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2017 | 02 • $5.95

Crystal II to Iqaluit

Bearable Encounters

Faces of the Franklin Expedition

Awe-inspiring Arctic Voyage

PM40050872

o www.arcticjournal.ca


Brock Friesen / XÇ4 K‰n8

Jobie Tukkiapik / JW bexW4

ᑐᕌᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᔪᓄᑦ,

Dear Guest, 2017 is off to a great start for First Air. I am happy to report that our fleet modernization program has provided us the flexibility we were looking for to strengthen our service options to northern communities. With the addition of our ATR 42-500s, starting in May, we will commence daily service from Edmonton to Yellowknife and onwards to Norman Wells and Inuvik. This daily scheduled service will offer a stronger connection to NWT’s northernmost communities, allowing us to have better access and representation in the northwestern Arctic. As spring begins, rejuvenation, rebirth and new opportunities abound. I’m excited to announce that in late April we are once again partnering with our friends at the NHL and Scotiabank to take the Stanley Cup on an Arctic journey, helping Project North deliver hockey equipment to Northern communities. This year we will bring the tour to Iqaluit, Cape Dorset, Kugaaruk, Taloyoak, Gjoa Haven, Resolute Bay, Hall Beach and Qikiqtarjuaq. Be sure to check our website firstair.ca for all the details and to follow the journey along on our social media portals. We hope to see you along our tour! To travel and live in the North remains a unique and wonderful experience that we are happy to be a part of on a daily basis. We remain committed to bringing you a first rate travel experience as we have for over 70 years. Thank you for flying with us today. We are pleased to have you aboard! Brock Friesen First Air President & CEO

2017 ᐅᑭᐅᖓᑕ ᐊᑐᕆᐊᕐᓂᖓ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᑐᕆᐊᑦᓯᐊᕐᓂᖃᓚᐅᕐᐳᖅ. ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒃᐳᖓ ᓴᖅᑮᔪᓐᓇᕆᐊᓐᓂᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᓄᑕᐅᓕᕆᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᔪᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᕆᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᔪᓐᓇᖅᑎᑕᐅᓚᐅᕋᑦᑕ ᓴᖖᒋᒃᑎᒋᐊᕈᑎᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᖅᑎᐅᕙᓐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᓄᓇᓕᒋᔭᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᓂᖃᕈᓐᓇᖅᓯᓚᐅᕋᑦᑕ.

President, Makivik Corporation & Chairman, First Air xzJ6√6, mr=F4 fxS‰nzk5 x7m w4y?sb6, {5 wsf8k5 Président, Société Makivik et président du conseil, First Air

Chers invités, First Air est parti du bon pied en 2017. Je suis heureux de vous informer que le programme de modernisation de notre flotte nous a fourni la flexibilité souhaitée en vue de renforcer nos options de service pour les localités du Nord.

À partir de mai, avec l’ajout de nos ATR 42-500, ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᕗᑦ ATR 42-500-ᓂᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒥᒃ ᐃᓚᔭᐅᓯᒪᓕᕐ- nous allons lancer un service quotidien depuis ᓂᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ, ᒪᐃ ᑕᖅᑭᖓᓂ, ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓕᕐᓂᐊᖅᐳᒍᑦ Edmonton jusqu’à Yellowknife et au-delà, ᖃᐅᑕᒫᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᕙᓐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᑦᒪᓐᑕᓐᒥᑦ ᔭᓗᓇᐃᒧᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ jusqu’à Norman Wells et Inuvik. Ce service ᑕᐅᕗᖓ ᓄᐊᕐᒪᓐ ᕕᐊᓪᒧᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᒨᕕᐅᑉ ᓄᓇᓕᖏᓐᓄᑦ. régulier offrira une connexion renforcée avec ᖃᐅᑕᒫᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖃᖅᑎᑦᑎᕙᓐᓂᑦᑎᒍᑦ ᓴᖖᒋᓂᖅᓴᐅᔪᒃᑯᑦ les localités à l’extrême nord des Territoires du ᐊᑦᑕᑕᖅᓯᒪᓕᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᐊᕋᑦᑕ ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᑉ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᐊᓃᑦᑐᓄᑦ Nord-Ouest, nous permettant ainsi d’avoir un ᓄᓇᓕᐅᔪᓄᑦ, ᑕᐃᒪᓗ ᐱᐅᓂᖅᓴᐅᔪᒥᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖃᖅᑎᑦᑎ- meilleur accès à l’Arctique du nord-ouest, en ᔪᓐᓇᓕᕈᑎᒋᓗᑎᒍ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᖃᖅᑎᐅᓕᕈᓐᓇᕐᓗᑕ ᐅᑭᐅᖅ- plus d’une meilleure représentation. ᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᐅᐊᓕᓂᕐᒥᐅᓄᑦ.

Au moment où le printemps commence, le ᐅᐱᕐᖓᒃᓴᓕᕐᒥᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᓄᑕᐅᓕᕆᐊᒃᑲᓐᓂᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᖅ, ᐆᒻᒪᖅ- rajeunissement, la renaissance et les nouvelles ᑎᑦᑎᒋᐊᒃᑲᓐᓂᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᖅ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᕙᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᑕᐅᓪ- possibilités abondent. Je suis ravi d’annoncer ᓗᑎᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᓂᖃᕐᕕᐅᓕᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᒻᒪᑕ. ᖁᕕᐊᓱᓪᓚᕆᒃ- que vers la fin d’avril nous collaborerons de ᐳᖓ ᑐᓴᖅᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓕᕆᐊᒥᒃ ᐊᐃᐱᕆ ᓄᖖᒍᐊᓂ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃ- nouveau avec nos amis de la Ligue nationale de hockey et de la Banque Scotia afin de transᖃᑎᒋᓕᕐᓂᐊᕐᒥᒐᑦᑎᒍ ᕼᐋᑎᖅᑎᒻᒪᕇᑦ (NHL) ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓯᑰᓴporter la Coupe Stanley vers l’Arctique, aidant ᐸᐃᒃᑯᑦ ᑮᓇᐅᔭᒃᑯᕝᕕᖓᑦ (Scotiabank) ᕼᐋᑭᖅᑎᒻᒪᕆᐅᔪᑦ ainsi Project North à expédier du matériel ᐃᕐᖑᓯᐊᓗᖓᓐᓂᒃ Stanley Cup-ᒥᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒃᑯᑦ ᑎᑭᐅᔾde hockey aux collectivités du Nord. Cette ᔭᐅᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑎᐅᓗᑎᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᓂᐅᔪᖅ ᐅᑭᐅᖅannée, nous prévoyons faire la tournée Iqaluit, ᑕᖅᑐᒥᐅᑦ ᐊᒃᔭᖅᑐᐃᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᖏᓐᓂ ᕼᐋᑭᕈᑎᓂᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᖅCape Dorset, Kugaaruk, Taloyoak, Gjoa Haven, ᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᓄᓇᓕᒋᔭᐅᔪᓄᑦ. ᑕᕝᕙᓂ ᐅᑭᐅᒥ ᑎᑭᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᐊᖅᐳᒍᑦ Resolute Bay, Hall Beach et Qikiqtarjuaq. ᐃᖃᓗᓐᓄᑦ, ᑭᖖᒐᕐᓄᑦ, ᑰᒑᕈᕐᒧᑦ, ᑕᓗᕐᔪᐊᓄᑦ, ᐅᖅᕼᐅᖅᑑᕐᒧᑦ, Assurez-vous de consulter notre site Web ᖃᐅᓱᐃᑦᑐᒧᑦ, ᓴᓂᕋᔭᖕᒧᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᕿᑭᖅᑕᕐᔪᐊᓄᑦ. ᐊᑏ firstair.ca pour tous les détails et de nous suivre ᖃᕆᑕᐅᔭᑎᒍᑦ ᐱᑐᒃᓯᕙᕝᕕᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ firstair.ca-ᒥ ᖃᐅᔨᒋᐊᓚtout au long du parcours sur nos portails ᐅᖅᓯᐅᒃ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᔭᐅᑎᐅᔪᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᖏᑦ ᒪᓕᒃde médias sociaux. Nous espérons vous ᐸᓪᓕᐊᓗᒋᑦ ᐃᓅᖃᑎᒌᒃᑐᓄᑦ ᑐᓴᒐᔅᓴᓕᕆᔾᔪᑎᑎᒍᑦ. ᑎᑭᓯᒪᓂrencontrer pendant notre tournée! ᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᑕ ᓄᓇᓕᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᑕᑯᖃᑕᐅᔪᒪᕙᑦᓯ!

ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᓕᐊᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖅ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᓄᓇᖃᖅᑑᓂᖅ ᓱᓕ ᐊᔾᔨᖃᖖᒋᒻᒪᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖁᕕᐊᓇᓪᓚᕆᒃᑐᒥ ᖃᐅᔨᒋᐅᕐᓇᖅᓯᓂᐅᕙᓐᓂᖓ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᒋᓪᓗᒍ ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒃᑐᒍᑦ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᖃᑕᐅᕙᓐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᖃᐅᑕᒫᑦ ᐃᓅᓯᕆᔭᐅᔪᓄᑦ.

Voyager et vivre dans le Nord ne cesse de s’avérer une expérience unique et magnifique dont nous sommes heureux de faire partie quotidiennement.

ᐸᕌᒃ ᕗᕇᓴᓐ ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᖓᔪᖅᑳᖅ & ᐊᐅᓚᑦᑎᔨᒻᒪᕆᒃ

Brock Friesen Président-directeur général de First Air

ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑦᑎᒋᐊᖅᓯᒪᕗᒍᑦ ᖁᑦᑎᖕᓂᖅᐸᐅᔪᑎᒍᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᔾᔪᑎᖃᕈᓐᓇᖅᐸᓐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓄᓐᓄᑦ ᐅᖓᑖᓅᓕᖅᑐᖅ 70 ᐅᑭᐅᓄᑦ.

Nous demeurons déterminés à vous offrir une expérience de voyage de première classe tout comme nous le faisons depuis plus de 70 ans. Nous vous remercions d’avoir été des nôtres ᖁᔭᓐᓇᒦᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᐃᑭᒪᔪᓪᓇᓚᐅᕋᑦᓯ ᐅᓪᓗᓯ. aujourd’hui et sommes heureux de vous accueillir à bord! ᖁᕕᐊᓱᑦᑎᐊᖅᐳᒍᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᖃᑕᐅᓚᐅᕋᑦᓯ!

srs6b6g3u4 czb˙oEp7mEst4vFs4. We value your support and thank you for making First Air The Airline of the North. Nous apprécions votre soutien et vous remercions de votre appui à First Air la ligne aérienne du Nord. Like us!

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Book online at firstair.ca or call 1 800 267 1247


From the Flight Deck What are the rules regarding using electronic devices onboard?

The rules about electronic devices were introduced many years ago. Since then, the technology associated with these devices has progressed very quickly. Over the course of about 20 years, cellphones have evolved from giant handsets that were nearly the size of your head, into the current devices that can be smaller than your hand. However, the rules don’t change quite as quickly.

© Andrii IURLOV / fotolia.com

Aviation is full of rules – much all of them ar are designed with safety in mind. The regulations about portable electronic devices and cellphones are no exception.

During a flight, all kinds of signals are sent to and from an aircraft. Communication and navigation radios both send and receive signals and the GPS system relies on radio waves sent to the aircraft from satellites. Since cellphones, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth devices also send and receive radio signals, the main concern is that some of these signals will interfere with each other and ultimately result in incorrect signals being received. I remember when my first cellphone would ring and cause interference with the song being played on my radio at home! This is exactly the concern on board the aircraft. When the song on the radio was distorted, it was simply a nuisance, but if it was a navigation signal to the aircraft, that same interference could lead to a navigational error. While cellphone technology has improved a great deal and that kind of interference is much less common and much less noticeable, it still happens. (In some aircraft, we can still hear buzzing in our headsets in the cockpit when messages are received on some types of cellphones.) When aircraft are built, the onboard radios are designed and tested to ensure that there is no interference between the various

systems. That same testing isn’t carried out using cellphones and other personal electronic devices, at least not yet. Consequently, there is no proof that cellphones won’t interfere with the aircraft system. That’s why the rules require the use of airplane mode, which ensures that the cellphones aren’t actively sending or receiving radio signals that could interfere with the aircraft’s navigation systems. Even when they aren’t transmitting, there is still a risk of interference from the devices since they all emit a weak electronic field. The risk posed by a single device is quite low but given that almost everyone has a cellphone and most have an iPad, we could have up to 300 devices on our B737 (or well over 1,200 on an Airbus A380). When you add up all those devices, the risk suddenly isn’t quite so low. That’s the second element that drives the regulations – we work in the worst-case scenario mode – you can’t think about a single device, you must think about an airplane full of devices. During the cruise portions of the flight, we’re a long way from the ground and the rules ensure a large distance maintained between all aircraft. Even if there is any interference that could lead to a navigation error, the risk of anything serious happening is quite low. Thus, turning devices on is allowed. (The risk of interference from

transmissions is still too high so there is a requirement to remain in airplane mode.) Once we get closer to the ground, the margins for error are reduced. The restrictions during takeoff and landing are much higher – the devices can’t just be in airplane mode, they must be off. Technology has come quite a long way and, realistically, the risk of interference is quite low. Transport Canada has started to grant exemptions to the rules requiring devices to be switched off for takeoff and landing. But before an exemption is granted to an airline, they have to carry out extensive testing to prove there isn’t any interference. First Air is planning to perform this testing on our B737s later this spring. Until that testing is completed, and then verified by Transport Canada, we are still bound by current regulations. Until then, we require your continued cooperation to leave all devices turned off during takeoff and landing and then only use them in airplane mode during the rest of the flight. Captain Aaron Speer Vice President, Flight Operations First Air If you are curious about a specific topic regarding flying and aircraft operations, let us know what you’d like to learn about and we’ll try to include it in a future column. Email: editor@arcticjournal.ca

Dedicated to being first in service — and our commitment to the communities and people we serve!


ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᐅᑉ ᐅᔾᔨᕆᔭᐅᑎᑕᐅᓂᖓ

Employee Spotlight | Iqqanaijaqtiup Ujjirijautitauninga ᔪᐊᕐᔾ ᒥᐊᑦᑳᕝ | George Metcalfe

ᔪᐊᕐᔾ ᒥᐊᑦᑳᕝ ᐃᓱᒪᑕᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᔨᒋᔭᐅᕗᖅ ᕘᕐᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᓂᐅᕕᕐᕕᖓᓂ ᐋᑐᕙᒥ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᕝᕕᐊᓐᓂ. ᓄᓇᓕᖃᕐᐳᖅ ᐃᐊᓪᒫᓐᑦ, ᐋᓐᓂᐊᑎᕆᐅᒥ, ᓄᓇᓕᕋᓛᖑᔪᒥ ᐋᑐᕙᐅᑉ ᓯᓚᑖᓂ. ᐃᕐᓂᐊᖑᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᔪᖅ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᕈᖅᓴᔭᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᒻᒧᓕᐅᖅᑎᑦ ᐱᕈᖅᓰᕝᕕᐊᓂ ᑕᐅᕙᓂ, ᐊᖓᔪᖅᑳᖏᑦ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᔨᐅᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᒻᒪᑕ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᒃᔭᖅᑐᐃᔨᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᕝᕕᖃᕋᒥᒃ ᑎᑭᑦᑐᒍ 1977.

ᔪᐊᕐᔾ ᐊᒥᐊᖅᓯᔨᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᕘᕐᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᓐᓄᑦ 1979-ᖑᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᑖᖑᓕᓚᐅᕐᐳᖅ ᑳᕐᑉ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᕝᕕᖓᓂ. ᕘᕐᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᕐᕕᒻᒥᓐᓂᒃ ᓄᒃᑎᖅᑎᕆᒻᒪᑕ ᐋᑐᕙ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᕝᕕᐊᓄᑦ 12 ᐅᑭᐅᑦ ᓈᓯᒪᓕᖅᑐᓂ, ᔪᐊᕐᔾ ᒪᓕᖃᑕᐅᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᕗᖅ. ᔪᐊᕐᔾ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᖃᑦᑕᖅᓯᒪᕗᖅ ᓚᐃᓴᖃᖅᑑᓪᓗᓂ ᓄᓇᓕᐅᑎᓂᒃ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᔨᐅᓂᕐᒧᑦ. ᕘᕐᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᓐᓂ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᑖᖑᒐᒥ, ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓂᒃ ᐊᒥᐊᖅᑎᐅᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᕗᖅ, ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓱᓇᖁᑎᒃᓴᖏᓂᒃ ᐊᒥᐊᖅᑎᒋᔭᐅᓪᓗᓂ: ᒪᕐᕈᓕᐊᓛᓂᒃ, ᒪᕐᕈᓕᒡᔪᐊᓂᒃ, ᐲᖦ 18-ᓂᒃ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ HS748-ᓂᒃ. ᓄᕖᖅᓵᓂᑦ ᖄᖁᑎᒋᔭᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᔾᔪᑎᓂ ᐃᓕᐅᖅᑲᐅᔨᐅᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᒋᕗᖅ ᒪᕐᕈᓕᕐᔪᐊᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐲᔅ 18 ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖏᓐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᑕᐅᓕᕆᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᔨᐅᓕᖅᑐᓂ HS 748-, ATR-42, 727 ᐊᒻᒪᓗ 737 ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑏᑦ ᐃᓗᖏᓐᓂᒃ. ᐅᓪᓗᒥᐅᔪᖅ ᐃᓱᒪᑕᕆᔭᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᔨᐅᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐃᖅᑲᓚᐃᔮᖃᕐᓂᖓ ᐃᓗᐊᓃᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᕝᕕᒻᒥ ᐃᓚᖃᕐᐳᖅ ᐋᖅᑭᐅᒪᑦᑎᐊᓕᕆᐊᖅᐸᓐᓂᕐᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᑕᐅᓕᕆᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᕙᓐᓂᕐᓄᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᑦ ᐃᓗᓕᖏᓐᓂᒃ. ᓇᐅᑦᓯᖅᑐᐃᔨᐅᕙᒃᑐᖅ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᓂᐅᔪᓂᒃ, ᐊᒥᐊᖅᑕᐅᕙᓐᓂᖏᓂᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᑦ ᓯᓚᑎᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᑕᐅᓂᖅᐸᐅᔪᑎᒍᑦ ᓯᑯᕙᓪᓕᐊᔪᓂᒃ ᐲᔭᖅᑎᐅᓕᕆᔾᔪᑎᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᖅᑕᐅᕙᓐᓂᖏᑦᑕ. ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᑦᑎᐊᕙᓐᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᖃᑎᖃᕐᓂᓂ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᒋᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᕝᕕᓕᕆᔨᒃᑯᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᕈᓐᓇᖅᐸᒻᒪᑕ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᒃᓴᐅᓕᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᔭᕇᖅᑕᐅᕝᕕᒃᓴᖏᓂᒃ ᐱᔭᕇᕈᓐᓇᖅᐸᒃᑐᑎᒃ ᓯᕗᓂᐊᓂᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᐱᔭᕇᕈᓐᓇᖅᓯᕙᒃᑐᑎᒃ ᑲᑐᔾᔨᓂᖃᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᒃᓴᐅᓕᖅᓯᒪᔪᓄᑦ.

ᖁᕕᐊᒋᓂᖅᐹᕆᕙᒃᑕᖓ ᔪᐊᕐᔾ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᒥᓂ ᑲᑎᓯᔪᓐᓇᕌᖓᒥ ᐃᓄᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓂ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᕝᕕᓐᓂ ᑲᑎᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᔭᒥᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᔨᒋᔭᐅᔪᓂᒃ. ᐃᖃᓗᓐᓄᐊᖅᓯᒪᕗᖅ, ᔭᓗᓇᐃᒧᑦ, ᐃᑦᒪᓐᑕᓐᒧᑦ, ᒪᓐᑐᕆᐋᓪᒧᑦ, ᒍᐃᓂᐲᒡᒧᑦ, ᕚᓐᑰᕙᒧᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᒋᐊᒍᕆᒧᑦ.

ᔪᐊᕐᔾ ᖁᕕᐊᒋᔭᖃᕐᑐᖅ ᐊᑭᓕᖅᓱᒐᐅᓇᓂ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑎᐅᖃᑦᑕᕆᐊᒥᒃ ᓯᕕᑖᓐ ᑲᑎᑦᑕᕐᕕᐊᓂ ᐃᐊᓪᒫᓐᑦᒥ, ᐊᐅᔭᐅᑎᓪᓗᒍᓗ ᐊᐅᔭᖅᓯᐅᕝᕕᒻᒥᓃᑉᐸᒋᐊᒥᓂᒃ ᓯᒥᑦ ᕚᓪᔅᓂ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᓂ ᐃᓅᖃᑎᒋᕙᒃᑐᓂᒋᑦ.

George Metcalfe is the supervisor coordinator of First Air’s interior shop based at the Ottawa Airport. He resides in Almonte, Ontario, a small town west of Ottawa. Born and raised on a dairy farm there, his parents operated a milk producing and delivery business until 1977. George began work as a painter for First Air in 1979 when the airline was based at the Carp Airport. When First Air moved its facilities to the Ottawa Airport about 12 years ago, George went along as well. George has a background as a licensed auto body repair technician. When he started with First Air, he painted airplanes and parts: Twin Otters, DC3s, Beech 18s, and HS 748s. He also recovered the fabric control surfaces on DC3 and Beech 18s and then began refurbishing HS 748, ATR-42, 727, and 737 interiors. His present work as a supervisor coordinator of the interior shop involves looking after overhaul and refurbishment of aircraft interiors. He oversees seat repairs, painting of aircraft exteriors and leading edge de-ice boot repairs. Having a good team to work with helps the shop accomplish the job at hand, meeting or exceeding deadlines when everyone pulls together to get the job done. The highlight of George’s job is meeting the people at other bases where he’s been. He has travelled to Iqaluit, Yellowknife, Edmonton, Montreal, Winnipeg, Vancouver and Calgary. George’s special interests include volunteering with the Civitan Club of Almonte, enjoying time at his summer trailer in Smiths Falls and spending time with family. © Mark Taylor

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In the News

Watch the skies © MARK TAYLOR

Rolled out at the end of 2016, the image on this aircraft tail fin by Niore Iqalukjuak is featured on a First Air ATR series aircraft.

© CELEBRITY CRUISES

Exploring new opportunities First Air was recently awarded the winter contract with Celebrity Cruises to carry their cruise ship passengers from Hamilton to Miami and London, Ontario, to West Palm Beach, Florida. These flights utilize our 737-400 FNM which, as displayed in the photo, has a new paint scheme to reflect the partnership. First Air is proud to be Celebrity’s airline of choice for this cruise season and look forward to welcoming their passengers onboard. This charter program is an example of how we continue to explore revenue opportunities while staying focussed on our core scheduled service.


2017 | 02 • $5.95

Crystal II to Iqaluit

Bearable Encounters

Faces of the Franklin Expedion

Awe-inspiring Arctic Voyage

PM40050872

o www.arcticjournal.ca

An iceberg just off Monumental Island, Nunavut, on a beautiful, glassy, calm day at sea. © Dave Sandford/One Ocean Expeditions

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Robert Hoselton, Beat Studios

above&beyond ltd., (aka above&beyond, Canada’s Arctic Journal) is a wholly owned subsidiary of First Air, and a media instrument intended solely to entertain and provide general information about the North. The views and opinions expressed in editorial content, advertisements, or by contributors, do not necessarily reflect the views, official positions or policies of First Air, its agents, or those of above&beyond magazine unless expressly stated. above&beyond ltd. does not assume any responsibility for any errors and/or omissions of any content in the publication. Reproduction in whole or part without permission is prohibited.

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Contents 9

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March | April 2017 Volume 29, No. 2

28 Features

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Arctic Voyage

Our journey would travel around the southern tip and up the Eastern coast of Baffin Island, across the Davis Strait to various points on Western Greenland, before ending our exploration in Cambridge Bay. — Dave Sandford

23

Crystal II to Iqaluit

The City of Iqaluit originated entirely from a military presence, and not from a commercial venture, such as a trading post, or a government administrative venture. From its origin as an airbase in 1942, it has experienced a remarkable 75-year transformation. — Ken Johnson

28

Bearable Encounters

During a six-week period in October and November, polar bear watching is the most active. Canada is home to 17,000 of the estimated 25,000 worldwide polar bear population. — Alan G. Luke & Jacquie D. Durand

34

Faces of the Franklin Expedition

This is one of Canada’s oldest missing person’s cases. My mission was to help put a name to the unidentified remains of two crew members and to create faces so we can identify them. — Diana P. Trepkov

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Living Above&Beyond

38

Science Leading Polar Research — Polar Knowledge Canada

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41 45 48 51 53

54

Resources

Science Changes in River Ice Across the Yukon Education Canada’s Northern Mining Sector — Mining Matters

Arts Art Travel Program Northern Style — William Huffman Bookshelf

Guest Editorial Our Vision Forward — Sandy Silver Yukon Premier Inuit Forum — Natan Obed President, ITK

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Arctic voyage Awe-inspiring landscapes, wildlife and history Text and photos by Dave Sandford In the summer of 2016, I was

photographer in residence aboard

One Ocean Expeditions ship. I met most of my co-workers in Ottawa,

where we boarded a First Air flight to Iqaluit, Nunavut. This was where my Arctic journey commenced.

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The icecap in Greenland. © Dave Sandford/One Ocean Expeditions

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A humpback whale bubble net feeds. © Dave Sandford/One Ocean Expeditions

Over the next 27 days onboard the Akademik Sergey Vavilov, our journey would travel around the southern tip and up the Eastern coast of Baffin Island, across the Davis Strait to various points on Western Greenland, before heading back across to the northern region of Baffin Island. The ship then traced the pathways of various Arctic explorers, as we traversed the Northwest Passage, ultimately ending our exploration in Cambridge Bay. It was my first time onboard a ship of any kind, let alone a research vessel. It turned out to be a wonderful experience, due in large part to my incredible fellow staff and being afforded the opportunity to meet passengers from every corner of the world, culminating in friendship bonds that will last a lifetime. The fluke of a humpback whale is dwarfed by a massive iceberg. © Dave Sandford/One Ocean Expeditions

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A mother bear and her cub feed on a beluga whale in Coningham Bay, Nunavut. © Dave Sandford/One Ocean Expeditions

The ice formations, the vastness of the land and the Arctic animals amazed me. At a young age, I had visited a part of the Arctic, but as an environmentally conscious adult, my return to the Arctic made me realize how much more the Arctic, its residents, the animals and the Arctic environment need our attention. The beauty of it, the awe-inspiring landscapes, seascapes, the animals — including the ‘King’ of the Arctic, the polar bear, brought tears to my eyes. I was not just seeing these things, I was feeling them. There is an energy there with the animals and the environment, an energy that should be experienced in person. If anybody can make this journey, they should do so. As a photographer, the highlights for me were the incredible icebergs, some the size of small cities; the icecap in Greenland, which looks like another beautiful world all its own; and, of course, the Arctic wildlife. It was a magnificent sight to see a harem of Harp Seals, numbering in the thousands, on the ice floes and the solitude of hearing seals slip into the water and the water lap against the ice and the tinkling of the ice — no wind, just the pure sounds of nature.

Below: A mother polar bear and her cub, Dundas Harbour, Nunavut. © Dave Sandford/One Ocean Expeditions

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A harp seal sits on an ice floe in the waters surrounding Baffin Island. © Dave Sandford/One Ocean Expeditions

Another standout moment came from seeing a pod of humpback whales, undisturbed by our presence, playing and bubble net feeding as we kayaked amongst them. How awesome — a moment etched in my memory! Most importantly to me, was the opportunity to photograph polar bears in their natural environment. Photographing these most majestic animals, feeding and going about their business, undisturbed by our presence, fulfilled a life-long dream. Following the footsteps of our early explorers was also a thrilling experience. Seeing parts of our Canadian history such as abandoned Hudson Bay Outposts, Franklin’s last camp where the remains of those first explorers lie and meeting the locals in some of the communities who shared their knowledge and insight of the North, all came together to gratefully expand my knowledge of the Arctic and thirst for the possibility of yet another Arctic expedition in the future. I hope the images I captured will help portray the passion I felt for my Arctic expedition.

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Below: An Arctic fox watches over Fort Ross, Nunavut. © Dave Sandford/One Ocean Expeditions

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

One of 150 Secrets: A Snow King builds an exotic snow castle on frozen Great Slave Lake to host a month-long festival each March. © Riley Veldhuisen

Revealing the secrets Who is going to get the chance to visit Canada’s

• the return of the sun celebration after

sharing 150 of the NWT’s secrets with the world

• a Snow King who builds an exotic snow

to visit the NWT from pre-selected Canadian

• Superlative secrets like the biggest fish,

Northwest Territories this year? NWT Tourism is over 150 days and offering 150 opportunities

cities. NWT Tourism is sharing one secret each

day at nwtsecrets.com and via social media. Secrets include:

• that the Northwest Territories offers the best Aurora viewing in the entire world

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six weeks of darkness

castle each March

tallest teepee, oldest rock and longest

river experiences.

Super prize packages will be awarded,

entitling winners for a trip for two for a four-day

all-inclusive tourism treat, each trip destined

for a different region of the NWT.

Airline tickets will be awarded to individuals

in various ways: through an online contest, at

Outdoor Adventure shows at selected locations

in Canada, in restaurants and on radio stations

in Toronto and Vancouver, and at Go Transit

stops in Toronto.

Visit nwtsecrets.com and learn about what

you'll experience when you visit the Northwest

Territories.

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami President Natan Obed sign the Inuit-Crown Partnership Declaration in Iqaluit. © Adam Scotti/PMO

New Inuit-Crown partnership agreement signed In February, the Government of Canada and Inuit leaders signed an agreement to launch a new Inuit-Crown Partnership Committee. The joint political body will help foster a new working relationship between Canadian Inuit and the Crown and act on shared priorities and monitor progress going forward while underscoring the common goal of creating prosperity for all Inuit, which benefits all Canadians. The Inuit-Crown Partnership Declaration states that the group will pursue “the socio-economic, cultural, and environmental conditions of success through the full implementation of land claims agreements as well as reconciliation”. The signing ceremony to officially create the bilateral policy committee with Inuit took place at the Iqaluit offices of Nunavut Tunngavik Inc. (NTI) at 1:30 pm February 9 with Prime Minister

Justin Trudeau meeting Inuit leaders from across Inuit Nunangat. “We know that working together in a respectful, collaborative and engaged way is the only way to be worthy of the expectations of so many people,” Trudeau said. The working policy group will consist of four federal ministers; president Natan Obed, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami; President Aluki Kotierk, NTI; President Jobie Tukkiapik, Makivik Corporation; Chair/CEO Duane Smith, Inuvialuit Regional Corporation; and President Johannes Lampe, Nunatsiavut Government. The Committee also includes the presidents of three regional Inuit organizations: The National Inuit Youth Council, Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada, and the Inuit Circumpolar Council Canada as observers.

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

Adventurers to circumnavigate Bylot Island

© David Reid (2)

16

In early April, the Bear Witness Arctic Expedition team will head North to Pond Inlet at the Northern tip of Baffin Island. Preparations are in their final stages and now the fine-tuning details of putting such an ambitious expedition together come into play. On April 7, the team assembles in Ottawa and after a couple of days packing, head North on April 10 with First Air. A truly international team — Eric is from France, Ingrid (originally from Germany) lives in Spain, Martin (originally from Spain) lives in Nelson, British Columbia; and David (originally from Scotland) lives just outside Ottawa — they bring with them a tremendous amount of Arctic expedition experience. That experience will be relied upon as the four skiers attempt to circumnavigate Bylot Island, a journey expected to take about a month. As part of the expedition outreach program, members of the team will work with schools, in Ontario and Pond Inlet, to involve youth and invite them to follow the expedition. Teachers and students at one Ontario school are creating a competition amongst the students to design a flag. The winning entry will be taken and carried by the team on the expedition and showcased throughout. Plans are also in the works to include a strong science component. The team is looking to take a special device (known as an electromagnetic icemeter EMP) to measure the thickness of the sea ice throughout the circumnavigation. In addition, during the expedition the team will compile information on weather and wildlife. In consultation with local Inuit hunters in Pond Inlet, the team realizes that great care needs to be taken, particularly along the North coast of Bylot Island. Situated on the south side of Lancaster Sound and facing Devon Island, this area is known to contain many polar bears. In collaboration with one Inuit hunter, two sled dogs will be taken to act as “bear dogs” in case bears get too curious! The expedition around Bylot Island will be documented and following its completion a book will be released to tell the story of this incredible part of Canada. Follow along at www.bearwitness.ca and at www.facebook.com/bearwitness150.

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

Save a language: Use an app There aren't many Southern Tutchone speakers left in the Yukon,

and it’s a language with several dialects. The Yukon Native

Language Centre estimates that there are between 150 to 250 people left who are fluent.

To preserve the dwindling Southern Tutchone language, the

Ta'an Kwach'an Council/Yukon First Nation has launched a

new app project. With the help of the Winnipeg company Ogoki

Learning, the Southern Tutchone Ta’an Dialect language app is

programmed to work without Internet connection once downloaded

on a phone.

The app uses audio from the late Irene Smith, provided by the

Yukon Native Language Centre. There are about 450 words, expressions and phrases contained in the app. Categories include

greetings, people, places, numbers, colours, animals, plants, food, time, weather, body parts and more.

The app is available for free download on Google Play (for

Android devices) and on iTunes for iPhones and iPads.

© taan.ca

For more information, visit http://taan.ca.

Resource to help teach science in the NWT

Ecology North has announced the launch of

a resource for teachers in the Northwest

Territories to bring interactive, hands-on

science-based knowledge and experiences to

youth across the NWT to inspire an interest in

studying and pursuing science.

The project targets NWT youth in grades

six to 12 by working with schools to deliver

engaging environmental science programming. Students will learn:

• Concrete local knowledge to

understand how the science and

© googleplay

with substantive skills to plan and implement discrete projects; and

technology components of the

• self-esteem to envision and realize

northern contexts, including an

as leadership, communication and

curriculum apply to their unique

in-depth understanding of

environmental challenges;

• Awareness of opportunities for

increased individual and community

sustainability and independence along

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personal and community goals, as well conflict resolution skills to work

constructively both independently and as part of a team.

To access the free lesson plans, visit

www.nwtsciencefocus.ca

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Polar Bear quota challenged

Makivik Corporation has filed judicial review

applications related to Polar Bear Quota decisions

made by the Governments of Nunavut and

Canada affecting the Total Allowable Take (TAT), and Non-Quota Limitations (NQLs) for the

Southern Hudson Bay Polar Bear Subpopulation

in the Nunavik Marine Region.

The wildlife management boards in Nunavik

and James Bay submitted a final quota of 28

to be shared by Inuit and Cree in Nunavik and

around James Bay. However, both boards

received notice from Nunavut and Ottawa,

rejecting the quota. Makivik disagrees with the revised quota of 25.

Makivik Executive Vice-President Adamie

Delisle Alaku said, “Both the Nunavut and

Canadian Ministers had an obligation to give

“full regard” to the extensive body of Inuit

traditional knowledge in making their decisions, which they failed to fulfill. They also did not

respect the spirit of the Nunavik Inuit Land

Claims Agreement (NILCA) in making their

decision on Total Allowable Take, and Non-Quota Limitations.”

“The fewer polar bear that are harvested, the

less chance Nunavik Inuit have to experience and pass on to the next generation key aspects

of their culture, such as survival skills and life

skills, feelings of fulfillment gained from sharing the meat, and the pride of completing an

important coming-of-age experience associated

with being a good hunter.”

“Limiting the polar bear harvest also reduces

the extensive social and economic benefits that

the polar bear harvest provides the Inuit,” and

reduces access to “inexpensive and healthy

country food in an area where food costs are

extremely high,” Makivik said. 18

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Nunavut Order of Canada recipients named

Tanya Tagaq performs at the 2015 Arctic Inspiration Prize Ceremonies. © Fred Cattroll

LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND Matthew Nuqingaq drum dances at Northern Lights 2016. © NACA

Two well-known Nunavummiut will be inducted into the Order of Canada this year.

Award-winning recording artist and performer

Tanya Tagaq Gillis of Cambridge Bay is recognized

“for her contributions to Canadian culture through her avant-garde Inuit throat singing.”

Artist and performer Mathew Nuqingaq is

honoured “for his artistic contributions as a

jewellery designer and drum dancer, and for his

leadership in Nunavut’s arts community.”

Tagaq and Nuqingaq will receive their insignia

from the Governor General at a ceremony at

Rideau Hall in Ottawa, Ontario.

Want to learn about northern politics and development? The Institut Nordique du Québec, made up of

work independently through the units, but can

Université Laval, McGill University and Quebec’s

also interact through an online forum.

will offer a seven-unit online course this spring

Nunavik’s elected officials and project leaders

ment, free of charge.

Social Services director Minnie Grey, Makivik

national institute for scientific research (INRS), on northern Quebec politics and social develop-

The MOOC, short for “Massive Open Online

Course,” allows universities to show their

expertise to a wider audience. Students can

The program includes input from some of

including Nunavik Regional Board of Health and

executives Andy Moorhouse and Adamie

Delisle-Alaku, Inukjuak community development

mayor Hilda Snowball. The curriculum also

relies on the expertise of well-known academics

such as linguist and anthropologist Louis-Jacques

Dorais and sociologist Gérard Duhaime, who worked for many years in Quebec’s North.

The English version of the course runs

April 24 through June 17.

co-ordinator Tommy Palliser and Kangiqsualujjuaq

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

Quebec caribou continue to decline Caribou are a mainstay of the traditional diet in

population. General observations of fewer

Leaf River Caribou in Kangirsualujuaq, Nunavik. © Felix St-Aubin

the trend continues, quotas will have to be

Northern Quebec. However, in the last five years,

animals and lower numbers of large male caribou,

imposed.

herd has declined to 199,000 animals.

but also targeted by trophy sport hunters, have

will close the sports hunt of the province’s

the number of Nunavik's Leaf River caribou A 2016 Quebec survey found a general

important contributors to reproductive success encouraged Makivik and other Indigenous

migratory caribou to help those species’

government to put an immediate end to its

February 1, 2018, for an “indefinite period”.

decline in the animals’ physical health, likely

groups in northern Quebec to urge the Quebec

predation by wolves and black bears, the

caribou sports hunt.

health, including new parasites and predators;

the sports hunt would be detrimental to the

due to: a deterioration of their habitat and

impacts of climate change on the population’s

and an increase in air traffic and a larger human

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The Quebec government did announce it

They say that any delay in cancelling

food security of the people of Nunavik and if

declining populations rebound — but not until

Check out the video online on the Leaf River

Caribou at: www.thelon.com/2015-leaf-river-

caribou-film.htm

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RESOURCES

NWT

YUKON

As the Canadian Zinc Corporation continues to

Corp.) is now the largest land holder in the

White Gold District has new owners

Proposed mine awaits feasibility study

White Gold Corporation (previously G4G Capital

arrange financing for the Prairie Creek mine site

White Gold District, south of Dawson City, Yukon.

Territories, which would include construction

Yukon prospector Shawn Ryan, spread over 21

Dene Band community members have begun

owns a total of 14,648 claims (297,000 hectares).

Branch land.

ration work by Ryan and Ground Truth Explo-

Having acquired 12,301 quartz claims from

in the Mackenzie Mountains of the Northwest

properties, the Vancouver based company now

of an all-season road to the site, Nahanni Butte

The deal also includes $15 million for explo-

cutting their own trail across Indian Affairs The trail can’t extend beyond 1.5 metres

wide, or the Band may need to apply for a land

use permit from the Mackenzie Valley Land and

Water Board (MVLWB).

Meanwhile, the MVLWB is waiting on a final

filing from Canadian Zinc before starting public

hearings, the last step in the assessment process. Canadian Zinc expects its Definitive Feasibility

Study will be completed by mid-2017.

Permit would allow resource company to begin drilling

92 Resources Corp. has applied for a land use

permit from the Mackenzie Valley Land and

Water Board to drill for lithium-containing

pegmatite.

To access the site, the company wants to

upgrade and potentially extend the existing

Ragged Ass Mine ATV trail north of the Ingraham Trail outside Yellowknife and east of Hidden

Lake. Mapping and sampling at the property

has already occurred.

If approved, drilling would begin in mid-

March.

Sizeable gem found in NWT

Prairie Creek Mine Site with airstrip on the left side. © Canadian Zinc Corporation

The Gahcho Kué mine is the world's largest

new diamond mine with the potential to

become one of Canada’s major high-grade

and long-lived diamond mines.

NUNAVUT

Gold project undergoing re-assessment

Sabina Gold and Silver Corp. is continuing

to focus on advancing the Back River Project

towards production.

The Nunavut Impact Review Board launched

its re-assessment process for the gold project

by requesting the mining company update its

Final Environmental Impact Statement. Targeted

quality (ground and surface) and climate and meteorology.

Following receipt of the updated report, the

Board will perform an internal review of the

the largest gem found so far.

consideration.

mine in August 2016. The mine is on track to

open pit and underground mines at its Goose

during the first quarter of 2017.

world. It has eight operating mines with the

Meadowbank mine in Nunavut its biggest goldproducing operation.

Lifetime achievement award presented

Susan Craig was presented with a lifetime

achievement award for mineral exploration from

the Association for Mineral Exploration in British Columbia at the Mineral Exploration Roundup

She was recognized with the Gold Pan Award

environment, the marine environment, water

some encouraging results in February when

achieve commercial production on schedule

cent of the shares for $14.52 million. Agnico

Eagle is one of the biggest gold producers in the

terrestrial wildlife, the freshwater aquatic

ecosystemic effects on caribou and other

A public hearing will then take place before the

Mountain Province Diamonds opened the

Agnico Eagle Mines Ltd. has also bought a

stake in these mining claims, buying 19.93 per

Annual Awards Celebration of Excellence Gala

The Gahcho Kué diamond mine, 280-kilometres

mine workers found a 67.87-carat diamond. It’s

is greatly increased. They already have 250,000

soil samples collected in the Dawson district.

areas of concern are: the potentially adverse

Statement and begin a public technical review,

east of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, showed

ration over the next three years. At 200 holes

drilled per year, the chance of new discoveries

inviting written submissions from stakeholders.

updated report is sent to federal ministers for The Back River proposal includes a chain of

property, located 400 kilometres south of

Cambridge Bay and 520 km north of Yellowknife.

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at the end of January.

for “exceptional meritorious service to the mineral

exploration community”. A Yukon geologist,

Craig is an advocate of responsible develop-

ment and the engagement of First Nations. She

founded Northern Freegold Ltd., is currently the director of government affairs and community

relations for AuRico Gold and serves on several

mining boards in the Yukon and in B.C. She is

now working in the Yukon on a new project with Metallic Minerals Corp. as its executive vice

president.

The Association for Mineral Exploration is a

group that represents and advocates for members who are involved in mineral exploration.

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The distinctive igloo shaped church in Iqaluit is an iconic building within the community.

Crystal ii to iqaluit A r e mA r k A b l e 75- y e A r t r A n s f o r mAt i o n Text and photos by Ken Johnson

The City of Iqaluit is among a unique group of Canadian communities that originated entirely from a military presence, and not from a commercial venture, such as a trading

post, or a government administrative venture. From its origin as an airbase to serve the ferrying of aircraft from North America to Europe in 1942, Crystall II as it was then known,

then Frobisher Bay (1964), and finally Iqaluit (1987), has experienced a remarkable 75-year transformation.

The modern history of the region originated almost 450 years ago with the

exploration of Martin Frobisher, and his apparent discovery of gold in 1576. The site of this early Arctic mining misadventure is only 190 kilometres to the southeast. No significant

exploration of the region advanced until C.F. Hall explored the region in the 1860s. As part

of the search for Sir John Franklin’s lost expedition, he created the first rudimentary map of the area.

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The development of the “lower base” area of the past decade now dominates the view from Astro Hill to the Iqaluit airfield.

Another 80 years passed before interest in the region once again emerged with the Second World War and the Battle of the Atlantic, through which the Allied Forces suffered terrible losses from Nazi Germany's submarine fleet. A new mobilization plan for supplies, and aircraft in particular, was developed and became known as the Crimson Route. This route made use of the point of land at the south end of Baffin Island, which was on the great circle route to Europe, and accommodated the leap frogging of fighter aircraft. During late July 1941, a United States Army Air Forces team investigated the Frobisher Bay region for a potential airfield. Ultimately, a level meadow beside the community was selected as an airfield site. The base amenities consisted of the base accommodation, a hospital, and a sealift area, in addition to two runways. The construction was difficult, particularly since the military personnel had no experience constructing in permafrost soils. This venture was a “secret” project back in 1943. The Battle of the Atlantic turnaround in 1943 meant the Crimson Route through the base became obsolete because the location was not particularly strategic. The airfield activity was reduced to weather, communications, and logistics duties and the base was inactivated in 1950, functioning as a weather station only. In 1944, the Canadian government bought the airfield for 6.8 million dollars. In nearby Ward Inlet, 10 kilometres south of the community, the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) had an outpost. In a strictly commercial venture, the HBC outpost moved in 1949 from Ward Inlet to the neighbouring River valley of Niaqunngut, officially called Apex, to take advantage of the commercial prospects at the airfield. The HBC could not relocate to the base itself because of its military status, so they settled on being five kilometres away. The Americans moved back to the Canadian Department of Transport administered Frobisher Bay Airport in 1951 because the advantages of having high latitude airfields were realized, with the possibility of an over the top attack from the Soviet 24

Ocean view houses are a common feature in Iqaluit.

Union. The U.S. military reactivated the base in 1951 and Crystal II became known as Frobisher Bay Air Base. As part of the reactivation, the U.S. military extended the paved runway to 2750 metres (9,000 feet) for aerial tanker operations. The airbase became a staging point for the construction of the DEW Line with materials sealifted to the airbase and then transported by air to DEW Line sites in the region. A DEW Line site at the base itself opened in 1957, and subsequently closed in 1961 ending the surveillance activity. In 1957, the community had a population of 1,200 with 489 being Inuit. A new direction for the community came with John Diefenbaker’s 1958 election campaign, where he announced his ‘Northern Vision.’ This was a strategy to extend Canadian nationhood to the Arctic and develop its natural resources for the benefit of all Canadians. The then Department of Northern Affairs and National Development implemented the ‘National Development Policy’. In March 1958, a speech by the chief of the industrial Arctic division of the Department of Northern Affairs and National Development was made regarding the A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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The 30-year-old yellow terminal sits adjacent to the original terminal building to the left.

redevelopment of Frobisher Bay. "It will be the most revolutionary community in the country, perhaps on the continent. Today, architects and engineers are talking in terms of a new community shaped roughly like a snow flake to make up a modern community of more than 4,000 people.” This futuristic plan for a domed city surrounded by residential towers had a price tag at the time of $120 million, which would be at least one billion dollars today. Residential towers around a central covered dome was a totally impractical design for an Arctic community, particularly given the extreme construction challenges of building on permafrost.

Following the shelving of the futuristic concept, a more modest “new town two” plan was developed. This concept was still based upon a sheltered environment from the harsh Arctic temperatures. The grand vision came and went when Diefenbaker lost power in 1962. In 1963, the remaining military forces left, creating a Canadian government centre for the Eastern Arctic. This ultimately transformed a military base into a community, with a legacy of the “bedroom community” of Apex, which

Tundra Ridge and its distinctive “lego” shaped buildings was a product of 1990s development.

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The Astro Hill with its red and brown buildings, was aptly named because of an adjacent survey point that was established with survey observations of the stars.

was accessed by a road in 1955. During this period the overlying governance for the community changed from Ottawa to Yellowknife, when Yellowknife became the territorial capital in 1967. Within the community itself, a central area called Astro Hill became the community focus in the late sixties, and a satellite residential area was connected with a sheltered corridor to the “White Row” housing. The limited residential neighborhoods included the “Lower Base” and Iqaluit with a “k” instead of a “q”. In the mid-1980s, planning occurred for a new residential expansion area. The ultimate naming of the new development was quite “literal,” with the original neighbourhood name of “New Expansion Area”. With time this literal name was replaced by the neighbourhoods of Tundra Valley, Tundra Ridge and Legoland. In the approach to the creation of the Nunavut territory in 1999, the Town of Iqaluit had to fight for the right to be the territorial capital, competing against the regional centres of Rankin Inlet and Cambridge Bay. Iqaluit won out, which created a phenomenal boom in the community, with a growth estimate to 5,000 people, ultimately becoming 6,600 people. The housing in Tundra Valley, Tundra Ridge and Legoland took on a modern look reflecting the maturation from a regional centre to a territorial capital. As much as the community itself now dominates the landscape around Iqaluit, air transport remains one of the largest private sector employers in Iqaluit and Nunavut. Iqaluit is also important on a global aviation scale because polar routes from eastern North America to Asia, and western North America to Europe are within 600 kilometres, which makes the airfield an alternative landing site for any aviation emergency. The polar route location, cold climate and runway 26

Iqaluit's current yellow airport terminal was built in 1986. The airport is undergoing expansion and a new red terminal will open in 2017. © Doris Ohlmann

size also make an ideal destination for aircraft testing, which Iqaluit has regularly experienced. In January 2016, Airbus hopped over Greenland from Europe to cold weather test a new engine for the A320. Iqaluit is uniquely a “big city” with features of the community, such as 200 cars per kilometre of road, which compete with the number for Singapore. As much as Iqaluit is a “big city” in the context of the Nunavut Territory, the community remains an Arctic community at heart on the edge of a frontier. How many capital cities can boast about the occasional polar bear walking through town? Ken Johnson is a planner, engineer, and historian based in Edmonton, Alberta. He has been coming and going from Iqaluit for almost 30 years, and he has witnessed first-hand the “capitalization” of Iqaluit since 1999. He is currently pursuing the dedication of the Iqaluit airfield as a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark, in recognition of its historic and current contributions to North American aviation, world aviation, and northern development, joining the ranks of the Town of Inuvik, the Alaska Highway, and the White Pass and Yukon Railway. Ken Johnson may be contacted at cryofront@gmail.com. A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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bearable encounters in harmony with Canada’s nanuq Text and photos by Alan G. Luke & Jacquie D. Durand One of the reasons the New York Times selected Canada as the #1 choice in their Places to Go in 2017 and Lonely Planet has

officially recognized Canada as the 2017 Destination of the Year, is our adorable carnivores. We respect these predators in “The Polar Bear Capital of the World,” Churchill, Manitoba. It is when you

acknowledge their freedom in their natural habitat that you begin

to truly appreciate them.

During a six-week period in October and November,

polar bear watching is the most active. Canada is home to 17,000

of the estimated 25,000 worldwide polar bear population. Tundra

Buggy and Great White Bear conduct their tours here on rugged all-terrain vehicles, which have each been built on the base of

retired fire trucks. Each of these ATVs may carry up to two dozen patrons as they spread as far as 12 km (7.5 miles) east of the town.

Polar bear trail in pristine snow. © Alan Luke

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© Alan Luke

Mother and cubs reposing. © Alan Luke

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Just 10 minutes east of town as the crow flies, or rather snowy owl, is the launch site where we board our designated tundra buggy of international adventure seekers and appointed driver. A convoy of the big-wheeled buggies proceeds to depart and disperse over the snow-laden tundra toward Gordon Point. The region is classified as a semi-desert and only receives about 16 inches of precipitation annually. This day turned out to be perfectly clear and sunny with a surprising temperature of -5°C (22°F), ideal for photo opportunities. However, the polar bears were engaging in some sub-Arctic repose. I suppose if I weighed over 500 kg (1,000 pounds) and had 10 cm (four inches) of fat, I would sleep too. Their white fur, more of a creamy blond colouration, acts as a camouflage covering their black skin which facilitates heat absorption. The guard hairs which protect the thick undercoat are hollow and transparent. After viewing a few with heads on paws, I began to wonder if they were real — maybe someone donning a bear suit had made all these distinct tracks in the virgin snow. Then someone in our group would spot a bear with his head popped up. Definitely animatronic creatures, I thought. I almost expected to see a bear sitting with a beverage and shades as in the popular soda commercial. (Coca-Cola first used the polar bear in a print ad campaign in France during 1922.) My suspicions eventually waned when a curious bear casually strolled by a row of tundra buggies. One must employ bear-watching etiquette or the bear essentials (so to speak) at all times to not stress these marvelous marine mammals, known as “Lords of the Arctic”. Their paddle-like paws permit them to swim myriad distances in frigid waters. Thus, they are known as Ursus Maritimus, “bear of the sea,” by scientists and nanuq

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A polar bear inquires about reservations at Snow Lodge. © Jacquie Durand

by Inuit. It is essentially important to remain as quiet as possible and not to bait or feed them. Failure to abide by these simple rules will result in a helicopter ride off the tundra — at your own expense. Our second full day on the tundra was windy and colder and consequently provided us with more activity by the great white bears. We spotted six outside the Polar Bear Lodge known as “the camp”. The Lodge is essentially a series of glorified buggies replete with appropriate facilities that can provide sleeping accommodations for up to 38 people. Here, when not sniffing at buggies, the bears were doing everything from sleeping to sparring. These mock fights help to determine their dominance for when the bears move out onto the frozen bay. Bears relocate after “freeze-up” in search of their primary food source, the ringed seal (aka nattiq to Inuit), which they can detect under more than one metre of snow and ice. Prior to the start of their hunting season, they can fast for as long as eight months if they conserve their energy resources. During the interim they may nosh on kelp or even twigs if they get hungry enough. Since the polar bear generally eats only the skin and fat of the seal, the Arctic fox is never far behind to scavenge the remainder of the carcass. On these tundra excursions you can spot other types of animals as well. There is a unique diversity in animal habitat with both Arctic fox and red fox present. Both fresh and saltwater marshes, the tundra, taiga (vast sub-Arctic forest) and boreal forest attract a variety of wildlife. Arctic hare, snowy owls and the grouse-like ptarmigan are often sighted during tundra tours. The flat, snow-dusted landscape is primarily terrain, dotted with windswept white spruce trees. Due to the prevailing northwesterly winds, they provide a natural compass pointing in a southeast direction. Although rather barren and diminutive, A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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reminiscent of a Charlie Brown Christmas tree, “these trees could be as much as a few hundred years old,” our guide told me. Polar Bear Compound was erected to hold any wayward white bears that encroach on the perimeter of Churchill. This area buffering the town has 16 culvert traps and over two dozen spring-loaded leg-hold snares to deter any of the wanderers from venturing into town. The bears are darted with a tranquilizer and then have both ears tagged and the inside of their lip tattooed with numbers. A tooth will also be extracted to help determine the age of the bear. Often, they will also be weighed and measured before being hauled off to jail. The bears are not fed during their time at the compound, so as not to provide the image of a Churchill Hilton for the temporary town terrors. When the “freeze-up” does not precede the compound’s capacity, then some of the incarcerated bears are transported via a helicopter net outside a 64-km (40-mile) radius. There is an average of 100 polar bears detained annually in this facility that can accommodate up to 28 of the massive mammals at one time.

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Pair of polar bears sparring. © Alan Luke

Windswept trees on the sub-Arctic taiga. © Jacquie Durand

Within the controlled zone or city limits, intruders are not darted because a drugged bear is not a happy bear for at least 15 minutes until the chemical can take effect and render them incapacitated. Generally, they are scared off by firecracker shells, horns, sirens or even obscene language. Often, the bears show up in the evening, so we decided not to stroll by any restaurant exhaust fans during our nocturnal tours of the town. Popular tour operators such as International Wildlife Adventures (IWA) offer comprehensive itineraries. To enhance the overall tour, visual presentations are provided by a photographer, a naturalist, Parks Canada representatives, Métis artist and raconteur. A visit to the Eskimo Museum and the Churchill Northern Studies Centre where you can participate in a dog-sled ride are also featured on the tour. A local tour around the town with a population of close to 900 residents, takes you by appropriately named hotels including Aurora, Polar, Tundra and Ice Berg Inns. Churchill’s 14 streets are named after explorers such as Hudson, Radisson and Munck. The aurora borealis can be elusive but when it makes its appearance, the often luminescent, misty green brush strokes of light can be awe-inspiring. Inuit believe that the northern lights bring good luck to those who are conceived during its activity; so procreate or peruse as you wish. When I asked Nature 1st Tours guide and gunsmith Paul Ratson what it is like to live in “The Polar Bear Capital of the World,” he simply replied: “freedom”. I suppose man and animal do strive for the same thing, and ideally, we can both thrive and survive in harmony.

PRACTICAL INFORMATION: International Wildlife Adventures 1-800-808-4492 www.wildlifeadventures.com

Nature 1st Tours 204-675-2147 www.nature1sttours.ca

Great White Bear Tours 1-800-765-8344 www.greatwhitebeartours.com

Travel Manitoba 1-800-665-0040 www.travelmanitoba.com

Tundra Buggy Tours 1-800-663-9832 www.tundra.buggy.tours.com

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Churchill Northern Studies Centre 204-675-2307 www.cancom.net/-cnsc

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Studying one of the crew member’s skulls from the lost Franklin Expedition.

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Completed three-dimensional forensic facial reconstruction of Skull #1.

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faces of the franklin expedition from skulls and bones to flesh and faces Text and photos by Diana P. Trepkov

Dedicated to all the members of the 1845 Sir John Franklin expedition who tragically lost their lives. Who are these crew members from the Lost Franklin Expedition?

I had a very calm feeling working on members from the 1845 lost Franklin expedition, not that uneasy feeling when I’m working on an unsolved police homicide case. My mission was to help put a name to the unidentified remains of two crew members and to create faces so we can identify them. This is one of Canada’s oldest missing person’s cases. The Government of Nunavut Department of Culture and Heritage Archaeology Program funded the research. Douglas R. Stenton, from that Department, and Anne Keenleyside, from the Department of Anthropology, Trent University, asked me to assist. Facial reconstructions are a way for the public to recognize a face from unidentified skeletal remains. The skulls were in fairly good condition. Both skulls belong to males ranging from 18 years to their late 40s. Both skulls are Caucasian, and point to European ancestry. Facial reconstructions have been found to be more successful when a face is viewed as a whole. Tissue depth markers were cut to proper measurements and then glued to the skulls. A facial reconstruction is meant to provide only an approximation of what an individual may have looked like in life, and is not a method of positive identification. Dental records and DNA are accepted methods that are used to make a positive identification. Being a forensic artist is an extremely interesting career, never boring, but sometimes the unknown is the hardest. Working on these skulls was very intriguing as my mind kept wondering who they were?

Building the face of unidentified skull #1

The first skull didn’t have a mandible, which is the jaw, only the cranium. The mandible is the “white” jaw on the side profile skull with tissue depth markers. The cranium is the large, round superior part of the skull, enclosing the brain and the darker part of skull #1. I used a museum quality skulls’ mandible that matched the size of the maxilla measuring the teeth, then attached both parts together using oil base clay and wooden splints. I then inserted cotton balls to protect the eye sockets before placing the acrylic prosthetic eyes. To represent skin, I used oil base clay and also created a handmade wooden stand to support the three-dimensional facial reconstruction. The skull and the oil base clay is heavy, therefore the stand must be very strong to secure the finished clay model. The skull doesn’t lie; it tells us everything we need to know. He has thick eyebrows, a large bulbous nose, his forehead follows the skull shape and his high cheekbones are very apparent in the finished forensic three-dimensional facial reconstruction of skull #1. Since many teeth were lost from their sockets post-mortem, I used clay to fill in the spaces. The clothing was based on fashion research from 1845. The anthropologist provided the hat and the clothes were purchased from a thrift store. Skull #1 is now complete by three-dimensional facial reconstruction. When I look at the finished crew member’s face, I have a feeling of ease, like it is so nice to see all his features put together and see his face as a whole. People are identified in a distance through proportion. His proportions are correct because I strictly followed his skull as a template. Forensic art is 75 per cent science and 25 per cent art. A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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Side profile with tissue depth markers glued on Skull #1.

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Positioning the tissue depth markers on Skull # 2.

Here I am with the finished 2D drawing and 3D clay facial reconstruction of skull #2. © Marty J. Brown

Building the face of skull #2

Two-dimensional facial reconstruction drawing of Skull #2.

For the second crew member’s skull. I wanted to show how I would create his face in a two-dimensional facial reconstruction. Both methods, two and three, are very accurate. The first skull was done in oil base clay in a forensic three-dimensional facial reconstruction. For the second skull, I completed a two-dimensional facial reconstruction, which consists of a pencil drawing over a photograph of the original skull. Once the tissue depth markers are glued on the skull, then it is ready for the illustration to begin. The tissue depth markers, known as landmarks, are placed on the skull. The skull is uneven, resulting in slanted features such as eyes. Thick eyebrows are lined up following the brow bridge on the crania. Also, the bridge of the nose (where it is pinched in the middle) has an upturned nose and uneven nostrils. This shows in the two-dimensional facial reconstruction split face drawing on skull #2. The finished 2D converted into a frontal portrait style drawing showing large eyes, a very broad jaw and a unique forehead. The face is shown in a split transparent style to show half of the underlying skull along with half of the finished face. The skull is a template; it is like filling in a puzzle, one step at a time. When I look at the finished drawing, I can envision him having an English or Irish accent; it’s just a feeling I get. I couldn’t help but feel happy to see his finished face finally appear. Everyone is someone special. We all deserve the right to be identified, as everyone deserves their name returned to them so they can have a proper burial. It is very sad how these crew members died. Unfortunately, I don’t have all the answers but I feel content knowing I did the best I could in bringing them back to life with forensic facial reconstructions. Luckily, the skull gives us many clues for individualization. After both facial reconstructions were completed and photographed, the clay was carefully removed from the skulls. Both skulls were undamaged and returned for burial. Who were these two crew members from the Sir John Franklin Expedition? I believe we will soon discover their identities. Diana P. Trepkov is a Forensic Artist, Wildlife Artist, Author, Lecturer and the Forensic Artist/Presenter for the Faces of the Franklin Expedition at the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM).

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Leading Polar research

Andrew Arreak uses a sensor mounted on a qamutiq to monitor ice thickness near Pond Inlet, Nunavut, as part of the SmartICE project. © SmartICE

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Polar Knowledge Canada (POLAR) is primed to set Canada at the forefront of the search for new knowledge of the polar regions. Based in Nunavut, the new federal organization emphasizes bringing together indigenous and scientific expertise to create that knowledge — and helping transform it into action on some of the urgent issues that Arctic communities face. To Inuit and northern First Nations peoples, whose knowledge of the Arctic is built on centuries of experience and close observation, the Arctic is an intimate and familiar home. Scientists consider the Arctic the least studied and understood regions on the planet. Both are concerned about the significant changes occurring there. Whether in terms of sea ice, permafrost, or wildlife, the impacts are being felt today in northern communities — and also in distant corners of the globe, as the Arctic is connected to the rest of the planet via atmospheric and ocean currents. The purpose of Polar Knowledge Canada is to create new knowledge that decision makers in northern and southern Canada can use to improve the economic opportunities, environ-

POLAR scientists inspect greenhouse gas monitoring equipment north of Greiner Lake, Nunavut. © Polar Knowledge Canada

mental stewardship and the quality of life of Northerners and all Canadians. Its headquarters, once construction is completed, will be at the Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) campus in Cambridge Bay, in western Nunavut. With its state-of-the-art laboratories and generous public space, the unique facility is designed to welcome Cambridge Bay residents while ensuring that visiting researchers, educators, and students — from the PhD level to elementary school — have ample opportunity to learn and share information and perspectives. POLAR’s current research program focuses on four areas: (1) alternative and renewable energy for the North; (2) increasing baseline information to prepare for northern sustainability; (3) predicting impacts of changing ice, permafrost and snow conditions and how they affect shipping, infrastructure, and communities; and (4) improving design, construction and maintenance of northern built infrastructure. These areas of interest will be revisited in 2019, and every five years thereafter. This regular reassessment and renewal will allow POLAR to adapt to changing research needs, and remain at

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Sampling fish in a stream near Cambridge Bay. © Polar Knowledge Canada

the forefront of knowledge creation that matters in the Arctic. One project that POLAR is supporting, “SmartICE,” brings together the expertise of Inuit hunters and ice scientists to make ice travel safer. SmartICE, which started in Nunatsiavut and has expanded to Pond Inlet, Nunavut, is installing thickness sensors in the ice along routes in places that hunters have identified as potentially unsafe. The measurements are sent to a website where they can be retrieved locally, in Pond Inlet’s case by ice expert Andrew Arreak. Sensors have also been mounted on a qamutiq (sled) to take measurements while travelling. The technology is reliable and easy to operate and can be passed from one community to the next. Another key focus is helping northern communities move away from dependence on fossil fuels for electricity and heat. In the Northwest Territories, this means support to a community-led wood-pellet district heating project in Whati, and two community solar power demonstration projects in Inuvik. In Sanikiluaq, Nunavut, a wind monitoring tower will provide data for potential future wind power developments in the community. The size, remoteness, and complexity of the Arctic means that, despite decades of excellent research, there are still plenty of gaps in the scientific understanding of the region. Those three factors also make Arctic research very costly. POLAR intends to create a world class hub for science and technology research in Canada’s Arctic, with partnerships an integral part of its success.

The SmartICE project places thickness sensors in the sea ice to monitor the safety of travel routes. © SmartICE

“Most Arctic science is only possible because researchers work together, combining their resources,” says David Scott, president of Polar Knowledge Canada. “And we’ve heard from research organizations from around the world who are keen on collaborating with Canadian researchers. They’re excited about the possibilities that the CHARS research campus and our program offer.” One of those is the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA’s Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment is using on-theground scientific teams, satellites, and aircraft to monitor and study environments in the Arctic and boreal regions of western Canada and Alaska, which are changing rapidly because of a warming climate. “We are trying to gain a better understanding of how these northern ecosystems function, how they might change under a changing

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climate and what that means for both northerners and the planet as a whole,” says Mike Gill, Senior Science Officer with POLAR.” This will help answer such questions as: Will there be caribou available to harvest? How will the global carbon budget be altered under a warming Arctic and the potential release of methane? Will natural disturbances, such as fire, become an increasing threat? Answering these questions affects Northerners directly, says Scott, and so it makes sense that Northerners be involved in research at all levels. “We’re looking to a future where more northerners are in the driver’s seat,” says Scott, “asking the questions, developing and doing research projects — and finding the answers they need.”

Polar Knowledge Canada

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Climate warming leads to changes in river ice across the Yukon Territory There is a long-standing tradition where locals bet on the timing of ice break-up on the Yukon River in Dawson, Yukon. On April 23, 2016 at 11:15 am, a new record was set for the earliest break-up, shattering the previous record by four days since records started in 1896. The ice thickness on the Yukon River was below normal due to a record breaking warm winter, and warmer temperatures in early April produced a slow snowmelt that allowed water levels to slowly rise when the ice was relatively weak. This record breaking timing of river ice break-up doesn’t come as a huge surprise. Since the mid-20th century, Canada’s North has warmed substantially. Annual temperatures have increased 2 to 3˚C between 1950 and 2012 in the northern region of Canada with more substantial warming occurring in the winter months (up to 6.5˚C). This warming has resulted in many widespread changes, including shorter and warmer winter seasons, earlier and more rapid snowmelt and changes in streamflow characteristics.

The timing of the river ice break-up of the Yukon River at Dawson, Yukon, has advanced significantly since 1896 at a rate of six days per century. Below: Sunrise during river ice break-up. © Graham Strickert

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SCIENCE

Streamflow hydrographs from Porcupine Creek at Old Crow, Yukon. Warmer spring temperatures have caused a merging of river ice break-up and snowmelt freshet.

To better understand the impacts of a warming climate on cold regions, a Canadian interdisciplinary research network, the Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN), was created in 2013 with funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC). Comprised of a team of over 40 researchers from across Canada, CCRN aims to understand, diagnose and predict the rapid environmental change in the interior of Western Canada, including Canada’s North. Richard Janowicz, Senior Scientist, Hydrology for the Water Resources Branch at Yukon Environment, is a scientific collaborator with CCRN and has been studying streamflow in the Yukon Territory for decades. His research has Porcupine River, Yukon. © Richard Janowicz

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shown that streamflow characteristics have been changing over the last century, yet those changes seem to have been accelerated in the last two decades. “Prior to 1989, only two April break-ups have been observed on the Yukon River at Dawson, whereas after 1989, eight April break-ups have been observed,” including 2016. Janowicz’s research has shown that river ice break-up at Dawson has advanced at a rate of six days per century and similar trends have been observed on other Yukon rivers, including the Porcupine River at Old Crow. “Over the last two decades, the duration of ice cover on the Yukon River has been declining at a faster rate than during the 21st century.” Spring temperatures have increased 2 to 4˚C since 1950, which has been one of the drivers behind the earlier onset of snowmelt and river ice break-up. The timing of snowmelt has changed more rapidly than river ice breakup. The duration of snow cover in spring has declined by approximately one month since 1972 across much of the Yukon Territory. Such a change in snowmelt timing has resulted in the

River ice break-up on Yukon River at Dawson, Yukon. © Richard Janowicz

merging of the normally distinct river ice breakup and snowmelt events, forming one main spring streamflow peak, Janowicz explains. Historically, Porcupine River streamflow has two distinct peaks in spring — the first peak is caused by river ice break-up and jamming and the second peak is driven by the snowmelt freshet that normally follows one to three weeks later. More recently, those two peaks have merged into one, forming a larger peak in spring streamflow.

TAXI TAXI

“Frozen rivers are a means of transportation for many locals as well as a platform for fishing and trapping purposes. Such changes in river ice presents a unique challenge and even threatens the livelihood of some communities.” With temperatures still on the rise across much of Northern Canada, the river ice regimes will continue to see rapid changes. To learn more about this and other environmental impacts due to climate warming across Western and Northern Canada, visit CCRN’s website at www.ccrnetwork.ca.

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Exquisite Sealskin Garments Gifts & Accessories phone: +1 867 979 3183 info@rannva.com 661 Pitsi/Mattaq Iqaluit, Nunavut 44

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E D U C AT I O N

Discovering possibilities in Canada’s Northern mining sector

Students in Canada’s North are getting the chance to experience some unique educational programming. Mining Matters, a Canadian charitable organization focused on raising Earth science awareness in students, educators, and the public, is teaching these young Canadians about Canada’s geology and mineral resources, about mining and its relevance to quality of life, and about the importance of education to opening doors in the future. Travelling to the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Northern Quebec and Northern Ontario from their home base in Toronto, Mining Matters educational teams deliver signature interactive Mining Rocks Earth Science Testing the physical characteristics of minerals is one of the Mining Matters hands-on activities.

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Above: Students stayed after school to enjoy amethyst jewellery making.

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E D U C AT I O N

Programs to elementary and high school students. Using hands-on educational resources, created by educators and Earth science experts to meet curriculum expectations, the teams inspire teachers and spark student interest in Earth science. “Mining Matters, originally established in 1994, has become increasingly known in Canada’s North for its Indigenous Communities Education and Outreach Programs,” states Mining Matters President Patricia Dillon. Developed with sensitivity to the important role Indigenous communities play in resources stewardship, management, and development, the programs raise awareness of the importance of education and the diverse career opportunities available in the mineral exploration and mining industries. The program includes teacher workshops, camp and school learning opportunities, and community engagement events. In 2016, Mining Matters delivered 33 Mining Rocks Earth Science Programs, reaching over 2,100 northern youth, 76 teachers, and 500 community members. Often, communities invite the Mining Matters team to return in subsequent years to deliver enhanced programs and build on foundational knowledge. One 2016 success story comes from the Northwest Territories Sahtu Region, where 134 students in grades six to 12, and 17 teachers at schools in Fort Good Hope, Déline, Norman Wells, and Tulita participated in customized programs — an exciting first for both Mining Matters and the region. The pilot program was planned and delivered in partnership with the Government of the Northwest Territories, Department of Industry, Tourism and Investment (GNWT ITI). Chief T’Selehye, Ehtseo Ayha, Mackenzie Mountain, and Chief Albert Wright schools welcomed Mining Matters staff along with Frank Pope, GNWT ITI Regional Petroleum Advisor and Valerie Gordon, Client Services and Community Relations Division of the GNWT ITI. Pope recalls, “It was very hands-on. Everyone was very engaged and had thoughts to share. The recess bell would go and nobody would move! They were enthralled with what they were learning.” Another successful partnership between Mining Matters, the Dehcho First Nations, the Government of the Northwest Territories, Departments of Education, Culture and Employment and Industry, Tourism and Investment recently gave high school students in Fort Liard, 46

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E D U C AT I O N

Students carve soapstone in Fort Simpson as part of the Mining Matters program.

“Mining Matters, originally established in 1994, has become increasingly known in Canada’s North for its Indigenous Communities Education and Outreach Programs,” states Mining Matters President Patricia Dillon.

Fort Simpson and Fort Providence the chance to explore mining projects in the Northwest Territories and careers offered by the industry, along with job roles, education requirements, and potential salaries. A special activity examined diamonds, looking at diamond-bearing deposits and the modern technology used for their discovery, extraction, and processing. Students

even stayed after school to enjoy soapstone carving and amethyst jewellery making. Numerous companies, government departments and educational institutions support Mining Matters, recognizing the importance of exciting students about Earth science and the wide array of careers in the mineral exploration and mining industries. Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC), a Mining Matters supporter, provided $150K in funding for the Mining Rocks Earth Science Programs, allowing the group to reach more communities and develop six new hands-on activities related to environmental actions through the mineral resource development cycle. Individuals often go above and beyond to support the group’s work. Glenn Nolan, a former Chief of the Missanabie Cree First Nation and first Indigenous President of the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada, and partner Maureen Hatherley are celebrating 2017 — a banner year in Canadian, Yukon, and mining history — by tackling the Yukon River Quest. The marathon canoe and kayak race challenges paddlers to test their

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endurance, racing 715 km/444 miles from Whitehorse to Dawson City. Passionate about mineral education, the couple asks supporters to sponsor their race by donating to Mining Matters. Says Nolan, “We couldn’t think of a better way to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the Nation than to bring together those things we love: canoeing, a physically challenging event; honouring the significant role Indigenous people play in mining in Canada; and the importance of mining to all Canadians.” Mining Matters thanks the many individuals, foundations, corporations and governments that recognize the difference Mining Matters is making to education in the North, opening doors to a wider world of possibilities for students. The people at Mining Matters are passionate about their mandate to broaden students’ understanding of Earth science, and they hope to make a difference for years to come.

MiningMatters.ca

Submitted by Mining Matters.

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Art Travel Program Northern style ARTS

Dorset residents Joanne Weedmark and Geena Toonoo provide a throat singing performance during a dinner gathering at Dorset Suites. © Nancy McNee

Toronto’s Power Plant Contemporary Art Gallery is a power house cultural institution with a celebrated history of showcasing the most current, and often very edgy, international visual art. Its Art Travel Program has transported participants to far flung places like Buenos Aires, Paris, Istanbul, Copenhagen and Berlin. Now it was Nunavut’s turn. West Baffin Eskimo Cooperative (dorsetfinearts.com), an organization with its head office in Cape Dorset, Nunavut, and a satellite location in Toronto, would be a critical part of the excursion. In Cape Dorset, the Cooperative operates the venerable Kinngait Studios, which is revered as Canada’s oldest fine art print shop and legendary for the quality and uniqueness of its output. This is the birthplace, and still reigning champion, of Canadian Inuit art. The region’s revered artists and printmakers have worked in the Cape Dorset studios since the 1950s. In November, we met in Ottawa. As the parka-carrying, art aficionados, and I, boarded our connecting flight, the excitement was palpable, since, except for two members, it was the group’s

Margaret McNee looks on as Cee Pootoogook inspects his stone cut work. © Gaëtane Verna

Considering a visit to Cape Dorset? Here’s a handy tip sheet to get you started: • Depending on your city of origin, the journey can be lengthy, with a handful of connecting flights • At your initial departure airport, make sure that baggage is checked right through to Cape Dorset • The one hotel in town, Dorset Suites (dorsetsuites.com), is quite roomy and well appointed • The hotel has WIFI, but expect it to be slower than urban connectivity • There is currently no cellular service, which means you can enjoy being unplugged • Alcohol is regulated and only available to registered hotel guests

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• The hotel and retail shops accept credit cards but if you want to pay cash, bring it with you, there are no bank branches or ATMs • Inuit art can be purchased from Kinngait Studio, packaging and shipping can also be arranged • Wear comfortable shoes or boots and sensible layers, depending on the time of year • In winter months, slippers are handy while at the hotel and when visiting homes and offices • Be flexible – weather and other Arctic factors can change your itinerary

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Tim Pitsiulak takes a break from drawing at Kinngait Studios. Sadly, Tim passed away December 23, 2016 at the age of 49. A beloved member of the Cape Dorset family, he will be missed. © Gaëtane Verna

first sojourn to the 64th parallel. Our itinerary included the usual sightseeing, alongside opportunities to make connections with the grassroots of this tiny enclave. Life in Cape Dorset is more than its immense and breathtaking Arctic tundra. This is a living, breathing, modern community, with well-worn gravel roads that wind through neighbourhoods and connect schools, retail stores, churches and government offices. Our southern explorers would see these surroundings through a distinctly northern lens. There was lots of time outside, bundled-up touring both in town and out on the land, but a crucial part of the experience, was engagement with the town’s people. At each lunch and every dinner, we hosted local leaders who provided insights and anecdotes from the residents’ perspective. Artists and educators, politicians and public servants, business owners and elders contributed stories and histories. Often these narratives were exotic and celebratory while at other times they underscored the remoteness and challenges of northern living — because life in the North often takes the form of paradox! Cape Dorset and indeed the whole of Canada’s Arctic is full of contradictions — a compelling feature I was keen to illustrate for these visitors.

ARTS

From the terrain, which is as beautiful as it is dangerous, to communities of such personality and warmth enveloped by a climate so cold, this place is difficult to rationalize. Cape Dorset has sustained four generations of Inuit artists, but the hamlet is thousands of kilometres from the nearest art school — that’s extraordinary! What I saw happen during this trip was equally remarkable. As host to these seasoned voyagers and world marauders, I saw travellers who have visited some of the world’s biggest and best, but who found so much inspiration in tiny Cape Dorset.

William Huffman

Intrepid travellers Nancy McNee, Peter Ross, Suzanne Walther, Margaret McNee, Diane Walker, Hatty Reisman and Gaëtane Verna out on the land in Cape Dorset. © Gaëtane Verna

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ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᑕᐃᒎᓯᓕᐅᖅᑏᑦ Inuit Uqausinginnik Taiguusiliuqtiit Inuit Language Authority Office de la langue inuite ᐃᓕᓴᕆᔭᐅᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓰᑦ ᐱᖁᔭᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᑦᑎᐊᖅᖢᓂ ᐃᒫᒃ ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᓇᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᐃᓄᖏᑦ ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᐱᔪᓐᓇᐅᑎᖃᕐᒪᑕ ᐊᑐᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖓᓂᒃ • ᑲᑎᖅᓱᐃᔩᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓴᖅᑭᑎᑦᑎᓲᑦ ᑐᑭᓯᐅᒪᖃᑎᒌᒍᑕᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕐᓂᒃ, ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖏᓐᓂᒃ; • ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᓲᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᐊᑐᕈᓐᓇᑦᑎᐊᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕈᑎᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᓂᕐᒥᒃ; • ᐃᑲᔪᓲᑦ ᓇᒻᒥᓂᖃᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓂᓪᓗ ᑕᒻᒪᖅᓯᒪᙱᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᓯᒪᔭᕆᐊᓕᖕᓂᒃ; • ᑲᒪᒋᔭᖃᓲᑦ ᐊᒻᒪ ᑐᑭᒧᐊᒃᑎᑦᑎᔨᐅᓲᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᓂᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᓐᓂᒃ; • ᑎᑎᖅᑲᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᓯᐅᔾᔭᐃᖅᓯᓲᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᑐᖃᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪ ᓄᓇᓖᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᓐᓂᒃ; • ᑐᒃᓯᕋᕐᕕᐅᓲᑦ/ᑲᑐᔾᔨᖃᑎᖃᓲᑦ ᑎᒥᖁᑎᒋᔭᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᓄᓇᕗᒻᒥ ᓯᓚᑖᓂᓗ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᑕ ᒥᒃᓵᓄᑦ

Ilitariyauhimayut Uqauhiinni Maligaq Nunavut Kavamatkunnit nalunairutauyuq Inuit Nunavunmiut pilaarutiqaqtut aturiamikku uqauhiqtik Inuinnaqtun • Havaktut ilitturipkaiyullu nalaumayunik taidjutinik, atuqpauhiinik, titirauhiiniinullu; • Havaktut uqauhiit ayunnginnikhaagut, uuktuutikhaagullu; • Ikayuqhugit nanmiuyut havagviit aallallu ihuaqtunik atuqpauhikhaagut; • Havaariliqhugu tiliuqhugit ihivriuqhiyut uqauhikkut; • Titraqhugit ilitturipkatigiblugit taimani atuqtauvakut tainiit aallatqillu uqauhiit inuktut; • Tuhaqtittivaktut/ havaqatigivagait katimayiuyut Nunavunmi ahinilu Inuit uqauhiannut. Official language Act within the Government of Nunavut affirming that the Inuit of Nunavut have an inherent right to the use of the Inuit Language • Develops and promotes standard terminology, usage & orthography; • Develops language competency levels & testing; • Assists businesses and others with correct usage; • Undertakes or supervises research about the Inuit Language; • Documents and promotes traditional terminology and dialects; • Shares & collaborates with organizations in Nunavut and abroad on Inuit Language Issues. Loi sur les langues officielles du gouvernement du Nunavut affirmant le droit inhérent des Inuit à l’utilisation de le langue inuite • Élabore la terminologie, les usages et les expressions normalisés, et en assure la promotion; • Élabore les niveaux de compétences et les tests permettant de mesurer ces niveaux; • Aide les entreprises et d’autres organismes à offrir des services de qualité en langue inuite; • Entreprend ou supervise des recherches au sujet de la langue inuite; • Consigne et fait la promotion des expressions et des dialectes traditionnels; • Partage et collabore avec des organismes au Nunavut et ailleurs vis-à-vis les enjeux ayant trait à la langue inuite. ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑕᐅᔪᒪᒍᕕᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᕝᕕᒋᔭᐃᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐊᑎᖅᑖᖁᒍᖕᓂ ᐅᕙᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᑎᑦ Ikayuqtiqariaqaqqata nanminiit havagviit atiliuriarni Inuinnaqtun uqarvigittaaqtaptigut If you need help with creating your business name in Inuktitut contact us Si vous avez besoin de l’aide pour traduire le nom de votre entreprise en inuktitut, veuillez prendre contact avec nous

www.taiguusiliuqtiit.ca ᑐᕌᕈᑖ ᐸᕐᓇᐃᕕᒃ ᑎᑎᖅᑲᒃᑯᕕᒃ 1000, ᑐᕌᕈᑎᖓ 810, ᐃᖃᓗᐃᑦ, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ X0A 0H0 Parnaivik Bldg 2nd floor P.O. Box 1000 Station 810, Iqaluit, NU X0A 0H0 (: 1 855 232 1852 | 867 975 5539

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IUT@gov.nu.ca

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Spirit

BOOKSHELF

Richard Van Camp Illustrated by Emily Brown South Slave Divisional Education Council (SSDEC) September 2016

Ukaliq and Kalla Go Fishing

Nadia Mike Illustrated by Amanda Sandland Inhabit Media April 2017

or Nadia Mike Written by Inuit educator Mike, Ukaliq and Kalla are two friends with very different personalities. Ukaliq is loud, excited, and adventurous. Kalla is calm, quiet, and organized. When the two friends head out for a day of fishing, Ukaliq is eager to get his line in the water while Kalla knows it’s important to be well prepared before travelling out on the land or sea ice. With illustrations throughout, this picture book is suitable for children ages three to five.

Richard Van Camp’s book Spirit is his 20th book in 20 years. This Aboriginal language publication focuses on the importance of relationships and how a loving, caring family can support positive mental health. It brings awareness to the challenges of depression and mental health and encourages readers to reach out to those who are suffering and help them rediscover vention graphic novel, the artwork their value and worth. A suicide prevention for the comic flip book was drawn by aspiring illustrator Emily Brown. Published in Cree, Chıpewyan, Slavey, and English, with support from the GNWT, Department of Health and Social Services, copies of the book are available through the SSDEC.

Future Arctic: Field Notes from a World on the Edge Edward Struzik Island Press October 2016

Now available in paperback and with an updated conclusion, Future Arctic reveals how politics and climate change are altering the polar world in a way that will have profound effects on economics, culture, and the environment. Journalist and Arctic explorer Edward Struzik crosses the ice, up mountains and cliffs, by snowmobiles and helicopters, sailboats and icebreakers. With assistance from wildlife scientists, military strategists, and indigenous peoples who share diverse insights into the science, culture and geopolitical tensions of this captivating place, Struzik begins piecing together an environmental puzzle: How might the land’s most iconic species — caribou, polar bears, narwhal — survive? Where will migrating birds flock? How will ocean currents shift? What fundamental changes will oil and gas exploration have on economies and ecosystems? How will vast unclaimed regions of the Arctic be divided? A unique combination of extensive on-the-ground research, compelling storytelling, and policy analysis, Future Arctic is a vivid tale of natural history populated with colourful characters, charismatic wildlife and remarkable landscapes.

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GUEST EDITORIAL

Our vision forward

Premier Silver, with newly appointed Minister of Health and Environment, Pauline Frost. © Archbould Photography

Change has come to the Yukon. This past November, Yukoners voted in a new government for the first time in 15 years. As the newly elected Premier, my vision is to lead a government that achieves the change that Yukoners have asked for. We will do so by governing with increased respect and transparency, and by truly listening to our citizens. As we move forward, we are led by the belief that good jobs in a healthy economy and a sustainable environment are not mutually exclusive. We choose to acknowledge that without protecting our environment, there is no economy. To achieve this balance, we look to our government’s relationship with Yukon’s First Nations governments. We strongly believe that improving relations and honouring existing treaties and self-government agreements is the way to improve our territory’s economy. The selfgoverning agreements provide a path forward for all Yukoners, not just for First Nations. These agreements are the road map to a successful future. It is time for a legislature that incorporates First Nations values and culture, moving us towards partnership and reconciliation.

Yukon First Nations’ economic development corporations are a vital piece of building a thriving economy, and for too long there has been disconnect between these corporations and the Yukon government. Lengthy court battles between the Yukon government and First Nations governments have created economic instability in our territory. So much more can be accomplished with a collaborative approach, as opposed to a combative one. No one industry holds the answer to economic growth, the answer can be found, instead, in a collaborative decision making process, guided by our shared value of a sustainable future. This vision for collaboration requires all voices at the table, including the private sector, investors, development corporations, and nongovernment organizations. For our communities, we recognize that local governments and citizens are best-placed to understand their own concerns, and to develop their own solutions. We want to work side by side with our communities to address their key issues in a manner that they have identified. Working together will allow us to build a Yukon

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that is a stable, profitable investment destination, while honouring the commitments of our SelfGovernment Agreements and respecting the needs of our communities. Our government also sees the value in working collaboratively on a national level. We look forward to building upon our relationships with our fellow Northern Premiers. Together we can present a strong, unified voice for the North to both our federal government and our provincial colleagues, benefiting all of our territories. This is the vision that will lead our government for the next five years. The vision of an inclusive, accountable government with a balanced approach. The vision of a government that governs collaboratively, believing that we can work together towards a common purpose, because all Yukoners are united in our love of this territory. Our vision is for every Yukoner to have a voice, a choice and a place in our territory.

Sandy Silver Yukon Premier

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INUIT FORUM

Canada >150

© Letia Obed

Throughout 2017, Canada is celebrating 150 years of Confederation — the unification of the four colonies that existed in 1867. Confederation led to dramatic changes in Inuit culture and society. As Canadian power solidified and expanded outward from Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, the federal government increasingly took control of Indigenous peoples and our land and resources. Our historical interactions with explorers, missionaries, whalers, and fur traders set the stage for the drastic changes undertaken by the federal government post-confederation to undermine Inuit self-determination. By 1917 Inuit were being prosecuted in Canadian courts. In 1939, the Supreme Court of Canada determined that Inuit were Indians and therefore the responsibility of the federal government, largely on the basis that in the historical record Qallunaat used the same racist, dehumanizing language to describe Inuit and First Nations. It was only in 1950 that we gained the right to vote in federal elections yet most Inuit remained disenfranchised until 1962 when ballot boxes were placed in more Inuit communities, just 55 years ago. Inuit have used and occupied more than a third of Canada’s landmass for millennia and it is on this basis that leaders in our respective regions negotiated and settled land claim agreements with the Crown in an effort to reject what has until recently been an uncompromising relationship. However, our way of life has been rapidly transformed in this relatively short period, especially during the second half of the last century as the federal government extended Canadian law and bureaucracy into Inuit Nunangat, relocated Inuit families, and imposed schooling on Inuit communities. The federal government’s policies caused distress and trauma for many Inuit, the reverberations from which are still being felt today.

Nutak holds deep significance for Inuit. ITK’s Inuit Nunangat Taimannganit will document our connections to our homeland. © Caitlyn Baikie

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Inuit remain resilient despite these challenges. As Canada celebrates its 150th birthday this year, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami will be undertaking a project entitled “Inuit Nunangat Taimannganit” that highlights continued Inuit resilience through 150 stories of Inuit Nunangat. Through our own words, we will celebrate our people, families and communities’ intimate and foundational connections to our land and what these connections mean to our Inuit democracy, our political and personal perspectives, and for our future. My father was born on the south side of Nutak in Nunatsiavut. He was forcibly relocated to Hopedale with his parents and siblings when he was a young boy and soon after taken to an orphanage in St. Anthony, Newfoundland, where he spent the rest of his childhood. He longed for the land where he was born all his life, and if his human rights were respected, it would have been where he grew up. You won’t find it on most maps of Canada, but it is part of this country and an everlasting part of who I am. We will share stories like my father’s through photos and video shared one at a time through social media, and as a collection first online and

later as a travelling exhibit to engage Canadians in the stories of Inuit and Inuit Nunangat. Highlighting and documenting some of these rich connections is a practical way to affirm the central role played by Inuit land use and stewardship in our own culture and society as well as in Canadian society as a whole. The federal government has in the past made calculated efforts to terminate this important aspect of who we are, even going so far as to limit the transfer of knowledge from one generation to the next by attempting to suppress our language through residential schools. However, Inuit continue to define our own path forward. Too often the significant challenges we face within our communities can seem to overshadow the people and places that each day help to ensure our spiritual survival by keeping our language alive, maintaining our way of life, and living our values. Inuit Nunangat Taimannganit will celebrate those people and contributions.

Natan Obed

President, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami

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Above & Beyond | Canada's Arctic Journal 2017 | 02  
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