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Has Globalization Reduced the Richness of Regional Cultures? Case Study – South Africa What is Culture? Culture is defined by the characteristics and In South Africa, today’s youth, the new generation, is infatuated tendencies of a group of people. Things like with American culture. They want to sound, dress, live, and eat food, language, societal structure, and American. All of this is due to the entry of western TNCs into traditions are essentially what define South Africa and to the internet (the world-wide-web, now culture. dominated as well by American websites). And for parents who belong to the previous generation, before internet and intensely globalized commerce, it is hard to relate to their children. Globalization has created what is too common today: a “culture gap”. A South African rap group called Dirty Paraffin is trying to help South African children to gain confidence and embrace their heritage, one of a country rich in history and indigenous culture. They do that by making references to local concepts, culture, humor and language in their music. When the youth of South Africa hear the music they are meant to feel a certain degree of pride in who they are and where they’re from.

Here in Barbados, there is truly the feeling of a globalized community. You have various TNCs present, for example, Shell, KFC, Coca-Cola, Subway and the big banks. More recently, Burger King has opened two locations on the island. Various diplomatic missions have established themselves in the country as well. But despite the admission of the enormous American corporations into Barbados and its ample overseas trade, Bajans, including the youth, are keen on maintaining their unique lifestyle and regional dialect, “Bajan dialect”. They enjoy their lives and culture too much to feel the need to Americanize themselves. I think that’s great!!


Globalisation and Technology Inquiry Questions

How has technology developed throughout time? How has globalization benefited technology? Has technology been the base for development in globalization? Has globalization benefited technology positively? What are the negative aspects inflicted on technology from globalization? Is globalization the mass made media that has made globalization what it is today? What changes in technology have there been from globalization? How has things changed for technology since globalization has been of work?

Research The advancements in Technology are one of the main reasons that globalization has escalated in the past decade. Information and communication technology innovations have become smaller in size, more efficient and often more affordable. Transport technology vehicles have tended to become larger and faster, transport technology has also become more environmentally friendly and cheaper to function. Dependent on business or personal use, technology has made the world seem a smaller place and assisted in the increase of globalization.

The developments in information and technology have changed our way of living, whether it is at home, work, school or leisure. The internet and the development of digital technology ( technology based on computers) in particular has made the most significant impact in the field of information and communication technology in the past years.

The internet is mainly a network of computers across the world that is linked through global telecommunications. Although it was originally only used by defense workers in the United States, easy access to computers and related technology have made using the internet a common activity in more present times.


WWW; the World Wide Web is a collection of interconnected documents which are accessible using the internet. These documents enable people from almost anywhere in the world to gain information on almost any topic. In the last decade, there have been fundamental developments in telecommunication technology. Communication has progressed since the times where it would take several weeks for mail to arrive from overseas.

In connecting people, the internet and technology has played a significant role. With technology as a tool. it has allowed people in countries all around the world to instantly contact each another through any social network, app and website. This instant communication has revolutionized business and social lives. Additionally, mobile phones, voice mail, and text messaging allow instant contact across states and countries. Satellites have outgrown their original use in government activities and research and are now used by people in a variety of ways. With a GPS device, it utilizes the information provided by satellites to provide accurate information on locations on the land, in the sea and in the air. Satellites can also be used to provide information on weather patterns around the world; tracking hurricanes or tropical cyclones. With this information meteorologists can make better predictions about the weather and worn the public about dangerous weather conditions or systems. The Developments in transport technology have played a vital role in Globalization. Over 100 years ago, the Industrial Revolution changed the nature of transport with the invention of the steam engine and the combustion engine. Since then, technological development in the transportation industry has affected transformation in road, rail, sea and air travel. Transport for personal use has improved dramatically. Cars are now designed and made to be faster, safer, more fuel efficient and therefore making them cheaper to run, as well as being more environmentally friendly and costing less. Airline transport has also helped the expansion of tourism and trade across continents. Airline travel has not only become more affordable in the last 20 years but it has also become faster.


Many technologies have improved globalization by making people or things in distant or remote areas accessible to one another. Boats and ships have made people things, and information more accessible across seas.The wheel, carts, bicycles,cars and trains have also made people, things and information more accessible across land. Planes have made people, things, and information more accessible across air space.Information Technology makes people, things, and information more accessible across electronic data channels. All of the mediums and technologies have advanced the means in which we communicate, but also the way in which we can utilize tools and technology to work, and improve said conditions of life. There are surplus amounts of factors, when discussing the good we have received from technological advances. But, technology does have various problems when of relation to if we are really better with or without technology. Some simply society meaning

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argue, that the quality of living was better when made without complications and advancements with technology, due to these advancements making our more detached and reliant on virtual reality, cell phones, television, video games and mainly internet and computing. balance is needed when discussing the normalities technologies advancement as a civilization, and our connection to natural things. The issue is when people cannot flourish in both ways in our society. as there is an increase in our dependence on technology, there is also the possibility of becoming more dependent on one another because of technological involvement.

Technology can both create and alleviate that dependency. The impact of technology on the commercial aspect of human culture is a major one. Technology has not only brought the world closer together, but it has allowed the world’s economy to become a single interdependent system. This means that we can, not only share information quickly and efficiently, but we can also bring down barriers of linguistic and geographic boundaries.


The world has developed into a global community due to the aid of information technology allowing countries which are separated by distance and language to share ideas and information with each other. Economies are currently improving because of the help of technology and so is the commercialization of the countries resulting in the growth of the country, which in turn helps in keeping the per capita income of the country healthy. Technology is a key factor in the supporting and developing of an economy, in the securing and maintaining of jobs for the population, and most certainly in determining the level of economic welfare experienced by the members of the society.

Technology does bring benefits and future generations of advancement to its users, but it may leave other behind and create new class disparities. Technology does help in alleviating sever hardships, and advancing the way in which we are connected, but it has made society more inclined to be dependent on a virtual world, and base a whole concept of living on a machine.

Technology has greatly impacted globalization in the efficiency of growing a network that connects us all together, which is essentially globalization, but by doing so technology and its advancements has restricted us interacting and communicating face to face.

Globalisation and Trade Inquiry Question: Are the impacts of globalisation on trade positive or negative? This is very relevant as trade is important in our lives for several reasons and is changing due to globalisation occurring increasingly. The justification is that knowing if the effects of globalisation are good or bad so we can make changes accordingly to ameliorate our lives and our world. What Is Trade & Why Is It Important? Trade is an economic concept/action of buying and selling goods and services. Trade is an important and essential interaction with all the countries in the entire world. With trade each country doesn't need to provide their own resources for every aspect. Countries may need resources it can't provide or it would be less expensive to import than to produce locally. Trading resources to other nations that can't produce is a cycle where everyone trades until they all have what they need while making money by selling what they don't need. This is done for the development of the country so that people can get food, clothes, and many other necessities people need that their own country does not have access to and to do business with other countries through trade.


Fair-Trade

Fair-trade is an organised type of trade where all the producers are being paid fair prices in developing countries. This is mainly done by removing all sorts of trade restrictions such as tariffs and quotas between countries. The aim is to help the developing countries by making better trading conditions which should further sustainability. Fair-trade particularly focuses on exports from developing countries to developed ones, in particular coffee, wine, tea, fruits, chocolate, flowers, precious metals or stones, cotton and handmade crafts. It encourages paying exporters a higher price and social environmental standards.


Free Trade Free trade is a type of trade with unrestricted and uncontrolled access to economy, tariff- and duty-free for goods made for $4-per-hour or less. Competing with wages is too difficult, therefore going bankrupt or outsourcing nearly all of our manufacturing or simply selling out occurs. Pros With fair-trade, everyone's a winner: both producers and consumers. Consumers get products or goods inexpensively and producers have access to bigger market and produce more therefore making higher profits and improving their own lives. Also, too strict trading regulations are forced, issues such as illegal activities like smuggling can occur. Cons With the rise of globalisation, there is a rising judgment of free trade. Companies are looking for more inexpensive resources, taking their investments outside their country of origin. Some poor countries don't have established factories and infrastructure, so all that they can offer is a cheap labour force. Workers in developing countries have low salaries (low standard of living not improved) and if they get higher, companies move to lower costing countries. If salaries get higher company moves to other low cost country. Transnational Corporations (TNCs) Transnational corporations (also known as multinational corporations: MNCs) are corporations with a main headquarters in one country but many offices and production facilities in several other countries. TNCs function legally in various nations at a time. TNCs in general are set up in countries with factors that would be beneficial to them such as inexpensive and raw materials (e.g. mining fishing, agriculture), inexpensive labour supply, good transportation, access to markets, low salaries (also; large number of people offering to work), free mobility of capitals, and friendly government policies etc.

Case Study- McDonalds McDonalds is an example of one of the largest TNCs. It is an American fast-food chain with almost 30000 restaurants in 119 countries. More than 1 million workers in the U.S.A. are hired per year. The company needs a lot of resources to run, soybeans for example. Mass deforestation in the Amazon is led by soybeans farms being cleared for


McDonalds. By doing this, McDonalds encourages illegal traders in the Amazon. Pros and Cons of TNCs

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Brings work to the country and uses local Numbers employed small in comparison labour with mount of investment Local workforce receives a guarantee income

Local labour force usually poorly paid

Improves he levels of education and technical skill of the people

Very few local skilled workers employed

Companies provide expensive machinery Most of the profits go overseas (outflow of and modern technology wealth) Bring welcome investments and foreign currency to the country

Mechanization reduces the size of the labour localisation

Increase gross national product/personal income can lead to an increase demand for consumer goods and the growth of new industries

GNP grows less quickly than that of the parent company’s headquarters, widening the gap between developed and developing countries

Leads to the development of mineral wealth and new energy resources

Minerals are usually exported rather than manufactured and energy costs may lead to a national debt

Improvements in roads, airports and services

Money possibly better spent on improving housing, diet and sanitation

Prestige value (ex. Volta Project)

Big schemes can increase national debt (ex. Brazil)

Widens economic base of country

Decisions are made outside the country, and the firm could pull out at any time

Some improvement in standards of Insufficient attention to safety and health production, health control, and recently in factor and the protection of the environment environmental control (Source: Mr. Pier's Geography book)

Positive Effects of Globalisation on Trade


First of all, inward investment (when a foreign company invests in a country) by TNCs (spread by globalisation) helps countries by reducing unemployment and the locals acquire new skills too. TNCs can bring to local economies when local resources, products and services are bought. The extra money created by this investment can be spent on education, health and infrastructure. Trade originated in the olden days and it has been established because of globalisation. People who operate in uncivilised ways have to face world organisations such as WTO, that have been established with a view to control and regulate trade activities between countries. Negative Effects of Globalisation on Trade Globalisation occurs mostly in the interests of the richest countries, which continue to control world trade at the expense of developing countries. LEDCs in the world market mainly provide the North and West with inexpensive labour and raw materials. Profits are mostly are sent back to wherever the TNCs have originated from, leaving the country with no gain. Transnational companies can drive local companies out of business. If operating in another country with more inexpensive conditions, the TNC might close down the factory creating sudden employment for the local people. Response of Question & Conclusion Globalisation is accelerating because of increasing liberalisation of trade and also capital markets. More governments keep refusing to protect their economies from foreign competition or they influence through tarrifs and non-tariff barriers such as import quotas, export restraints or legal prohibitions. The WTO has played a huge and important part in free trade, in place of protectionism. Globalisation has improved the growth of East Asian economies, for example: Hong Kong, Korea and Singapore. However not all developing countries are engaged in globalisation in way to benefit from it. Some Latin American developing countries are quite slow in combing with world economy. Overall, globalisation has had several impacts on trade, some with benefits and some with inconveniences. The effects are both good and bad, so overall it really depends on the individual's point of view. For example, hyperglobalists would talk about how free trade has been so beneficial as it allowed many countries to develop quickly and enabled TNCs to invest and set up in other countries to share knowledge, develop skills, reduce unemployment etc. Then, Antiglobalists would argue that sudden employment is occurring due to TNCs moving to somewhere cheaper, that profits are just sent back to wherever the TNC originated from, national debt due to the energy costs by minerals being exported instead of manufactured, that workers in LEDC have low salaries and work in harsh conditions etc. However there are also Alterglobalists, who would think that there is some good in globalisation, but it can be something amazing if changes were made minimising the inconveniences it gives pointed out by the antigloblists. Alterglobalists would usually question why not come up with another type of trade with no negative aspects at all etc. Globalisation comes with benefits, new


risks, inconveniences and challenges, and is your opinion if its effects and impacts are positive or negative.


Globalisation and The Environment. Which areas of the world are more globalised than others? - What does this look like? Then why are cities growing so quickly, especially in the third world? One might have thought that striking declines in the costs of shipping goods and communicating knowledge across space would have led to a great dispersal of population. After all, it is at least technically possible to telecommute over great distances. Yet the share of the world living in urbanized areas increased from 40.9 percent in 1985 to more than 50 percent today. In the developing world, urbanization has often taken the form of exploding populations in megacities. Mumbai’s population increased to 19 million in 2007 from 10.8 million in 1985. Bangalore, the urban symbol of the flat world, has had its population double over two decades, to 6.8 million today from 3.4 million in 1985. The growth of these cities and the continuing strength of older urban areas — like New York, London and Paris — is no accident. Globalization and new technologies attract people to big cities, by increasing the returns to urban proximity. While it would be technically possible to sit and write software somewhere in the Vale of Kashmir (at least if you didn’t mind the bullets), the innovators in Indian information technology cluster around one another in Bangalore. America’s computer wizards likewise choose to cluster in Silicon Valley rather than disperse. Globalization and technological change have increased the returns to being smart; human beings are a social species that get smart by hanging around smart people. A programmer could work in the foothills of the Himalayas, but that programmer wouldn’t learn much. If she came to Bangalore, then she would figure out what skills were more valuable, and what companies were growing, and which venture capitalists were open to new ideas in her field.

Globalization and the rain forest: Isn’t it true that globalization destroys the rainforest?” he asked, explaining his surprise. Although I do not work for globalization, his concern is valid and shared by many who take to the street protesting globalization. That charge holds if, by globalization, one simply means expanded international trade. The other charge, that multinational companies wreak havoc on the global environment by moving operations to countries where environmental regulations are weak or nonexistent, is a little more difficult to prove. A recent World Bank study shows that clearing forests to grow


crops accounted for some 20 percent of global carbon emissions.

But the bank has found little evidence that companies chose to invest in such countries to shirk pollution-abatement costs in rich countries. Instead, the most important factor in determining the amount of investment was the size of the local market. It has also been found that within a given industry, foreign-operated plants tended to pollute less than local peers The World Trade Organization, and by extension globalization, also stands accused of destroying the global environment. Expanding trade driven by globalization has brought about increased fishing, destruction of forestland, and the spread of polluting industries to the developing world. In a November 2005 report, the UN Food and Agricultural Organization reported that each year about 18 million acres of the world's forests – an area the size of Panama or Sierra Leone – are lost due to deforestation.

Sources

http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi? article=1026&context=mario_pianta http://www.pwc.com/gx/en/revitalizing-corporatejapan/globalization-of-asia-case-studycollaboration.jhtml http://digitalcommons.bryant.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi? article=1000&context=honors_cis Source

Details.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebit This source was useful as it's well organised, looks visually esize/geography/globalisation/globali interesting and provides what seems to be accurate sation_rev3.shtml information in understandable language. The purpose of the website is education for students. Its value is all its information but its limitations is that it could've had some more facts and figures and more information too.


http://loquaciousmare.hubpages.com/hub/TNCsTesco-A-fact-file

This is a revenue-sharing website which is user generated. Its purpose here is a Case Study of a TNC: McDonalds. This source was quite informative and well organised. Its value would be the information it gives and its case study, however I believe that there are some limitations which would be lack of information on trade and lack of facts and figures.

http://www.studymode.com/essays/M This an essay website is for students written by users who cdonalds-Tnc-1895248.html get paid if people want to see the full version. The beginning of the essay is open to public and is about 300 words. It explains well, has facts and figures and is rather informative in a way, but its limitations are the fact that you have to pay to see the whole source as well as the lack of information on trade. www.buzzle.com/articles/positiveThis is an article website with information on several topics. effects-of-globalization.html This "Positive Effects of Globalization" page was very informative and also gave some information on unemployment and foreign trade which would be relevant to my topic. Its only limitations are examples, facts and figures


Globalization Booklet: Stephanie, Ari, Katie, Natusha  

This booklet looks at the different aspects of our lives like technology, trade, environment, and culture, and how they are affected by glob...

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