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Rocks and Minerals

Isabel Arias C.E.I.P. Los Manantiales


In this lesson we will learn...

•1. Definition of rock. •2. Extracting rocks. • 3. Rocks cycle. • 4. Changes on the rocks. • 5. Use of rocks. • 6. Definition of mineral. • 7. Characteristics of minerals. • 8. Use of minerals.


What are rocks?

• • •

Rocks are materials made up of one or more minerals. They are characterised by: composition, texture and form.

limestone (made up of only one mineral)

granite

(made up of quartz, feldspar and mica)


Extracting rocks

We can find rocks on:

a) the Earth's surface. Most common rocks are near the surface. We extract them from quarries (excavations open to the air).

b) underground. We extract them from mines (excavations from the interior of the ground).


Rocks cycle

Rocks slowly change through time. This change is called "the rock cycle".

Changes are produced by: cooling, melting, erosion, pressure, heat...


Changes on rocks are produced by:

melting

heating

cooling

erosion pressure

weathering


Uses of rocks:

buildings

floors

sculptures

walls

fuel

metals extracted from the rocks (minerals)


What's a mineral?

•

A mineral is a natural material. It can be found on its own, or can be part of a rock.

•

There are minerals on the Earth's surface and under the ground.


Characteristics of minerals

• Each mineral is different: 1. Shape: some minerals are regular (pyrite), and others are irregular (turquoise).

pyrite

turquoise


• 2. Colour: each

mineral has a typical colour or colours.

3. Shiny or dull: some mineral like pyrite are shiny.

Others, like chalk are dull.


• 4. Hard of soft: if minerals are hard, they •

cannot be scratched. Diamond is the hardest mineral. Gypsum is the softest.

diamond

gysum


Uses of minerals

•

1. To obtain metals and use them to make objects (example: cables, aluminium...)

•

2. Some minerals like gold, diamonds, emeralds or rubies are used to make jewels.

•

3. Other minerals are used in construction and decoration (example: gypsum is used to cover walls).


ACTIVITIES • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Write true (T) or false (F): a. Diamond is the softest mineral. b. All minerals are white. c. Pyrite is grey and shiny. d. Gypsum is a hard mineral. e. Turquoise is irregular. f. Chalk is shiny. g. Rock can be: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. h. All minerals are on the Earth's surface. i. Quarries are open air excavations. j. Rocks are used to make jewels. k. Basalt is a mineral. l. Granite is hard and used to make sculptures.


Match the sentences • • • • • •

1. Mines are... 2. Quarries are ... 3. We use granite ... 4. We use coal ... 5. Miners dig mines ... 6. Aluminium is ...

a. ...to obtain minerals. b. ...a metal c. ...open air excavations. d. ...to obtain fuel. e. ...excavations under the ground. f. ...for the construction.


Classify the 3 headings ROCKS, MINERALS and PLACES.

• quartz - granite - slate - mines - feldspar •

marble - quarries - coal - mica - gypsum turquoise - pyrite - slate - chalk - diamond

ROCK MINERALS

PLACES


Complete and look for the information in www.rocksforkids.com (table of contents) : Pyrite

Talc

Granite

Gypsum

Shiny or dull:

Shiny or dull:

Shiny or dull:

Shiny or dull:

Colour:

Colour:

Colour:

Colour:

Shape:

Shape:

Shape:

Shape:

Use:

Use:

Use:

Use:


Compare and make sentences. 1. Talc is the _______ mineral. 2. Fluorite is _______ than Calcite. 3. Quartz is ________ than Diamond. 4. Calcite and Gypsum are ________ than Topaz. 5. Diamond is the ________ mineral. 6. Corundum and Topaz are _______ than Apatite. 7. Fluorite is _______ than Apatite but ______ than Calcite. 8. Quartz is ______ than Calcite but _________ than Corundum.

hard > harder than > the hardest soft > softer than > the softest


Rocks and Minerals: landscapes