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Parking: Basement


by WBDG Staff Last updated: 06-02-2009

Aut o mat e d D at a Pro ce ssing : Mainf rame Aut o mat e d D at a Pro ce ssing : PC Syst e m C hild C are C linic / He alt h Unit C o nf e re nce / C lassro o m

OVERVIEW The Basement Parking space type refers to parking lo cated belo w grade within an o ccupied building. As defined fo r the WBDG, the Level o f Service (LOS) (refer to Architectural Graphic Standards, 10th Edition, page 10 6 ) o f the Inside/Basement Parking is LOS B, indicating use by so me unfamiliar users, mo derate daily turno ver, and medium percentage o f small cars and light trucks; and requiring o ne-way aisles o f 11'-0 " straight-ways and 13'- 6 " turns. See also WBDG Parking Structure.

C o urt ho use : C o urt ro o m C o urt ho use : Enhance d O f f ice C o urt ho use : Jud icial C hamb e r Firing R ang e Fo o d Se rvice G e ne ral St o rag e He aring R o o m Jo int Use R e t ail Lab o rat o ry: D ry Lab o rat o ry: We t Lib rary Lig ht Ind ust rial Lo ad ing D o ck







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At rium Aud it o rium


Within This Page Overview Space Attributes Relevant Codes and Standards

Facility Performance Evaluation (FPE) Low Impact Development Technologies VIEW RESO URCE PAG E INDEX

Major Resources


SPACE AT T RIBUT ES First and fo remo st, parking structures—either basement, structured, o r surface—must pro vide fo r the safe and efficient passage o f auto mo biles as well as visito rs to and fro m their vehicles. Therefo re, attentio n sho uld be given to pro viding the maximum driver visibility po ssible at all turning po ints alo ng the ro adway. While federal co urtho uses have Inside/Basement parking fo r o nly the judges and Marshals Service, it is typical beneath o ffice buildings fo r building o ccupants and visito rs as well. Characteristics and features that distinguish the Basement Parking space type include: Additional Structural Requirements: Belo w grade extensio n o f the building structure to acco mmo date basement parking is required. This invo lves additio nal excavatio n, structural frame, flo o r slabs abo ve, slo ped vehicle access ramps, and basement perimeter walls and partitio ns separating parking fro m o ther building enclo sed areas. Typical structural flo o r co nstructio n is 40 0 0 PSI 6 " co ncrete slab with welded wire fabric designed fo r a live lo ad o f 8 0 LBS/SF, and with a ramp slo pe o f no mo re than 5.5%. Signage and Wayfinding: Signage sho uld indicate all majo r internal pedestrian access


Lo b b y Mail C e nt e r O f f ice Parking : B ase me nt Parking : O ut sid e / St ruct ure d Parking : Surf ace Physical Fit ne ss ( Exe rcise R o o m) Place o f Wo rship Plaz a Privat e To ile t Ware ho use D ESIG N D ISC IPLIN ES PR O D UC T S & SYST EMS

po ints as well as external majo r ro ads and buildings. In basement parking, pavement markings are reflective paint and traffic co ntro l signage is usually reflective metal with minimum 5" high letters. The Manual o n Unifo rm Traffic Co ntro l Devices fo r Streets and Highways (ANSI D 6 .1e) pro vides guidance o n pavement marking and signage. Ventilation: The parking area is generally supplied with unco nditio ned air utilizing multiple speed fans, preferably interlo cked with carbo n mo no xide detecto rs tied into an alarm system. 1-1/2 CFM per square fo o t capacity and 10 0 % exhaust air co o rdinated with the supply air system is reco mmended. Parking Management: Usually pre-manufactured bo o ths with transactio n windo ws and deal trays are installed at vehicular entrances/exits to manage entering and exiting vehicles. A co o ling system, like a packaged terminal air co nditio ner (PTAC), is usually inco rpo rated to supply the bo o th with o utside air at a po sitive pressure relative to surro unding parking areas. Security Protection: Beyo nd parking management, several security measures are inco rpo rated into typical basement parking spaces to ensure the security o f visito rs. These generally include: unifo rm lighting co verage, preferably with energy- efficient light fixtures ; clo sed circuit televisio n (CCTV) cameras; card reader access co ntro l fo r vehicle entrance do o rs; co ncrete filled pro tective bo llards to pro tect vehicle entry keypads; and hydraulic lift wedge type barriers fo r egress co ntro l. Also critical is security co ntro l o f access fro m the parking area to o ther o ccupied areas o f the building either thro ugh terminatio n at a security screening in the main lo bby o r thro ugh access co ntro l at the elevato r o r stair entrance. Elevato r lo bbies are usually tempered safety glass panels with glazed exterio r do o rs co ntaining keyed lever lo ckset with panic release bar. See also WBDG Safe—Pro vide Security fo r Building Occupants and Assets. Fire and Life Safety: Pro per no tificatio n systems, lighting, and signage are required to facilitate safe and speedy evacuatio ns during an emergency in the basement parking spaces. This is usually acco mplished with pro per fire alarm wiring, pull statio ns, stro bes, annunciato rs, and exit signage. In additio n, expo sed pipe sprinkler system is extended into the basement parking, with a ho se bib at every level. See also WBDG Safe—Plan fo r Fire Pro tectio n. Drainage and Storm Water Management: Water runo ff fro m vehicles is typically dealt with in basement parking spaces by installing trench drains with cast iro n co vers at all vehicle entrance/exit po ints, sand and o il traps at all sto rm drain discharge po ints, and flo o r area drains at every lo w po int. See also WBDG LID Techno lo gies.

Example Plan The fo llo wing is representative o f a plan o f a basement garage lo cated in a high-rise o ffice building.


RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS P-100, Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service , GSA Internatio nal Building Co de Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways (ANSI D

6.1e)—pro vides guidance o n pavement marking and signage UFGS 32 17 24.00 10 Pavement Markings BACK TO TO P

MAJOR RESOURCES WBDG Building / Space Types Educatio nal Facilities, Federal Co urtho use, Health Care Facilities, Libraries, Office Building, Parking Facilities, Research Facilities, Structured Parking, Surface Parking Design Objectives Secure / Safe—Plan fo r Fire Pro tectio n , Secure / Safe—Pro vide Security fo r Building Occupants and Assets

Publicat ions Architectural Graphic Standards, 11th Edition by Charles Ramsey and Haro ld Sleeper. New Yo rk, NY: Jo hn Wiley & So ns, Inc., 20 0 7. BACK TO TO P

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basement parking