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Argument map Shale gas production in EU member states What is shale gas? Shale gas production contributes to the country’s energy supply Shale gas production helps to satisfy the growing demand for energy. Shale gas can reduce gas imports or substitute (declining) conventional gas production.

Energy

Shale gas can support other forms of energy production Shale gas can provide energy when renewable energy sources fail to meet peak demand. Shale gas production generates knowledge for use in other forms of energy production (e.g. geothermal).

Shale gas production and use are relatively environmentally friendly Shale gas combustion generates less greenhouse gas per unit of energy than coal and oil. Technologies for reducing the environmental impact of shale gas production are available and improving. Domestic shale gas production reduces long-distance transport of imported energy.

Environment

Domestic shale gas production increases control over environmental impact of energy production

Shale gas is natural gas that is “locked” in clay layers (shales) in the subsurface. Shale gas is produced using the technique of hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’, to create fractures in the shales that allow the gas to flow out. Shale gas production requires more water, chemicals and more wells to be drilled compared to conventional gas production. Shale gas can be used in the same way as conventional gas without any modifications to existing gas infrastructure. Exploratory drilling is needed to assess how much gas is present and whether it can be profitably produced. The EU does currently not take a position that either hinders or promotes shale gas production.

Energy

Shale gas can be produced safely Shale gas production uses common technologies, which limits safety risks. Shale gas production can lead to additional investments in the maintenance of the gas infrastructure. Shale gas production can be monitored real time and adjusted if necessary, which limits safety risks.

Safety

Shale gas production is financially profitable for the country

Environment

Shale gas production requires wells to be drilled, which are blots on the landscape and require space. Shale gas production requires transport and drilling, which affect the environment and hinder residents.

Shale gas production is a hazard to employees and residents

Safety

For

Shale gas production is expensive and its profitability is unclear

Shale gas production may lower the value of property

Economy

Economy

Large scale shale gas production may weaken the national economy in the long term Sale of shale gas may weaken the country’s competitiveness through the rising value of its national currency.

Shale gas production offers business opportunities to local companies close to the production area. Shale gas production increases regional employment. Infrastructure built to produce shale gas remains beneficial to the local community after production stops.

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Against

House prices may fall in the vicinity of production wells.

Shale gas production boosts the local economy

Shale gas production strengthens the international negotiation power of the country. Shale gas production reduces the dependence on gas supply from gas exporting countries. Shale gas production strengthens the sense of independence and autonomy of citizens.

Shale gas production poses a risk of earth tremors and reactivation of faults. Harmful substances in the shale layer, like radioactive materials, may come to the surface. Shale gas production has safety risks, while little is known about effective measures to address accidents. The use of common technologies in unconventional conditions can lead to unpredictable outcomes.

Exploratory drilling costs the taxpayer money in countries where the state will co-invest in exploration. It is unclear how much gas can be profitably produced and whether public investments are worth making. Developing and implementing governmental supervision comes at the taxpayer’s expense.

Shale gas production strengthens the national economy

Shale gas production strengthens the political position of the country

Shale gas production and post-production wells can lead to groundwater contamination. Shale gas production requires water and thus competes with other demands for water. Shale gas production can lead to methane emissions and thus add to the greenhouse effect. Shale gas production negatively impacts air quality during well construction and production of gas. Shale gas production uses chemicals which may harm the environment.

Shale gas production restricts space and disturbs tranquillity

The state benefits from the sale of shale gas, as shareholder, receiver of royalties or through taxes. Use of the existing gas transport network will be extended so public investments are more profitable. Shale gas production can lower gas and energy prices and increase people’s purchasing power.

Shale gas production decreases energy imports and thus improves a country’s balance of payments. The country can export knowledge and experience of shale gas production. Lower energy prices due to shale gas production improve the competitiveness of energy intensive industries.  Shale gas gives the country more options for the distribution of gas, which can be profitable. Shale gas production can attract foreign investors.

Government investments in shale gas production cannot be spent on renewable energy. Shale gas production increases the energy supply and thus delays the urgency to switch to renewable energy. Shale gas production reduces fossil energy prices making renewable energy relatively expensive.

Shale gas production harms the environment

High environmental standards for shale gas production in the EU can lead to better standards worldwide. Domestic shale gas production may have less environmental impact than energy production elsewhere.

What are the arguments for and against production of shale gas for EU member states with shale gas resources?

Shale gas production hinders the transition to renewable energy

Politics

This Argument Map summarises the arguments for and against  shale gas production for EU member states with shale gas resources. The arguments for and against exploratory drilling, other than as an initial step in the production proces­s, are not given consideratio­n here. This map is based on literature study and input from experts from different backgrounds and member states. We thank all participants for their contribution.

Shale gas production can lead to domestic political tensions Part of the public resists shale gas production and this can cause political upheaval. Information about shale gas production is diverse and misty, therefore citizens cannot assess its impact.

Politics

Shale gas production requires amendments to existing law and legislation A country’s regulatory framework may not be able to cover all aspects of shale gas production. Governmental supervision is inadequately geared to the specific technology of shale gas production.

Shale gas production can create international tensions Shale gas production may negatively influence the environment and safety in neighbouring countries.

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The Argumentation Factory

2012


By a regulated society we mean a society that is heavily based on – or burdened by – explicit rules. Following meetings that we held with experts in the field of regulated society we have identified the advantages and disadvantages of such a society.

This information map is part of KPMG’s programme on hypegiaphobia. This term, which stands for the fear of taking own responsibility, KPMG takes initiatives to search, along with other social partners, for a new balance between rules and trust. More information can be found on www.hypegiaphobia.nl.

ADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES A regulated society gives people a grip amidst uncertainty and a basis for confidence in social and economic life.

A regulated society facilitates high standards (social and economic). A regulated society facilitates the complexity and diversity of society (customization). A regulated society provides a legal structure and sets out rights and obligations. It leaves less room for arbitrariness.

DISADVANTAGES

LEGAL

SOCIOCULTURAL

Due to complexity, rules are often contradictory or work contrary to their intention. There are always exceptions that the rules do not properly accommodate. Rules often lead to more rules, and curtailing a regulated society is difficult. Some rules are mainly a response to incidents and thus superfluous or relatively expensive.

DISADVANTAGES

Since the regulatory system is too small for the number of rules, authorities find themselves forced to a policy of toleration, leading to arbitrariness. Rules are often evaded, which reduces their credibility. Rules are sometimes used for purposes other than intended, which leads to less legal certainty. Laypeople become overly dependent in a regulated society on legal experts.

ADVANTAGES

Collective problems are solved via collective assets and provisions. Everyone has equal rights and obligations; everyone is treated equally. A regulated society cares for the weak, who would otherwise fall by the wayside. The collective wisdom that we have built up and our cultural values are explicitly set out. Explicit rules question traditional, implicit rules. A regulated society feeds the debate about shared norms and standards.

What are the social advantages and disadvantages of the current focus on rules in our society?

A regulated society discourages personal responsibility and initiative. People lose grip of the underlying values and principles of the rules. People start to avoid risk since they are afraid (in a litigious culture) to make errors. For many citizens the regulated society is too complex, leading to a social divide. The regulated society serves vested interests to the detriment of outsiders. People get estranged from ‘the system’ and no longer feel at home. The regulated society is so complex that unintended violations are inevitable. People expect that rules will solve everything; the regulated society gives false certainty.

ADVANTAGES

With rules, politicians can solve problems and causes of annoyance to the public. The political system can regulate matters in detail and offer customized solutions. A regulated society is easy to manage because the system is controllable. Administrators can predict behaviour and therefore influence that behaviour better.

Rules, such as for intellectual property and trade, facilitate innovation and economic development. A regulated society establishes a basis for entrepreneurship (property law, contract law). A regulated society will stimulate market players and institutions to innovate.

DISADVANTAGES The volume and complexity of rules – sometimes poor in quality – lead to lower support among citizens for regulations. The system is so complex that politicians do not assess the effects of new rules properly, leading to errors. Politicians are under pressure due to the public sentiment to solve everything with rules. Citizens have the feeling that nothing is permitted and thus turn away from politics. Regulatory authorities cannot examine everything and therefore set their own priorities and operational agendas without parliamentary control.

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KPMG_English-1.indd 1

POLITICAL

ECONOMIC

DISADVANTAGES The social costs of a rules system and of regulation are high; making and maintaining detailed rules is also unnecessarily expensive. The private costs of compliance and accountability are high; there are also hidden costs since innovation is more cumbersome due to the many rules. A regulated society slows down economic growth and worsens competitive position. The chance of losses due to claims or penalties increases.

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© 2008

11-03-2009 15:44:33


When expanding your staff, you may not immediately think of older employees. Yet many of them are eager and ready to work. As an employer, the choice is up to you: will you tap into this talent pool? This Argument Map provides you with all of the arguments for and against doing so.

Argument Map for Employers

People over 45 don’t have the qualities I’m looking for People over 45 have less stamina, are less capable, and do not learn as easily as young people. People over 45 cannot handle the stress and change that are part of my dynamic organisation. People over 45 have difficulty with the management and process-related aspects of modern organisations. People over 45 have often worked in the same job for a long time, and are less flexible than young people. People over 45 are not as good with computers as young people. People over 45 are not realistic about their skills and apply for jobs they are not suited for. People over 45 cannot get along well with my organisation’s target group, or are not accepted by this group.

People over 45 have the qualities I’m looking for People over 45 have a natural air of authority and come across as being reliable. People over 45 have experience in life, people skills and empathy, and get along well with others. People over 45 are able to put things in perspective and estimate situations correctly; they handle unexpected situations well. People over 45 add the aspect of ‘confronting others about behaviour’ to organisations. People over 45 are stable factors and add a degree of calm to organisations. People over 45 can benefit their co-workers with their work experience and large networks. People over 45 in my sector usually have a better education than young people, or have specific professional knowledge. People over 45 usually have a more stable personal life and no longer have to care for young children.

People over 45 don’t have the mentality I’m looking for People over 45 are less motivated and less ambitious. People over 45 are harder to get along with, complain a lot, are set in their ways, and are argumentative. People over 45 are more particular about the content of the work and the working conditions.

People over 45 have the mentality I’m looking for

EMPLOYEES

EMPLOYEES

The long-term unemployed are unsuitable

What are - for me as an employer the arguments for and against hiring (long-term) unemployed people over 45?

The long-term unemployed don’t have the mentality I’m looking for, otherwise they would have accepted other employment sooner. The long-term unemployed are less productive due to a lack of knowledge, experience and work routine. There is often something wrong with the long-term unemployed, otherwise another employer would have hired them by now. The long-term unemployed often have problems at home that affect their performance. The long-term unemployed do not exude a lot of self-confidence.

People over 45 cost me too much People over 45 want to be paid their previous, often high, salary. Once people over 45 get sick, they remain so longer than young people. People over 45 won’t work much longer, so I won’t earn back the investments I spend on their training. The regulations are unfavourable

FINANCE

The long-term unemployed are suitable The long-term unemployed are available immediately. The long-term unemployed are grateful for the opportunities they’re offered, and put forth extra effort as a result. The long-term unemployed are often overqualified, and have more knowledge than the position requires. The long-term unemployed are often people with good qualities who have been laid off as the result of a reorganisation.

People over 45 make money for me

FINANCE

People over 45 settle in fast and work harder. People over 45 have a lower rate of absenteeism than younger people; on balance, they take sick-leave just as often, yet are more predictable. The regulations are favourable

The pension premium for people over 45 is higher in our Collective Labour Agreement than it is for young people. People over 45 are expensive because of age-related leave and other special provisions for older employees. It is more expensive to fire people over 45 than it is to fire young people.

AGAINST

I see disadvantages for my organisation in hiring unemployed people over 45

The employer’s contributions are lower when employing people over 50. The unemployed can be hired on a trial basis while retaining unemployment-benefits, yet without salary costs. The government can reimburse (part of) the educational costs for the unemployed. The government can grant a wage-cost subsidy for the unemployed. For the unemployed, the government can assume the risk of the continued payment of wages in the event of illness. Some municipalities will be more inclined to award a contract if my organisation hires unemployed persons.

FOR

I want to uphold my image of a young and dynamic organisation, with a view to my position on the employment market. I expect unemployed people over 45, once they have a job, to hold on to their jobs until they reach pensionable age. I primarily want to hire young people now since there are already a lot of older employees in my organisation. I only hire young people whom I train and develop in my organisation. I want someone with a (recent) diploma; people over 45 don’t have this.

I see advantages for my organisation in hiring unemployed people over 45 I want a well-balanced team of young and older employees in my organisation. I can remain tuned into this target group by hiring an unemployed person over 45. I project the image of corporate social responsibility by hiring long-term unemployed people over 45; this is good for my position in the employment market. I have plenty of work that is suitable for long-term unemployed people over 45.

The current team doesn’t want it Young employees resist hiring people over 45. Colleagues do not take people seriously who were unemployed for a long time.

People over 45 are loyal, and don’t keep changing jobs. People over 45 have self-knowledge , which makes them more realistic about their possibilities and ambitions. People over 45 are less focussed on their own interests and career, and more on the organisation’s interests. People over 45 are hard, accurate workers, have a sense of responsibility and an eye for quality. People over 45 have a good work ethic, well-developed values and are reliable. People over 45 have a higher threshold for reporting sick or otherwise taking leave.

BUSINESS VISION

BUSINESS VISION The current team benefits

I am personally not in favour of it

Employees with a permanent position will be more appreciative of what they have and will work harder at their own employability if they hear the experiences of people over 45. People over 45 who do not have the drive (anymore) to get ahead, do not represent a threat to their co-workers.

I personally prefer to work with younger people. I do not want to be associated with the long-term unemployed. I would rather help other target groups that have a large distance to the employment market to get a job. I do not want to waste my time on phoney job applications from people who only care about keeping their unemployment benefits. I am worried that long-term unemployed people over 45 are keeping something from me that will cause me problems later.

I am personally in favour of it I believe that everyone has the right to a job, and I will not be deterred by the stigma attached to unemployment. I once received unemployment benefits myself, and would like to help others to get out of this situation. I personally prefer to work with people over 45. I think it’s important for people to consider it normal for people over 45 to work.

The official agencies make it difficult for me The slow bureaucratic procedures for applying for possible subsidies are demotivating. The mediating organisations are not easily accessible, poorly organised and have inefficient it-systems. I cannot find my way around these agencies; I don’t know where to start looking. Personnel at the agencies differ in quality, making the service unreliable. The agencies don’t know their own clients and know too little about different industries. I have had bad experiences with the people sent to me by the agencies.

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The official agencies make it easy for me

AGENCIES AGENCIES

The arguments presented on this map were gathered during group discussions with company owners, directors, managers and HR managers from a variety of sectors. Other experts also made a contribution. We thank all participants for their efforts. This map is a translation of a Dutch Argument Map made by the Argumentation Factory.

Organisations such as the CWI, UWV and municipalities offer me extensive services free of charge, like supervision, assessment and training. An inspiring consultant at the unemployment agency can win me over. I (now) know my way around the agencies well, and am now able to profit from all of the benefits and support.

created by:

The Argumentation Factory

© 2011


INFORMATION MAP THE HUMAN AGE

Companies invest in a stimulating environment for children Companies offer talent a variety of resources for development

Companies invest in kindergartens and youth clubs to create a stimulating environment for children. Companies involve children in the world of work through internships and summer schools. Companies invest in sports facilities to encourage development of teamwork, team spirit, and character. Companies set up ‘buddy programs’ in which employees are coupled with children to inspire each other. Companies create (virtual) platforms for children for sharing ideas and experiences.

Companies strengthen educational institutions Companies work with educational institutions to set up courses to develop the talent they need. Companies provide people, expertise and finance to improve the performance of schools and students. Companies set up programs for teachers to show them which talents they are looking for. Companies lobby governments to increase their investments in the quality of education.

Companies make talent responsible for their own career plan and offer resources to implement it. Companies provide personal coaches and mentors to help talent develop. Companies ask talent to periodically do ‘internal internships’ to develop broadly. Companies set up cross-functional teams in which talent work together and learn from each other.

CREATION OF TALENT

DEVELOPMENT OF TALENT

Companies tap into unused talent pools Companies lobby governments for immigration laws that allow talent to move more freely across borders. Companies use technology to recruit talent globally for their (virtual) workforce. Companies adapt their work processes to suit unused talent, like single parents. Companies employ the talent of groups instead of individuals, for example for co-creation.

Companies show off specific assets to attract talent Companies invest in (the visibility of) their product, employer, or career brand. Companies adapt their business strategy to make it more appealing to talent. Companies invest in programs for social and environmental responsibility that appeal to talent.

Companies create an environment that encourages learning Companies create a culture in which experimentation is encouraged and failure is accepted. Companies evaluate and reward results of development, for example with a bonus or a promotion. Companies take talent out of their ‘comfort zone’, for example by changing demands or rotating jobs. Companies exchange talent with other companies to broaden their outlook and experience.

Companies offer opportunities for broad development Companies encourage employees to get involved in social projects, like working with refugees. Companies offer opportunities for developing non-jobrelated talents, like creative or athletic talent.

How can companies unleash the talent they need to succeed in the Human Age?

Companies motivate talent Companies create inspiring conditions such as an attractive work environment. Companies create an atmosphere of trust and respect where talent feels accepted and recognized. Companies offer international working opportunities.

Companies give talent responsibility Companies offer flexible employment Companies offer a variety of contracts, like specific assignments or jobs shared by a number of people. Companies offer talent new options if the entry position turns out to be unsuitable. Companies offer programs for training and development.

Companies use various channels to find talent

MOBILIZATION OF TALENT

MANAGEMENT OF TALENT

Companies institute mechanisms like round tables for talent to express new ideas and initiatives. Companies involve talent in (high-level) decision making processes soon after entering the company. Companies give talent a role in the development of new business. Companies define job requirements in terms of output instead of input. Companies offer talent work-life balance options within which employees make their own decisions.

Companies invest in talent management

Companies hire specialised recruiters who permanently screen social media for talent. Companies use (the network of) employees to recruit talent, for example by introducing referral programs. Companies work with educational institutions to approach talent before they enter the labour market. Companies outsource their recruitment processes to specialised agencies.

Companies set up talent management programs so leaders get the most out the available talent. Companies invest in regular assessments to make sure that talent is in the right place. Companies give managers targets for talent management. Companies learn from extensive exit interviews with talent that leaves.

Companies differentiate themselves through their application process Companies maintain a long-term relationship with talent

Companies institute high barriers to entry, signalling they are only looking for the best. Companies define requirements in terms of culture and values, not in terms of skills. Companies offer simple but thorough procedures for entering and exiting the company.

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Companies offer an ‘open return’ policy: talent is welcome to return after leaving the company. Companies invest in an alumni program to keep in touch with talent after they leave the company.

This Information Map gives an overview of measures companies can take to tackle the challenges of the Human Age. The map was made on the basis of four workshops held during the International Business Forum ‘Entering The Human Age’ on the 19th of May 2011 in Amsterdam. The forum was organized by ManpowerGroup, world leader in innovative workforce solutions. Participants included CEO’s and HR directors of ManpowerGroup’s business relations in western Europe. We thank all participants for their contribution.

made by:

The Argumentation Factory

Information Map

© 2011


How do funds flow within the Dutch Curative Health Sector?

INDIVIDUALS

Excess compensation: € 0.09 billion

Healthcare allowance: € 3.5 billion

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Supplementary coverage remuneration: € 3.3 billion

Basic coverage remuneration: € 33.0 billion

SOURCES PAYER

FLOW OF FUNDS

AMOUNT (€)

PAYEE

SOURCE

Individuals

Nominal basic insurance premium Personal payments Supplementary insurance premium Income-related SE & OAP premium Excess

13.8 billion 7.8 billion 3.3 billion 2.3 billion 1.4 billion

Health insurers Healthcare providers Health insurers Health Insurance Fund Health insurers

Min. VWS, 2011 Budget, p.191 CBS, Healthcare Bills, 2010 CBS, Healthcare Bills, 2010 Based on CPB estimates Min. VWS, 2011 Budget, p.193

Care allowance State contribution Training fund

3.5 billion 2.1 billion 0.8 billion

Individuals Health insurance fund Healthcare providers

CBS, 2009 National Accounts, p.166 Min. VWS, 2011 Budget, p.191 Min. VWS, 2011 Budget, p.188

Employers & Benefits Agencies

Income-related premium compensation

14.3 billion

Health Insurance Fund

Based on CPB estimates

Health Insurance Fund

Risk equalization 19.5 billion Health insurers Academic component 0.6 billion Healthcare providers Excess compensation 0.09 billion Individuals Basic coverage compensation 33.0 billion Healthcare providers Supplementary coverage compensation 3.3 billion Healthcare providers

State

Health Insurers

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Min. VWS, 2011 Budget, p.193 Min. VWS, 2011 Budget, p.49 CAK, 2009 Annual Report, p.34 Min. VWS, 2011 Budget, p.191 CBS, Healthcare Bills, 2010

© 2011


Individuals pay insurers a nominal premium for mandatory basic insurance coverage

13.8 billion

Under the ZVW, it is mandatory for individuals to take out basic healthcare coverage. Individuals are free to choose their healthcare insurer and they may not be refused coverage. Adults pay a nominal premium set by the insurer.

Individuals pay healthcare providers themselves

INDIVIDUALS

7.8 billion

Individuals pay for healthcare themselves that is not covered by their healthcare insurance plan (personal payments). Individuals have to pay a personal contribution in some cases via insurers.

Individuals pay supplementary insurance premiums to insurers

3.3 billion

Individuals may take out supplementary insurance coverage above and beyond basic coverage, unless insurers refuse them.

Individuals pay a mandatory excess (via insurers)

1.4 billion

Individuals using healthcare services pay a fixed excess set by the Minister of VWS. Individuals do not pay an excess for general practitioner (GP) or obstetric care. Individuals may voluntarily raise their excess in return for a reduced nominal premium.

Individuals pay an income-related premium for mandatory basic coverage

2.3 billion

Self-employed (SE) individuals pay an income-related premium into the Health Insurance Fund as part of their tax return. Old-aged pensioners (OAPs) pay an income-related premium into the Healthcare Insurance Fund on their supplementary pension. SEs and OAPs pay the low rate for income-related premiums.

EMPLOYERS AND BENEFITS AGENCIES

Employers and benefits agencies compensate income-related premiums

Employers and benefits agencies, e.g. UWV, and local authorities pay individuals' income-related contributions. Employers and benefits agencies pay the income-related contribution compensation into the Health Insurance Fund. The total income-related premium is equal to half the total ZVW costs.

The state pays individuals a healthcare allowance

Who pays what?

14.3 billion

3.5 billion

The state pays individuals with low incomes a healthcare allowance as compensation for nominal premium payments. The Minister of VWS determines who is eligible for healthcare allowance and under what conditions.

STATE

The state pays a state contribution to the Health Insurance Fund

2.1 billion

The state contribution covers the cost of nominal premiums for children who are exempt from payment. The state contribution for each child is half the nominal premium that adults pay themselves.

The state pays hospitals for training

0.8 billion

The state finances training of medical specialists via the training fund. The Minister of VWS determines the level of the contribution paid into the training fund. The state subsidizes scientific research within hospitals, most commonly via ZonMW and NWO.

The Health Insurance Fund compensates health insurers for risks

HEALTH INSURANCE FUND

19.5 billion

The Health Insurance Fund equalizes the risks that insurers are exposed to given that they may not refuse anyone for basic healthcare coverage. Risks are equalized in advance based on risk differences between insured individuals. Estimates are not always accurate, so these are partially settled based on post-calculation.

The Health Insurance Fund compensates teaching hospitals

0.6 billion

The Health Insurance Fund pays teaching hospitals an academic component. The academic component is compensation for innovation and the most complex healthcare services.

The Health Insurance Fund compensates individuals for their excess payments

0.09 billion

The Health Insurance Fund compensates the chronically sick and the handicapped for their excess payments. The Minister of VWS determines the level of this excess compensation.

Insurers reimburse hospitals and independent treatment centres

17.0 billion

Insurers reimburse hospital care expressed in terms of fixed a-DBC and free b-DBC rates. Insurers reimburse medical specialists' fees via the hospitals. Insurers and hospitals make agreements about the amount of care to be provided. The NZa sets hospital budgets for a窶船BC care based on these agreements.

Insurers reimburse pharmacies and medical aid suppliers

6.5 billion

Insurers pay pharmacists a fee set by the NZa for prescribed medication. Insurers may limit the reimbursement to a preferred medication if there are several which contain the same active ingredient. Insurers partially or wholly reimburse medical aid costs insofar as these are covered by basic or supplementary insurance plans.

Insurers reimburse mental healthcare institutions

HEALTH INSURERS

3.4 billion

Insurers reimburse care provided by mental healthcare institutions expressed in terms of fixed rates. Insurers and mental healthcare institutions make agreements about the price and amount of care to be provided. The NZa sets budgets for care based on these agreements.

Insurers reimburse healthcare providers for supplementary care

3.3 billion

Insurers reimburse healthcare providers for alternative therapies, physiotherapy and dental care if they are coverd by supplementary insurance. Insurers determine the content, terms and conditions and price for supplementary insurance plans.

Insurers reimburse general practitioners (GPs)

2.2 billion

Insurers pay GPs a fixed registration fee for each patient at their practice. Insurers reimburse GPs for each medical consultation or special procedure. The NZa sets (maximum) rates for certain treatments and procedures.

Insurers reimburse primary healthcare providers

2.0 billion

Insurers pay dieticians, physiotherapists and remedial therapists a negotiable fee. Insurers pay logopaedic, dental, obstetric and maternity care costs to a maximum limit set by the NZa.

Insurers reimburse other healthcare providers

1.9 billion

Insurers reimburse ambulance and patient transportation costs. Insurers pay overseas healthcare providers. Insurers reimburse independent mental healthcare providers, other curative healthcare and administration costs.

EXPLANATORY NOTE This Information Chart shows how funds flow within the curative healthcare sector and who pays what. Curative healthcare is medical care provided by hospitals, paramedics, general practitioners and dentists, and is financed via the Health Insurance Fund, supplementary healthcare plans and individuals' personal payments. Abbreviations used in this chart with their English translations: DBC: diagnosis treatment combination (casemix) | NZa: The Dutch Healthcare Authority | ZonMW: The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development | ZVW: Dutch Healthcare Insurance Act | NWO: The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research | VWS: Health, Welfare and Sport. This Information Chart was compiled based on literature research, think-tank sessions and interviews held with experts at organizations including the Ministry of VWS, iBMG (Institute of Health Policy & Management), VvAA, CPB (Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis), the VvV (Dutch Association of Insurers), OAP: Old Age Pensioner and SE: Self-employed. Thank you to all parties involved.

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ツゥ 2011


Information Map Trust in Science Debate about trust in science is based on unproven assumptions Debate on trust in science often presume a declining level of trust. The debate is rarely substantiated with objective quantitative long-term data.

1

Science visibly improves the quality of life Quality of life is continuously improving – in part thanks to technological advances. Science has a proven track record – it often provides solutions to problems. Science impresses people: ‘Isn’t it amazing what they can do these days!'

Current Level

The level of trust is high for both scientific progress as well as for statements made by scientists Most people expect scientific progress to make life healthier, easier and more comfortable. Scientific information is seen as more reliable than most other sources of information. Younger generations have more trust in science than older generations. The level of trust in science increases with the level of education people have enjoyed.

High trust

Science is self-correcting Scientific processes are transparant and follow clearly defined rules. Science unmasks claims that are not based on sound scientific methods.

General trust in science remains high, while specific issues show a declining level of trust

2

Despite a slight decline in recent years, the general level of trust in science remains high. On certain issues, for example climate change, the level of trust is considerably lower (sometimes temporarily). Trust in the outcomes of scientific research decreases if it is commercially funded.

People willingly place their trust in science

Explanations

Trust makes it easier for people to function in society. The quantitative basis of scientific information instils a sense of security. Our culture values knowledge and progress.

Society continues to invest in science Despite lower government budgets, total investments in research remain at a constant level.

Trust is declining in general People increasingly justify their behaviour and opinions with scientific research

High trust

People wait for scientific solutions to solve (their) problems, instead of taking action themselves. Scientific (economic) models dominate public debate. Society is becoming more scientific, issues are increasingly framed in scientific terms.

People are increasingly critical and less inclined to believe others. Trust between the establishment and the people is declining – scientists are part of the establishment. People are suspicious of scientific research that does not support their point of view.

What is the current level of trust in science, what explains this and what are the consequences?

The monitoring of specific scientific disciplines is diminishing Highly specialized fields of science, such as quantum mechanics, are being monitored less and less.

Science is often difficult to comprehend Debate helps science progress, but it can lead to confusion within the general public. People have limited understanding of statistical and scientific methods and can not judge outcomes properly. Scientific issues are becoming increasingly complex and results are shrouded in ifs and buts. Scientific solutions, e.g. gene technology, are highly controversial for some people.

Scientists' communication confuses people The public value of science is diminishing Policies and their implemention can be delayed due to controversy about their scientific foundation. Science is becoming less useful as an objective standard to settle differences of opinion. People are less inclined to participate in scientific research, for example as test subjects.

3

Consequences

Funding of science is changing Public funding of scientific research is being challenged. Funds are increasingly reallocated to research that generates guaranteed and/or practically useful results.

The scientific community is responding to the declining level of trust The scientific community is improving its methods, sharing information and cooperating internationally. Assessment criteria for science, like visitations and peer reviews, are under discussion. Scientists intend to increase trust by involving the public in scientific research. Regulations concerning integrity are becoming more stringent and may result in increased bureaucracy. Scientists are improving their communication skills, for example by incorporating it in academic education.

Declining trust

Declining trust

Scientists sometimes make claims of a breakthrough, that later turns out to be unfounded. Scientists sometimes make statements (at the request of others) on developments outside their field of expertise. Scientists sometimes react defensively to criticism and only reluctantly admit their mistakes. Scientists do not make the uncertainties and underlying assumptions of their research explicit enough.

Information about science undermines public confidence Amid the general information overload it is hard to value the relevance of scientific information. Scientific uncertainties and excesses often get a lot of attention in the (digital) media. Equal media attention for both sides in scientific debates suggests controversy, even when broad consensus exists. Government, politicians and companies selectively quote from scientific research when it supports their cause. The abiltity of the media to monitor science is decreasing due to a lack of science journalists.

The scientific community is becoming less independent Scientific independence is being jeopardized by increasing dependence on private funding. Scientists are increasingly undertaking secondary activities, but do not always publicly disclose these. The scientific process does not completely exclude bias, for example due to groupthink.

This Information Map provides insight to explanations and consequences of the current level of trust in science within The Netherlands (mid 2010). The current level of trust is based on literature. Explanations and consequences are hypothetical and were determined in three meetings with experts, board members and employees of ‘Adviesraad voor het Wetenschaps- en Technologiebeleid’ (AWT: Advisory Council for Science and Technology Policy). We would like to thank everyone for contributing. This map can be used by the AWT as a starting point for further research and/or a formal advice. On behalf of:

Produced by:

© 2011


ARGUMENT MAP MIXING EDUCATION

Mixing reduces students’ opportunities to develop Mixing increases students’ opportunities to develop

Weaker students can benefit from the support of stronger students. Stronger students can learn more by explaining lesson materials to weaker students. Students with diverse backgrounds get the same opportunities for good education. Students get more attention at mixed schools, with smaller classes, than at non-mixed ‘white’ schools. Mixing increases opportunities for disadvantaged students, while retaining these for advantaged students.

STUDENTS

STUDENTS

Stronger students’ cognitive development and ambitions are curtailed. Weaker students loose the specialized guidance they need.

Mixing can increase the gap between students Students form small groups with their ‘own kind’, discouraged by differences in (cultural) background. Differences become more obvious, making students more conscious of them.

Mixing can reduce the social and cultural gap between students Students come in contact with societies’ diversities at an early age. Students learn to get along with people of varied cultural and socio-economic backgrounds.

Parents want the best for their child

Parents want the best for their child

What

PARENTS

Parents want their child to grow up in an environment that has the least amount of segregation possible. Parents feel that it is important for their children to learn to cope with diversity.

are the various

Mixing has disadvantages for parents

important arguments

Mixing has advantages for parents

Parents feel at home with people of similar backgrounds, and do not feel comfortable in mixed schools.

for and against mixing

With a mixed school in the area, parents don’t have to ‘flee’ to a non-mixed ‘white’ school elsewhere. Mixed schools sometimes have shorter waiting lists than non-mixed ‘white’ schools. Parents from diverse backgrounds come in contact with one another.

Mixing creates unrest in schools

students in primary

Non-mixed ‘black’ schools could lose funding if they accept more advantaged children. Non-mixed ‘white’ schools fear losing advantaged students, and/or losing the ability to attract them.

education?

Mixing prepares schools for the future Mixing increases eligibility of (formerly) non-mixed ‘white’ schools for more funding. Through mixing, non-mixed ‘black’ schools can attract parents and students from advantaged backgrounds.

PARENTS

SCHOOLS

Parents of advantaged children are afraid that their child’s academic achievements will deteriorate. Parents feel as if their children are being exposed to a social experiment. Parents want their child’s school to be aligned with their own way of life and childrearing beliefs. Parents don’t want their children to be influenced by the norms and values of others.

SCHOOLS

School boards do not see the necessity of mixing School boards at non-mixed ‘white’ schools think that things are going well at their schools. School boards at non-mixed ‘white’ schools think mixing is just another trend they don’t want to follow. High goals (achieving the best results for one’s own non-mixed school) are not compatible with mixing.

Mixing encourages schools to make conscious educational policy choices By mixing, school boards engage with educational policy, which leads to quality improvement. Acceptance policy agreements between schools guarantee the continued existence of all schools. By mixing schools fulfill their obligation to pay attention to ‘active citizenship and social integration’.

FOR

Mixing makes teachers jobs more complex

AGAINST

A mixed school demands a lot from teachers: specific skills, affinities, time and energy. In addition to being an educator, teachers need to fulfill childrearing and social worker tasks.

Mixing makes teachers’ jobs more rewarding Mixed classes provide teachers with challenges.

Politicians think that mixing is unnecessary Politicians are afraid that too much attention is being paid to mixing and not enough to good education. Solving the problem of segregation is not the primary responsibility of education. Society cannot be ‘shaped’, and class differences will therefore always exist.

Mixing has (local) political priority Segregation is a high-priority issue on the political agenda – mixing is a means to address this issue. Mixing helps to prevent the closure of neighbourhood schools, and other facilities along with them. Existing buildings are better utilized when students are distributed more evenly. Mixing contributes to the Netherlands’ international reputation as an integrated society.

Mixing is a way of fighting segregation Mixing promotes the acceptance of diversity in society. Mixing promotes integration and social cohesion. Mixing contributes to the emancipation of cultural minorities and disadvantaged groups.

commissioned by:

GOVERNMENT

GOVERNMENT This Argument Map gives an overview of the arguments for and against mixing students in primary education. The arguments are arranged per stakeholder: students, parents, schools (and school boards) and government. For the purposes of this map, mixing is defined as the (voluntary) mixing of students from different cultural, ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds. A premise that is often chosen is that the mix of students in a given school should be a reflection of the school’s neighbourhood.

Mixing does not combat segregation Mixing primary schools can only be successful if neighbourhoods are mixed as well. Only primary schools are mixed – secondary schools are not.

Mixing is difficult to achieve Freedom in education is threatened by enforced mixing.

produced by:

© 2010


TABELLA DEGLI ARGOMENTI SULLE CLASSI “MISTE” Le classi miste riducono le possibilità di crescita degli alunni Le classi miste aumentano le possibilità di crescita degli alunni Gli alunni con più difficoltà imitano il modello offerto dagli alunni più portati. Gli alunni più portati potenziano le loro conoscenze rispiegando la lezione agli altri. Ad alunni con diverse storie alle spalle vengono offerte pari oppurtunità di insegnamento. Gli alunni delle scuole miste, divisi in classi piccole, ricevono piu attenzione rispetto alle scuole non miste. Le scuole miste offrono maggiori possibilità agli alunni più svantaggiati, senza togliere nulla agli alunni più fortunati.

ALUNNI

ALUNNI

Limitano lo sviluppo cognitivo e il grado di ambizione degli alunni più portati. Gli alunni con più difficoltà sono privati dell’aiuto specializzato di cui necessitano. .

Le classi miste possono accrescere le distanze tra gli alunni Le differenze culturali e di retroterra creano divisioni, gli alunni formano gruppi separati gli uni dagli altri. Le diversità diventano più visibili e sono quindi più facilmente percepite dagli alunni.

Le classi miste possono accorciare le distanze culturali e sociali tra gli alunni Gli alunni entrano in contatto già da piccoli con la diversità culturale nella società. Gli alunni imparano a rapportarsi con culture e con retroterra socioeconomici diversi.

I genitori vogliono il meglio per i figli

I genitori vogliono il meglio per i figli

GENITORI

GENITORI

I genitori vogliono che i figli crescano in un ambiente il più aperto possibile. Per i genitori è importante che i figli imparino ad avere a che fare con la diversità.

I genitori temono che le prestazioni scolastiche dei figli siano influenzate negativamente. I genitori hanno la sensazione che i figli siano sottoposti a un esperimento sociale. I genitori si aspettano che la scuola si attenga ai loro usi e al loro modo di educare i figli. I genitori non vogliono che i figli subiscano l’influenza di altri usi, regole e valori.

Quali sono Le classi miste presentano svantaggi per i genitori

le argomentazioni Le classi miste presentano vantaggi per i genitori

I genitori si sentono a loro agio nel proprio d’appartenenza e non si riconoscono abbastanza nelle scuole miste.

a favore e contro le classi

Una scuola mista facilmente raggiungibile non costringe ad optare per una scuola non mista altrove. Le liste d’attesa delle scuole miste sono a volte più brevi di quelle delle scuole non miste. Si creano contatti tra genitori di culture diverse.

“miste” nell’insegnamento

Le classi miste creano disagi alle scuole

primario?

Le scuole frequentate da stranieri perdono sovvenzioni statali se attraggono più alunni provenienti da famiglie agiate. Le scuole non frequentate da stranieri temono di perdere genitori e alunni e/o di non attrarne di nuovi.

Le classi miste preparano la scuola al futuro Accettando di avere classi miste le scuole possono beneficiare di maggiori sovvenzioni. Le scuole miste possono essere una scelta per le famiglie (privilegiate).

SCUOLE

SCUOLE

Le amministrazioni scolastiche ritengono che le classi miste non siano necessarie I dirigenti delle scuole non miste ritengono che la scuola vada bene così com’è. Per i dirigenti scolastici le classi miste sono l’ennesima moda da evitare. Forti ambizioni (risultati migliori per la propria scuola non mista) e classi miste sono difficilmente conciliabili.

Le classi miste richiedono una didattica consapevole da parte delle scuole Le classi miste costituiscono una scelta didattica consapevole che migliora la qualità. Accordi sulle politiche di iscrizione garantiscono la sopravvivenza di tutte le scuole. Le scuole attuano una scelta a favore della cittadinanza attiva e all’integrazione sociale.

PRO

Le classi miste complicano il lavoro degli insegnanti

CONTRO

Gli insegnanti devono avere competenze specifiche, affinità, tempo ed energia. Gli insegnanti, oltre ad insegnare, devono anche fare da assistenti sociali ed educatori.

Le classi miste rendono più interessante il lavoro degli insegnanti Una classe mista è una sfida per l’insegnante.

I politici ritengono che le classi miste non siano necessarie I politici paventano che si destini troppa attenzione alle classi miste e troppo poca ad un’istruzione di qualità. La soluzione del problema della segregazione non è il compito primario del sistema educativo. Non è possibile creare artificialmente un modello di convivenza, e le differenze tra alunni sono sempre esistite.

Le classi miste sono una priorità anche nella politica locale Prevenire la segregazione è una delle priorità politiche, e le classi miste sono uno strumento. Le classi miste mantengono in vita le scuole di quartiere, e con esse altri servizi. Gli edifici scolastici (della zona) sono sfruttati meglio perché gli alunni sono meglio distribuiti. Le classi miste contribuiscono alla reputazione internazionale dei Paesi Bassi di società ben integrata.

Le classi miste aiutano a contrastare la segregazione Le classi miste promuovono l’accettazione della diversità nella società. Le classi miste promuovono l’integrazione e la coesione sociale. Le classi miste contribuiscono all’emancipazione delle minoranze sociali e dei gruppi più svantaggiati.

Su incarico di:

AMMINISTRAZIONE

AMMINISTRAZIONE Questo dossier fornisce una visione d’insieme degli argomenti pro e contro classi miste nell’insegnamento primario. Gli argomenti vengono suddivisi secondo i gruppi d’interesse: alunni, genitori, scuole (e relative dirigenze) e amministrazioni. Nel presente dossier si intende per classe mista l’integrazione volontaria di alunni con diversi retroterra culturali, etnici e socioeconomici. Uno degli argomenti maggiormente citati a favore delle classi miste è che le scuole sono il riflesso della popolazione della zona o del quartiere.

Le classi miste non aiutano a contrastare la segregazione Le classi miste nelle scuole elementari sono efficaci solo se si contrasta anche la segregazione abitativa. Le classi miste esistono soltanto nelle scuole elementari, non vi sono classi miste nelle scuole superiori.

È difficile formare classi miste La libertà d’istruzione rischia di essere messa in discussione.

Redazione:

© 2009


the Cradle to Cradle map What advantages does C2C offer my organization? Make a profit

What is C2C in a nutshell?

C2C helps producers and products to add value to their environment. C2C promotes awareness that the supply of primary and secondary materials is finite. C2C helps to get people involved in sustainable development by approaching it in a positive manner. C2C, being open source, helps to share experiences and to find increasingly better solutions. C2C helps to cut costs through intelligent (re)designing. C2C helps to increase returns, because it offers new opportunities.

C2C means ‘from cradle to cradle’ and was conceived of as a response to the ‘cradle to grave’ mode of thinking. C2C was developed by Michael Braungart en William McDonough, among other in the book ‘Cradle to Cradle’. C2C is a new vision of sustainable development: leaving the world a better place than we found her. C2C is a way of working: designing and producing in such a way that no waste is created. C2C is a way of thinking: doing things well instead of less badly. C2C is an optimistic vision: growth is fine and feasible, as long as our positive contribution is greater than what we use. C2C solutions are good for ecology and the economy and have added social value. C2C is a response to a tradition of critics such as the Club of Rome, who foresee limits to growth.

Responsible growth C2C helps to grow and, at the same time, helps to take responsibility for the planet. C2C helps to grow and, at the same time, helps to take responsibility for ourselves.

WhiCh goals does C2C have?

What Working method does C2C offer my organization?

Leaving the world in a better state than we found her

Intelligent design

C2C solutions work on the basis that humans, as part of the system, should enrich the world rather than impoverish it. C2C solutions maintain or increase diversity, for humans and for nature. C2C solutions do not involve harming people and the environment; not elsewhere and not in the future.

Think and work in a ‘synchronized’ manner: about everything at once, on everything at once, with everyone at once. Avoid the use of raw materials that are harmful to human and ecological health. Design in such a way that you can easily take products apart and use the raw materials again. Design and produce in such a way that materials remain in their biological or technological cycle. Avoid mixing materials that are difficult to separate from each other.

Ecology: adding ecological value

What is Cradle to Cradle (C2C) and what can it do for my organization?

Intelligent production Avoid waste of raw materials and energy, thereby cutting costs as well. Make optimal use of local facilities; this reduces the burden on the planet and often reduces costs. Use the complete chain to join up cycles. Respect people and employ them optimally, thereby reducing healthcare costs and absenteeism. Use clean, sustainable energy via procurement or by generating it for yourself.

Intelligent marketing Create a new market for used raw materials, thereby eliminating waste. Consider selling the function or the use of your product, instead of the ownership of it. Innovate and thereby improve your competitive position.

C2C solutions join up the biological cycle: biological materials are degradable without damage to the environment. C2C solutions join up the technological cycle: safe materials can safely be recycled.

Economy: adding economical value C2C solutions are (potentially) profitable: they reduce costs or increase returns.

Social: adding socio-cultural value C2C solutions contribute to justice: between people and between generations. C2C solutions offer people a healthy living environment in the production and use of a product. C2C solutions offer pleasure, in work and in the use of products.

What mode of thinking does C2C offer my organization? Ambitious Do things well instead of merely ‘less badly’. Do things better than is required for your own immediate success. Don’t change the recipe, change the menu: instead of designing a new car, design a new transport concept. Respect the maker, transporter and user of your product. Set goals for the long term, for example ten or fifteen years’ time. Weigh every action against the (future) effects on yourself and on the environment.

What ConCepts does C2C use? Eco-effectiveness: offering ecological, economic and socio-cultural added value. Eco-efficiency: minimizing the damage to people and the environment. The Biosphere: the sum total of all biological materials. Biological cycle: the cycle in which biological materials are extracted from nature, used and returned to nature. The Technosphere: the sum total of all synthetic materials and minerals.

Optimistic

Technological cycle: the cycle in which technological materials are extracted, exploited and (re)used. Upcycling: the recycling of materials in such a way that they retain or increase their value and waste is eliminated.

Focus on growth and development, not on limits: positive growth is good. Work on the basis of opportunities and challenges, and learn from each other’s mistakes and results. Respect and enjoy biodiversity and diversity of cultures, desires and needs.

Downcycling: the recycling of materials in such a way that they eventually lose their value (the usual way of recycling). Intelligent design: designing products in such a way that, in their production and/or use, they add value to the system they are a part of. X-list: a list of toxic substances that cause harm.

Realistic

P-list: a list of substances that are safe to use.

Be as good as you can be with what is available. Don’t get caught up in feelings of guilt, but use your capabilities to make a contribution. Don’t wait for others, take responsibility yourself.

commissioned by:

This Information Map was created on the basis of literature study and information brought forward by panels of experts on the Cradle to Cradle concept. The experts were invited to take part by the Cradle to Cradle taskforce of the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment and Agentschap NL. De Argumentenfabriek thanks all the participants for their contributions.

produced by:

© 2010


Argument Map PharmAccess The approach improves governance within the health care system

The approach improves the quality of health care Both donor money and private capital is used for investments in quality. Data collection (health intelligence) makes it possible to benchmark and monitor the quality of services. Data collection on patients’ needs and consumer behaviour ensures that clients get the healthcare they want. By introducing performance pay, providers are given an incentive to offer quality health care. Incentives to minimise costs lead to investments in preventive care.

Pros

The approach increases the capacity of the healthcare system Private investments enlarge the capacity of the healthcare system, such as more facilities and staff. The approach provides doctors and nurses with good job opportunities, limiting the brain-drain. The approach encourages investment in the administrative capacity of the healthcare system.

The PharmAccess approach is a new way of developing health care in low-income countries. The PharmAccess Foundation seeks to increase access to quality basic health care by providing voluntary health insurance to groups of low- and middle-income people. The health insurance premium is initially largely subsidized, but participants must also contribute themselves. In this way PharmAccess aims to establish ‘ownership’ and hence responsibility among participants. ‘Healthcare consumers’, have a say in the insurance program, the price and the quality of the care. Both insurers and health providers are contracted and paid on the basis of performance. PharmAccess works with private parties and with partners within the public health systems. The approach focuses both on the demand and supply side of health care and aims to strengthen medical and administrative healthcare capacity in order to establish a sustainable healthcare economy.

DELIVERY

The approach increases access to quality basic health care

Use of data and performance-monitoring improves the transparency of the healthcare system and donor aid. By setting explicit targets the approach allows (public) regulators to hold providers accountable. Reporting by patients and data collection can reduce corruption of providers and insurers.

The approach establishes ownership for all parties (responsibility)

Pros

Relations between all parties (consumers, providers and insurers) are based on contracts. Consumers contract services based on insurance packages and price. Providers and insurers are contracted and paid on the basis of performance.

The approach can improve public health policy Data collection and (operational) research improves policy-making and program implementation. By being multidisciplinary, the approach takes into account all elements of the healthcare value chain. The approach functions as a laboratory where new policies and methods are tested and learned from.

GOVERNANCE

The approach is aligned with local policies

The approach offers low-income groups affordable health care by subsidizing insurance premiums.

The approach contributes to sustainability by building on proven healthcare structures. The approach is aligned with national policy frameworks and quality of care guidelines.

The approach may not improve the quality of the healthcare system The approach is difficult to implement in poor countries

Involvement of the private sector may lead to a focus on cost reduction which may affect quality.

The approach is complex and therefore difficult to explain and to implement. The (social) infrastructure needed for data collection and contracting of private parties is scarce. The approach relies heavily on the competency and integrity of regulators.

The approach only marginally increases access to health care

What are the pros and cons of PharmAccess’ approach to health care development?

The insurance schemes are only open to certain low-income groups.

Cons The approach may not deliver the right kind of health care The approach is focused on curative care and less on prevention. The approach does not include the informal sector, an important provider of health care in poor countries. The health insurance packages offered to participants in the approach are limited.

An innovative financial structure improves financial sustainability Investment risk is lowered by converting out-of-pocket payments into subsidised regular premiums. Lower investment risk makes it possible to attract private capital into health care. By improving healthcare quality, consumers become more willing to (pre)pay for health care. The approach uses disease-specific donor funding to strengthen general health systems. Because participants pay for insurance, ‘crowding out’ of private payments for health care is prevented. By covering all elements of the healthcare value chain, a viable healthcare economy is created.

The approach could result in a cultural mismatch

Cons

The approach distorts the health care market The approach leads to market distortions by effectively subsidising certain businesses but not others. The approach can lead to a brain drain from the public sector to the private sector.

The approach breaks with old and unsuccessful strategies and ideologies

Pros

The approach encourages efficiency

Pros

By working with private parties and performance pay, low-cost and efficiency incentives are introduced. Data collection leads to understanding of costs, better investment decisions and better program management. By stimulating demand for health services, the approach can make use of presently unused capacity.

By contributing to premiums people become consumers with rights, as opposed to victims relying on aid. Affordable premiums lower people’s risk of catastrophical healthcare expenses (poverty trap). Patients get a voice in health care through involvement in compiling the benefit packages and in evaluations.

The aim is to lower subsidies over time and have clients pay more themselves, which may be impossible. The approach is new and it is unclear how the overhead costs will develop. A voluntary insurance scheme will attract the ‘bad risks’, namely those with ill health (adverse selection). Like with any insurance, people may demand more services because they are insured (moral hazard).

The approach has not yet proven itself on a large scale, making returns on investment uncertain. The subsidies that are involved may distort the working of cost-cutting and efficiency incentives. The involvement of the private sector makes the approach vulnerable to economic cycles. Fee-for-service payments to providers for secondary care may trigger delivery of unnecessary health care.

commissioned by:

Because (public) health services often underperform in poor countries, new approaches should be tried. In poor countries with weak state capacity insurance schemes can form a foundation for health systems. The approach comprises the entire value chain around healthcare, allowing for effective intervention. The approach introduces risk-solidarity (through premium payments) to countries with no effective tax collection. The approach is an alternative to the out-of-pocket payments that are disastrous for poor countries. The approach relieves the burden on the public sector, which struggles to offer quality health care.

The approach empowers healthcare consumers

The approach may not prove to be financially sustainable

Efficiency gains are uncertain

The approach has been developed in Europe and may be perceived as western. Because insurance is a relatively unfamiliar concept in poor countries, many consumers may be mistrustful.

FINANCE

POLITICS The approach sets the wrong priorities The approach is not aimed at the poorest of the poor. The approach can only expand slowly and thus will not help many people in the short term. The approach focuses on distinct groups and therefore does not contribute to social unity.

Cons Cons This Argument Map was made by De Argumentenfabriek and provides an overview of the pros and cons of PharmAccess’ approach to health care development. The map is based on arguments brought forward by a panel including economists, insurers, development workers, public health experts and PharmAccess employees. De Argumentenfabriek thanks all participants for their contribution.

The approach is not in line with certain ideologies The approach is discriminatory and violates the idea of health care as a universal human right. The approach is not based on income solidarity and therefore contributes to inequality. The approach works with private parties, which should not be involved in health care. The approach allows private profits to be made with the help of public (donor) resources.

made by:

Argument Map

© 2010


The Argument map of the Netherlands centre for Social Innovation Social innovation increases productivity

Social innovation reduces productivity

Social innovation makes efficient organisation of processes possible. Social innovation means employees can be more broadly deployed. Social innovation makes employees skilled, responsible, creative and customer-oriented. Social innovation encourages workers to develop themselves. Social innovation makes flexible working possible in place and time. Social innovation improves allocation of tasks and authorities among functions.

Social innovation leads employees to put energy into things that do not produce immediate results. When people have too much freedom, they don’t do what they are supposed to do.

Social innovation leads to higher costs PerFormANce

PerFormANce

Social innovation leads to greater yields Social innovation makes technical innovation more profitable in my organisation. Social innovation increases opportunities to convert knowledge into results. Social innovation stimulates improvement of the quality of goods and services in my organisation. Social innovation stimulates development of goods, services and cooperative relationships. Thanks to social innovation, the capacities and talents of employees are better utilised.

Social innovation disrupts labour relations Social innovation makes it harder to manage people. Social innovation means people no longer know what to expect from each other. Social innovation leads to unrest in my organisation. Social innovation makes my organisation unmanagable and uncontrollable.

Social innovation leads to more effective labour relations Social innovation increases mutual trust among employees in my organisation. With social innovation, people can relate to each other better and share knowledge better. Social innovation stimulates leadership/enterprise/intrapreneurship among employees. With social innovation, employees feel responsible and are alert and committed. Through social innovation, employees get more autonomy in the workplace. Social innovation improves my organisation's relationship with the trade unions.

Social innovation increases job satisfaction

What are the arguments for and against social innovation in my organisation?

WorkING relATIoNS

Social innovation makes work more varied and flexible. Social innovation offers employees space to develop their own ideas. Social innovation leads to a healthier working environment. Social innovation makes it easier to combine work and private life. Social innovation means people can work in the way that suits them best.

WorkING relATIoNS

Social innovation gives employees responsibility without extra pay. Social innovation deters employees who like rules and clarity. Social innovation makes employees more vulnerable, for example redundancy through higher efficiency. Social innovation puts great pressure on employees to perform better. Social innovation is a threat to labour agreements and workers' rights.

Social innovation is a vague concept

For

AGAINST

Social innovation is not necessary for my organisation

Social innovation enables my organisation to recruit the most suitable employees. Social innovation increases my organisation's ability to innovate and solve problems. Social innovation improves the ability to adapt to changing circumstances. Social innovation improves relationships with clients, suppliers and knowledge organisations.

Other organisations aren't doing it either. My organisation needs technological rather than social innovation. My organisation does not need to change because things are going well already. My organisation has good working relationships with external parties.

STrATeGy

STrATeGy

Social innovation does not suit my organisation In my result-oriented organisation, there is no support for social innovation. Social innovation is incompatible with the goals, products and services of my organisation. Social innovation creates expectations that my organisation cannot meet. My organisation lacks the leadership necessary to make social innovation a success. Social innovation means learning and changing, and my employees don't want that.

My organisation wants to be flexible and social innovation is very well suited for this. My organisation is always open to innovation and improvement. Social innovation appeals to important values (such as sustainability) in society.

commissioned by:

Social innovation reduces job satisfaction

Social innovation is ideological babble from intellectuals. Social innovation is hard to apply in practice. Social innovation has not proven to be effective. Social innovation is a fad that dates from before the credit crisis.

Social innovation is necessary for contact with the outside world

Social innovation suits my organisation

Social innovation costs time, money and capacity, such as investment in ICT. Social innovation requires fine tuning, which is labour-intensive and expensive. Social innovation requires a lot of deliberation, and more talk means less work. Social innovation leads to higher wage costs.

This map gives an overview of the arguments for and against social innovation from the perspective of the organisation. This Argument Map was produced on the basis of arguments brought forward by experts from the network of the Netherlands Centre for Social Innovation. They view social innovation as a renewal in labour organisation and in labour relations that leads to improved performance from the organisation, and realisation of talents. We thank all the participants for their contribution.

produced by:

The Argument map

Š2009


ARGUMENT MAP CO2 capture and storage (CCS*) Parts of the CCS chain have proven to be safe

CCS is good for the climate Together with renewable energy and energy saving, CCS reduces CO2 emissions fast enough to avoid dangerous climate change. CCS can be applied in industries that have no alternative methods of CO2 emission reduction. CCS can capture CO2 with energy generation from biomass, and so even extract CO2 from the atmosphere. CCS can make large scale hydrogen production and electric transport CO2-neutral.

The capture, transport and underground storage of CO2 have separately already been safely applied. Injecting CO2 into oilfields is a proven technique for increasing oil yields. Gas fields have proven to be gas-tight; after all, they contained natural gas for millions of years. CO2 storage demonstration projects have been conducted without safety problems.

for

for

CCS has a positive effect on other safety problems

CCS makes international climate agreements (more) feasible CCS buys the time necessary for efficient, large-scale implementation of renewable energy. If the Netherlands sets the example, countries with many coal-fired power stations like China are more likely to follow. With CCS, the public needs to change its lifestyle less to achieve climate objectives.

climate

CCS partly restores the pressure balance after gas extraction, which limits land subsidence. CCS reduces the need for nuclear energy, which is often regarded as unsafe. Geopolitical security increases because coal consumption reduces dependency on gas suppliers.

Safety

The consequences of CCS are unpredictable

CCS is unnecessary for the climate problem

CCS is new and has never been used on a large scale, therefore the risks are not fully known. For the public, information on CCS is complex and sometimes contradictory, and people do not trust the experts. Geopolitical security can decline if extra energy consumption increases dependency on suppliers.

The consequences of the climate problem can be dealt with through adaptation. The climate problem can be resolved with energy saving, renewable energy and nuclear energy. The climate problem can be resolved in other sectors such as forestry and agriculture.

CCS is bad for the climate

against

Power stations using fossil fuels will continue to emit CO2, even with CCS. CCS can make us lose sight of the urgent need for energy saving and renewable energy. CCS legitimises new coal and gas-fired power stations that, without mandatory CCS, continue to emit CO2. It is unsure whether the CO2 will remain underground long enough to avoid dangerous climate change.

CCS keeps fossil fuel reserves accessible Without CCS, the large and cheaply extractable coal supply is practically unusable due to the climatic consequences.

CCS contributes to the successful implementation of sustainable energy

What are the arguments for and against CO2 capture and storage (CCS*) for the Netherlands?

against

If CO2 escapes at a low pressure during transport and storage, it can cause suffocation when there is little wind. If stored CO2 escapes up into shallow underground reservoirs, this can acidify the groundwater. CO2 storage leads to the risk of small earth tremors, comparable with those from gas extraction. Post-combustion CO2 capture can cause emission of carcinogenic substances.

CCS is good for business and for the creation of skilled employment The private sector can (internationally) market knowledge, technology and storage capacity. CCS increases business continuity of existing coal and gas power stations. Capture technology generates knowledge that can be used for the production of hydrogen.

for

Mandatory CCS increases the price of electricity, which means that renewable energy becomes profitable sooner. Power stations with CCS are a stable addition to the fluctuating energy supply from sun and wind.

for

energy

CCS is unsafe for humans and the environment

With CCS, climate objectives are economically feasible Electricity from power stations with CCS is cheaper in the medium term than electricity from sun and wind. Mandatory CCS makes the polluter pay (via his energy bill).

CCS costs extra energy Compared to other countries, the Netherlands has a competitive lead in the use of CCS

CCS costs ten to forty percent additional energy; that exhausts coal and gas supplies faster.

CCS retards the development of sustainable energy

The Netherlands has suitable gas fields with a large storage capacity close to power stations. Thanks to its gas infrastructure, the Netherlands has an advantage in the development of CCS technology.

ECONOMICS

against

Investment in CCS is made at the expense of investment in sustainable energy. CCS demands investment in coal-fired power stations, which means they will stay in use longer.

CCS costs Dutch business money It is unsure whether the high initial investments in technology and infrastructure will pay off. It is unsure whether the high operating costs can be included in the price of electricity. By the time that CCS is possible on a large scale, alternative methods of CO2 reduction will already be more attractive.

CCS is good for the environment Compared to solar and wind energy, CCS is efficient in terms of space and materials.

for

environment

CCS is bad for the environment With CO2 capture, large quantities of chemical waste, such as amines, are produced. Due to extra energy consumption, CCS leads to more air-polluting emissions (acidification and particulates). Increased use of coal due to CCS is harmful to mineworkers and the environment around coalmines.

against

against

CCS costs Dutch citizens money The government (tax payers) finances the development phase of CCS in the form of subsidies. The government (tax payers) pays - forever - for supervision of storage and the liability for it. As long as it is controversial, CCS could have a negative effect on local house prices. With CCS, valuable time and resources are wasted on a temporary solution. Electricity bills rise because of CCS.

The Netherlands is obliged to store CO2 CO2 is a residual product of electricity generation which should not be discharged into the atmosphere.

for

ethics

CCS is not sustainable The Netherlands should not put a residual product in the ground forever, that is deferring the problem. CCS keeps a non-sustainable system going. A solution that has little public support is not acceptable.

commissioned by:

against

* CCS stands for Carbon Capture and Storage: the capture, transport and storage of CO2, popularly referred to as 'CO2 storage'. The arguments relate to all parts of the chain, which is why the term CCS is used here. There are different ways to capture and store CO2. We have based this Argument map on the situation envisaged in the Netherlands. Capture would take place at coal-fired power stations, and also at gas fired stations and in industry. The captured CO2 is stored in empty gas fields (not in aquifers). The Argument map assumes the existence of a climate problem. The arguments party relate to climate objectives (agreements), for example that CO2 emissions must be eighty percent lower by 2050 than they were in 1990. This Argument map was produced on the basis of literature research and expert discussions. We thank the experts for their contributions. produced by:

www.co2-cato.nl

The Argument Map

Š 2010


position of lgBt pEoplE in thE EuropEan union visualisation of the summary of the report ‘’homophobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation in the Eu member states”, published by the fundamental rights agency, 2008.

Legal situation Only twelve Member States have explicit laws making it a criminal offence to incite hatred, violence or discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. All others have general wording that could cover this. In fifteen Member States homophobic/transphobic intent is not defined as an aggravating factor in criminal behaviour.

Legal situation EU-citizens in same-sex marriages can not move and reside freely within the EU because not all Member States recognise same-sex married partners as ‘spouses’ for the purpose of freedom of movement.

protEction against hatE spEEch and hatE crimE

frEEdom of movEmEnt

Homophobic and transphobic hate speech and hate crime prevent LGBT people from participating in society fully.

LGBT EU citizens can not always enjoy their right to move and reside freely within the Member States.

EU-same sex partners in civil partnerships can not move and reside freely within the EU because not all Member States recognise civil partnerships as equivalent to marriage. Member States do not make clear their criteria for demonstrating a ‘same household’ or ‘durable relationship’.

FRa position Member states need to actively combat homophobia, hate speech and hate crime within the framework of EU-wide criminal legislation. The EU needs to consider legislation to cover homophobic and transphobic hate speech and hate crime similar to the legislation proposed for racism and xenophobia, and approximate criminal legislation in Member States applicable to these.

FRa position Member States need to recognise persons in same-sex marriages and civil partnerships as spouses. The EU needs to provide clear guidance on the criteria for demonstrating ‘sharing a household’ or ‘durable relationship’. The EU needs to clarify the Free Movement directive with regard to LGBT issues.

WHaT iS THE poSiTion oF LGBT pEopLE in THE EURopEan Union?

WHaT acTionS nEEd To BE TakEn?

Freedom from discrimination is a fundamental human right in the EU. This right also applies to LGBT people (lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transsexuals). despite many legal provisions and actions by the EU, there are still areas where LGBT people (particularly same-sex couples) are not treated equally to heterosexuals and encounter a range of problems and obstacles in their everyday lives as a result of their sexual orientation. This map points out five of those areas and what needs to be done in the opinion of the FRA to ensure equal rights of LGBT people.

according to the FRa different types of action are called for: • strong EU legislation that ensures equal protection from discrimination for all discrimination grounds (such as race, gender, sexual orientation, age) • adequate EU guidance for Member States on how to consistently implement provisions and how to ensure adequate protection for LGBT people • more action by national authorities (like setting up powerful broadly mandated equality bodies with specific expertise on LGBT issues that handle complaints aptly) • better data collection on the extent of discrimination of LGBT people and the impact of relevant legislation • exchange of good practices amongst Member States and the raising of public awareness of LGBT rights.

Legal situation Most Member States impose strict conditions on gender reassignment surgery. Not all Member States legally recognise a gender change, and in some changing one’s forename is difficult.

asylum and protEction against pErsEcution

Equal rights for transgEndEr pEoplE

FRa position Member States need to treat discrimination of transgender people in the same way as gender discrimination. Member States need to set conditions which allow (access to) gender change and recognise legal consequences of gender change.

Although no Member State has refused to consider sexual orientation as a source of persecution eight Member States do not make explicit reference to sexual orientation as a source of persecution.

FRa position LGBT refugees suffer from uncertainty whether being a member of LGBT group is recognised as a ground for persecution.

Transgender people suffer from discrimination and need protection.

Member States need to give a broad interpretation of gender discrimination, encompassing all discrimination on grounds of gender identity, also covering transvestites and cross-dressers. Anti-discrimination legislation in the EU needs to provide clarification of the protection from discrimination on the ground of gender identity under applicable EU directives.

Member States need to explicitly state that they recognise persecution on the ground of sexual orientation as a ground for asylum. The EU needs to clarify the common criteria for people in need of international protection relating to LGBT issues. Any protection offered to lesbians and gays should also be extended to transgender people.

family rEunification Legal situation

As some Member States limit the right to family reunification for third country nationals to married opposite sex partners, LGBT people (and partners of LGBT refugees) can not always join their partners (with)in the EU. Fifteen Member States do not extend family reunification rights to unmarried partners. As LGBT people do not have the same possibilities to marry as heterosexuals, they have less family reunification opportunities.

under the authority of:

Legal situation

LGBT people do not enjoy the same family reunification rights as heterosexuals.

FRa position Member States need to change rules that limit the famlily reunification rights to opposite sex married couples. Member States need to change rules that limit freedom of movement rights for third country nationals to unmarried partners of opposite sex partners. Member States need to implement the Family Reunification directive more consistently, in line with fundamental rights and without discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. The EU needs to clarify the Family Reunification directive with regard to LGBT issues and the treatment of same-sex couples under this directive.

prepared by:

© 2008


С кем мы хотим сотрудничать?

Сотрудничество с частными партнерами

Почему нужно объединить усилия?

Бюро по временному трудоустройству и отраслевые организации

Сотрудничество с общественными организациями Министерство образования Организации по социальному трудоустройству

Сотрудничество между муниципалитетами Ведущая роль центрального муниципалитета Сотрудничество между соседними муниципалитетами

Какие есть опасности для занятости в регионе?

Каковы цели в отношении работодателей?

В каком темпе должно внедряться сотрудничество?

Есть ли анализы состояния в регионе, которые можно использовать?

Улучшение местного рынка труда?

Цели

Рынок труда

Реинтеграция

2

3

Результаты Как мы будем измерять совместные результаты?

Совместное выполнение мониторинга и измерения эффектов Разработка и установление национальных показателей для определения результативности работы цепочки

Совместная работа в цепочке труда и доходов Центр по труду и доходам (CWI), Институт по страхованию работающих (UWV), Банк по социальному страхованию (SVB) и муниципальные службы по социальному обеспечению с 2002 года обязаны объединить свои усилия в области поддержки людей, ищущих работу, обслуживания рынка труда и выплаты пособий. Бюро по обеспечению информатизации в цепочке труда и доходов (BKWI) за прошедший год проверило эффект взаимодействия сторон на практике. Результаты обследований, проведенных в разных регионах, приводятся в этой схеме. Схема дает обзор главных вопросов, с которыми стороны сталкивались на пути к более тесному сотрудничеству. Схема также служит исходной точкой для «Базы знаний по труду и доходам». На этом веб-сайте, на основе вопросов из практики, представлены полезные сведения, накопленные сторонами в ходе сотрудничества. База знаний находится по адресу: http://kennisbank.bkwi.nl. Более подробную информацию о предоставляемых BKWI услугах вы найдете здесь: www.bkwi.nl.

при содействии

7

Как составить эффективные досье по клиентам?

Один отдел

Один веб-сайт

С учетом интересов клиента С учетом внутренних процессов

Услуги

Процессы

Один телефон

4

Какие важнейшие вопросы стороны должны решить в ходе сотрудничества? 8

Однозначное содержание инструментария Удаление двойных записей Договоренности о передаче клиентов друг другу Договоренности о предоставлении других услуг

Более широкое применение эффективных инструментов Работать с молодежью раньше и более эффективно Соблюдение правомерности «Одна стойка» для всех вопросов по работе и доходам

Соблюдение правомерности Стимулирование трудоустройства Ограничение притока

Какие есть возможности для развития рынка труда в регионе?

Как правильно организовать процессы?

Как усовершенствовать обслуживание людей, ищущих работу?

Каковы цели в отношении людей, ищущих работу?

Согласование со службой по социальному обеспечению

Кто несет ответственность? Какие предпосылки необходимы? Какие затраты и какие преимущества?

по заказу

Оценка имеющегося инструментария Разработка новых инструментов Создание единой точки обслуживания работодателей

Министерство экономики

Как хотят сотрудничать партнеры по цепочке?

1

Как усовершенствовать обслуживание работодателей?

Предприятия по реинтеграции

Как поставить в центр внимания ищущих работу? Как добиться всеобъемлющего подхода? Как выступить перед клиентом в роли единой организации?

Поддержка Какие у нас требования к информационной технологии?

Какие у нас потребности в области ИКТ?

6

5

Сотрудники Как укрепить управление цепью? Организация

Усиление консультаций в региональной цепочке

Будем ли мы пользоваться системами наших партнеров?

Участие трех сторон в управлении «центром предприятий»

Хотим ли мы единую инфраструктуру для «центра предприятий»?

Назначить одного менеджера, отвечающего за сотрудничество

Как лучше использовать существующую систему ИКТ? Как узнать возможности будущей структуры ИКТ?

Содержание

Какие офисные помещения нам будут нужны?

Как объединить разные стили работы?

Кто расположится в здании? Какое нам нужно будет здание?

Руководить выполнением общего курса Контроль над развитием плана действий Обмениваться идеями и радоваться совместными успехами

Организация

Кто составляет альбом с фотографиями сотрудников? Как укоротить линии общения между отделами?

Какие есть потребности на местах?

Как стимулировать контакты между коллегами?

Какие существуют государственные требования?

Содержание

Как составить план постройки (реновации)?

Заручиться поддержкой для изменений и сохранить ее

Какие нам потребуются связи с общественностью?

Как наладить связи с общественностью и создать корпоративный стиль? Как информировать руководство и публику о результатах? Как стимулировать узнаваемость названия?

Определение общего набора ценностей Разрушение образа мышления, направленного только на собственную организацию Создать атмосферу доверия к качествам партнеров Общая для всех «социальная карта»

Как закрепить позицию наших профессионалов? Совместное обучение специалистов Создание новых специализаций и должностей, охватывающих всю цепочку


ARGUMENT MAP PACKAGING

Advantages The steel of this can is made of 89 percent recycled material. The aluminum of this can is made of 53 percent recycled material. Relatively little material is required for the package: the ratio of content to packaging is 93-7.

Raw materials

The transportation efficiency of beverages in this packaging is relatively high: 24,710 liters per truck.

Transportation

Tin is easily-recyclable, as it can properly be isolated from other waste with the help of magnets. The recycling rate of the steel part of this can is high, 89 percent in the Netherlands.2 When the tin material is recycled, the intrinsic features of the steel are preserved.

Recycling

The can is air- and light-proof and as a result the product is not affected.

Product

It requires relatively little energy to cool tin.

Cooling

Tin material has a relatively low CO2 emission per liter of packaged product: 91 grams.1, 4

Greenhouse effect

This can leads to less litter than packaging with loose components.

Litter

+

INTRODUCTION TIN

Disadvantages The extraction of iron ore (raw material of tin) affects the landscape.

Landscape

The stock of iron ore is limited (non-sustainable).

Raw materials

This can has an aluminum top that is lost when recylced.

Recycling

This can is not recloseable and as a result product spoilage occurs more quickly once opened.

Product

This can cannot be refilled and as a result it cannot be reused in the existing form.

Refillable

The water consumption during the production of steel is relatively high (during the rolling). The emission of toxic substances during the production of steel is relatively high. Steel corrodes so that it contaminates the soil and the surface water.

Other environmental aspects

Tin can with aluminum lid Minute Maid Apple Juice content 11 fl. oz.

Advantages

+

Advantages Little material is required for the production of plastic. In the Netherlands this bottle is made of 25 percent recycled material. Due to the high caloric value, plastic can replace fuel in electric power plants. Relatively little plastic is required for the package: the ratio of content to packaging is 91-9.

Raw materials

This bottle is recloseable and as a result product spoilage occurs more slowly once opened.

Product

This bottle is easily-refillable by the consumer (happens frequently in the Netherlands).

Refillable

PLASTIC

ALUMINUM

PET-bottle Aquarius content 11 fl. oz.

Aluminum can Spa Reine content 8.5 fl. oz.

Landscape

The stock of oil is limited (non-sustainable).

Raw materials

The transportation efficiency of beverages in this packaging is relatively low: 18,532 liters per truck.

Transportation

Plastic has the highest CO2 emission per liter of packaged product: 256 grams.

1, 4

Recycling

-

Greenhouse effect

This PET bottle has a separate cap that could lead to additional litter.

Litter

The production of plastic leads to smog generating emissions.

Other environmental aspects

A large quantity of raw material (bauxite) is available for aluminum. An aluminum can is made of 53 percent recycled material. Relatively little aluminum is required for the package: the ratio of content to packaging is 93-7.

Transportation

The transportation efficiency of beverages in this type of package is the highest: 24,960 liters per truck.

Recycling

This can consists of one type of material and is theoretically 100 percent recyclable. The recycling rate of aluminum is 53 percent in the Netherlands.2 When the aluminum material is recycled, the intrinsic features are preserved.

Product

Aluminum is air- and light-proof and as a result the product is not affected.

Cooling

It requires relatively little energy to cool aluminum.

Litter

This can leads to less litter than packaging with loose components.

Transportation

Recycling This refers to the extent to which recycling is theoretically possible and the extent to which the packaging is being recycled.

This refers to the extent to which the packaging contributes to the prevention of spoilage of the product, for example due to loss or deterioration.

What are the environmental advantages and disadvantages of the various types of packaging of non-carbonated beverages?

Cooling

Landscape

The extraction of bauxite (the raw material of aluminum) affects the landscape.

Product

This can is not recloseable and as a result product spoilage occurs more quickly once opened.

Greenhouse effect

Aluminum has a relatively high CO2 emission per liter of packaged product: 206 grams.1, 4

Refillable

This can cannot be refilled and as a result it cannot be reused in the existing form.

Other environmental aspects

During the production of aluminum, emissions such as red mud and toxic fluorides, are released. Aluminum scores worst on other environmental aspects due to its highly polluting production process.

This refers to the amount of energy that is required to cool the packaging. Greenhouse effect

Litter

Refillable This refers to the extent to which a package can be refilled and reused. As this refers to on-the-go packages, this refilling basically assumes personal refilling by the consumer. Other environmental aspects This residual category regards the impact of the relevant packaging on matters such as toxicity, fertilization and acidification. This Argument Map was prepared during group meetings with experts of CE Delft, Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), IVAM and Tetra Pak Benelux. We would like to thank all experts for their contribution.

Advantages

Advantages The raw materials of glass (basically sand) are available in large quantities. This glass bottle is made of 78 percent recycled material.

Raw materials

When the glass material is recycled, the intrinsic features are preserved. The recycling rate of glass is 78 percent in the Netherlands.2

Recycling

Glass is air-proof and as a result the product is not affected. This bottle is easily-recloseable and as a result spoilage of the product can easily be prevented.

Product

+

Landscape

Carton suppliers contribute to the preservation of forests.

Raw materials

The carton (70 percent of the packaging) is made of wood, a sustainable raw material. Carton is made of wood fibers, a by-product of the existing wood production. Only a very thin layer of aluminum is required to package something air- and light-proof. Beverage cartons can be converted into energy in combustion installations. Relatively little material is required for the package: the ratio of content to packaging is 94-6.

Transportation

The transportation efficiency of beverages in this packaging is relatively high: 22,464 liters per truck.

Product

The aluminum renders the carton air- and light-proof and as a result the product is not affected.

Greenhouse effect

Beverage cartons have the lowest CO2 emission per liter of packaged product: 33 grams.1, 4

+

Literature

Disadvantages The extraction of sand (the raw material of glass) affects the landscape or the bottom of the sea.

Landscape

This package consists of two types of materials: glass and aluminum for the cap. Relatively a lot of glass is required for the package: the ratio of content to packaging is 57-43.

Raw materials

The transportation efficiency of beverages in this type of packaging is the lowest: 12,968 liters per truck.

Transport

Glass must be sorted by color or it can no longer be recycled properly.

Recycling

This packaging is vulnerable to breakage and as a result loss of product occurs more quickly. This packaging lets light through and as a result the product is affected.

Product

It relatively requires a lot of energy to cool glass.

Cooling

Glass has a relatively high CO2 emission per liter of packaged product: 178 grams.

Glass breaks easily and consequently leads to a lot of problematic litter. This glass bottle has a separate aluminum cap that could lead to additional litter.

under the authority of:

This refers to the CO2 emission of the product over the whole life cycle of the package: extraction of the raw materials, primary production of the material, the development process of the packaging, recycling and waste disposal. As transportation only makes a small contribution to the total figures1 this is not taken into account.

This refers to the extent to which the packaging litters the environment.

(assuming on-the-go packages)

1, 4

This refers to the question of how much (new) raw material is required for the production of the packaging material and to what extent the required raw materials are limited.

This refers to the transportation efficiency of beverages in this type of packaging. The number of liters per truck of 26 pallets is assumed.

Disadvantages +

Disadvantages The extraction of oil (the raw material of plastic) affects the landscape.

Raw materials

Raw materials

Product

-

The recycling rate of this plastic bottle in the Netherlands is very low.

This Argument Map provides an overview of the environmental advantages and disadvantages of various types of packaging. For easy comparison, on-the-go packages of about the same size were selected. It considers packaging of non-carbonated and long-life beverages. During expert meetings the packaging was assessed on nine environmental aspects. All numbers mentioned on this Argument Map are estimates and are based on data gathered in the Netherlands.

Greenhouse effect Litter

-

GLASS

BEVERAGE CARTON

Glass bottle Wine content 8.5 fl. oz.

Carton with straw Roosvicee Multivit content 6.8 fl. oz.

Disadvantages

-

Raw materials

A beverage carton is always made of new material for the sake of food safety.

Recycling

In the Netherlands beverage cartons are hardly recycled; the European average is 32 percent.

Cooling

It relatively requires a lot of energy to cool carton.

Product

This carton is not recloseable and as a result product spoilage occurs more quickly once opened.

Litter

This carton has a separate straw and plastic foil that could lead to separate litter.

Refillable

This carton cannot be refilled and as a result it cannot be reused in the existing form.

Other environmental aspects

The production of carton leads to water contamination (oxygen deficiency and fertilization).

prepared by:

© 2008

1 Milieukentallen van verpakkingen voor de verpakkingenbelasting in Nederland (“Environmental indicators of packaging for the packaging duty in the Netherlands”), CE Delft (November 2007) 2 Annual Report 2005, Packaging Committee (October 2006) 3 Een breed inzamelplan voor drankverpakkingen (“A broad collection plan for beverage packaging”), CE Delft (August 2004) 4 Milieu en overige effecten van een belasting op verpakkingen van dranken (“Environmental and other effects of a duty on beverage packaging”), CE Delft (April 2001)


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