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1818 Arkansas Journals Lesson plan developed by Margaret Grimes 1998-99 Butler Fellow Revised 2007-08 School Year Utilizing 2006 Social Studies Frameworks Including 2007 Arkansas History Amendments and 2007 School Library Media Frameworks Students will examine Henry R. Schoolcraft’s “Ozark Journal” (1818-1819) to better understand the physical geography and cultural history of Arkansas. Grades:

7th – 12th

Objective: Students will develop an understanding of continuity and change over time in Arkansas using a primary resource, Schoolcraft’s “Ozark Journal”, as an example to help them create journals about early 19th century exploration of their own county or the state of Arkansas as a whole. Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks: Arkansas History Student Learning Expectations: G.1.AH.7-8.1 Compare and contrast the six geographical land regions of Arkansas: * Ozark Mountains (plateau) * Ouachita Mountains * Arkansas River Valley * Mississippi Alluvial Plain * Crowley’s Ridge * West Gulf Coastal Plain G.1.AH.7-8.2 Identify and map the major rivers of Arkansas G.1.AH.7-8.3 Describe factors contributing to the settlement of Arkansas G.1.AH.7-8.4 Research the origins of key place names in Arkansas EA.3.AH.7-8.1 Discuss the impact of the first European explorers in Arkansas * Hernando DeSoto * Robert de LaSalle * Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet EA.3.AH.7-8.2 Discuss key individuals and groups related to the settlement of Arkansas: * Henri De Tonti * John Law * Thomas Nuttall * William Dunbar * George Hunter * Henry Schoolcraft * G.W. Featherstonhaugh * Bernard de La Harpe G.1.AH.9-12.1

Investigate the six geographical land regions of Arkansas: * Ozark Mountains (plateau) * Ouachita Mountains * Arkansas River Valley * Mississippi Alluvial Plain * Crowley’s Ridge


* West Gulf Coastal Plain G.1.AH.9-12.3 G.1.AH.9-12.4 EA.3.AH.9-12.1

EA.3.AH.9-12.2

Analyze factors contributing to the settlement of Arkansas Research the origins of key place names in Arkansas Examine the impact of the first European explorers in Arkansas: * Hernando De Soto * Robert deLaSalle * Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet Research key individuals and groups related to the settlement of Arkansas: * Henri De Tonti * John Law * Thomas Nuttall * William Dunbar * George Hunter * Henry Schoolcraft * G.W. Featherstonhaugh * Bernard de La Harpe

School Library Media Frameworks: A.4.7.1, A.4.8.1, A.4.9.1, A.4.10.1, A.4.11.1, A.4.12.1 – Use resources and/or technology tools for a predetermined task I. 1.7.12, I.1.8.12, I.1.9.9, I.1.10.9, I.1.9.11.10, I.1.12.10 – Distinguish between primary and secondary sources I.2.9.2, I.2.10.2, I.2.11.2, I.2.12.2 – Evaluate primary and secondary sources

Related Encyclopedia of Arkansas Entries: Hunter-Dunbar Expedition; Louisiana Purchase; Louisiana Purchase to Early Statehood Introduction: The teacher will select the appropriate student learning expectations for his or her class, review the key terms, and make copies of selected activities included in the lesson. Collaboration with the school library media specialist for assistance with the utilization of the technology resource tool for Arkansas History is suggested. See above links or visit the online Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture at http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net. Key Facts: After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, many explorers, both private and government-funded, set out to learn about the physical and human geography of this new acquisition. The land and people of Arkansas were a part of this study. Most early white settlements in Arkansas were centered around waterways, excluding those that flooded frequently. A census in 1820 numbered 14,255 inhabitants. A picture of Arkansas in the early 1800’s can be reviewed by reading from various sources, including the students’ textbook. In addition, Henry Schoolcraft’s Journal will describe the features of the north central part of Arkansas. Note: If the students’ evaluations are to center on their home counties rather than the state of Arkansas, the county facts must be gathered from local sources and shared with the students.


Background: The teacher will read aloud excerpts of Schoolcraft’s “Ozark Journal” from the book, Rude Pursuits and Rugged Peaks. Then, through lecture, discussion, and the use of various maps and fact sheets, the students will better understand the physical environment and cultural heritage of Arkansas in the early 1800’s. The teacher needs to be very familiar with the content and literary style of Schoolcraft’s Journal as published in Rude Pursuits and Rugged Peaks. The book is available through bookstores, or you may want to purchase it through The University of Arkansas Press. Check availability of book at the website listed below. http://www.uark.edu/~uaprinfo/indices/indexsp08.html Individual teachers must decide which excerpts to read aloud and how much time to spend reading to the class. Highlighting the dates and excerpts one chooses makes it easy to entertain students with Schoolcraft’s Journal. Suggestions include beginning with November 5, first sentence and ending with February 4, last sentence. In between there are many informative and entertaining episodes, including the following: Nov. 9 --sleeping in the woods Nov. 11 --fear of wolves Nov. 21 --accident fording a river Nov. 26 –hunger Nov. 28 --last two sentences Nov. 30 --encounter with another traveler Dec. 24 --buffalo marrow dinner Dec. 27 --description of hunters’ children in the Arkansas wilderness Jan. 5 --bee-tree discovery Jan. 9 --beaver tail dinner Jan. 16 --drunken companions

Activity 1. Show the following quotation on the overhead "I begin my tour where other travelers have ended theirs...” Ask the students if they can think of someone from the present or past who might have written or spoken those words. Possible answers include Columbus, DeSoto, Alexander Graham Bell, Neil Armstrong, Sally Ride, Earnest Green, or Bill Gates. Then reveal the true source on the overhead Henry R. Schoolcraft. Show the students a map of Schoolcraft's route on the overhead and tell them that today's lesson will focus on his journey into northern Arkansas using his 1818 journal first published in 1821. You might want to share some of the biographical information found in the book Rude Pursuits and Rugged Peaks. Activity 2. Enter into a discussion of the exploration of the Louisiana Territory purchased by the US in 1803. President Thomas Jefferson sent several expeditions into this area to find out about its physical and human resources. The most famous of these was the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Several privately funded as well as publicly funded explorers toured what is now Arkansas to discover its assets. These explorers included William Dunbar, George Hunter, James B. Wilkinson, Thomas Nuttall, and Henry R. Schoolcraft. Activity 3. Ask students to picture Arkansas as it is described in the excerpts you are about to read aloud to them. Let them know that they will be writing journals they will make of their 1818 home county (or the state of Arkansas ). Read aloud excerpts from Schoolcraft’s Ozark Journal. Ask for student reaction. How many of


them would have the courage to do what Schoolcraft and Perribone did? The early explorers of Arkansas as part of the Louisiana Purchase were all white men (Dunbar, Hunter, etc.), why? Show the map of early Arkansas settlement patterns on overhead and discuss. Give each student a copy and ask them to highlight or underline all settlement started by 1818. Activity 4. If their assignment is to focus on their home county ask them what they think their home county was like in 1818? Was it a county then? Cover the people, landforms, climate, politics, etc. Give each student a copy of an "1818 Fact Sheet" similar to the sample provided of Faulkner County. Discuss. Give each student a copy of the map of their county. Lead a classroom discussion. Activity 5. Tell the students they are about to take an imaginary 1818 tour of their home county (or state) by creating their own journals. Evaluation: Students will write a journal similar to the one kept by Henry R. Schoolcraft using the directions found on "Schoolcraft’s Ozark Journal Assignment" worksheet. Go over it with students and answer questions. Set a due date. Sources: Baker, Harri, and Jane Browning, An Arkansas History for Young People (1991). Bolton, Charles, Cal Ledbetter, Jr., and Gerald Hanson, Arkansas Becomes a State (1985). Dolan, Doris B., Kelso, Hattie Ann, Robinson, Corrinne (ed.). Faulkner County Its Land and People. Conway, Arkansas: River Road Press, 1986. Hanson, Gerald, and Carl Moneyhon, Historical Atlas of Arkansas (1989). Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe. Rude Pursuits and Rugged Peaks. Fayetteville, Arkansas: The University of Arkansas Press, 1996. These lesson plans are made possible in part through the support of the Arkansas Humanities Council and the National Endowment for the Humanities.

The Taylor Foundation (Little Rock, Arkansas) makes Butler Center lesson plans possible. Contact the Butler Center for Arkansas Studies, Central Arkansas Library System, 100 Rock St., Little Rock, AR, 72201. 501-918-3056 www.butlercenter.org and www.cals.lib.ar.us


1818 FACT SHEET OF PRESENT DAY FAULKNER COUNTY (there was no Faulkner County in 1818) INDIANS 1. Quapaw: located in southwest Faulkner County, sedentary farmers, lived in villages, made pottery 2. Osage: located in northwest Faulkner County, hunters, sometimes fought with Quapaw 3. Cherokee: located in northwest Faulkner County, kept here after leaving ancestral lands before moving to Oklahoma (1817-1826) PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1. Parallel ridges and valleys 2. Part of the Ouachita Mountains (subdivision of Fourche Mountains); southern twothirds of Faulkner County 3. Part of the Arkansas River Valley; northern one-third of Faulkner County 4. Soils suitable for farming and livestock 5. Major streams include: Cadron Creek -western boundary of Faulkner County Greenbrier Creek Muddy Bayou Caney Creek Tupelo Bayou Cypress Bayou Arkansas River -southeastern boundary of Faulkner County Palarm Creek -southcentral boundary of Faulkner County 6. Climate -humid subtropical-mild winters; hot summers; average 50 inches of yearly precipitation. 7. Biome -same vegetation as today, except that the forest was old growth forestanimals same as today, only more abundant. POLITICAL 1. part of the Missouri Territory

ADDITIONAL INFO 1. scattered hunters and their families 2. no real roads 3. steamboat landing at Cadron Settlement 4. population of entire state was 14,000


Initial Settlement Patterns in Arkansas Territory The pattern of settlement among the first white inhabitants of Arkansas reflected the routes taken by them as they entered the state, traveling by canoe, on horseback, or on foot. Geographically, the area contained many barriers to transportation, beginning with the swamps of the eastern rivers and ending with the rugged terrain of the western mountains. These barriers funneled immigration and early trade into narrow lines around them and thus helped determine the earliest development of the area. The rivers were the obvious pathways through and into Arkansas, and consequently the earliest settlements were located near them. Communities developed slower always from the rivers. The Mississippi River provided the first road for whites to Arkansas, but settlement along the Mississippi was delayed because much of the land on the Arkansas shore was not suitable for town growth. Except for several miles of highlands at the southern end of Crowley’s Ridge, at present-day Helena, the Mississippi shores on the Arkansas side were subject to frequent flooding. As a result the first permanent white communities were along the Arkansas River, upriver from its mouth on the Mississippi. In 1686, Henri de Tonti established Arkansas Post on the lower Arkansas River, and, although abandoned at various times, it remained a point of settlement into the nineteenth century. Further development along the Arkansas was slow in taking place, although it is clear that American settlers began to move into the river valley soon after the Louisiana Purchase. In 1810 a special census showed 765 white, 2 free colored, and 107 slave inhabitants along the Arkansas. Several small communities developed in the vicinity of modern Little Rock. One of the earliest was Crystal Hill on the north bank of the river west of Little Rock. settled by John and Jacob Pyeatt in 1807. It was called Pyeattsville, although the name Crystal Hill persisted. In 1815 a group headed by Alexander McFarland settled in what would become Cadron, at the mouth of Cadron Creek. Little rock, on the south bank of the river, had been the site of earlier settlements that began in 1819 and led to the incorporation of Little Rock in 1831. Pine Bluff was settled as early as 1818 but a town was not laid out there until 1832. Upriver the federal government in 1817 created a post at Fort Smith which was later the basis of a community, and by 1831. Van Buren had developed across the river. In the area between Little Rock and Fort Smith on the Arkansas settlers had arrived by 1798 at Dardanelle, which was later the site of the Cherokee Indian Agency; Cephas Washburn established Dwight mission for the Cherokee on Illinois Bayou, in modern-day Pope County, in 1820; and settler were at Mulberry by 1830. Settlement along the Mississippi did not take place until eighty years after the creation of Arkansas Post. The second permanent settlement in Arkansas emerged in 1766 on the Mississippi River at Montgomery’s Point, below the mouth of the Saint Francis River, where Francis d’Armand had established a French trading post. A town, Saint Francis, developed near that location and was later the site of Helena. In 1797 the Spanish established a post up the Mississippi that they called Fort Esperanza, which was located across from modern-day Memphis, Tennessee.


American settlement of that site began when Benjamin Foy moved there in the same year. He established what would become the village of Hopefield in 1804. Enumerators who gathered the Missouri Territory’s census in 1810 counted a combined population of 159 white and 29 slaves in Hopefield and Saint Francis. One the south, a settlement had been made at Lakeport, in present-day Chicot County, by 1830. Some settler also moved into Arkansas on an Indian trail that lay along the edge of the Ozark and Ouachita highland, running from the north east tot he southwest. The terrain offered a natural roadway, dry and relatively level. The route would be developed later and known as the Southwest Trail. A line of small villages and individual farmsteads developed on or near it. The first settlement encountered upon entering Arkansas Territory was established by Kentuckians in 1810 on the White River in present-day Independence County, near the site of Batesville. Other settlement in that vicinity included Powhatan (1818), Davidsonville (1815), Oil Trough (1821), and Smithville (1835). The trail passed through the settlement of present-day Little Rock. On the southwest, communities emerged at Hot Springs (1807); Blakelytown or Hemphill and Greenville (1830), near modern-day Arkadelphia; Washington, settled by John Campbell of Tennessee (1812); and Fulton, on the Red River (1819). South of this path, Camden developed at Ecore a Fabre on the Ouachita River. The northwest prairies and Ozark region were slower to settle. By 1828, however, a community was at Fayetteville. Canehill and Carroltown followed in 1834. Benton had begun to develop by 1836. A town had emerged at Clinton by 1830. This spread of settlement reflected the steady growth of Arkansas under the control of the United State. the special census in 1810 reported a population of only 1, 062 inhabitants. By 1820 the number had increased to 14,255. In 1830, on the verge of statehood, the region contained a population of 30, 388.


Schoolcraft’s “Ozark Journal” Assignment Directions: Use the map of ___________ County, the early settlements map, and the 1818 Fact Sheet to help you create 5 realistic entries in a journal of a hypothetical 1818 tour of what is now ________________ County. Follow these guidelines: 1. Your first sentence must be "I begin my tour where other travelers have ended theirs." 2. Describe the physical and human characteristics encountered on your rour as well as personal feelings and reactions to imagined events. 3. Choose a season of the year (dating your entries consecutively) and limit distances traveled (20 miles per day maximum). 4. Just like Schoolcraft, you have a single companion and one pack horse. You may determine your own race, ethnicity, and gender. 5. Option-you may substitute a map of your tour for 1 journal entry. The following rubric will be used to grade your work: (50 total points) ____5 journal entries (25 points) ____follow guidelines (15 points) ____creativity (5 points) ____spelling, punctuation, grammar (5 points) ____TOTAL POINTS


Early Arkansas Settlements


"I begin my tour where other travelers have ended theirs..." Henry R. Schoolcraft Below is a map of Schoolcraft’s route through the Ozarks:


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