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Subcultures. Complex identifications from a group of society that are consistent in style and distinctiveness from another or the norm. Culture is constantly evolving through many different factors. What I would like to look at is the strong representation of a group through history and how it has evolved to modern day and influenced today’s society. Subcultures can be identified by their social rules or norms. This allows people to connect and identify with each other by definition. These interests and norms usually vary and stand out from mainstream culture. For something to be known as a subculture it must have strong enough borders to create a power that is individual from the mainstream culture. Usually formed around a charismatic symbol or literature. They are formed as an escape from the wider society around them, in opposition for what they see as meaningless. Subcultures can be joined regardless of geographic location, it is based solely among like mindedness.


Goth is a complex and constructurally detailed and dark subculture. Goth can be defined but loosely between individuals. There has been many theories on defining the subculture of goths and more on whether ‘goth’ should be an entire culture of its own. The identity that is constructed from individuals is clear and concise to a goth culture. Identity is important within goth culture. There is a commitment to this identity in both an inner and outer world. The enthusiasts of a goth producing a part of society in an individual manner. Goths can be described as structural functionalists in their mannerisms to change over time but still keep original morals and ideals. Goth can have controversial values that vary from the norm. Goth has been defined in terms like follows. Appreciation for goth music, music influences has been a gigantic part of the forming of this subculture. There must be an appreciation or affinity for goth music. Secondly, A social or philosophical departure from media culture. This has a larger focus on the consumerist culture that holds no intellectual mindset. This mainly being a departure from shallow culture. Thirdly, an important factor of the subculture of goth is an ‘embracing of darkness’ This is commonly shared among the group. This term is very broad and is interpreted by individuals. For example, some see this as ‘Frankenstein's monster’ Embracement of darkness can also be seen through fashion. This is an outward manifestation of the term. It can also be seen as a philosophical aesthetic. Which is how an individual views the world. Lastly, could be seen through creative or performative avenues. Goth holds a tendency and pursuit to making these things part of everyday life or a desire to achieve this as everyday life.


Punk Noun: punk; noun: punk rock;

plural noun: punks. ‘A loud,

fast-moving, and aggressive form of rock music, popular in the late 1970s.’”Punk had turned pop music and its attendant culture on its head” This is the Oxford Dictionary’s definition of punk. But this definition, whilst factually correct, doesn’t touch on the deeper aspects of punk. It doesn’t focus on how it was born out of political unrest and anger, and how many young people felt that it was the only way to express themselves. It doesn’t touch on the wider impact of punk, or how the lyrics, whilst loud and furious against the system, were impactful and concise. It often said what many older, more articulate politicians couldn’t, about the state of Britain in the 1970s. The death of the last Ramone, drummer Tommy Ramone, and last original member of the band, was particularly poignant considering this. The 1970s were startlingly similar to today. Unemployment was over 2 million for the entire decade, and the UK has had over 2 million people unemployed since 2009. In the 1970s, unemployment and inflation contributed to a recession – we are in the midsts of a recession now. There is, as there was then, a generational divide and discontent with the government. The young people of today are a forgotten generation – angry, scared and forgotten. Where is our punk movement?


Mod is a subculture that has been inspired by many and gone on to inspire future subcultures and generations. The subculture began in 1958, originating from London by working class young men quickly spread throughout Britain and also internationally although it is a predominantly British subculture. The subculture of mod has gone on to influence the fashions and trends in other countries into today’s society. The subculture was solely based around music and the fashion inspired from it. The roots are strongly from a young generation of men who society termed as modernists through them listening to modern jazz. As the subculture grew and furthered however music influences that were common were genres such as soul, ska and R&B. While it was based around music and fashion, involved in the subculture became accessories that were desired to be valued as a mod. This became the revolution of owning scooter mopeds that were specifically Lambretta or Vespa. The mod subculture has grown massively and still exists in modern day much more loosely. Throughout the 1960s when another subculture of rockers began, there was a fury between this that was a conflict between the two strong subcultures. Mod subcultures early roots had spread off at this time and while a the culture began to revive in the 1970s, many had split off into smaller groups ones in example such as what became the skinheads.


Skinhead is a subculture that can be characterised by their outward expression of fashion and music that is aggressively masculine. Shaved heads and certain dress styles expressed a skinhead commonly. While the roots of skinheads are very diverse and open, part of the skinhead culture became very right wing and held neo fascists, people who held racist views. This is not where the roots of skinhead were valued and belonged. The skinhead subculture was not originally political and racist. The skinhead subculture began in England in the 1960s, in working class environments of London. Skinheads received a lot of media attention when Skinheads had started to branch off into racist groups. This is when a reputation of violent skinheads began however many skinheads just saw their style as an outlet of expression that they could relate to. The skinhead subculture was characterised mostly by their shaven heads, even women wore this fashion which was revolutionary as femininity was previously very important within society. Their looks also combined Dr Marten boots, braces and collared patterned shirts wearing brands such as Fred Perry and Ben Sherman. Also sported wearing Harrington jackets and denim jackets and hemmed jeans or slacks which would show off the boots worn.

Subcultures and Youth Culture  
Subcultures and Youth Culture