12 PROTOTYPES #2 BODY MODULE (Rebuild) The rebuilt body module was a lot wearable and safer to use. The monochromatic look also increases its value as a product. However, it is still not a satisfying product since there is only timid use of tension which should be celebrated since it is the main point of Skin and Bone. Even though the blurring is still there, it is muted due to the size which tightly fit a person. Getting back to the idea of 2nd skin, the prototype also doesn’t adhere to it as much due to the fit which only gives a visual effect rather than a spatial meaning to the prototype. This fitting characteristic further muted the effect since now the glowing effect achieved previously is no longer there.

tight fitting


2.12 PROTOTYPES #2 BODY MODULE (Lessons) However, the failures doesn’t mean that it’s useless since there are various findings that were pretty useful. Without a person inside, the diffuse can be celebrated more. This means a dense layer of the skin at a distance from the body could give a dramatic effect.

The skin is not easy to manipulate with in the sense that there is little degree of control in it. Being overlaid with the strings gives off the idea of using strings which shares the translucent property of the skin.

Imagining the module without a person inside deters the sense of scale, which gives off the imagination of a bigger scale of frame. If the frame is a lot bigger, there are many possibilities that could be used with the prototype i.e. blurring more.


2.12 PROTOYPES #2 ARM MODULE The arm Module which was built again using 3.0 MDF was really interesting in terms of shadows it casted. This shows that there is an alternative towards the blurring definition which is to make something less clear. + The shadows casted on the body can give a less visual idea of the hand of the wearer which can manipulate people’s perception. However, again, the idea is really dependant on a single, strong lighting which means the prototype will not work during daytime. The biggest problem, again, is the weak tension and non rigidity it has.


2.12 PROTOTYPES #2 BACK MODULE The back module is constructed using 3.0 MDF which are penetrated with diagonal planks. + The module gives an idea of how a larger scale of the module could bring about a volume if one is to be in that conical volume. In terms being part of the design proposal, the back module is not really convincing in protecting one’s personal space.


2.13 REFLECTION Module 2 has been an unsatisfactory process in my opinion. Looking at the unresolved model, further designing before finally fabricating the product is required. Reflecting on Scheurer’s definition on abstracting materials: approaching a design through a myriad of materials until one that succinct enough is discovered; our M2 completely missed the point. The criticality of prototype is not only on whether we can build it or not, but more on whether it can be built or not i.e. it breaks or not. Module 2 basically failed due to the lack of material testing, which should’ve been our milestone. Composition wise, the design hadn’t been one that successfully communicate in a single gesture. The method ‘reduction’ means the production of design variations in order to find which leads to an efficient resolution (Scheurer, 2011). A similar method had been done in our Morphing Rationale (2.5 & 2.6), however instead of being selective, we went by joining every variation possible, which is clearly one of the biggest mistake done in M2. The former should be exercised upon M3. Our application of ‘skin’ should be reconsidered as well. Pottman’s developable surface is not really applicable for Skin and Bone, but it triggered the thinking of a Minimal Surface (Pottman, 2007). Anchoring points on the surface was too conventional and doesn’t aesthetically work. In the end, M2 wasn’t satisfying and M3 will require further ‘redesignings’ in order for the 2nd Skin to be produced successfully.


3.FABRICATION


Module 3 emphasizes the fabrication process of the Design. The design still develops furthermore but without neglecting findings from Module 2. Fabrication process also still relates with digital aids to contain the values of the subject. In the end, the 1:1 Product is up for the test whether the design has been successful or not.


3.1 MODIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT From M2, the many prototypes proves how limited the design is going to be if the ideas are to be taken forward. The use of 3.0 MDFs which are laser cut is the biggest cause of the failure gained. Structure has not been resolved which limits effect development. The concept of Skin and Bone maybe is less applicable in the area of digital fabrication. As seen from the lecture, most of Skin and Bone projects tend to be less ‘digital’, instead more traditional and achieving structural integrity such as the ‘Cradle’ by Ball-Nogues Studio. Reading through Iwamoto’s ‘Digital Fabrications’ which doesn’t really relate with Skin and Bone concept further convinces us to avoid the use of digital fabrication. Other lessons learnt from M2 are also how the design doesn’t really reflect personal space due to the tightness of the prototypes which causes disuse towards the design. Thinking of the prototypes at a bigger scale which contains a person was what can be carried forward. The single strong language can and will articulate the intent much better.


3.1 MODIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT Looking at the SilkWorm Coccoon which integrates tree branches as structural support provides another exploration in the design. Their method of creating space has successfully created room for a successful personal space while still allowing mobility inside the space. Reflecting back with the M2 precedent, traces of the construction is evident in the Tape Vienna by Numen for use. Perhaps what’s wrong with M2’s design is the direct application of precedent without rethinking of methods.


3.2 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT + FABRICATION OF PROTOTYPE V.2

BONES

JOINERY

With the new design direction, we abandoned M2’s configuration and instead tested out different solutions towards achieving what the Silk Worm coccoon had done in terms of structural integrity. After finding structural solution, only then we can test out effects and relate to personal space concepts. The new prototype comes out in a pyramidal form by lashing threaded steel which could give grip towards the lashing. + The prototype gives a clear image in terms of the direction of where the design is heading towards.

THREADED STEEL

LASHING

The steel threads used were a cleaner way to keep strings running from slipping through the bones. The joinery which is not part of the structure is still not rigid enough to limit movement between each steel. The pyramidal volume doesn’t adhere to the personal space we intended.


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3.3 READING RESPONSE WEEK 6 The Reading The reading basically talks about additive, subtractive and transformative manufacturing processes which naturally fits in the fabrication process. In the design, the process of addition exists only in the structure fabrication and the internal string. Transformation is slightly apparent when the strings are tensioned, just like in M2. This is particularly interesting because steel is usually seen as a rigid, linear product which is structurally doubted during bending.

The Application From the reading, the design improved to be thought of containing the three basic fabrication process. By adding a dense layer of strings contained in the volume which will be subtracted through transformation of the dense strings, a negative space can be created. This process is similar to how a coccoon is made. The strands made were first densed and then manipulated to create the space where the silk worm will grow in its privacy.


3.3b READINGS APPLIED TO DESIGN


3.4 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT JOINERY

SKIN + Fits the pipe Not using messy pipe

SIDE OUTLET ELBOW

THREADS (STRUCTURE OF SKIN)

Can’t adjust blurring COMMON FABRIC

+ Manipulatable, structurally strong Can’t adjust blurring (Low degree of control)

+ Perpendicular Not structural

+ Interesting blurring

TULLE

+ Controllable

DENSED WITH CLOTH

+ Fixed Joint

Lattices break when tensioned

Not castable BLACK THREAD PIPE

+ Strong Interesting blurring Controllable Translucent

+ Perpendicular Castable Strong

HOT GLUE GUN CASTING

Messy

NYLON FISHING LINE


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3.4 PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT Milestone The Prototype proves that the steps taken so far has led the design to achieve the coccoon intent. The translucent string manages to blur what’s inside it and structurally support itself. The translucency is what helps the most. What’s surprising is it supports the wearer on its own. The prototype has been an important milestone in the project.

Improvements The prototype however, only shows the effect and there’s no rationale in the density of the strings. Currently, everything is just really dense and the wearer is having difficulty in the process of wearing it and being in it. As for the bones, it doesn’t have its own form integrity. It only follows what the string tension does and is not controllable. Overall, there’s still a lot to improve to achieve a resolved product.


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3.5 READING RESPONSE WEEK 7 The Reading Digital Fabrications mostly talks about form generations through the use of Section and Profile + Panel and Folding which doesn’t relate to how Skin and Bone works. In the design however, the form generation is apparent in how intention of a negative space is celebrated to allow for the wearer of 2nd skin be inside comfortably without worrying it breaks.

The Application It’s not really easy to point out how to apply such a contrasting theme to Skin and Bone. However, through the use of Rhino, it could be seen how manipulation of Mesh can direct how the negative space of the design should be organized. Having a surface with control points density that can be intensified/decreased could direct how the strings can be more organized/ rationalized. U-V span on a surface can be controlled to dictate where the opening on the face of the form is. These openings will be directed based on parts of the body that requires openings. Note Looking at the mesh manipulation diagram beside, it suggests how the fabrication later will require the creation of a planar surface before distorting the grid surface.


3.6 DESIGN RATIONALE

V

Mesh Manipulation through Control Point Weight Adjustment

2D Surface Iso Curve Variations


3.7 BODY ANALYSIS


3.8 ELIMINATION AND VARIATION APPLICATION

Blurred Area Penetrable Area


3.9 INFILL RATIONALE Infill Strings are meant to blend with the front surface as well. Negative space creation are done by integrating the surface strings to pull out strings in the core of the product.


3.10 BOW RATIONALE The opening at the top is meant for a simpler, respectful way of having eye contact with other people. Having the opening at top forces the wearer to bow down to experience the eye contact.


3.11 FINAL DIGITAL MODEL

Digitalization The digital model which works as a guide on where to complicate/decomplicate the strings is not meant to be read as a whole (like the one beside), instead read like the exploded diagram previously.

FRONT ELEVATION

SIDE ELEVATION


3.11 FINAL DIGITAL MODEL


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3.12 FABRICATION PROCESS Before proceeding, it is compulsory that the chosen materials are finalized and satisfy the clean, functional design criteria. The Joinery and the Bones were optimized further to ensure a clean product. JOINERY

BONES The fixed joinery was pushed further to ensure the ‘mess’ can be cleaned up and there’s no bulky joinery appearing at the corner of the design. Welding is much more structurally appropriate and helps the form integrity of the cube later on.

HOT GLUE GUN

WELDING

The threaded steel was found to still slip the strings when they are under a lot of tension going diagonal. The grip required needs to keep strings in place e.g. no horizontal or vertical movement.

THREADED STEEL

POLYPROPYLENE THREADED STEEL

Using steel that is covered with polypropylene successfully holds strings in place and lock them in place without moving around too much.


3.12 FABRICATION PROCESS


3.12 FABRICATION PROCESS


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Module No. 3 has PAGE opened TITLE up a lot of door. The fabrication module involved a lot of re designing but proved to be successful. As written by Brank Kolarevic, there are 3 fabrication processes, Subtractive, Additive and Transformative (Kolarevic, 2003). What we employed in M3 are all of the elements above and it requires a lot of step backs to progress forward. Linearly, we added strings, subtracted the density of the strings by Transforming the strings at the core. The Transforming itself was done by Addition of strings that transforms. The complex fabrication process however, would cease without the surface strategies. Kolarevic suggested ‘structure’ that holds up ‘skin’ externally. However, our design which was inspired by the humble origins of Silk Worm Cocoon tried to challenge the industrial idea. By thinking the skin as made up of threads, we have managed to internalize the skin itself. The thinking was actually parallel to how Atlantida Church, an example given by Kolarevic, was constructed out of masons, which are fragments of a wall. The limitation of our fabrication, however, was the lack of digital fabrication itself. Utilization of Rhino as a directive fabricating tool was useful, but human intervention in my opinion was too much. Lack of skill and time to learn how to operate robot distanced us from fabricating digitally further. Digital tools such as drone used by Robert Stuart Smith’s AADRL project was also employable provided if the scale is bigger. Had our project be done more digitally, the process would allow an automated revision and improvement to the design. What happened in our manufacturing process was as one string tensions another string, somewhere, there will be a string that becomes losse. Digitally manufacturing the 2nd skin could avoid such occurance. In the end, there are lots of optimism and possibilities never thought before as fabrication was done. Module 3 not only has materialized our product, but also made us think about what could have been better.


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4.REFLECTION


Digital Design and Fabrication has been a start towards realization of something seemingly impossible for a 1st year student. Starting at the humblest study of drawing a section and plan of an umbrella until realizing a successful 2nd skin was nowhere in my vision until the project finished. The unthinkable, relatively simple start towards the project actually proves to be the strongest ground in a project at this scale. The process has been brutal, but satisfying. What Alison said about a project which never goes in a linear manner was actually true, and this non-linearness results in something remarkable. The design which should’ve been resolved in Module 2, was still dragged later until Module 3, which should happen in our case. Otherwise, the M2 design (which the team wasn’t satisfied upon) would’ve been built and the linear process results in something unsatisfactory. Perhaps, what caused M2’s disaster was the lack of communication and harmonious passion between the three

people in the project. Hafiz and Kelly helps during prototype fabrication but was mostly absent during the crucial design process. This lack of input linearized the process and simplifies the thinking, which should’ve been more complex. However, the kickstart probably sparks in the M2 Presentation where it is seen that the prototypes are the ones not to be happy about. From thereon, with more communication and the possibility brought about after testing different Joinery, Bones, and Skins, the project picks up its pace. Particularly, the welded box was the milestone of our project. Fabrication wasn’t really tough, especially with the help of Rhino which guides ‘what should be’. What wasn’t anticipated however, was the lack of physics in Rhino. The bending which occured to the real steel frame wasn’t expressed in Rhino. At first, it was thought that when the tension was too strong, the steel frame could break the strings altogether and the project

would fail. These kinds of risk reflected us upon the ‘Workmanship of Risk’ where Digital Design and Actual Design are held in two different realms, one imaginary, the other tangible. However, there are 3D Modelling Software that could exercise the physics of the world within a set of parameters which reflect how Craft is being redefined by the digital mediation. The Workmanship of Risk itself manifests in the project as a distorted welded steel form which actually gave a criticism on how steel are usually strong and straight. This kind of discovery wouldn’t have happened if 3D Modelling Software could’ve predicted and omitted the unintended (but valuable) outcome (Bernstein, 2008). Taking the project further, I think it is worthwhile to 3D scan the object, to give an accurate representation of the object. This way, the craft and the digital can be romanticized further. Upon reading the Third Industrial Revolution, it’s really intriguing how what we did can be a part of the revolution. As reflected on M3 Reflection, the use

of Robot is one of the improvements available. Understanding the algorithms for the robot can be networked globally, production of such thing can be far more economical since other people could’ve optimized the resources needed. Rifkin, an American economist who wrote the book argued that the use of 3D printing could reduce sources needed (Rifkin, 2008). Taking the assumption further, the networked optimal 3D printing file can be optimized further by somebody who download it and could produce the same thing with less source. The same is applicable to our design which could be optimized with whatever one discovered. Again, these discoveries happen when people amalgam the unexpected practice of craft with the digital. In the end, Digital Design and Fabrication has been a subject without comfort but a really eye opening one. Perhaps, that’s where students should be, out of their comfort zone and keep pushing and eliminating dissatisfaction, to achieve the unthinkable.


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APPENDIX


CREDITS

CREDITS

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Ariel Jansen x Ariel Jansen Bintang Bintang Kelly Ariel Hafiz k Kelly Chen Kelly Chen kxh Kelly Chen, Ariel Jansen Bintang, Hafiz Azman

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Enric Miralles, Carme Pinos, 1988/1991, “How to lay out a croissant� El Croquis 49/50 Enric Miralles, Carme Pinos, En Construccion pp. 240-241 Heath, A., Heath, D., & Jensen, A. (2000). 300 years of industrial design : function, form, technique, 1700 - 2000 / Adrian Heath, Ditte Heath, Aage Lund Jensen. New York : Watson, Guptill. Cheng, R. 2008. Inside Rhinoceros 4 / Ron K.C. Cheng. Clifton Park, NY : Thomson/Delmar Learning, c2008. Sommer, R. 1969. Personal space : the behavioral basis of design / Robert Sommer. Englewood Cliffs,

N.J. : Prentice-Hall, c1969.A

Scheurer, F. and Stehling, H.2011: Lost in Parameter Space? IAD: Architectural Design, Wiley, 81 4 , July, pp. 70-79 Asperl et al, 2007,Surfaces that can be built from paper / In H.Pottmann, A.Asperl, M.Hofer, A.Kilian (eds) Architectural Geometry, p534-561, Bentley Institute Press Kolarevic, B 2003, Architecture in the Digital Age - Design and Manufacturing /Branko Kolarevic. Spon Press, London Marble, S, 2008. Building the Future: Recasting Labor in Architecture/ Philip Bernstein, Peggy Deamer. Princeton Architectural Press. pp 38-42 Rifkin, J 2011, The third Industrial Revolution. Palgrave Macmillan.pp107-126 ICD, 2017, ICD/ITKE Research Pacilion, 2016-17. vimeo.com [video], https://vimeo.com/212074407 Pe, Sandip, Silk Worm Building Cocoon, 2013. youtube.com [video], https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VC0OgY8_eqk Numen Eu, Tape Vienna / Odeon, 2010. numen.eu [photograph], http://www.numen.eu/installations/tape/vienna-odeon/


2nd Skin - Blurring Cocoon  
2nd Skin - Blurring Cocoon  
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