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Parking: Outside / Structured


by WBDG Staff Last updated: 06-02-2009

Aut o mat e d D at a Pro ce ssing : Mainf rame Aut o mat e d D at a Pro ce ssing : PC Syst e m C hild C are C linic / He alt h Unit C o nf e re nce / C lassro o m C o urt ho use : C o urt ro o m


C o urt ho use : Jud icial C hamb e r Firing R ang e Fo o d Se rvice G e ne ral St o rag e He aring R o o m Jo int Use R e t ail Lab o rat o ry: D ry






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The Outside/Structured Parking space type refers to an abo veOverview grade, ramp access, o pen-air structure specifically designed to Space Attributes acco mmo date vehicle parking. As defined fo r the WBDG, the Relevant Codes and Level o f Service (LOS) (refer to Architectural Graphic Standards, Standards 10th Edition, page 10 6 ) o f the Inside/Basement Parking is LOS B, Major Resources indicating use by so me unfamiliar users, mo derate daily turno ver, and medium percentage o f small cars and light trucks; and requiring o ne-way aisles o f 11'-0 " straight-ways and 13'-6 " turns. See also WBDG Parking Facilities.

C o urt ho use : Enhance d O f f ice



At rium Aud it o rium


Achieving Sustainable Site Design through Low Impact Development Practices Aesthetic Challenges Aesthetic Opportunities Air Barrier Systems in Buildings Balancing Security/Safety and Sustainability Objectives VIEW ALL RELAT ED (20 )


SPACE AT T RIBUT ES First and fo remo st, parking structures—either basement, structured, o r surface—must pro vide fo r the safe and efficient passage o f auto mo biles as well as visito rs to and fro m their vehicles. Therefo re, attentio n sho uld be given to pro viding the maximum driver visibility po ssible at all turning po ints alo ng the ro adway as well as designing stairways and lo bbies to o ffer maximum visibility fro m the o utside fo r security o f the visito rs. As a so le use structure with no interio r fit-o ut, typical features o f o utside structured parking include the list o f applicable design o bjectives elements as o utlined belo w. Fo r a co mplete list and definitio ns o f the design o bjectives within the co ntext o f who le building design, click o n the titles belo w.

Lab o rat o ry: We t Lib rary Lig ht Ind ust rial Lo ad ing D o ck

Aest het ics Minimal Visual Impact: The structured parking structure sho uld no t do minate the building site. Thro ugh a co mbinatio n o f planning, architectural, and landscaping elements, the visual impact o n the surro unding streets and develo pments can be minimized. Fo r example, structured parking is generally lo cated to the rear o r side o f the building and away fro m the


Lo b b y Mail C e nt e r O f f ice Parking : B ase me nt Parking : O ut sid e / St ruct ure d Parking : Surf ace Physical Fit ne ss ( Exe rcise R o o m) Place o f Wo rship Plaz a Privat e To ile t Ware ho use D ESIG N D ISC IPLIN ES PR O D UC T S & SYST EMS

structured parking is generally lo cated to the rear o r side o f the building and away fro m the street o r street intersectio ns, while pro viding direct pedestrian access to the buildings.

Funct ional / Operat ional Site Improvements: Typical site impro vements directly related to the structured parking structure include gro und co ver, planting, irrigatio n systems—fo r example, sprinkler misters at integral planters o n building spandrel panels, sto rm water drainage systems, vehicle entrance ro adways, sidewalks, lighting, signage, fences, screens, buffer zo nes, ro adway extensio ns to public streets, and co nnectio ns to public utilities. Structural Requirements: The structure includes fo undatio n, beams, co lumns, and slabs. The structural bay spacing and flo o r-to -flo o r heights are designed to acco mmo date vehicle circulatio n and parking. The standard substructure fo undatio n includes reinfo rced co ncrete spread fo o ting, water-resistant membrane with rigid insulatio n and with sealant slo ped at fo o ting, and gravel drainage co urse with filter mat o ver 4" drainage tiles. The slab o n grade is typically 6 ", 40 0 0 PSI, po ured o n to p o f a gravel base o n co mpacted fill with a mo isture barrier in between the gravel base and the slab. The slab is reinfo rced with welded wire fabric; and the jo ints and wall junctures are sealed with sealant. The structural frame, designed fo r a live lo ad o f 50 LB/SF, is typically precast, reinfo rced co ncrete structural co lumns and beams, and do uble "T" deck with co ncrete to pping, allo wing fo r a clear height under the "T" o f 8 '-6 ". Signage and Wayfinding: Signage sho uld indicate all majo r internal pedestrian access po ints as well as external majo r ro ads and buildings. In structured parking, pavement markings are reflective paint and traffic co ntro l signage is usually reflective metal signs with minimum 5" high letters. The Manual o n Unifo rm Traffic Co ntro l Devices fo r Streets and Highways (ANSI D 6 .1e) pro vides guidance o n pavement marking and signage. Parking Management: Curb-mo unted parking bo o ths with transactio n windo ws and deal trays are installed at vehicular entrances/exits to manage entering and exiting vehicles. A co o ling system, like a packaged terminal air co nditio ner (PTAC), is usually inco rpo rated to supply the bo o th with o utside air at a po sitive pressure relative to surro unding parking areas.

Secure / Saf e Security Protection: Beyo nd parking management, several security measures are inco rpo rated into typical structured parking structures to ensure the security o f visito rs. These generally include: unifo rm lighting co verage, preferably with energy-efficient light fixtures , clo sed circuit televisio n (CCTV) cameras, card reader access co ntro l fo r vehicle entrance do o rs, co ncrete filled pro tective bo llards to pro tect vehicle entry keypads and ticketing systems, and hydraulic lift wedge type barriers fo r egress co ntro l. Also critical are the exterio r security systems, including CCTV cameras and building security flo o d lighting, related to the pro tectio n o f elevato r lo bby space, stairs, and o ther suppo rt spaces accessible fro m the parking area. Depending o n the level o f pro tectio n desired, co nsider ballistic glazing fo r the parking bo o ths. See also WBDG Secure / Safe—Pro vide Security fo r Building Occupants and Assets. Fire and Life Safety: The structured parking structure is typically sprinklered fo r 1 hr. structure, 1 hr. exterio r bearing walls, 1 hr. interio r bearing walls, 1 hr. exterio r no n-bearing walls, 1 hr. flo o r co nstructio n, and 1 hr. ro o f co nstructio n. Pro per no tificatio n systems, lighting, and

signage are required to facilitate safe and speedy evacuatio ns during an emergency. This is usually acco mplished with pro per fire alarm wiring, pull statio ns, stro bes, annunciato rs, and exit signage. See also WBDG Secure / Safe—Plan fo r Fire Pro tectio n . Ice Prevention: Radiant heaters o r slab heating co ils are inco rpo rated into the structured parking structure to prevent ice build-up, which co uld cause dangero us driving/walking co nditio ns within the parking structure. Ventilation: Fo rced ventilatio n systems are installed in enclo sed spaces.

Sust ainable Drainage and Storm Water Management: Water runo ff fro m vehicles is typically dealt with in structured parking structures by installing trench drains with cast iro n co vers at all vehicle entrance/exit po ints, sand and o il traps at all sto rm drain discharge po ints, and flo o r area drains at every lo w po int. See also WBDG LID Techno lo gies.

Example Plans The fo llo wing diagrams are representative o f typical tenant plans.

Example Const ruct ion Crit eria Fo r GSA, the unit co sts fo r o utside, structured parking are based o n the co nstructio n quality and design features in the fo llo wing table (PDF 45 KB, 5 p g s ) . This info rmatio n is based o n GSA's benchmark interpretatio n and co uld be different fo r o ther o wners. BACK TO TO P

RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS The fo llo wing agencies and o rganizatio ns have develo ped co des and standards affecting the design o f structured parking. No te that the clo sed and standards are minimum requirements. Architects, engineers, and co nsultants sho uld co nsider exceeding the applicable requirements whenever po ssible: GSA P-10 0 , Facilities Standards fo r the Public Buildings Service Internatio nal Building Co de Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways (ANSI D 6.1e)—pro vides guidance o n pavement marking and signage UFGS 32 17 24.00 10 Pavement Markings BACK TO TO P

MAJOR RESOURCES WBDG Building / Space Types Educatio nal Facilities, Federal Co urtho use, Health Care Facilities, Libraries, Office Building, Parking Facilities, Research Facilities, Basement Parking , Surface Parking Design Objectives Functio nal / Operatio nal—Acco unt fo r Functio nal Needs , Secure / Safe—Plan fo r Fire Pro tectio n , Secure / Safe—Pro vide Security fo r Building Occupants and Assets , Sustainable—Enhance Indo o r Enviro nmental Quality (IEQ)

Publicat ions Architectural Graphic Standards, 11th Edition by Charles Ramsey and Haro ld Sleeper. New Yo rk, NY: Jo hn Wiley & So ns, Inc., 20 0 7. Planning and Design Guidelines, Chapter 05 - Parking and Loading (PDF 1.17 MB, 20 p g s ) by City o f Surprise, AZ. BACK TO TO P

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outside parking