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Constructivism Constructivism began in Communist Russia, as a way of turning concepts in art, such as composition, into practical design work that benefitted the Communist society at the time. The movement was against the idea of individual art and believed that it should always be used to achieve society’s purposes. Constructivist artists put emphasis on the materials used to produce an artwork, not the aesthetic of the work or what it represented. The purpose of this was to discover how different materials behaved, in order to produce work which had a practical use or which could be mass produced.

Bauhaus The Bauhaus Movement began after Walter Gropius founded the Bauhaus Art School in 1919. The aim of the movement was to combine different forms of art and design, such as painting, sculpture and architecture.

Dada The Dada movement began around the begininng of the 20th Century as a reaction to all the change in the world at the time, from the beginning of new social and political movements uch as communism and marxism, to the arrival of new technologies and the destruction the caused during World War One. The Dada artists felt that the visual art they were seeing did not represent the times that they now lived in and sought to create nonsensical art that represented their confusion, using new techniques such as collage and assemblage.

Swiss Design Swiss style is a type of Graphic Design and typography which became famous after World War Two from the work of Swiss designers such a Josef Muller-Brockmann, Max Bill and Armin Hoffman. It took influence from movements such as constructivism and minimalism, and can be recognised by its use of asymmetry in design, geometric shapes and sans serif fonts. The reason Swiss design became so known was because of its simplicity and objectivity, which made it popular for use in corporate identity. An important principle of the Swiss Movement was emphasising simplicity and cleanliness in design, which was achieved by removing the unnecessary elements of a piece of design and giving more attention to the necessary ones. Swiss designers considered elements such as typography and photography the clearest and simplest way of communicating, and therefore thought that the addition of other visual elements was ‘a waste’ Graphic designers who were part of the Swiss style were also responsible for the creation of Grid Systems, which are still used today by type, print and web designers to structure and balance designs.

Grid Systems Grid systems were developed by some of the Swiss Modernist designers such as Josef Muller-Brockmann and Max Bill. They aimed to help designers produce clear and coherent page layouts using pre-determined grid structures. Grids are most often constructed using straight and horizontal lines, and typically only have columns with a header across the top. Grids are most commonly used in magazine and editorial layout design, however web and print designers also use them to organise and balance designs

Memphis The Memphis movement, led by Ettore Sottsass and a collective of young artists, began in the early 1980s and was based mainly around furniture and product design. Memphis was originally named ‘The New Design’ as the artists within the Memphis group sought to break away from the style of ‘souless but tasteful’ modernist design. When designing, they worked without regard for style, form or colours, resulting in objects that many found shocking and repulsive. Memphis became popular around the world with many designers joining the movement, Sottsass disliked this and left the collective in 1985. Memphis has since been referred to as a ‘fad’ which just went out of fashion.

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