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Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977 Category: - Environment Concerns-fuels-flight paths-climate change/ Article 1 Theme: - Carbon Emissions The phenomenon of fuel efficient operations for the aviation industry has been a great challenge for all those who are concerned about the future of the aviation industry and also .have a remarkable concern over the environmental impacts of aviation globally According to previous studies and cognitive research, it was demonstrated that the aviation industry contributes only two per-cents of the overall global carbon gas emissions, the majority of which, are attributed to other modes of transportation and the rippling industrialization underway. However, there has been also a significant array of concrete initiatives led by the International Air Transport Association (IATA), and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) alongside with other international organizations to seek comprehensive formulas in a bid to curb the dismal prospect of fuel .(insufficiency in terms of airborne activities (TIACA, 2008 In this context, Airlines around the world and with oversight supervised by IATA, have adopted a unanimous strategy whereby they can achieve sustained and efficient air transport operations, which can consequently result in the reduction of fuel consumption .and the amount carbon dioxide emissions erupted Moreover, Airbus and Boeing, two of the world's most prominent airline companies have also spent millions of dollars in order to instigate new methods for fuel efficient strategies through which the global overall consumption of fuel will be increasingly decreased whilst unremitting efforts are made to seek other alternatively viable solutions for the future of the aviation sector globally. All these measures are being conducted to roll out a robust blueprint to proactively find alternative resources to respond efficiently and resiliently to the looming prospect of peak oil and the paralyzing consequences it will engender for the .(aviation business and the global economy likewise (TIACA, 2008 Nonetheless, it should be further expounded that the preceded premise have already brought the attention of many governments and airline companies around the world to apply these reforms into their agenda and diversify their fuel consumption resources. This .will inevitably be impacted by the growth of the passenger traffic volume year by year Furthermore, the massive airport developments and expansion projects all around the world to accommodate newly designed and with higher capacity aircrafts, have even more contributed to the pace of energy management strategies to unravel the dilemma of oil .depletion as well as the environmental concerns and pollution stoppage In my point of view, I believe that these developments to instigate biofuels production in the aviation sector could substantially mutate this challenging issue and improve fuel sustainability and at the same time contribute to environment preservation and less .pollution in a phenomenon way For example and with reference to the researched article, it has been demonstrated that Boeing had already sought developing biofuels by refining algae and other substances as

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977 well as plants such as sunflower and edible oil used for cocking . In this perspective, I believe that these alternative forms of biofuel production could be increasingly handy for the airline companies particularly the Middle Eastern airlines because of their abundant resources and their suitable geographic and climate condition for the usage and production of these based .biofuel plants Ultimately and to sum up, I believe that discussed above measures and platforms are increasingly vital for road-mapping a prosperous future for the aviation sector, conservation of environment, reduction of the extensively alarming carbon gas emissions and most significant of all, contributing towards the development of viable fuel efficient alternatives .to ensure the sustainable growth of air transport communications worldwide Category: - Environmental Concerns- Fuels- fight paths- climate change/ Article 2 Theme: - Climate change may impact aviation safety, ICAO warns The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have unveiled that the aviation industry’s contributions to global dioxide emissions is projected to reach 3 percent by 2050 and this phenomena will contain unprecedented impacts on the way the aviation industry functions. Scientists have expressed deep concern that airplanes flying over the Atlantic will experience more turbulent flights. In a similar study conducted by researches and experts, it has been demonstrated that this scenario will become more prevalent and will result in bumpier flights particularly those en route from Europe to North America and vice versa. There are roughly 600 flights every day from Europe and North America and the climate change issue is signaling significant hazardous setbacks for the aviation sector, if preemptive .(measurers are not sought appropriately (Air Transport Wolrd, 2010 Another major impact of this dilemma is the plausible hikes in fuel prices because of airlines having to make detours to avoid turbulent airspace, thus leading to higher ticket prices and .economic downturn According to an inclusive research carried out by Wiliams and Joshi from the University of Reading and the University of East Angial, the global warming issue and the changes in climate change could increasingly deteriorate the current conditions and will result in .(doubled carbon dioxide emissions by 2050 ( Air Transport World,2010 The aviation industry is believed to be contributing to about 2 per-cents of the global carbon emissions and it does not expose danger to the environment as much as other modes of transportation do. However, this figure is expected to surge in the coming years because of the high demand for passenger and cargo traffic. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has expected a 3 percent increase in the amount of carbon emissions emitted into the atmosphere by 2050 and this patently displays how this trend is growing .dramatically In this parallel, the International Air Cargo Association (TIACA) and with partnership and cooperation with other organizations have taken serious initiatives to create a solid roadmap by which they can address the predicament of global warming and climate change that .endangers the future of environment sustainability

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977 Evidently, I believe that this topic is inexorably relevant to what is being taught to us as part of an instrumental issue that could have significant repercussions on the growth of air cargo activities and also the aviation sector entirely. The most prominent reason for selecting this article traces back to its important essence and the impacts it has on the environment. Although, I have a strong conviction that the air transport movements does not, by and large, put the environment in jeopardy and expose it to imperiling consequences, however, drastic changes must be invoked to minimize the amount of atmospheric pollution induced from air transportation and delineate an immediate stall for its expansion in the foreseeable .future In this light, considerable strides have been undertaken by various organizations such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol to urge countries to curb their domestic flight’s emissions. Theoretically speaking, I believe that these improvements especially in the technology of aircraft technology will have reasonably .showcase effective and environmentally sustainable air transportation in the offing Furthermore, my standpoint on this issue is that governments and airline companies must come together and devise a joint and interdisciplinary approach to implement rigorous and sound anti-pollutant policies in order to help for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions holistically. For instance, EU has applied an overarching blueprint renowned as the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS), which is aimed at combating carbon emissions. Therefore, it is plausible that such concrete measures if endorsed and guided by the ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization and IATA the International Air Transport Association, it will wage a unanimous and collective initiative through consolidated efforts to .as much as possible eliminate CO2 emissions markedly

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977 Category: - Financial Risks for stakeholders/Article 1 Theme: - Oil prices pose threat to airline's profit and survival, IATA warns According to this article which has been published on June 6, 2011 by UK's Guardian Newspaper, IATA the International Air Transport Association has warned that peak in oil prices due to political tensions and unrest in the Arab World and also the catastrophic natural disasters are expected to reduce the bottom line of the aviation industry significantly. According to the CEO of British Airways, these events pose a great threat to the European airlines and could therefore alternate their functionality and impede their growth. The IATA has also raveled that the downturn of global aviation net profit is also due to the .(crippling years of financial crisis that struck the global economy (the guardian, 2011 This article has been chosen because it is believed that it constitutes a very important them upon which the survival and continuous growth of the aviation industry depends. It further shows what is happening in today's aviation industry and what probable issues airline companies and their stakeholders encounter with and how political disputes as well as the unstable nature of oil could potentially escalate great danger for the airline industry which is very susceptible to price change. This is because the airline industry is largely linked to the overall economy of the world and is vulnerable to geo-political and socio-economic changes which often have profound impacts on the aviation direct and indirect business aspects (the .(guardian, 2011

In this sense, it can be understood the correlation of economy cycle of countries and its importance to the aviation's sector vitality. This is because the availability of resources and economic development are considered in circular causality where each economic component affects one another's functions. In this context, the oil industry incontrovertibly plays a determinant role on the global economy and the air transportation activities. For example, fluctuations in oil prices due to wars, domestic violence and insecurity in some parts of the world could stir a major downturn in the level of aviation performance and .productivity This is because the increase in oil prices induced from the aforementioned conditions could monumentally reverberate economic slowdown and stifle airline's operational activities whether passenger or cargo transportation. Ideally, those airlines which are centered in the Middle Eastern hubs in the developing countries are even more exposed to the risk of bankruptcy, unproductivity, loss of employment, investment, capital and final sheer termination of operations. This, in my point of view, could also hugely impact the aviation industry in terms of passenger and cargo movement. Consequently, this could derive a significant risk for airline companies and their stakeholders because they will be unable to measure their profit and generate competitive advantages, cost-effectives strategies and .growth for the industry

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977 In this context, it must be accentuated that economic depression, political instability and as well as rise in the prices of oil have inextricably wide-ranging effects on the aviation business and therefore would contain adverse impacts on the industry's growth and performance scale. Evidently, these developments have also far-reaching influence on the global aviation .market, air traffic and supply chain management Accordingly, this will result in a sluggish and feeble economic growth in the context of air freight operations as a non-separable component of the air transport activities. For example, this could have the largest impact on the level of trade volumes and the extent to which airline companies would be able to survive the excruciatingly debilitating aviation market and the inevitable risks it entails to their throughput and eventually their capability to .survive and progress In result, it can be acknowledged that these brittle and oscillating economic conditions stemmed from volatility in oil prices would place the aviation business in a perilous situation where it can jeopardize the future of the air transportation activities as a whole and result in .counterproductive implications on the industry's performance Category: - Financial Risks for stakeholders/ Article2 Theme: - Another Icelandic volcano, another threat to airline profits The International Air Transport Association (IATA) have expressed concerns over the economic regression for airline operators in Europe and internationally because of the 2010 and 2011 volcanic activity in Iceland which have led to complete shutdown of major air transport routes and also Europe's most busiest airports. This was the reason of low level of visibility in the airspace resulting from the volcanic ash disseminated in the atmosphere. These two subsequent events have caused significant retreat in the aviation operations including air cargo services regionally and globally. In the following analysis, a brief, overarching and comprehensively succinct views on the repercussions and risk such .(situations have on the global aviation business will be outlined (Daily Finance, 2011 This article addresses another important event which traces back to the year of 2010 which have encompassed significant loss for the European air transport activities and caused an unprecedented halt of airline operations both regionally and intercontinentally. According to the findings of the article, the volcanic activity and eruption of ash into the European airspace have had pernicious impact on the European airlines as it had involved significant risk and monetary loss. One major reason for this was obviously the meteorological conditions in Northern Europe which have led airlines to temporarily stop their air transport communications and also their airspace. Thus, this had triggered a massive loss and delay of .flights in and out of Europe Consequently, from a wider perspective, we can emphasize that the environmental issues could stir significant concerns and pose threat to the day to day air movement which impact are deemed to be the artery of airline operations and adaptability, therefore, these environmental meltdowns have indispensably regressive impact on the economic development and aviation business holistically. This is mostly attributed to the fact that the

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977 air traffic activities are, in a large scope, contingent upon the conditions of weather. Therefore, any potential and fortuitous alteration in weather status could disrupt the air navigational activities which subsequently will ensue plunging operations and plummeting airline profitability. In result, we can elucidate that cancellation or delays of flights because of weather conditions are also deemed to be excessively a major source for decline in aviation productivity and profitability. Moreover, this could be analyzed from the context that if airline operations where to be ground to a halt due to volcanic and bad weather forecasts, some airline will merely stop operating which will exponentially erode their business activities. On the other hand, other airlines may attempt to evade the affected routes by resorting to detour itineraries which will mean longer distance, higher fuel consumption and ultimately baring significant damage and financial risks to airline operators and stakeholders. In a paradoxical way, this will affect other international flights and lead to .the closure of airports and tardy air transport business operations

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977

Category: - Technological Advances in equipment and information handling/ Article1 Theme: - Connected sky: Surfing the web above the clouds This article conveys the importance, advantages and complications of internet accessibility and Wi-Fi connection on airplanes in an effective, convenient and yet relatively inexpensive way. It further discusses the major impacts this newly emerged availability of technology would have on the quality of air transport services. Moreover, this article was chosen because of its relation to information handling services and technology systems vis-Ă -vis the .(future of aviation industry (BBC, 2012 According to the article, it has been unveiled that Inmarsat, a prominent and well-known British satellite telecommunications company, have taken concrete initiatives to launch satellites into the orbit in order to boost high speed in-flight internet connectivity. In this analysis, the major contributions of technology availability on airplanes will be discussed and how they are seen to enhance air travelling experience and in what way aviation can evolve .with such rapid technological advancements It is an overwhelming reality that the development and rapid sophistication of various information and technology systems have an incredibly manifold and vast impact on the aviation sector and the quality of services, passengers tend to receive while en-route travelling on airplanes. Furthermore, the availability of high speed broadband internet access on aircrafts is permeating the aviation business dramatically, opening the horizon for developing various apparatuses for information handling and connection devices. As we were alluding to earlier, the conduct of such in-flight services would provide global internet coverage for domestic and international flights, almost anytime and anywhere on the sky. In result, these technology development aspects would have huge benefits for the aviation in terms of customer services and competing to achieve optimum level of standardized performance. For instance, this will optimize the level of services provided on airplanes and promote the growth and rapid evolvement of the aviation industry with high standard .(customer services (BBC, 2012 In my opinion, I believe implementing entrepreneurial technology services and scientific research projects on the field of air transportation will instrumentally provide on interdisciplinary approach for the enhancement of airborne activities, thus, proliferating, remunerative and lucrative profits for airline operations internationally. In reverse, the adaptation of this technology has also a direct impact on the aviation business. For example, it would facilitate e-business operations for businessmen, help at generating a different channel of income plus promoting better services by allowing these measures to attract high-quality employees and passenger too. Ultimately, this is suggested to contribute to the overall economic productivity and improve airline services because innovation and technology are vehemently important for the development of aircraft operational practices as well as generating aerospace- centric economic development and sustainable growth .which will be a crucial element of economies of scale for aviation market in the offing

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977

Category: - Technological Advances in equipment and information handling/ Article2 .Theme: - Paperless Aircraft Operations Researches have shown that IATA's paperless initiative program is one of the latest forms of technological advancements in terms of information handling and processing. Fundamentally, this program (IATA's Paperless Aircraft Operations) was debuted in June 2011 as a holistic approach towards computerizing all related documentation requirements and paperwork. These initiatives include e-ticketing, RFID baggage handling, e-AWB, Cargo .(RFID and other related electronic activities (IATA, 2013 Ideally, the implementation of this strategy to educate and train all air transport personnel around the world by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) is reckoned to be a uniquely substantial and groundbreaking step towards facilitating all related-activities to information handling and processing method and how it is affecting the aviation industry internationally. This was corresponding to the idea of a holistic, unified and most significant of all environmentally friendly approach and practical policies by which a big stride can be taken forward to achieving sustainable growth, development and upskilling of the aviation industry. From an economic standpoint, I vehemently believe that the taken initiatives to accomplishing a paperless working industry is a prerequisite to step up sufficiency and adapting to the technology of the day where cost-effectives strategies could be laid out and .(ensure reliability and functionality of all related aspect to the aviation industry (IATA,2013 This could be defined as the yardstick for success, achieving balance and compatibility to today's highly pervasive and fast-growing nature of aviation. In addition, this is also important because the aviation industry requires a delicate, swift and highly consistent information processing and data management in order to ensure timeliness, organization as well as sound and effective management of the various elements and functions of the .aviation industry markedly Another beneficial impact that this adopted strategy by IATA could bring is that it would further enhance the flexibility and quality of information inter-change with high standard quality of dada precision The outmost advantage of this, however, is likely to result in lesser mistakes in information processing, minimization of unnecessary documentation requirements which as a result preserve and follows the doctrine of environment protection .and avoidance of deforestation Moreover, with the increasingly globalized and ever sophisticated airline operations, the aviation sector would require to assimilate integrated technology systems within all its functions and activities to further expedite the process of communication and information services as well as to ensure high level of efficiency and effectiveness. Furthermore, today's highly intricate and complex aviation industry requires less time consuming operations, which, through the undertaken approach would ensure and assist collective synchronization, .enable synergies and excellent performance in the airline industry

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977

The listed below points are other benefits of this pan, if implemented in an appropriate :manner and holistically

Auto-ID / RFID aircraft parts tracking

RFID as alternative means of compliance

Digital signature in technical operations

Electronic airworthiness compliance

Electronic maintenance record keeping

Electronic aircraft lease transfers

IATA standard maintenance contracts

Aircraft leasing best practices for delivery / re-delivery and maintenance reserves

Electronic regulatory documents

This would be very useful in proving passengers and cargo operators with convenient, easy, prompt and reasonably suitable activities. As a consequence, it is believed that this initiative will help at delineating the route for more seamless, accurate and earth-shattering of all proficiently handling processes in the near future. This is speculated to be one of the primary instruments in prompting innovative technology and improvement of all areas of .the aviation industry

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977

Category: - Security Implementation/ Article1 .Theme: - Aviation Security Training Courses The International Air Transport Association had orchestrated several security training courses in a constructive measure to sensitize employees working in the aviation sector of the threats and the way to rein in risk management issues. These courses were developed to extend the scope of employees' awareness of the various security issues that are likely to happen and how they would be able to content with them or perhaps deter and resolve .(them (IATA,2013 This is very important because these security and training requirements are essential for the progress and maintained of safety and security of the international airline operations which, in deed, are vital for the global economy. It is believed that these courses have been mapped out and delicately studied in order to provide a wide range of self-awareness issues and management criterion to proactively respond to any potential security threats is aimed .(at destabilizing and hampering the air transportation process (IATA, 2013 In this parallel, it is noteworthy to underscore that the safety and security measures implementation have come into force shortly after the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Center, which have resulted in a complete stoppage of flights affecting both domestic and international air movements. Nonetheless, it had also ensued heavy economic and humanitarian loss. The complications after this event and other subsequent attacks targeting airline infrastructures and mobility have signified the urgent necessity to create solid and strict security measures in order to avoid and mitigate the occurrence of such destructive situations which obviously would harm the international air flight services and movement of .cargo In my vantage point of view, the initiatives pioneered by IATA and other international organizations would definitely increase the scale and scope of aviation safety and security. Furthermore, this is most likely to improve the security practices on the ground such as airport surveillance systems and also training the industry's personnel to detect possible and .suspicious activities Comprehensively examining the researched topic of security implementation in aviation industry via promoting training opportunities, we can perceive that it is indisputably discernible that security risks have become the biggest if not the most primary challenge facing the viability of airline operations globally and this is mainly because any mishaps and possible failure in a proper risks management to prevent attacks would consequently appear devastating and would surely have detrimental impacts on the airline industry, therefore, leading to unprecedentedly alarming stagnant economic situations for international aviation .market Therefore, it is imperative to reiterate that these security plans and educational training programs will be substantive and explicitly vital in understanding the role security plays in the aviation's business and air transport operations as a whole. For instance, it eases and

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977 proffers various techniques on how to identify, deter and respond to security violations and infringement of international law. This, in my opinion, will also reinforce and empower both employees working in the aviation sector and passenger likewise to be circumspect of different scenarios on risk management and most suitable method to thwart any potential .threat to the security of aviation .Category: - Security Implementation/ Article2 .Theme: - How Airport Security Protects Us from Terrorists, Harm The security implementation in airports is inevitably of significant importance to the aviation industry because of the dynamic disposition of airline activities. In this line the Unites States has been one of the pioneering countries to introduce and globalize and rationalize the mechanism of safety procedures and security screening at its airports, thus, causing significant global approach spark awareness to the contingencies and risks jeopardizing the aviation sector globally from all threats. Ideally, the issue of security practices and techniques have been reinforced and commercialized internationally by the tragic event of 9/11 in the U.S. and the subsequent standstill of aviation-related activities (Yahoo Voices, .(2006 In my vantage point of view, I believe that the security and surveillance system are a necessity and therefore inexorable important for the survival and protection of seamless and efficient air transport movements. This is based on the fact that security implementation an all its concept plays an instrumental and highly effective role in the daily aircraft movements and activities being carried out within airport infrastructural facilities. It is also important because it monitors activities and acts as a stiff and potent shield to detect potential threats .and avoid disturbance and halt the airline’s activities Additionally, analyzing this theme from this angle, I am personally inclined to opine that these safety and security systems that are provided with high level of standardized facilities, checkpoint etc. are important to maintain organization and overall security management in airports. However, significant consideration must be pointed to the connotation that any action that would hinder the operational processing of passengers and freight or perhaps cause delay of data reception and mishaps along the way should be realistically and prudently confronted. This opinion could, al thought debatable, be supported on the premise that the aviation’s activities nature is inexorably vulnerable vis-à-vis the vibrant air traffic communications. This is, obviously, because the aviation industry is deemed to be the .artery of global connectivity and dynamic commercial and freight transportation As previously mentioned in the article, the U.S. Transport Security Administration have mapped out a measure where it can pre-check security activities in a bid to ensure reliable screening of passengers and cargo and also faster the movement of people with minimum obstacles and interrupted services. According to what has been perused, these approaches are speculated to further expedite the process of cargo and passenger movement and also intensifying the safety and security measures to achieve a practicable timeliness for .domestic and international flights

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977

In the light of this issue, I believe that the rapid technological advancement which led to the utilization of highly sophisticated computer systems in the aviation industry have hugely impacted the airline activities and optimized the way in which associated authority personnel can keep abreast with the movements in airports. Furthermore, passengers' surveillance and gathering statistical data has become faster and more efficient in terms of identifying Imperiling circumstances effective through tracking systems. This can also be related to the air cargo operations as an integral part of the overall air navigational and .communication activities For instance, the safety and security of passengers and the transported goods will be assured in a precautionary attempt to dodge security risks. Moreover, this will also help in a more scrutinized transportation process for dangerous goods and materials since every item will be double checked, registered in system and continuously be monitored throughout the .course of their movement in the airports as well as the airplanes On the other hand, biometrics security and surveillance system such as fingerprints, retinal scan and facial figuration patterns are also essential in determining dangerous or perhaps .sought after individuals by governments In a similar vein, the United States Department of Homeland Security have devised a complex security system known as the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System with multiple versions, in a drastic attempt to evaluate the likelihood of risk a passenger may have before they are actually permitted to broad the airplane in my reflective view of this matter, I strongly believe that achieving a balance while conducting these security systems in regard to airport and aircraft activities is as essential and subtle as the aviation business and economic advantages it has. Notwithstanding, there must be a clear approach where these factors are taken into serious consideration by both airline companies and governments through consistently coordinated actions and collaborative strategies in order to present optimum security services in airports and ensuring sufficiency, effectives and efficiency in .the movement of people and cargo simultaneously

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977

Category: - Major Operational Agreements and Alliances/Article1 .Theme: - Gulf Air and Royal Jordanian code sharing a success It is the basis, which forms airline alliances to increase the quality of airline services. Primarily, by definition, refers to a commercial agreement between two airlines where an airline is allowed to put its identification code on the flights of another airline as they appear in the computerized reservation systems. This, in return, allows an airline to sell available seats on another airline’s flights as if they were its own. Airline code sharing and in this particular case between the Gulf Air and Jordanian airways is very important because it .(stimulates cost-effective strategies to be orchestrated (Daily Tribute, 2013 .Thus, resulting in significant change in airfares and traffic volume Following this event, an inclusive and succinctly comprehensive analysis of the impacts this agreement could have on the aviation sector of the affiliated countries will be addressed .including other influencing factors of the aviation industry Co-sharing activities has been a major stimulus for the increase of operational alliances between various airlines companies which have exponentially grew in the aviation market worldwide. Evidently, it is postulated that these alliances and co-operative agreements between airlines especially in the Middle East region could open the horizon for competitive advantage and also proliferating the number of joint ventures and eventually investment opportunities. Additionally, code sharing is reckoned to have a magnificent impact on the way the airline industry is being managed as a whole. This, in my point of view, can result in engendering effective engagements and competitiveness between different carriers for the provision of better services that would be deemed as high standard level of customer .operations with a minimum loss of capital invested for a recovery period For instance, the number of demand responsiveness could mount invariably; deriving innovative techniques to further expedite the air transport services and for optimum return on investment and proportionate profitability and coverage of costs amongst all participants. This will also have significant impacts on the air cargo operations as a major .business activity in the region that server millions of market demands Co-sharing activities has been a major stimulus for the increase of operational alliances between various airlines companies which have exponentially grew in the aviation market worldwide. Evidently, it is postulated that these alliances and co-operative agreements between airlines especially in the Middle East region could open the horizon for competitive advantage and also proliferating the number of joint ventures and eventually investment .opportunities Additionally, code sharing is reckoned to have a magnificent impact on the way the airline industry is being managed as a whole. This, in my point of view, can result in engendering effective engagements and competitiveness between different carriers for the provision of better services that would be deemed as high standard level of customer operations with a minimum loss of capital invested for a recovery period. For instance, the number of demand

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977 responsiveness could mount invariably; deriving innovative techniques to further expedite the air transport services and for optimum return on investment and proportionate .profitability and coverage of costs amongst all participants

What can be comprehended from the benefits of code-share agreements between airlines is that there will be prompt hikes in the number of passengers’ movement both regionally and internationally. In a consequence, this will also be resonated in the air cargo operations, .which in fact play a key role in the air commercial transportation as well Moreover, the significance of code-sharing agreements in reinvigorating the aviation market in the region cannot be overstated. I believe that these kinds of cooperation between Middle Eastern Airlines are vital for the growth and support of the airline industry since these agreements could help in initiating a fair market and lessen the monopolistic competition as well as the high level of outlays associated with such activities especially when there is obscure and limited signs of effective government subsidiaries in this particular case, which could have consequential repercussions for airlines such as .bankruptcy and liquidity problems In the context of the researched article, I emphatically believe that the code sharing agreement between Gulf Air and the Jordanian Airline could yield remunerative results for both carriers in terms of easy and feasible entry to the aviation business and relatively circumvent trade barriers and government restrictions which entail a great deal of expenses. In the meantime, this will facilitate the expansion of the both airlines’ activities and create a win-win situation for them where they can benefit from each other’s commercial and freight operations, achieve economies of scale and provide scalable propinquity of time and .distance services to the entire region Category: - Major Operational Agreements and Alliances/ Article 2 Theme: - Jet Airways-Etihad deal promises wide-ranging growth in aviation sector

On the 24 of April 2013, Etihad Airways and Jet Airways of India have come to an agreement where the UAE's national carrier has subscribed for approximately 27 million new shares in Jet Airways from which Etihad Airways will assume 24 per-cents of value of the share capital .((International Law Office, 2013 The strategic partnership encompasses some of the regulatory procedures and regimes for the commercial operations which emphasizes on opening new networks between India and UAE. According to the article, it has been researched that alliance incorporates more than US$ 600 million investment for the FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) Policy in order to .generate more revenue and apply a wide range of services in a cost-effective platform

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977 The investment and operational alliance (code-sharing) will consequently increase the number of networks served to 140 destinations worldwide. Nonetheless, this will bring about significant growth to India's evolving economy and will admonish the augmentation of the trade activities as well as the tourism industry. The alliance is believed to bestow the opportunity for Jet Airways passenger from 23 different cities in India to savor from the .(exponential access to the global air transport network (International Law Office, 2013 Moreover, new flights, increase in air traffic demand will enable both airlines to tap into a high level of target market consumers, produce maximum profitability and excellent .customer services The article unfolds a significant theme which is categorized under the Major Operational Agreements and Alliances element and has been opted on the persuasion that it is increasingly interrelated to the course TLB 6201- International Air Cargo and the subjects covered in its content in terms of aviation operations, air transport networks, policies, hubs and service patterns. Another exemplary reason is because I am inclined to believe that the current formation of alliances and bi-lateral agreements between various airlines around the world will doubtlessly have instrumental impacts on the future of aviation both regionally and globally. In this context, the alliance and co-operation agreement between Etihad Airways and Jet Airways will open the door for huge market demand for air travel services and will lead to substantial increase in reciprocal business agreements, thus, resulting in a .booming air travel industry and rapid growth in revenue generation Mr. James Hogan, president and chief executive officer of Etihad Airways has expressed optimism and delight of the agreement between the two airlines citing that it will have tremendous impact on the Asian and in particular the Middle Eastern market because Jet Airways will represent a new gateway to a bourgeoning travelling market. This, in my opinion, is increasingly vital for the sustainability and future growth of the two airlines and also the aviation industry because the main purpose of these alliances and operational agreements is to focus on global connectivity which in itself have other benefits such as investment opportunities, high level of economies of scale and most crucial of all, costeffective strategies for efficient and sound air transport activities. I also believe that such grand initiatives for airline partnership will incentives other airline operators to mesh into operational agreements with each other to expand their networks and gain more profitable .deals at lower costs Some of the benefits of the alliances such as the current transaction between Etihad Airways and Jet Airways are that both airlines will be able to avail form each other's fleets and infrastructure facilities in order to provide convenient and seamless services to their passengers based on quality and professionalism. In addition, they will have a wider scale of coverage to different areas around the word. Another noteworthy benefit is the cost-savings method it constitutes. For example, they will have joint-purchasing opportunities for equipment and spare parts procurement as well as the utilization of technological systems, technical support and administrative issues such as insurance, training of pilots, flights .attendants and engineers

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977 Eventually, what has been the main outcome to this partnership agreement is the collective collaboration between the participant parties with their stakeholders in a bid to further strengthen their presence in the aviation market and facilitate the expansion of new streamlined air traffic networks. Hence, stimulating a win-win situation and preparing the groundwork for competitive and profitable air transport operations. The far complications these strategic agreements would have is the infusion of a fast-growing aviation market which leads to creating new job opportunities, more passenger and cargo networks and ultimately a customer-centric services that will inevitably spur high remuneration and .lucrative aviation business

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977

Category: - Political Economy- trade agreements- conflicts/ Article1 Theme: - Middle East and North Africa: Unrest threatens aviation growth in this crucial region This article basically has covered the topic of political unrest and the possible implications these turbulent instabilities encompass with regard to the air transport activities. In this context, the aviation industry is indisputably of paramount importance to the economy of the countries of the Middle East and North Africa which are in their peak of economic growth, of course for the privilege of the wealthy petroleum industry. Furthermore, the complications of the political unrest in the Middle East region and North Africa have .increasingly debilitated the commercial and freight transportation enormously In a consequence, there was a low turnover and depreciated demand for the conduct of air transportation owning to the vile and troublesome situations in those countries. In this sense, we can realize how determinant, by and large, is a country’s political developments and its internal stability to the aviation sector as well as the air transport networks (Airline .(leader, 2012 In this context, politically motivated strategies could arise due to harmful consequences this unrest have which could ultimately hinder the growth and developmental performance of the aviation industry in all related fields including air cargo operations. Also, it could further decrease the freight and cargo movement significantly and imperil the tourism industry because of the inconvenience there will be for travelers across the world to reach out to the airport situated in those countries, in times like these where the daunting prospect of these .conflict, discourages people and businesses alike to visit those politically instable countries In my standpoint and with astute observation and careful analysis of the overall outcome of these events, I strongly believe that the unrest stirred by political mutations will not only be confined with harming the associated activities of the aviation sector, but it will also .seriously cause the emergence of the state of economic malaise For instance, the political events that have incurred in the past years in the Middle East region and North Africa, some of which are still suffering from continual political chaos, have been really impacted by the decrease in the level of employment and increase in lay-offs and redundancy plans. Subsequently, the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of these countries have monumentally instigated concerns over the future of the airline industry and its relation to .economic growth and sustainable development Nonetheless, we can elucidate from the international statistics that the global aviation accounts for more than 35 per-cent of global commodity transportation by value. In result, this could result in insufficiency and inflexibility of the availability and delay of the movement of these valuable goods and also time-sensitive goods and products. Accordingly, the movement of air cargo activities from the politically inflicted countries to other parts of the world could be seriously reduced and endangered, thus, exposing a great gloomy

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977 outlook for the aviation sector both globally and domestically, if proactive and protective .reforms are not adopted in a considerable method Category: - Political Economy- trade agreements- conflicts/ Article2 Theme: - Major Policy Areas affecting Commercial Aviation- International Trade According to the report issued by Boeing in 2012 about aviation policy and geopolitics, it has been re-affirmed that Boeing vows its support for the negotiation and implementation of bilateral and multilateral agreements in the context of trade liberalization in a bid to increase air traffic demand and contribute to the global economic growth induced by the .aviation market The world trade bounced back because of the great financial depression. According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), it has been shown that merchandise exports grew by14.5 % in 2010. Conversely, the value of world trade has plummeted by 22% in 2009. The WTO has inclusively adopted strategies to underpin a solid mechanism of rules to avert the connotation of policy protectionism to be permeated in the global trade and with regard to the aviation commercial activities. Nonetheless, the demise of the financial crisis does not seem to0 signify an end to these types of monopolistic policies that undeniably stifle aviation growth. Furthermore, the WTO cited in its 2011 monitoring report that the trade protective measures are brewing globally with significant increase in import traffic and .(restrictions on exports-led manufacturing products (Boeing,2012 In line with its objectives, the WTO has pledged all its member states to vigilantly pursue the policy of market expansion rather than suppressing their existence. According to the study, the liberalization of international trade has had serious impacts on the growth of air traffic demand which is measured by the Revenue Passenger Kilometers (RPK) and airplane sales, .(both of which are inexorably correlated in the economic paradigm (Boeing, 2012 The reports states that air travel is progressing faster than the GDP by a percentage of 1.0 to 2.0, and this show how oscillations in air traffic movement could be reverberated on the GDP outcome in relation to trade liberalization. The report showcased that high level of trade liberalization have measurable impacts on the global air transport demand and .economic growth The US has constituted the National Export Initiative (NEI) to double air transport operations and reduces trade barriers, thus, assisting in opening new market access and services in and out of the country. Failure to reach a unified and consistent global formula for trade liberalization has led to some countries most notably the U.S. to implement bi-lateral and .regional agreements (FTAs) with over 17 countries, according to the article

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977 The general premise of this article can be categorized within the political/economic impacts on the aviation sector. The primary reason for selecting this specific article in relation to the first theme which is the political economy is because it is comprehended from the insight of the article that it covers policy-making areas and expounds on the visible implications of bilateral and multilateral trade agreements and impediments on international commercial .aviation

It gives an understanding of the different contemporary challenges facing the aviation market from the angle of international trade liberalization and de-regulation of aviationrelated activities. It is of paramount importance to keep abreast with the latest developments on the global trade because it has direct influence on the demand and level of responsiveness to air transport operations and precisely the air cargo industry as a whole. This is because the political developments and decision-making strategies have significant .impacts on almost all areas of trade and transport operations Indeed, they are indispensable for the vibrancy and evolvement of the supply chain in its totality. The general tenor of this article accentuates that ineffective political mechanisms and flimsy economic resolutions as well as restricted trade agreements on a global scale would eventually debilitate the air cargo industry and more seriously exacerbate the idle .conditions of the air cargo transportation This evidently could result in imperiling circumstances and have interdisciplinary effects on the industry and its associates because of the surge in airfares and further restrictions on trade agreement and services. Ideally, what is needed to be done is to promote negotiation on trade agreements and proliferation of bi-lateral and multi-lateral agreements through the implementation of a robust scheme that would support the demand for air traffic demand .and increase the economic upturn and productivity of the aviation industry globally

Ali Mohamed AlZaimoor 201000977

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quintessential outlook for the aviation industry