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PHILIP TABOR I AM A VIDEOCAM The Glamour of Surveillance

b st rac t Recent technological advances facilitate 'panop tic ism ', the dominanc e of society by surveillance . But ac ross the po litical spectrum res istance to this trend is surprisin gly muted. One rea son may be the allure. not always co nsciously ac knowledged , of spying on others and of being sp ied upon . This paper metaphori c ally identifies the video camera with a succ ession of em blems to illu strate var ious as pect s of thi s allure . The vtd eoc em is see n as the fo llow ing : - eye , the role o f tec hno log y and vision, p ers onified in the Cycl op es. in Greek mytholog y; - carwasn. the psychic mechanism of the


Panoptrcon : - x-ray mac hine. the modernist obsession with transp arenc y. and it s psychological and politi cal meanings; - rmrroctne fragmentation and reconstitution of the reflec ted self: - sar dine can , sur veillance by imperson al age nc y , and architec tural metonymy; - moon, the 'rca rtan' aerial viewp oint favou red by arc hitec tural mod ernism: - keyhole , fascin ati on wit h other people's liv es: - gun , the glamour of controlling , and being controlled . by survei llance : - shield . the role of surveillance in anc ient and con temporary fiction . n concludes that the very idea 01 surveillance evok es curios ity , desire , aggression , gu ilt and, above all, fea r - emotions wh ich interact in daydream dramas of seeing and being seen , con c ealment and self- exp osure , attack and defence , sed uc tion and entic ement. The intensity and attr ac tion of these d ram as help s to exp lain the g lamou r and m alevo lenc e with whic h th e ap parat us o f surveillanc e is invested , and ou r acceptance of it. A rc hitect ure an d th e evi l eye Apparently, I study a dead language , arctutecture .' I have read its ob ituaries . One cunurat ana lys t writes : 'After the age of architecture/ scu lpture we are now in the time or cinematographic factitiousness .. . from now on architecture is only a movie'." Another calls architec ture the 'sub- elec tronic visua l mar ker of the

spectac le': too pl ace-bound and in ert to survive the ethereal, ubiquitou s lightningflashes of the terematrc storm," What is more, archi tecture deserved to die. It com milted the eigh th deadly sin, tec hnolatry : the worsnrp of means at the ex p ense of d ivine or human ends - ethic al myosis. Alw ays compucu with esta bli shment and c api tal, its aim was dominatio n. To c ontrol internal clim ate it sought power ove r nat ure: to cont rol beha viour , arc hitect ur e's other purpose, it sough t power over peop le. For pow er ove r peo ple, architec tu re wield ed the techno log ies of the eye, in pa rtic ular th e ev il S'a: the Spe ct acl e an d Surv eillanc e. Reg ard ing the spectacle: from the c athe dral and palace to the housing estate and shOppi ng mall, architecture has been ch aracterised by grandilo quent display and forc eful geometry . Archi tec ture 's symmetries, hierarchies and taxonomies fab ricated the intoxicating dreamworlds of authority, commOdity and consumption . As for contemporary surveill ance , architectu re was at first blamed lor not pr ovid in g it. Le g-cock ing underdogs in the early 1970s clai med c ity territory with threatening day -g lo squ irts; their spr ay -c ans seem ed almos t as threatening as their gu n s. An influential bo ok blamed modern arc hitecture for not pr ovi di ng , in the words of its title , 'defensible sp ace'. ' By this was meant the ore -mo dem surveillance of the twitching curtain and the bobby on the beat. Instead came the videocam and armed response . Architec ts we re blamed for that too , at least partly , because to their mrstortune the 1960s and '70s (fi rst in Ame rica, later mo re famously in France)' saw a bu ilding ty p e displac e Or well's Nineteen Eighty-Four as the dominant meta phor for Western soc iety see n as a survei llanc e-dr iven d ystop ia, The building typ e was of c ourse Jeremy Benth am' s Penopticon prison . (The first 'rea l-time' tra nsm ission of a ph otographic image, incidentall y, was by tele gr aph , in 1927. The image, as it ha ppens , was of a federal perutenttarv.)s

Th e g la m ou r of surveillance The word 'surveillanc e' derives from the Latin vigilia meanin g wakefulness or sleeplessness. So in the thousand eyes of surveill ance-night we see reflected the light nev er switch ed off in

Rory Hamilton, J eremy Bentham On -line


the pr ison ce ll, the dazz ling anti -dungeon of the Panopticc n. the insomn iac horror of Poe's Tell-Tale Hearl. The po litical right wishes to shield the pr ivate sphere from social intrusion the left fears an ol igar chy immovably emb edded in an informatic bunker. Both wings have compelli ng reas ons for fearing the 'surveillance soc iety ', il it has not yet arrived, and resist ing it if it has. Yet res istance is low. The rati onal reasons for this are clear. For the right: watc hed workers, watc hed consumers, stay in line . For the left, after de cades of fighting c losed social systems (pat riarcha l family , orfvetlsanon . cocooning and so on), it fee ls pe rverse 10 argue aga inst transparenc y, electronic or otherwise. Besides , surveill ance protects the vulnerable : rape is statistic ally less frequent in glass-sided lifts than in opaque ones.' But there are less reason ed motives for not wholeheartedly resis ting surveill anc e. I should like to suggest in this paper that the algebra of surveillance stru ctures the reve ries of voyeurism , exhibi tionism and narc issism. To make love in a glass -wa lled lilt, for instance - moving and ope n to pub lic ga ze - tvotnes. I am told , a common fant asy . The disembodied eye of surveillance th rills our dreams, The eye The video cam era is of course that eye . The sing le-eyed g iants, the Cyc lopes (in Greek literally 't he round -eyed') were the first tech nolog ists , maste r smiths. They invented the technologies of force and anti -surveillance to he lp Zeus c rush the fi rst reb elli on, that of the Titans. For Zeus they forged the thund erbo lt, for Poseidon the trident, and for Hades the he lmet of darkness and invisi bi lity. Later they used their sing le eyes . like Polyphemus , to ov ersee and control sheep .' Th e ca rwa sh The video c am is also a ca rwash. Aug ustinian Christianity saw the insomniac gaze of God as a flood of light in which believers were drowne d - but emerged c leansed and sec ure, having sub mitted the mselves to fatherly authonty.s The unbelieving Bentham used biblical texts ironically to present his Penonucon as the secular equivalent of d ivine surve illance - omniscient, ubiquitous and tnvrsrbre." The inmates , floo de d in light , ca nnot see the overseers, who are masked in the dark centre of their universe . It's a con fessional with one-way glass . Fearing pu nishment but never know ing when they are overseen , if at all, the inmates lntemanse their surveilla nce , rep ent, and be come vi rtuo us. They are cleansed by ligh t: seen is clean . The pan optic mech anism echoes that whereby, it is supposed, each ch ild internalises the


prohib itions of his elders by develop ing a super-ego or conscience . Behaviour originally avo ided for fear of an ang ry parent tat er in life arouses a d ifferent emotion, sha me I I Who, smug gli ng nothin g throug h cus toms past those one-way mirrors , has not tett guilty ? Surv eil lanc e, the n, manufactures consc ien ce - wh ich, as the word implies , completes settconsclccsness. It tortures the individu al' s identi ty, and his or her place in the external world . Th e x-ray machine The videocam is an x-fay machine , In 1925 LAzl6 Moholy-Nagy extended the seen-is-clean equation thus: 'Television . .. has been invented . .. to morrow we shall be ab le to look into the hear t of our fellow-ma n . , . The hyg iene of the optica l, the health of the vi sible is slowly filter ing thrcucn'." X-rays were discovered a century ago , in 1895. That surveillance arouses the imag ination is evid ent in the fact that, within a year, advertisements appeared in which a detective agency offered divorce-related x-ray stakeouts, and a co rset maker offered lead underwear to thwart x-ray-equipped Peep ing r oms." The x-ray's centenary des erves celeb ration because the d iscove ry preceded a rage for transparenc y (reciprocal surveillance ) which, especially in arc hitecture , ch aracterises Modern ism. This is a vivid instance of how , with out apparent c ausal link, innovations in technolog y and sensib ility coinci de. Plate glass had come a little earlie r; cellophane, Plexiglas and Nylon arrived rather lat er." Do we love our technologi es bec ause we inv ent them , or invent them because we love them? Exposure of d irt-traps in buildings to the eye , and of the body to the sun (and therefore the eye ), in nudism and the relat ive nudism of post1918 dress, followed medical sc ience . The d rive for sell -d isc losure responded , too , w ith hazy symbolism, to the psycho-analytic concept of a co ncealed and unsanitary unconscious. Buc kmins ter Fulle r's Dymaxion House of 1927 was the first to simultaneously celebrate advanced technology, transparency and sellexp osure . The model, exh ib ited at Chic ago 's Marsha ll Field 's department store , had g lass wa lls beh ind which naked dolls lay on sheetless pneumatic bed s." Sell -exposure was poli tic ally carreel. 'We recog nise noth ing pr ivate' , Lenin had said , 'our mor ality Is entirel y subo rdin ate to the interests of the class struggle of the proletariat'." Surveillanc e defends the revolution; reaction must have nowhere to hide . The open plan and picture window , like the sanda ls and open shirt, were to do their bit to expose pretension , demolish interpersonal barriers, and main tain social health . The hyg iene of the op tical: wi tness is fitne ss

The mirror The videocam is a mirror. Surveillance images of ourselves flicker g rainily on the und erg round platform, in the window of Dixon's, in department stores , sometimes on taxi da shb oa rds . Electronic narciss ism we are indeed all famous now, but not just for fifteen minutes, (Vanity can kill. Some of th e Communard s of 1871, who posed to be photographed on the barricades, were late r identified by their images and shot." Encou raged , the Frenc h government sta rted using photo graph y for police purposes soo n atte r.)" The infant rejoic es at its reflected imag e, which releases it fro m the subjective prison of its retina, and places it in the soc ial and symbolic world' I am see n, therefore I am." So mirrors make me who le. But they also disunite me: reflect ions c reate doubles I am thereafter split between a self seen from within and a self seen from withou t I sp y on myself. In 1993 a po ll by the US Macw orld magazine found 22 p er cent of 'business leaders' ad mit ting to search ing their employees' voice mail, e-mail and computer Software applications with names like 'Peak & Spy ' (sic) , 'Supervision' and even 'Surveillance ' are ava ilab le to mon itor continua lly, for instance, the average numbe r of copies an emp loyee distributes with eac h email: too many ind icates a hostile atmosphe re or disaffection, so management is aterteo." So-ca lled 'datavettlanc e' co mpou nds ou r fragmentation and , with it, ontolog ica l do ub t. Each form fi lled, ca rd sw iped , key stroked and barcod e scanned , rep licates us in dataspace ~ as multiple sha dows or shatt ered reflec tions. Sometimes ou r electron ic sha do ws, like a polished CV or a PR image, are sharpe r, mo re seduct ive than ourse lves , More often, wha t are chilling ly called our 'data-images' ca rica ture and d iminish us , bu t are seen as more su bstan tial than ou r selves." Our co mp laint shou ld logically be that su rve illance see s not too muc h of us bu t too lill ie, Biotechnical surve illance answers that with DNA analysis, vo icep rints, reti nal scans and inquisitive totlet s.w


Th e sardine can The videocam is a sardine ca n Ja cques Lacan tells of see ing at sea a floating sard ine ca n, shining in the sun." In what was for him a philosop hic al ep iphany, he rea li sed that , while his vision rad iated from his eye to encom pa ss the sce ne, lig ht rad iated from the can to enco mpass him, The ca n 'was looking at me', he notes, 'at the po int at whic h eve ryth ing that looks at me is situa te d ~ and I am not speaking meta pho rica lly' He was sim ultane ous ly obse rving the can and ca ugh t, to use Martin Jay 's happy g loss, 'in an impersonal field of pure

monstra nc e'."

Arc hitects have long known that the window in the tower, the balcony in a facade , and the throne on it s da is are to pa rt of our mind occup ied even when they are not - and continue to survey us , eve n when we know there is no one there. And it is not simply that our imag ination is con ju ring up for these things notiona l human occ upan ts, By a kind of metonymy the wi ndow , ba lco ny and throne, thoug h inanimate , co ntinue to look at us . The videocam, too , puts us 'in an impersonal field of pure monstrance' The moon The videocam is the moon. Daedalus , meaning literally bo th 'the br igh t' and 'the cunn ing ly wrough t', is by his very name assoc iated with sight and tec hnology. Dae da lus made the fi rst autom ata. He also eng inee red the first erotic enco unter be tween flesh an d machine, devis ing for Paerohae a whee led and upholste red wooden cow in whose rear she cou ld hide to sed uce Poseidon' s bull. The produ c t of this coupling was the Minotaur, half-an ima l, halfhuman, a fusion of nature and cultu re." Daedalus constructed the Minotaur's labyrinth and the wings with which he escape d it. Soaring with him was his son Ica rus - whos e name assoc iates him with the moon-god dess, who loo ks down co ld ly from above." The Icarian sc ene was replic ated as , in bird- like planes , av iator s gazed panopticatty down on their co lleagu es, myopic and mud-bound in the lab yrinthine trenc hes of Fland ers When peace came , architec ts like Le Corbusier and Hugh Ferriss soug ht an urb anism of the lunar , rc artan view - serene, ob jec tive and d istanced from our fello ws." With what pleasure we ri de lifts to gaze do wn on the c ity and exc laim how inhuman, like ants, seem the pedestrians and c ars in the canyons beneath The b anks of monitors sho wing arte rial flows an d co ngestions in the TV traff ic flash, the brro's-eve g lide above a desert wa r, affo rd u s the same glimp se of god-like, invulnerable serenity. Abo ve the fray, the philosop hical spy in the sky.

The keyhole From spy in the sky to fly on the wa ll. The vid eocam is a keyhole, project ing us into inti macy w ith a wo rld from which we are otherw ise exc luded , a su rroga te life mo re vivid and imm ediate than ou r ow n Sup p osed ly nonfic tional TV docu men ta ries whic h exte nded ly eavesd rop on a family , firm or public se rvice proved more gripp ing than fictional soap s This fasc ination was so metimes attrib utable to a d ramatic narrative, but more often it was jus t the thrill of ba nal witness : to find we are all the same unde r the sk in.

Fic tional d ramas, like NYPD Blue, learn t to mimic the techni cal arte facts 01espionage; overlapp ing inconsequential dialog ue, handheld wobb le , spect ral lens dazzle , c lose focu s, artless camera angles. 'We are witnessing the end of per spective and pan opt ic sp ace ... and hence the abolit ion of the sp ectacular,' writes a celebrated commentator , 'the disso lution of TV into life, the di ssolut ion of li fe into TV,'n The g un The videoc am is, God knows, a gu n: han d-h eld and ste alth- blac k like a pistol, shoulder-mounted like a bazooka , or turreted Mike Davis, sketc hing the 'scansc aoe' of c entral Los Ange les, catc hes this isomo rph ism: 'The oc ca sional appearance of a destitute street nomad , , . in fron t of the Museum of Contem porar y Art set s off a quiet pani c ; video cameras turn on their mo unts and security guards adjust their oens'.Âť The residents of maj or c ities fear that urban spa ce is be ing inc reasingly mititansed by both sides of the law . But fear is mixed with perverse reli sh for that war like tens ion which su ppo sedly sharpens cities' 'c reative edge'. What the patrol car's siren do es for New York , the swivelli ng lens does for Los Ange les, We fe el alert, excited: our des igne r g lasses develop c ross-hair sig hts. In Voyeur, an interactive video, the viewer plays the part of a snoop ing pr ivate eye." Any young boy , pe eping throug h a window at the half -dre ssed g irl next doo r, is prepar ing to co nfr ont the ene my , may be years from now, and acquit tumsen well. So is she, if she knows or imag ines she is sur veyed . The surveillance ca mera scans time as well as space fo r trac e of future trouble . Foreseen is forearm ed We are gun/cameras, Our head s swivel on ou r shou lders and from our eyes da rt - familiarly aggressive tropes - pie rcing and pene trat ing loo ks, Photog rap hers say the came ra loves some people but not othe rs . We need no cyborgian robo-erouc fantasy to feel uetterec and stimulated when the camera lov ing ly track s us , A famous new spa per ph otog raph show s an unconsc ious man lying on the ground , attended by doctors. He has be en pulled from the sea and may die . Knee ling by his side is his nan cee . In the photogr aph she has just noticed the ca mera, so she smi les brill iantly at it and adjusts her swrmsutt. " The sh iel d The vide ocam is a shield. The eyes of Medus a turn to stone those who loo k dir eclly at them: her gaze Objectifies its target. The Three Greeae (lilerally 'the grey ones') are he r old sisters, with just one eye and tooth between them Age , that is, ho lds in frag ile mo nopoly the instruments of aggression and surveillance. To augment his strength Perseus forces them


to reveal where the technol ogies of sp eed an d concealme nt ma y be found : Mer cur y's wing ed sandals and Hades' helmet of invis ibili ty. Thus equ ipped he coun ter s Medusa 's gaz e with indirect surveillance of his own, taking care to track Med usa only in her ima ge reflec ted in his shie ld. He wms.Âť Detective and spy fic tion is based on th is archa ic mytho logy of the c hase. Novel reade rs or fil m audiences vica riously re-enact the ritua ls of surveillanc e , imagining thems elves at once both the concea led wa tche r and the exposed watched . Anxious that an unaided body and mind might not suffice to unbalance the game in their favo ur, the audience in fantasy ad opts the log ic of the arms rac e and seek s prosthetic help in tech nology , Thus the central role played in fict ion s by the har dware of su rve illance and co unter -survei llance: The Conversation, Bla de Runner, Blue Thunder , The Silence of the Lambs (rem emb er the nightsight glasses), Sneakers, Demolition Man, and so on.> Thus, too , the first comman dment of street tec h; 'Use tech nology before it's used on vou'." Conclusi o n Surveillan c e, the process by wh ich the few mo nitor the many and keep records of them, is as old as ag ricultu re and taxation. The growt h since the Rena issance of bureaucr at ic surve illance accompanied the emergence of the nation-state , weu a re state , suffrag e, totat war , and total law . Bureau cratic surve illa nce , lormerl y a near -mon op oly of the sla te. has been ad opt ed pri vate ly - since the industrial revolu tion to control production, and since the advertising revolution to control consumption . The social benefits of surveillance are many and everyday. We have ac custome d ou rselv es to shar ing da ily life with its apparently innocuous apparat us forms, q uestionnaires , mark sheets , licences , pas sp ort photos , co untersig natur es. Equall y clear , thoug h not so imme diate, is its pote nt ial to inf lic t irreversi ble ev il probab ly with benign intent. The recent comb ining of elec tronic senso rs, computers and high -band width telecoms has grea tly reinforce d the abi lity to monitor and overse e. It is tempting to argue that soc ial phe nomena such as surveillan ce are dr iven fo rward by a simple co inc idenc e of rati onal self-interest and technolog ical innovation. Were true so, they cou ld be resisted or reve rsed by forms of Ludd ism - by counte ring systems or by sabotag ing hard ware . But. as I ha ve tr ied to show, sys tema tic surv eilla nce as a soci al inst itut ion also surv ives and flourishes on its irrat ional allure. The very idea of surve illance evoke s curiosity, des ire, agg ress ion, gu ill and abo ve all fear - emot ions which inte ract in dayd ream dr amas 01 seeing and being seen, concealment

and se lf-exposure , attac k and defenc e, sed uction and en ticement. The intensity and attrac tion of the se dra mas help s to explain the glamou r and ma levo lence with wh ich the

apparatus of surve illance is invested, and our ac ceptance of it. '1am an eye ', wrote Haubert . 'I am a camera', wrote tsherwooo I am a videoca m."

No les 1 This paper wasg ,ven at the -t ec eoooe c ee conference ot the InSt,tule ot Comemporary Arts , London , 8 Ap ril 1995. 2 Paul V,nho, TheAeslIletlCs 01Ors.3ooear<lnce, Autonomed,a. sem,olext{e) (New York) . 199 1, p65 3 Criliclll Art Ensemble , The Electroni{; Orsturbance Autonomeo'a (Brook lyn NY). 1994, p69 4 Osca' New man , De/ensible Space, People and Design in the VIO/e<l1C,ty, Arcnoteclural Press (Lonelonl . 1973. Newman .ecommend s thaI. 10 c ounter vaocausm and er-e-e. pub l,C houSing should be designeeltQ encourage '~erntoria hty' en tee pall 0 1 tenants . and 'natural surveil11"-'lCe" by lhem over public and sem ,-public space He me-es only pass,ng (approv,ng) reterence 10 erectrcn.c survei llance CCTV cameras linkad to home TV sets or men ,to'eel by 'tenant caners ' (pp 126·26. 182-85). 5 M'Chel sccceun. D,sc,plrne and PUnish' The B"th ot ee Prison. Pengu ,n (Harmondsworth) , '991 (ong,n ally p",bhshed 1975) fOIX8Ul1 ,nfluent lally aoooteorne Panopticon 10sfusuate symbohcally the mechanisms of a survernance-onven 'ca,ceral soctetv Martin Jay, Downcasl Eyes' the Denigration 0/ Vrsion in T""enhelhCentury FrenCh Thought Universi ty of Cahforni a Pre ss (Berkeley and Los Angeles) . 1994, 0361 note 9 Jay notes that Ge rteude H lmmelf arb in 1965 and Jacq ues- Ataet Miller in 1973 had p'ev,ously dra wn Simila r lessons tram the canoouc co. 6 Jud,t h Ba " y. 'Map P ings : A Chrono log y of Remo te Sen si ng ', Zo ne 6' IncorpO fillions , Jon ath an Cra ry and Sanfo rd K wmt er (ed s.} MtT Press (C amb " dg e) , 1992 , p570 . TM p ris on W,l S PortLe aven worth 7 JO\J I GH"HdU, Ed g " Cily: LIf" all til" Ne w Fronti er, DOUb leday , Anc hor (Now York), 199 1, p 470 . Gar-eau c laim s this han-h umorousty li Sone of til e 'Law s' of cornmcrcra t ocvclop mont. 8 Robe rt Grave s. Tho Grook My!ns / ·2 , Pen g uin [Harm onds worlh ) 1960 , sec tions 3b , re , 170b , s Ma rtin Jay, OP cu, p3 7 Also . R,c ha,d Sen nett , The Cons cien ce o f Ihe Eye ' The Design and Social t ite 01 Fabe r /l. Faber (Lon don) , 199 t, P 10, 10 RObin Evans, The Feb,icalion 0/ Vjf l U9, English Prison arc tmecuno, /150· 18 40 , Cambll d ge Un iver sity Press


(Cam b' id ge). 1982. p206 11 Sigm",n d freud. 'Ci v,lization and Its D,scont ents', chap 7, Peng um Freud (INary, VOl 12: C,Vlli,atoon, Soc le ryand Religjon. Pengu,n (Harmondsworth) , 1991 . pp31 6-20. 12 LallO Moho ly ·N ag y. PamMy, PM/og,aohy, Fi/m, luna Humpr mes (London), 1969 (originally pubhshed 1925), p38. 13 Nancy Knight, 'Tne New LIght: x Rays and Med ,c al F",tufl sm', Joseph J. Corn . Imagmmg Tomorrow: His /ory . Technology and the Ame/lCan Future. MIT Press (c a-nbridge). poll. 17. 14 La'ge-sheel g 'ass-m8~,ng. beg,nning ,n lhe late e'g ht· eentn cemury. was generally affordable until the last twO decades 01the Oofleleenlh cenlury Jellrey L Mei~ le . 'Ptasnc . Malerlal 01a ThOUs.3nd Uses ' io Corn , op cil, p85, notes IMI Dupont's ce llophane was Inl rM uted onlO Ihe COflsume. ma'ke l in 1927 , aocllhe,r Nylon Ifl 19 39 15 B'ian Horrig an. The Home 01TomoHow, 1927-1945' .;n Com,opcll. pp1 41 ·42 16 Quoled in DaVId Lyon , The EIflCI.OIlfC Eye: The Riseo! me !WrwJ<lIance Society POhly (CamD"dge), 1994 . pp I85~B6. 17 Rol and Barthes. Camera LlJCrda: Reflect,OIls OIl PhOlogra· plly. Vlnlage{ Loncton), 1993 . pll

18 Mar,," Jay. 00 cu. p 143 19 Ib id . p288 Jay quotes Franc oi s George, Deux ercces sur Sartre. Bourgeoi s (Pa"s), 1976 , 0321 . 'L'aune me vOl!.

oooc Je scrs' 20 Joho Whalen , 'You' re NOI Paranoid · They Really Are Walch,ng YOO·. Wifed 303IUS ed .March 199 5), p80. Whalen cites Dy nam ,cs Corp'S 'executive mon ilori"'9 sys lerns', 'Peak & Spy ' 21 Ba'bara Ga'son. The EIec/rOlli{; Sweatshop How Computers are Translorming tile oI/he FUIl,lre mto meFactory of rile Past , Pengu,n (Harmondswoflh). 1989 , p210 She c ites, among monilor ,ng svs1ems, Lanier's 'SuoefYisI(l(l IV ' and Tow el SystemslntefOallonal'S 'Surve,lIance' p222 22 Lyon, op en. pp192·94 , eracc-ares ootne electronic m-eat to personhood So 00 I in ·Sl"I<.1Og Home The Etectrcnc Assa ult onldenlily' (paper given at tbe 'Doors of Perc eption 2:. Home' conference oflhe NetherlandS DeSIgn institute and Mediamatrc magazine. Amsterdam , 4 Nov 1994 pubnsbed on world w,de web at: hltp:llmmwww. xsaau. nllDoorstooors2/T abor!T eeor ·DoorS2.E .h trnl]. 23 Wilham J Mnc helt, Cay 0/ Bits: soece. PI<lce and the /n/obahn, MI T Press (Cambfldge). 199 5 (torlh co mi ng ) ment ions ttte ,nQ",isitlve toilets 24 Jacques Lac an. t he Four Fundamental cooceot s 0/ Psyc ho ·A na lysis Penguin (H a'mondswonh) , 1977. p95


25 Marbn Jay , op cu. p365, sec t ion see . 26 Hober t Gra ves. op 27 Raben Graves . op ci t, socno o 9 2e , The mo ox g ives one mean ing of tbe eq uiva lent name. Ic ari us, as 'oec ncate d to t he Moon-god dess C ar' 28 Le Cor buste r and P,(Hra Jo nr ec rct, Oouvro Co mp lele de /910·1929, Ed itions d' Archil ec lLHB Erl,m ll Hch (Z uric h), 1946, PO109 , shows panlc uturty aeronautic view s of Le Cc rou's 'Voisin' pion lo r Pa ns Hug h Ferr iss, Tho Melrop o/ls 01 Tomo rro w, Princ eto n Univer sity Press (p "n ce to n) , 1986 (orog inol ly p ubl ished 1929) has Similar views of a future New '1'ork 29 Jean Baucnua ro . Simu Jal,o ns, Sero.orexue ) (New Yor k)


1983. o p5 4·55 30 Mike oavrs. City 0/ Quartz: E)(CiJva fing tsve nuore in Los Angeles , Vinta ge (New York), 1992 , 0231 , 3 1 Voyeur, Phi lip s, 1993 . rmerecuve Video 32 HarOld Evans, Pic /ures on a Page: Photo·Journal,sm. Grap hic s and P,cfule Ed"ing. Heinemann (Lon don), 1976, bac k co ver . reproduces the enot. crecuec to the Weeg ee tntemancnar Center lor Photog raphy , and story 33 RoDert Graves. op CII. sections 73g·h. 34 FIlms: Franc is Ford Coppola (d") The Conversation. Paramo unt. 1974 . R'dley SCali (dir) BladeRunner(Wam er. t.eoc. t982) : John Badnam (elir) Blue Thunl1er, RaSlar! Columbia. 1963 : Jonalr'oar'o Demme (dir) The Silence of the Lambs, Sifong Hearl/OuO" . 1991: Ph,1Alden Robi nsoo (dir) Sneakers, Universal. 199 2: Marc o Bramb,lIa (elir) Demolition Man. S,lver pictures, 1993, 35 C ,ted ioAnd,ew Ross, 'The New Smarlrl$~ ' Culture on the Brmk : Ideologies of Tecllnology, Grelchell Bend e, and Timotr'oy Dr uck.ey (eels), Bay Pless (Sea~Ie). 1994 , p 335 , 36 G",slave Fla ...belt c iled on Jay. 00 cit. p112 no l", l09 ChflSlopl\er Isherwood . GoocJbye 10Berlm. M ,ne. va (Londonl . 1969 , 09, t"e bool< was aelapteel into, successive ly, a pl ay , sta ge m",s ,cal, and film enhUedl Am a Camera,


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