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Sheger Riverside Corridor

Design Guideline 2020


THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

Acknowledgments Authors: Contributors: Illustrations: Edition: Design and Layout:

© All rights reserved United Nations Human Settlements Programme Ethiopia (UN-Habitat) Main Bole Road, Olympia Roundabout, DRC Street P.O. Box 60120, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia www.unhabitat.org


THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

TABLE OF CONTENTS 01

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PICTURE 2 Kabena River. : © UN-Habitat

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ACRONYMS A. INTRODUCTION A1 PREFACE A2 GEOGRAPHICAL SCOPE A3 OBJECTIVEs OF THE SHEGER PROJECT A4 PURPOSE A5 HOW TO USE THE GUIDELINE B. SPATIAL FRAMEWORK FOR SITE AND CONTEXT B1 BUFFER ZONE AND RIVER SIDE DEVELOPMENT B2 ENVIRONMENTAL SITE CLASSIFICATIONS B3 URBAN SITE CLASSIFICATIONS C. USES AND ACTIVITY CLUSTER C1 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT USE AND ACTIVITY CLUSTER CLAS SIFICATIONS D. DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES D1 OCCUPANCY AND USES D2 LANDSCAPE DESIGN D3 PUBLIC REALM D4 ARCHITECTURE D5 CONNECTIVITY AND MOBILITY D6 INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES E. STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVEMENT E1 UTILITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE BODIES E2 MUNICIPAL SECTORS E3 REGULATORY BODIES E4 ECONOMIC SECTORS E5 SOCIAL ENTITIES AND COMMUNITIES F. REFERENCE LIST G. APPENDIX


THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

ACRONYMS AAC AACRA AASHTO ARCCH

ADDIS ABABA CITY ROADS AUTHORITY AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS ETHIOPIAN AUTHORITY FOR RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE

AU

AFRICA UNION

3D

THREE DIMENSIONAL

EARCCH UNECA

ETHIOPIAN AUTHORITY FOR RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR AFRICA

EEP

ETHIOPIA ELECTRIC POWER

EPA

ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AUTHORITY

EEU

ETHIOPIA ELECTRIC UTILITY

EIABC NGO RBGDAA M.A.S.L UAC UN UN- HABITAT UNESCO IMAGE 1 Photo of the Kabena River. : © UN-Habitat

ADDIS ABABA CITY

ETHIOPIA INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND CITY DEVELOPMENT NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS RIVER BASIN, GREEN AREA DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION AGENCY METERS ABOVE SEA LEVEL USE AND ACTIVITY CLUSTER THE UNITED NATIONS UNITED NATIONS HUMAN SETTLEMENT PROGRAMME THE UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION


THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

INTRODUCTION

Rivers and water are valuable natural resources for human life, the environment and development. Beautification of rivers and their sides specially in urban setting has multi-fold advantages in development of cities. The Addis Ababa city has a number of relatively small, but very significant, rivers running through it. The city has three major rivers, Akaki Major (tiliqu), Akaki Minor (tinishu) and Kebena, each with an extensive network of tributaries of rivers and streams spread throughout the city. The major tributaries are known by their traditional names: Buche, Kurtume, Kechene, Ginfile, Kebena, Bantiyileku and Kostre. Today, because of population explosion, the banks of Addis Ababa’s rivers are becoming suitable hideout areas of informal dwellers and informal activities (Birhanu, 2007). Most of the rivers of the city has been laid at the back of the city and hidden, because of that, they have not served their purpose and has long been a place of garbage, sewage and unauthorized activities. These slow transformations of informality along riverside areas have highly contributed to the pollution of the river water and adversely affect values of urban land along the riversides. The government has launched a project to beautify the river and river sides to change this course and to highlight the positive role of rivers in the city’s overall growth. This guideline therefore seeks to show how the socio-economic and environmental challenges in the riversides of Addis Ababa can be addressed through creation of a vibrant public spaces connected to the existing urban fabric and improved river-based livelihood activities. It relies on designing of a multifunctional public spaces on green buffer designated by the structural plan of the city along 56 kms (but not limited to) of the river stretch named as Sheger project. Whenever it is necessary to expand the river and riverside development work to other areas, the guideline may also be used for the banks of all other major rivers and streams of the city as well.

IMAGE 1 River Illustration. : The specific area is in between UNECA and St. Estifanos church © UN-Habitat Ethiopia

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

ADDIS ABABA RIVER SIDE PROJECT

A.1 PREFACE

The Sheger1 River and Riverside Corridor Project aims at embracing the potential of the city and at supporting its green growth. It focuses on the rehabilitation of an existing streams system crossing the capital. The project envisions to create a new ecosystem and blue connection in the middle of the metropolis. If such a vision becomes reality, then a big step forward toward a more sustainable and resilient Addis Ababa will have been made. The “River Basin, Green area Development and Administration Agency” (RBGDAA) has been established to oversee the proposed project performance through supervision and inspections as well as fundraising activities. The ‘Sheger Riverside Corridor Design Guideline’ is the RBGDAA’s first handbook that establishes a course of action for the new urban greenways and riverbank zones in the city of Addis Ababa. It is a tool which could be used to reshape a 56km section of the existing water network. This document has been developed by UN-Habitat with inputs from various stakeholders. The design values laying out the ethical and normative dimension of the guideline is based on the principles driving existing policy documents, global best practices as well as the contribution of civil society. Therefore, the guideline is intended to render the capital city more resilient and better adapted to climate change, healthier and with a green connection which would enhance biodiversity in the urban structure, contribute to pollution reduction, improve solid waste management, fight erosion and prevent flooding events. Furthermore, the Guidline aims to raise the quality of life in the city and along the rivers. It aims to achieve this by initiating more responsible production, provision and consumption of food and products, and by facilitating more economical and small-scale production centres. It also seeks to enhance the city’s draw of global tourism through increased historical, cultural and recreational activities. While this handbook is not a design manual, its guidelines intended to share clear instructions with planners, developers and designers on how to adopt specific design to establish a baseline for a design process. It is meant to help the key stakeholders to identify, understand and tackle challenges and exploit the full potential of the intervention areas. The document will provide users with quick access to a summary of information and enhance the administration, developers and project promoters in decision making processes at various stages. It is expected that the guidelines will primarily assist in drafting policies, design appraisal, implementation monitoring and control measures. It is envisioned that through time the responsible urban development parties in collaboration with the planning unit and respective Weredas or Kebeles along the river in Addis Ababa will autonomously identify their project locations and use updated site-specific instructions to frame the interventions.

MAP 1 River map. : © UN-Habitat Ethiopia

Sheger is another word which the residents of Addis Abeba use when they refer to the city

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

A2. GEOGRAPHICAL SCOPE

The geographical scope for the guideline refers to the whole section of Sheger river network that flows through the city of Addis Ababa. The combination of those streams is generally referred to as the Sheger River System. They run from the Entoto mountains all the way, to the south of Addis Ababa till the Aba Samuel reservoir. The first phase of Sheger project covers approximately 56kms stretch. The main branches are;

The main branches of the rivers are; River 1: Tinishu-Akaki, (form Entoto mountain via the Africa Union area to Akaki) River 2: Bantyiketu (from Entoto mountain via Ghion and Peacock to Akaki) River 3: Kebena (from Entoto mountain via Kebena and Urael, meeting Bantyiketu at Peacock)

The primary boundary of the area covered in this document corresponds to the perimeter of the river buffer zones, of which there are various delineations. The general criterion is that the surface to which this guidance applies always includes the riverbed plus the surrounding greenway zone. Another important boundary refers the area impacted and benefiting from the nature-based projects along the riverside, main focus of this guideline. These interventions have a potential to trigger the redevelopment of neighborhoods along the river. In line with the New Urban Agenda principles, this redevelopment areas should promote the combination of adequate density and non-motorized transport systems and pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods. Therefore, the main corridors already established by the city road network are usually the selected perimeter for these impacted areas, since walkability can be widely promoted within these boundaries

BUFFER ZONE The River buffer is an area or an interface between the river and Riverside that is reserved for conservation or no build zone that varies in size and area. It is a transitional area between land and water that contains a mix of trees, shrubs, grasses and wildflowers. It plays a vital role in waterway flood regime. The Addis Ababa Environmental Protection and Green Development Commission classifies the buffer into three zones. The first zone consists of the edge of the wet riverbed; the second part is dedicated to vegetation cover which protects and purifies the underground water. The third one corresponds to the planted and small size vegetation located at the end of the river banks which allows rainwater infiltration. More detailed studies on the flood regime would allow a better definition of the buffer, which its boundary can be defined by 100-years or 500-years flood flow rate.

IMPACTED AREAS The area benefiting from the riverside intervention and which ideally should be included in participatory process related to designing, planning, budgeting, implementation, management, maintenance and decision-making of area-based interventions within the scope of the Sheger project. Since walkability, cycling and other non-motorized mobility systems and connectivity among riversides are key project principles, the current established main road network of Addis Ababa are the potential perimeters for the impacted areas. In these areas, directly benefiting from the nature-based interventions in the riverside, land value will increase and a significant amount of additional income should be captured through land-based finance mechanisms by the authorities to financially support infrastructure development projects and other urban interventions established by the design documents. This will contribute to the project financial sustainability and replication.

A3. OBJECTIVES OF THE SHEGER PROJECT 1.

To promote the sustainable urban development of the city through nature-based interventions along the riverside which will promote neighborhood redevelopment, increased connectivity and better balance between public spaces, green areas and the built environment.

2.

To elevate the city to a site of urban tourism leveraging on rehabilitation of the aforementioned water bodies.

3.

Enhance the well-being of city dwellers by properly accomodating river flood regimes and creating public spaces, parks, bicycle paths and walkways along the river banks.

4.

To enable the aspiration of a green economy by expanding green spaces and creating related services economies.

IMAGE 02 River Project Buffer section proposal. Š UN-Habitat Ethiopia

Wereda is a bigger district comprising of several Kebeles Kebele is the smallest administrative neighbourhood unit that is limited to a small population

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

A4. PURPOSE

A5. HOW TO USE THE GUIDE

The guideline intends to share clear instructions with planners, designers and developers on how to adopt specific design principles that can bring different actors on the same platform. The document aims to provide users with quick access to a summary of information and support the administration, developers and project promoters in decision making processes at various stages. The purpose is also to clearly describe the principles used to evaluate different development proposals that will be forwarded for review by a specific board panel.

The Guide is organized as a legible baseline of standards to promote discussions on sustainability and quality in design responses to the challenges of development along the buffer zone. The Spatial and Development Frameworks are subdivided by classifications of waterfront spaces accounting for environmental, social, and economic uses, as well as construction and infrastructure categories. Each topic is defined and given a development objective.

BENEFITS OF THE GUIDELINE

FOR WHOM?

To harmonize and for coordination of professional practices

To ensure appropriate levels of safety and health, supporting local economic activities, granting accessibility, enhancing social and environmental sustainability

To provide suggestions for the design of functional and attractive places that serve as breathing areas for the city and minimize pollution

To enhance the value and quality of the spaces not only in the riverside zones but also in the surrounding impacted areas

To support decision making when reviewing proposals for the Sheger Revitalization Project

To establishe planning standards

To give guidance on land-uses and landscape proposals

This handbook is intended to be • used by all including residents of Addis Ababa, Community Based Organizations (CBOs), grassroots government structures, Woreda • level environmental offices and administrations, Construction and Land Development Commissions, universities and research groups, private companies, NGOs and those who are partners in the development of water corridors..

This is subsequently allotted a series of coded guidelines in a yellow box, each of which provides a range of means by which a design can meet the objective by emphasising parameters of the objective. Projects may satisfy the objectives by demonstrating that these parameters have been met, or by clarifying alternative ideas by which the objective is met for review. Every project will be assessed by its unique designs and how they meet the objectives. Further references are given in the red boxes citing other relevant documents or annexes of the Guide.

NOTE: Drawings and images used in the Spatial and Development Framework section are for illustrative purposes only and are used to clarify which spaces are being referred to, and do not express the objectives or parameters. Where there is a discrepancy between the written guidelines and the images, the text takes precedence and indicates the intent of the writers of the Guide. For investors in small scale enterprises such as urban agriculture, handmade furniture production using bamboo, woodwork etc. For groups working with disadvantaged groups including women, youth, elders and persons with disablities

A5.1 HOW TO SUBMIT PROPOSALS ? There will be a review board which evaluate well organized presentations of development proposals. The considered criterea include management and maintenance strategies. Development proposals which may have adverse and significant environmental impacts will not be admitted.

A5.1 GUIDES ON HOW TO SUBMIT A PROPOSAL 1. The proposal must be written in a clear manner. Compliance with the guidelines in this document should be referred to with the relevant code.

Public authorities, in order to: (a) assist them guide project promoters and (b) adopted international standards such as accepted design standards like AASHTO and local standards (c) provide required services in an integrated manner.

2. Drawings should be prepared by competent design professionals with legally recognized licenses. Plans must be accurate, attractive and in an appropriate scale. Detail sketches should support the main drawings where necessary.

Developers and project promoters, in order to: (a) understand in advance what is expected from them (b) analyze the different options and potentials of their involvement

4. All aspects of accessibility should be addressed by meeting local and international standards. There should be a provision for the emergency vehicles entry and exit points.

For responsible bodies on job creation for the youth, as well as for women.

3. All existing and suggested infrastructure lines should be mapped and presented as part of the main proposal.

5. All construction materials, joints and connection mechanisms

should be noted on the original drawings or on the accompanying detailed ones. It is recommended that the development proposal enhances the natural topography. All construction materials should have minimal environmental impact, be vernacular in character, be locally sourced, durable and easy to maintain. 6. The given projects should also be presented in 3D model form with topographic information in a semi- realistic setting. 7. All applications will need to be coordinated with the latest master plan proposals of land-use, transport and infrastructure. 8. After the approval of permit for construction and during the use of the river buffer, the local planning or environment protection authority may undertake investigations for potential ground contamination, river and air pollution that may harm the delicate surroundings. The result of such investigations will be communicated in writing.

Note: For land use restrictions; Consult: Addis Ababa City Plan and Development Commission For environmental impact considerations; Consult: Addis Ababa Environment Protection and Green Development Commission.

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

ADDIS ABABA RIVER SIDE PROJECT SCOPE

A5.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE GUIDELINE

CONNECT TO AND COMPLEMENT THE EXISTING URBAN FABRIC

ENHANCE QUALITY OF LIFE

SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT

Recognize and respond to the diverse and unique conditions along the riversides today

Support the communities, functions and urban dynamics that as they relate to the waterfront

Enhance the quality of life of citizens • contributing food security, economic growth and inclusive social and cultural development;

Ensure that the design quality and efficiency support all dimensions of the sustainable development goals to improve ecosystems;

Attract tourism and create new job • opportunities;

Support food security

Ensure that the rivers corridor supports an inclusive public realm

Create a healthy and safe landscape along the river;

Maintain cultural and unique identities of the city.

Well connected public spaces and green areas along the rivers in the city

A5.3 HELPFUL SUGGESTIONS FOR SUBMITTING A PROPOSAL INSIDE THE BUFFER AREA The Addis Ababa city plan and development commission is the responsible body to map flood risk zones along the rivers. Buffer areas outside flood risk sites can accommodate special developments framed by the guidelines. However, the construction of new buildings and permanent structures inside the delineated perimeter is generally prohibited. Exceptions can occur based on the quality of the proposed intervention.

RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES

Environmentally Sensitive Designs and Construction

While UN Habitat was drafting the Guideline it is discovered that a series of ancillary guidance and standards need to be developed by relevant authorities. These are outlined below, together with indicative advice to the relevant bodies about strategic actions to be undertaken in order to facilitate the Sheger River Sides Rehabilitation Project implementation process

Urban Planning Standards for Urban Rivers Buffers

Master plan of River Buffer

Infrastructure Coordination Guideline

Guideline for Urban Agriculture along the riverside

Guideline for Sourcing of Water from Urban Rivers

Guideline for Drainage and Sewage along Riversides

Guideline for Protection from Landslides and Erosion by Streams and Rivers

Guidelines for Household Waste Sorting and Disposal

Guidelines for Solid Waste Collection, Sorting and Disposal

Different city government offices have the mandate to produce guidelines and to enforce laws relevant to riverside development. It is recommended that in the future, city government offices should issue directions covering the following topics: MAP 02 River Project Buffer Map. Credit: © UN-Habitat Ethiopia

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

011 | IMAGE 03 River Illustration. : © UN-Habitat Ethiopia

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

B-SPATIAL FRAMEWORK / CONTEXT AND SITE

IMAGE 04 River Illustration. : © UN-Habitat Ethiopia

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B. SPATIAL FRAMEWORK FOR SITE AND CONTEXT

B. SPATIAL FRAMEWORK FOR SITE AND CONTEXT

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

B1. BUFFER2 ZONE AND RIVER SIDE DEVELOPMENT

Several streams have their source in the Entoto mountains and run through Addis Ababa. The Kebena and the little Akaki are the most important rivers which are the Sheger River Rehabilitation Project (along with the big Akaki in the East which is not included in the project). The rivers run through the centre of the city, mainly through most densely built up areas. All the rivers running through Addis Ababa eventually join up at various points inside and outside the city, to form the Akaki river. The Akaki, in turn, drains into the Aba Samuel reservoir, to the south of Addis Ababa but outside the city administrative boundaries. The Aba Samuel Reservoir, in the south of the city, was constructed in the late 1930s for electricity generation purposes, and today some of the municipal and industrial effluents are discharged into this reservoir. A variety of landforms exist along the stretch of the river which generally flows from North to South. The width of the rivers varies during the dry and wet seasons. According to the AAC River Side Green Development document, the development work is to widen the river up to a maximum of 20 meters and to create an average of 50-meter green space buffer along each side of the river. The green space in some areas will however extend up to the nearest existing access road to incorporate simple functions such as parking.

The river basin is characterized by floodplains of different depth, width and a wide variety of soil morphology. The landform on the sides of the river varies from wider flat terrain that can accommodate agriculture to narrow and steep landform. In order to stop further encroachment of developments into the riverside and protect individuals and properties from the threat of flooding and landslide, it is necessary to redefine the Addis Ababa river buffer zones, which is between 15m-to-50m from river sides. The buffer zone width cannot be the same everywhere and for all purposes. Buffer zone land use in general is managed differently for various purposes and thus needs different size of area or width as per the slope and soil type of the terrain. The diverse functions of a buffer zone (pollution control, habitat, sediment filter, scenery, among others) require a varied vegetation composition, land use and landscape features, including topography etc.

Tip Buffer: It is intended that no permanent structures such as buildings will be erected within the buffer zone. However, depending on the safety margin, a diverse range of well-designed open space developments that enhance the existing character of the river are planned to be accommodated. Common functions that enhance connectivity, interaction and mobility such as pedestrian walkways, Bike lanes, Car parking spaces, Shaded and open sitting and production spaces, street food stalls and public rest rooms will be some of the physical features. In addition, there will be different zones for different types of activities that boost the frontage of the river both for visitors and residents alike. The riverside development will contribute highly to the most desired open and green space for the large proportion of its residents.

MAP 03 River Project Buffer Map. Credit: Š UN-Habitat Ethiopia

B2. ENVIRONMENTAL SITE CLASSIFICATIONS B2.1 URBAN RIVERS Erosion, sediment mobilization and deposition within the same within channels and riverbeds is an expected phenomenon. Urban rivers pose challenges of environmental sustainability and management as they are part of a changing landscape that is different from nature. Urban river classification is one tool to aid in the preservation, conservation and management of rivers. The subdivision can be done according to the purpose of the classification

POSSIBLE CLASSIFICATION OF URBAN RIVERS 1) According to their geomorphic characteristics along the stretch in combination with their cross-sectional (profile) form: floodplains, valley setting, channel boundaries 2) According to the shape of their path, variability of development bars: braided, branched, meandering 3) As per features that may require particular types of intervention and management

The river buffer is an area or an interface between the river and the riverside that is reserved for conservation or no build zone that varies in size and area. 2

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B. SPATIAL FRAMEWORK FOR SITE AND CONTEXT

B. SPATIAL FRAMEWORK FOR SITE AND CONTEXT

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

B2.2 SOIL TYPES Soil types vary along the buffer zone and this places constraints on land developability. Each category and the critical physical properties determine important features of the hydrology such as runoff, recharge and discharge at the different locations of the catchments in the sub-watershed.

NOTE: For local plant and flower guide (flowers are plants); Consult: Addis Ababa Agriculture Bureau and more relevant bodies For Soil types and classes; consult Geological Survey of Ethiopia.

GUIDELINE: B2.2A Soil Report: It is the responsibility of all developers to produce a soil report for their site and to consult the relevant guidelines for their intended uses..

For possible solutions to water drainage and logging in these conditions; Consult : Addis Ababa Water Supply and Sewerage Authority, Environmental Protection and Green Development Commission and more relevant bodies.

Upper Catchment Zone The upper catchment zone contains steep slopes on the mountains of Entoto. Years of runoff has created valley of the stream. This zone requires the higgest management of runoff and encourage infiltration solution

Middle Catchment Zone

B2.3 TOPOGRAPHY AND ZONE CLASSIFICATIONS In terms of elevation, the highest point of Entoto mountains is at 3166 m.a.s.l while the lowest point is at 2045 m.a.s.l at the outlet of the drainage to the Aba-Samuel reservoir.

Slope Guides The general recommendation is to integrate and maintain the slope of the natural terrain on the sides of the river B2.3A Conservation: Slopes of > 30% will not be suitable for agriculture or other built functions since runoff will be high and access will be limited. Limit functions that incorporate conservation forestry and terracing.

In the middle catchement zone, gentler slopes are predominant. However the river being in the vally, large volume of water is expected from surface runoff which needs careful management of storm water system.

Lower Catchment Zone The lower catchement zone is relatively flat with minimum runoff and high sediment load around the riverbanks.

B2.3B Adaptation: Vegetable and fruit tree production can be done on gentle slopes (15-30%) where the soil character allows. Minimal ground disturbance should be considered when planning hardscape and small construction related developments. B2.3C Recreation: In addition to agriculture, relatively flat slopes (0-15%) are good or developing recreational parks that can be accessible by people of all ages.

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B. SPATIAL FRAMEWORK FOR SITE AND CONTEXT

MAP 04 River Catchment Classification Map. Credit Š UN-Habitat Ethiopia

B. SPATIAL FRAMEWORK FOR SITE AND CONTEXT

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

B2.3.1 RIVERBEDS

B2.3.4 LANDSLIDES AND RISKS OF EROSION

These are channels in which the river flows vary in size during seasonal changes. It is also dependent on soil typologies and rock bedding that forms the characteristics of the riverbeds. The flowing nature and characteristics of rivers is also contributes to their conditions.

Slope geometry, slope material, structural discontinuities, land-use and land cover, groundwater, rainfall, flooding and different kinds of manmade activities can cause landslides on riversides. Landslide prone areas in the middle catchment have masonry retaining walls (preferably gabions) built at different times through the history of the city. However, due to encroachments and human activities, more areas may become prone to landslide. There had been incidents of landslides in Kurtume River where properties were damaged

Where appropriate it is recommended to create artificial retention ponds, to serve purposes such as flood mitigation downstream and adjacent buffers by decreasing speed and volume of runoff. Furthermore, its added benefits include decreasing physical pollution by sedimenting Total Suspended Solids in the river, creating aeration via turbidity and augmenting the Biological Oxygen Demand for liquid waste management and last but not least regulate the yearly flow of the river by creating availability of water thought the dry season as well.

GUIDELINE

IMAGE 05 River Illustration. Credit:© UN-Habitat Ethiopia

GUIDELINE: B2.3.1A Safety: Riverbed excavation with proper bank stabilization can be considered as flood prevention mechanism for small depth flood when the bank of the river does not allow construction of masonry dyke or flood wall.

B2.3.2 FLOOD PLAINS The area of land that is adjacent to the river and is low-lying is subject to flooding especially in the rainy season. Clay, silt and sand deposits are common after flooding. The lower catchment gets flooded frequently as the river conveys high runoff from upper catchments.

B2.3.2B Floodplain preservation: the land adjacent to the river channel must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without increasing the water surface elevation significantly. Creating water ponds on places where the river changes direction or have high flow.

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B. SPATIAL FRAMEWORK FOR SITE AND CONTEXT

B2.3.3B Protection: Steep slopes must be protected from degradation. Excavation, removing materials from the ground or cutting trees will not be allowed. Defined limits of dangerous zones must be reinforced with retaining walls (preferably: gabions and terracing schemes) or other mechanism. Plant trees with wide spreading root systems to prevent erosion. Surface water must be targeted towards the natural galley so it can quickly drain and not create pressure in the soil. To prevent movement of cut or filled slopes during construction, introduce retaining structures. B2.3.3C Management vegetation cover cover land with vegetation (including grass) rather than leave it bare. Manipulate water hydraulics to avoid bank erosion when river or stream changes direction abruptly. Steep slopes are to be monitored regularly for cracks that appear before failure. Man-made features to control the direction and velocity of water is also one way of management. Boulders/Gabion construction to manage the land slide and river side erosions

GUIDELINE B2.3.2A Floodplain development: Flood resistant structures and developments are allowed in the floodplains. The developer must have detailed studies by suitably qualified consultants to determine the impact of the proposed development. It is the responsibility of all developers to produce a floodplain management strategy to tackle flood hazard and to consult the relevant guidelines for the proposed use.

B2.3.3A Landslide hazard maps: It is the responsibility of the relevant government bodies to provide landslide hazard maps. Development activities and public access will be limited and regulated within these zones.

Note: For plant types of widespreeding roo and types of grasses to be planted at river banks; IMAGE 06 River Illustration. Credit: © UN-Habitat Ethiopia

consult: Addis Ababa Urban Agriculture Bureau, Environment Protection and Green Development Commission and other relevant bodies

IMAGE 07 River Illustration. Credit: © UN-Habitat Ethiopia

NOTE: Regarding Floodplain Development guide and Local Environmental plans for flood risk; Consult: Addis Ababa City Plan and Development Commission, Addis Ababa City Roads Authority, Addis Ababa Water Supply and Sewerage Authority, Addis Ababa River Basins and Green Areas Development and Administration Agency, Addis Ababa Environment Protection and Green Development Commission, and more Relevant bodies.

B. SPATIAL FRAMEWORK FOR SITE AND CONTEXT

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B2.4 HYDROLOGY

B2.4.1 STREAM NETWORKS A few tributaries join the main North-South axis flow. The upper catchment is formed from aquifers while the middle and lower catchments are formed from a network of streams draining into one another and joining at different junctions. The lower catchment zone is drained by the primary streams of Kilinto, Dido and Tulu Dimtu in addition to the Big-Akaki and Big-Kebena

FIRST MAJOR NETWORK OF STREAMS ORDER

FORMING RIVERS

TRIBUTARIES

PARTS

1ST

Kurtumi

Chefe, Kostre, Fendo And Gordeme

Upper And Middle Catchment Zones

Kecihene

Metakosha, Kera And Demissie

2ND

Kurtumi And Kechene

3RD

Banteyiketu

Middle, Ambassador Junction

TABLE 01. First Major Network of Streams

SECOND MAJOR NETWORK OF STREAM ORDER

FORMING RIVERS

1ST AND Kebena 2ND ORDER Kebena And Banteyiketu 3RD

TRIBUTARIES

PARTS

Denkaka Gelana Ginfile

Ankorcha Hills Central Hills Middle Catchment Middle Catchment

4TH

Big-Kebena

Peacock Junction

5TH

Akaki

Big Kebena Joining At Worku Sefer

TABLE 02. Second Major network of Streams

MAP 05 STREAM NETWORK MAP River image: © UN-Habitat Ethiopia

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B2.4.2 RUNOFF AND FLOOD RISK

B2.5 POLLUTION

Open defecation on the riversides,

In the areas where the natural channel width and depth is not enough to accommodate the peak flow during the rainy season, there is significant flood risk in: The Kurtumi, Kechene and Kebena, areas around Dilber and Zebegna sefer, Chefe meda, Golamichael, Ferensay, Arat Kilo, Gojam Berenda, Afincho Ber, Filuha Urael and Peacock. These areas are expected to be inundated during extreme peak flows. These areas must be monitored for channel overflow during the peak rainy season.

Previous studies on water quality showed that major sources of pollutants are:

Domestic and sewer canals connected to the river,

Overflow from septic tanks,

Solid waste dumping practices.

In areas where the river has a sharp bend, it is common to witness retaining walls collapsing due to the force of the water especially in the rainy season.

GUIDELINE B2.4.2A Flood Risk Mapping: It is the responsibility of all developers to request and present the most recent mapping of flood prone zone in close proximity to their site and to consult the relevant guidelines on safety and prevention practices.

GUIDELINE

riverside is not permitted as well.

B2.5A Liquid waste: No individual, institutional body or factory will be allowed to pollute the river by connecting domestic sewage or untreated effluent directly to the river. The act is punishable by law. Factories need to present environmental impact assessment reports and get certifications for their liquid waste discharge.

B2.5C From activities: All development activities will be highly monitored for environmental pollution impacts. Certain activities can only be allowed on a conditional basis. Forexample, farm activities will not be allowed to use chemical fertilizers Those that run car wash business, garages and fuel stations will have to properly manage the water used and safely dispose of by integrating it with the sewerage line.

B2.5B Solid waste: No individual, institutional bodies (governmental as well as public service entities) or factory will be allowed to dump any kind of solid waste that will impact the surrounding environment. Soil and construction waste dumping along the

Note: For compatible business activities at the river corridors; Consult: Addis Ababa Environment Protection and Green Areas Development Commission.

PICTURE 03 Flooding in Addis Ababa. Credit: © UN-Habitat Ethiopia

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B. SPATIAL FRAMEWORK FOR SITE AND CONTEXT

B2.5D Extraction of resources: extraction of mineral sources from the river or the riverside is prohibited under this guideline.

: For Use of fertilizers; Consult: Addis Ababa Urban Agriculture Bureau

PICTURE 04 River image: © UN-Habitat Ethiopia

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

B3. URBAN SITE CLASSIFICATIONS

B3.1 LANDMARKS AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT FABRIC

B3.2 EXISTING SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY- RELATIONAL

In the current state, it is not only residences that are encroaching within the delineated buffer zone but buildings of big organizations, factories and high-rise structures that are landmarks of the city. While most of the housing units are sub-standard, old and made of flimsy materials, there are few which have good foundation and retaining mechanisms against flooding. Important and Historic buildings are also found at the edges of the rivers. Such examples include, Ambassador Cinema, Harambe and Ghion hotels and other high-rise apartments in Piassa and heritage buildings.

Previous social studies indicate riverside residents have been living in the area for many years. The major reasons to settle in these parts include provision of land and kebele houses by the government, job opportunities and economic benefits, inheritance and land grabbing by informal settlers. Researches conducted also indicate most households are comfortable to live there because of location and affordability. For those who lived in the area for a very long time, there is a feeling of belonging, and strong ties to the local community. There is however constant fear of flooding and of evictions by the government.

GUIDELINE B3.1A Cultural and historical buildings and spaces: buildings and spaces of cultural and historical importance marked by UNESCO, AARCCH and other relevant bodies should be preserved. Surrounding activities should not negatively affect these buildings and spaces of cultural heritage. NOTE : For all types of cultural protection and heritage conservation spaces Protection guidelines. Consult: UNESCO, AARCCH, EiABC Chair of Conservation of Architectural and Urban Heritage, Addis Ababa City Plan and Development Commission

NOTE: For building types that will be allowed to remain in the buffer; Consult: AARCCH, Addis Ababa City Plan and Development Commission, Addis Ababa River Basins & green areas development and administration agency, Addis Ababa Infrastructure coordination, building permit and control authority and more relevant bodies.

CURRENT LAND USE Historically, the riverside has been used as recreational, agricultural commercial, residential community and service zones. However, through the years the pollution and contamination of the river has worsened so much that the uses of the waterway are limited and it does not provide any recreation while it sustains agriculture activities. Map 05 indicates the latest land use zoning: areas of green open space, residential, commercial, community and other functions and the extent of the buffer zone.

RESIDENTIAL

Currently, the most predominant function along the river is residential. Considering the long time, the residents had lived in the area, they have strong community ties. Some of predominantly residential neighbourhoods are Piassa, Urael, Peacock etc..

COMMERCIAL

Piassa neighbourhood is predominantly shopping area in the tenth Masterplan of the City with mix of wide

SERVICE

There are a number of factories along the river buffer that are operational but against the land use indicated

other uses. The area also retain employment opportunities close to the busy part of the city.

in the tenth Masterplan of the Addis Ababa City. There are also hotels, hospitals and offices that are already existing and conflicting with the land use.

PICTURE 05 Photo of Mosque Š UN-Habitat

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B. SPATIAL FRAMEWORK FOR SITE AND CONTEXT

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

B3.3 DEMOGRAPHY AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS When the river rehabilitation project was first initiated February 21, 2019, the number of people that were residing along the riverside delineated as ‘buffer’ was in thousands. However, after a few years speculations drew more people to encroach in the buffer in the hope of being resettled. Studies indicate most residents live in a congested manner with small area proportions per person. The lack of private or public toilets is one problem that has health impact on riverside residents. Although some units may have toilets, the sewage discharging directly towards the river. Most households have provisions of electricity and piped water.

PICTURE 06 - Atlas

PICTURE 07 - Peacock Park

PICTURE 08 - Afincho Ber

PICTURE 09 - Ras Makonnen

PICTURE 10- Kebena

PICTURE 11- Agoza Gebeya

PICTURE 12 - Italian Embassy

PICTURE 13- Akaki River

PICTURE 14 - Bole Bulbula

MAP 04 Landuse Map of the 10th Addis Ababa Masterplan. Credit: © UN-Habitat Ethiopia

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B. SPATIAL FRAMEWORK FOR SITE AND CONTEXT

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

C- USES AND ACTIVITY CLUSTER

IMAGE 08 River Illustration. : © UN-Habitat

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

C1. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT USE AND ACTIVITY CLUSTER (UAC) CLASSIFICATIONS

This is a general guideline for riverside corridor design development. The preparation of further, more detailed guideline as per the local development plan, is needed, which addresses the current and future needs of the specific Weredas in question. The enhancements should be inclusive to all residents and visitors. Any development should not obstruct the natural flow of the water. Considering the predominant activities that currently take place, a proposal of 11 riverside Uses and Activity Clusters is produced. Each use and activity cluster will have different guides as to the type of interventions that accommodate different needs.

NOTE: Specific urban planning and development guides will have to be coordinated and read in conjunction with this document to maximize the best, most efficient and sustainable use of the riverside corridor.

UAC1: SECURE ZONE This term is used to mean the surroundings of embassies, residences and offices of the international and diplomatic community. Public use and activities in this area are prohibited for security reasons. The locations and sizes of lot in these secure zones are to be confirmed by the Addis Ababa Planning and Development Commission. However, an example of this type of sub-zone could be the river side along the east boundary of the UNECA, riverside parts bordering embassies and consulate offices.

GUIDELINE UAC1A SECURE ZONE: This zone could be planned as a green space. Ensure that developments surrounding secure zones are not in

conflict with the secure zones.

UAC2: URBAN AGRICULTURE This Use and activity cluster comprises most of the areas along the river in which agriculture is currently being practiced and those areas which have topographical potential to grow vegitables either seasonally (rain fed) or through an irrigation system. Seasonal crops like Teff, Barley and Wheat are cultivated rarely and fruit trees are not common practice along the rivers of Addis Ababa. However, this could be a new venture to be introduced in support of the livelihood of riverside residents. The most common vegetables grown include cabbage, tomato, potato, carrot, onion, garlic, and lettuce. Growing vegetables with water sourced from the river is a common practice which should be encouraged to continue when the river is cleaned up, as the benefits of growing food locally are multi-fold not only for the residents who use the produce but also for the urban farmers who earn a living out of it.

GUIDELINE: UAC2 URBAN AGRICULTURE UAC2A. Lot allocation: Urban agriculture including dairy and poultry can be practiced where zoning, topographic and environmental conditions allow it. To encourage social interaction, production of locally grown food and for educational purposes, communal or shared farming is an option that can be practiced in smaller plots integrated with multiple dwelling developments, in common outdoor amenity spaces such as in schools and community centres. In Areas where land is used for seasonal crops design should consider complimentary uses, such as poultry and animal rearing. UAC2B. Health: previously contaminated sites need approval from the authority for safe production after a soil test. The soil should be tested for toxins (heavy metals, salinity and hydrocarbons) and if necessary it should be decontaminated prior to being utilised for agriculture purposes. (impossible to enforce via a design guidance) Dairy and poultry farms are subject to regular inspections from the competent authorities

As a result of tests done on vegetable produced in the lower catchment area, it was discovered that the soil is highly contaminated due to factory chemicals. Replacement of soils in this area is critical, and avoid using river water for planting and must opt for using boreholes Poultry and Dairy farming are also allowed in areas which are suitable for such activities (wary of only limited areas as most and nearly all section of the river are not suitable). Pairing urban agriculture with agriculture is also a plus. With careful analysis of situations on the ground at local level, the responsible planning and permit authority can request specific documentation and standards for animal farming. It should be noted that agriculture must not be expanded at the cost of natural vegetation.

UAC2C. Pollution: The use of toxic materials or chemical fertilizers for urban agriculture is forbidden. Dairy and Poultry farms are subject to waste management regulations. The use of organic inputs is encouraged for agriculture purposes. UAC2D. Efficiency: developers must indicate the planned source of water and indicate a mechanism to use the water effectively. UAC2E. Technology: green agricultural technologies such as drip irrigation systems, solar power use and green house are encouraged for the overall management of the farms. UAC2F. Access: garden plots should incorporate easy access features to accommodate working space. The landscaping should allow accessibility by all age groups. Where gardens are shared with other amenity spaces, they should incorporate outdoor seats and resting areas for social interaction. UAC2G. Storage: Storage rooms or sheds can be allowed for storing tools and materials required for agricultural uses.

NOTE: For a variety of recommended crops and plant species for urban agriculture; Consult: Addis Ababa Urban Agriculture Bureau and more relevant bodies. : For storage building typologies, material, height and size; Consult: Addis Ababa Infrastructure Coordination, Building Permit and IMAGE 09 River Illustration. : Š UN-Habitat

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C. ACTIVITY CLUSTER

Control Authority, Urban Agriculture bureau and more relevant bodies.

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

Main Street

Mix Security - Touristic Watch Tower Bus Parking Commercial Building

Water Reservoir Cultural Buildings

Security Watch Tower

Way finding

Touristic Watch Tower

IMAGE 10

IMAGE 11

IMAGE 12 AGRI COMMERCIAL AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES

URBAN AGRICULTURE GROUNDS

AGRI PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES

River Crossing

Walkway Lighting

Urban Agriculture

Cultural Village

IMAGE 14 River Illustration. : © UN-Habitat Lighting

Agri Production Activities Urban Agriculture

Cultural / Small Buildings

This Use and Activity Cluster is a designated as natural green part /space that comprises the existing greenery, trees and shrubs. The river offers an opportunity for providing a diverse natural habitat and already is

Agri Tourism

home to several animal and plant species. The retention of existing trees and vegetation will generally be encouraged. The most crucial roles of trees include sediment filter, pollutant filters, runoff filter, carbon sink, habitat for wildlife, climate change mitigation, aesthetic and recreational functions. UAC3 also includes protected areas covered by grass and grazing land for the wild animals and livestock. This type of sub-zone could serve as nature reserve for ecotourism, habitat and biodiversity conservation.

Resting Areas

Erosion Safe Riverside

It could also be used to educate school children about plants and animals also various species.

Agri Commercial and Cultural Activities

Way Finding

River Side Parking

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UAC3: GRASSLAND, MIXED FOREST AND VEGETATION (CONSERVATION AREA)

IMAGE 13 River Illustration. : © UN-Habitat

GUIDELINE: UAC3: GRASSLAND, MIXED FOREST AND VEGETATION (CONSERVATION AREA) UAC3A Conservation: Proposals must aim to protect and enhance the existing wildlife. The introduction of new species of flora and fauna should get an approval from the relevant body. UAC3B Ecosystem: The type of trees and vegetation selected in this cluster will have to be carefully selected to prevent erosion, consumes less water and should be approved by the relevant body. Overgrazing by farm animals should be prohibited. Hunting wild animals should also be prohibited. This area may not be disturbed by any built functions or human activity other than occasional recreation.

Note: For allowable species of flora and fauna; Consult: Addis Ababa Environment Protection and Green Development Commission, Urban Agriculture Bureau and more relevant bodies

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

UAC4: BAMBOO GROWING AND PRODUCTION This Use and Activity cluster will be dedicated to different kinds of bamboo growing and processing. Furnitures and artisan products of bamboo can also be assembled here. Currently bamboo production along the river is being practiced in Bambis, Enderasea and AU Neighbourhoods.

NOTE: Shed types for small scale production and construction materials allowed; Consult: Addis Ababa Infrastructure Coordination, Building Permit and Control Authority, Addis Ababa Job Creation and Enterprise Development Bureau, Addis Ababa Urban Agriculture Bureau and more relevant bodies.

UAC6: RECREATION AND LEISURE GUIDELINE: UAC4: BAMBOO GROWING AND PRODUCTION

Linear Parks stretching continuously along the river and outdoor entertainment facilities with perennial vegetation (tree, shrub, herbs...) and lawns which are used for public recreation fall under this sub-zone. These spaces contribute to the city’s open space framework.

UAC4A. Bamboo growing: the growing of bamboo should not have an adverse effect on the river. The use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides is prohibited. UAC4B. Bamboo products: To produce furniture and items of bamboo origin, the use of dangerous paints, glues and chemicals is prohibited. Such producers must indicate their waste management plan. Rather than transport the raw bamboo to other locations, it is recommended that production sheds and facilities could be located here. UAC4C: Youth Groups: Agencies working with the young and job creation activities should be given priority in these zones as per the quality and content of their development proposals.

UAC5: PLANT AND SEEDLINGS NURSERY Areas used for plant nursery fall under this sub-zone. It is recommended that the terrain and local conditions be appropriate for such an activity. Pairing this activity with beekeeping is an added advantage.

GUIDELINE UAC5A: Plant and seedlings nursery: The use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides is prohibited. Waste management plan especially of waste plastics should be provided with the proposal. NOTE: For the use of organic fertilizers;

IMAGE 16 River Illustration. : © UN-Habitat

GUIDELINE: UAC6: RECREATION AND LEISURE

Consult: Addis Ababa Urban Agriculture Bureau

UAC6A. Lot Allocation: Considering the land use of the surrounding development, open public spaces can be allocated strategically where such amenities are lacking. (sometimes you use complete sentences, sometimes not) UAC6B. Accessibility: open spaces that are meant for public recreation and leisure should be accessible by all. There should be dedicated walkways done in hardscape. Dedicated walkways paved with hard surfaces should be designed to maximize accessibility UAC6C. Safety: Public open spaces must meet all safety measures.

Their location must consider possible flooding risk. Guardrails and retaining walls should be provided where the landscape needs such interventions. UAC6D. Environment: the type of vegetation must be suited for public recreation including varieties of plants for shade UAC6E. Water Management: the efficient use and sustainable management of water must be reflected in any proposal UAC6F. Operation: if public space is to serve multi-dwelling units predominantly, then residential development will be required to contribute towards the space’s upkeep as per agreements to be made in the initial phase of the development.

NOTE: For design standards of public open space for recreation and safety measures; IMAGE 15 River Illustration. : © UN-Habitat

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C. ACTIVITY CLUSTER

Consult: River Basins & Green Areas Development and Administration Agency, Addis Ababa City Plan and Development Commission and more relevant bodies.

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

UAC7: SPORTS, FESTIVAL AND COMMUNITY GATHERING

UAC8: OPEN MARKET

This sub-zone is an open space that is to be used for sport activities, religious, political, social events and exhibition spaces. As large crowds are expected to be accommodated, mobility, connectivity, access and safety should be given highest priorities and reflected in development proposals. Adequate directional and risk level warning signages and public toilets should also be incorporated. The ratio of hardscape over softscape will be very small as more green is encouraged than artificial shading.

This is an area where commodity exchange takes place outside buildings. At times these functions can be an integral part of local productions, but they can also be a cluster of stalls with different merchandise. If the area is to be a stand-alone marketplace, it should accommodate adequate circulation, means of access for emergency, waste sorting and management points and all other necessary supporting functions with merchandise produced elsewhere.

GUIDELINE: UAC8: OPEN MARKET

are required. There should be provision for service and emergency access by vehicles.

UAC8A. Placing: Setting-up Markets will be allowed in specific areas, taking pedestrian traffic and access to municipal services such as water and electricity into consideration

UAC8C. Safety: All safety measures for crowded areas must be clearly indicated with the use of appropriate signage

UAC8B. Access: People of varying abilities have to be able to access the open market and hence standardised dimensions for circulation

UAC8D. Visible: waste sorting and pickup locations should be clearly sign posted.

NOTE: Regarding Different types of shade design for open market; Consult: Addis Ababa Job Creation and Enterprise Development Bureau, Addis Ababa Infrastructure Coordination, Building Permit and Control Authority and more relevant bodies IMAGE 17 River Illustration. : Š UN-Habitat

GUIDELINE: UAC7: SPORTS, FESTIVAL AND COMMUNITY GATHERING SZ7A. Mobility and connectivity: In consideration to large crowd size, circulation has to consider connectivity not just in the green development zone but also across the river. Hubs for different forms of transport can come adjacent to the green development zone with ample parking facilities for cars and bikes

for large crowd SZ7D. Safety is to be given highest priority considering possible crowd size. For example, escape routes, emergency accesses for emergency vehicle must be reflected in development proposals. Hard surfaces should meet all design criteria for safety. SZ7E. Signage: informational, Directional and risk level warning (if any) should be strategically located .

SZ7B. Space allocation: Sports and festival spaces should be designed as per standards. The proportion of hard to soft scape must be respected.

SZ7F. Amenities: public toilets should also be incorporated and located strategically for access but visually obscured.

SZ7C. Accessibility: open spaces that are meant for public recreation and leisure should be accessible by all. There should be dedicated walkways done in hardscape respecting standard sizes

SZ7G.Waste Management: waste sorting and management awareness has to be practiced in such ideal locations and hence the facilities should encourage the practice

NOTE: For design standard of sports and festival outdoor spaces; Consult: Addis Ababa Sport Commission, Addis Ababa City Plan and Development Commission, Addis Ababa River Basins & Green areas Development and Administration agency and More relevant bodies.

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C. ACTIVITY CLUSTER

IMAGE 18 River Illustration. : Š UN-Habitat

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

UAC9: SMALL SCALE PRODUCTION

UAC10: EXISTING STRUCTURES FOR EVENTUAL MOVE/DEMOLISHING

One of the functions recommended for the riverside corridor is job creation for all age groups and especially for women and the young. And hence, in this sub-zone, small scale production and manufacturing should be incorporated where the topography allows and where the risk from flooding is minimal. All proposed activities must comply with requirements and standards set forth by different governmental agencies such as business and trade, Small and medium scale manufacturing enterprise etc

Existing structures that conflict with the land-use of the structural plan of Addis Ababa such as factories along the river will be eventually relocated. However, due to the complexity of the process, the move is expected to be gradual. While they remain, all type of factories should refer and comply with international and local environmental standards of managing their waste. Currently there are Marble, Brick, Hollow Concrete Block, Tobacco and other factories that operate and release their untreated effluent to the rivers.

GUIDELINE: UAC9: SMALL SCALE PRODUCTION UAC9A. Social Impact: While proposals with the most positive impact will be given the highest priority, only activities that have relatively negligible adverse effects on the environment will be allowed.

hazardous chemicals and products that may contaminate the soil and eventually the river will not be allowed. Production sites must have a waste management strategy. Small scale production sites should not have significant negative impacts on the surrounding, existing function? or on the health of individuals that are employed. A production facility may be requested to treat its own waste within its premises.

UAC9B. Inclusive: Sectors and activities that target employment opportunities should give priority people for those who are physically challenged and for women.

UAC9D. Efficiency: Production facilities must be efficient in their use of resources. Whenever possible production facilities should use recent technology and renewable.

UAC9C. Environment friendly: All types of production activities must comply with environment protection standards. The use of

UAC9E. High Standard: production facilities must meet the highest standard in working condition and quality of products.

GUIDELINE: UAC10: EXISTING STRUCTURES FOR EVENTUAL MOVE/DEMOLISHING UAC10A. Environment: All existing factories and production facilities that will remain in the river buffer will have to comply with all environment standards of handling their waste. Production facilities will be requested to develop a waste management strategy that is binding and respects the rules of the Environmental Protection Agency.

NOTE: Regarding Environmental protection standard for sewage and air quality; Consult: Addis Ababa Environment Protection & Green Development Commission, Addis Ababa Water Supply and Sewerage Authority and more relevant bodies.

UAC10B. Expansion: Requests by existing factories for expansion are not allowed. UAC10C. High Standard: Their production facilities must meet the highest standard in working conditions and quality of products, as per ruleand regulations in place.

Regarding guidelines for waste processing by production facilities; Consult: Addis Ababa Solid Waste Management Agency and More relevant bodies

UAC11: EXISTING STRUCTURES TO REMAIN Through the development of the city of Addis Ababa, not only informal but formal development also encroached on the river buffers. While it is crucial to relocate unsafe structures, those structures (exceptionally high rise and historical buildings) that were built with sound foundations and retaining mechanisms will be identified, studied, and may be allowed to remain depending on the decision of a special review committee (consisting but not limited to Planning Commission, Environmental Protection agency, River and River basin agency, Culture and Tourism Bureau, Heritage Trust and others). Some of the buildings that will fall under this category are Federal Housing Corporation owned properties along Piassa Ras Mekonnen Bridge, Buildings along the Ghion Hotel.

GUIDELINE: UAC11: EXISTING STRUCTURES THAT WILL REMAIN UAC11A. Emergency access: Existing structures that will remain in the buffer should have a means of escape at times of flooding, e.g. easy connection to higher ground. UAC11B. Land-use change: Change of function for existing buildings within the river buffer is only permitted after review by the city planning and environmental protection agencies.

IMAGE 19 River Illustration. : Š UN-Habitat

NOTE: Regarding different Shed design options for small scale production;

Regarding maintaining buffer for waste processing facilities

Consult: Addis Ababa Infrastructure Coordination, Building Permit and Control Authority, Addis Ababa Job Creation and Enterprise Development Bureau and more relevant bodies.

Consult: Addis Ababa City plan and Development commission, Addis Ababa River Basins & Green Areas Development and Administration Agency, Addis Ababa Solid Waste Management Agency and More relevant bodies;

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C. ACTIVITY CLUSTER

NOTE: Regarding Environmental protection standard for sewage and air quality; Consult: Addis Ababa Environment Protection & Green Development Commission, Addis Ababa Water Supply and Sewerage Authority and more relevant bodies.

UAC11C. Physical modification: Any design and construction alteration, or modification of existing buildings in the delineated buffer will be guided by a special restrictive guideline on the type of construction material and the effect of modification on the surrounding both at local and urban scale. UAC11D. Environmental impact: All buildings that will be allowed to remain will be required to comply with the rules of environment protection agency in their management of both solid and liquid waste.

Regarding guidelines for waste processing by production facilities; Consult: Addis Ababa Solid Waste Management Agency and More relevant bodies

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

D- DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES

IMAGE 20 River Illustration. : © UN-Habitat

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D. DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

D1. OCCUPANCY AND USES

Taking the existing predominant occupancy into account, the placemaking in the riverside corridor will follow infill function for a place or services that may be missing and may add an amenity to the residents. For example, dense residential areas may need places of recreation, assembly and shopping to enhance the quality of their neighbourhoods. Therefore, the local development plan designed for Wereda should incorporate such functions as per the needs of the residents.

D1.1 ASSEMBLY, COMMUNAL OPEN SPACE

Occupancy and Uses

D1.1A Assembly: Communal open spaces should be designed in the form of plazas and terraces with vegetation sheds to maximize the quality of an existing neighbourhood in the vicinity of the river. They should be accessible to all, functional and well designed to positively contribute to the quality of the surrounding space. Safety and security for larger crowds should be taken in consideration. NOTE: regarding allowable construction materials and design guide; Consult: Addis Ababa Infrastructure Coordination, Building Permit and Control Authority and more relevant bodies.

D1.2 COMMERCE D1.2A Commerce: Commercial activities should take place in designated spaces where accessibility, safety, comfort and health are not compromised. As an extension of existing commercial centres or streets, new commercial spaces should be an active part of pedestrian walkways and laneways. For local produce, the markets should not be far from the area of production. NOTE:

IMAGE 22: River Illustration. Assembly and Commerce © UN-Habitat

For allowable types of market sheds and for market design guidelines;

Consult: Infrastructure Coordination, Building Permit and Control Authority, Addis Ababa Job Creation and Enterprise Development Bureau, Addis Ababa Urban Agriculture Bureau and more relevant bodies.

D1.3 RESIDENTIAL D1.3A Residence: Most riverside residential neighborhoods lack amenities. Development in each neighborhood should consult the hierarchy of need for the open space function that is most lacking. Local development plans should always be consulted when deciding on supplementary functions for residential occupancy neighborhoods IMAGE 23: River Illustration. Residence and Education © UN-Habitat

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IMAGE 21 Photo of the Kabena River. © UN-Habitat D. DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

D1.4 EDUCATION

D1.8 URBAN AGRICULTURE

D1.4A Education: Developments which complement educational facilities should be designed in areas where the impact of the educational facility is high. Functions that add amenities both to the facility and for residents are encouraged while developments that negatively impact educational facilities will not be allowed

D1.8A Urban Agriculture: There will be an effort to conserve existing areas of urban agriculture. However, the practice will be monitored by the relevant environment protection and urban agriculture administrative bureau for erosion, compliance with environmental impact and negative activities that may have an impact on the riverside or on the river itself.

D1.5 SMALL SCALE PRODUCTION D1.5A Small scale production: Existing areas used for small scale production will be monitored for environmental compliance and waste management.

D1.9 LEISURE AND RECREATION

NOTE: For allowable small-scale production centres on the riverside; Consult: Addis Ababa Infrastructure Coordination, Building Permit and Control Authority, Addis Ababa Job Creation and Enterprise Development Bureau, Addis Ababa Urban Agriculture Bureau and more relevant bodies.

IMAGE 24: River Illustration. Small scale production © UN-Habitat

Consult: Addis Ababa River Basins and Green Areas Development and Administration Agency, Addis Ababa Infrastructure Coordination, Building Permit and Control Authority, Addis Ababa City Plan and Development Commission and more relevant body.

D1.6A Manufacturing and factories: Existing factories are known to be major polluters of the river through their effluent. Factories should adhere to the national environmental compliance and waste management.

D1.10 CIVIC AND COMMUNITY

NOTE: For requirements on air pollution, liquid and solid waste handling of new small scale and existing production facilities and factories that will temporarily remain.

IMAGE 25: River Illustration. Manufacturing and Factories © UN-Habitat

D1.7 HEALTH

NOTE: For Civic and Community space design

NOTE:

For environment protection guidelines on air pollution, liquid and solid waste handling by health facilities.

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D. DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES

D1.10A Civic and community: Currently there are several civic and community activities that are being held within the buffer. The riversides have become attractive to unlawful acts , because all active functions facing their backs towards the highly polluted river. Wereda level police stations and check points should planned in such areas D1.10B Civic and Community: Complimentary civic and community functions are encouraged in the existing centres like community policing. In neighbourhoods where activities are most vital but lacking, priority will be given for proposals that target communal use.

D1.7A Health: A few health centres and hospitals are known to be polluters of the river through their effluent and poor waste management. And hence, as part of the rehabilitation task, health facilities will be monitored for environmental compliance and waste management.

Consult: Addis Ababa Health bureau, Addis Ababa Environment Protection and Green Development Commission and more relevant bodies.

IMAGE 27: River Illustration. Urban Agriculture © UN-Habitat

NOTE: For Recreation and open space design guide;

D1.6 MANUFACTURING AND FACTORIES

Consult: Addis Ababa Job Creation and Enterprise Development Bureau, Environment Protection and Green development commission and more relevant bodies

D1.9A Leisure and Recreation: Areas already serving as leisure and recreation areas in the city master plan and currently on the ground can have an extension of open space towards the river that should be accessible, inclusive, functional and safe.

IMAGE 26: River Illustration. Heath © UN-Habitat

Consult: Addis Ababa River Basins and Green Areas Development and Administration Agency, Addis Ababa Infrastructure Coordination, Building Permit and Control Authority, Addis Ababa City Plan and Development Commission and more relevant body.

IMAGE 28: River Illustration. Leisure, Recreation, Civic and Community © UN-Habitat

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D2. LANDSCAPE DESIGN

D2.1 SOFTSCAPES Horticultural or vegetation parts of landscape design are called softscapes. They are complemented by hardscape elements, such as stone walls, tile patios, and brick walkways.

D2.1.1 PLANTING STRATEGY (EXAMPLE)

Landscape Design

Objective: Plants, flowers and trees should be used to protect and enhance both the ecosystem in and around the river and its sides and should support public open spaces.

GUIDELINES:

IMAGE 30: River Illustration. Softscapes Illustration © UN-Habitat

D2.1.1A Local: Develop a planting design using indigenous species and carry out planting in advance of development to allow the plants to establish themselves and grow into the ecosystem. Where exotic plants are proposed, justification is required. – previously: where non-native flora and fauna are introduced, must be accepted by relevant government body. D2.1.1B Sustainable: Each scheme shall be supported by an environmental impact assessment report, emphasising the contribution of the planting strategy and the suitability of growing conditions, ease of maintenance and long-term development. Any unavoidable removal of existing plants should be compensated with replanting. D2.1.1C Complementary: The selection and design of the planting scheme should be used to define spaces, through uses, shelter, and seasonal visual interest. The planting scheme should factor in physical and visual permeability as well as safety and security as required. Height and spread of plants should consider their relationship with buildings, paths and roads to ensure that visibility and access are maintained while the plants retain growing space.

NOTE: For local plant types, trees and flower guide; Consult: Addis Ababa Urban Agriculture Bureau , Environment Protection and Green Development Commission and more relevant bodies.

IMAGE 31: River Illustration. Planting Strategy © UN-Habitat

IMAGE 29 Photo of the Kabena River. © UN-Habitat

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D2.2 WATERSCAPES D2.2.1 WETLANDS The term ‘wetlands’ means areas of wet environments including marsh, swamps floodplains along river channels. Wetlands can be natural or constructed with permanent or temporary water presence. Wetlands provide a natural protection against extreme floods and storm surges. Ecosystems including agriculture, livestock, forest and wildlife can be restored by storing freshwater for later use. Constructed wetlands can be used to improve water quality or even for rainwater harvesting with proper treatment.

D2.2.2 SURFACE WATER MANAGEMENT AND DRAINAGE A network of road drainage system is necessary to protect the bearing capacity of pavements, the subgrade material of structures and to avoid erosion of side slopes against the velocity of the runoff. Objective: To transport rainwater runoff in open or closed drainage in such a way that it prevents erosion, clogging and damage to the channel lining by mitigating runoff volume and speed to ensure runoff does not carry waste that would pollute the river.

Note: For site selection and Design consideration for manmade wetlands. Consult: Addis Ababa River Basins and Green Areas Development and Adminstration, City Plan and Development Commission, Environment Protection and Green Development Commission and more relevant bodies.

IMAGE 33: River Illustration. Surface Water Mgm´t & Drainage © UN-Habitat

GUIDELINE D2.2.2A Drainage means: Both open channels and closed pipes are common ways of carrying storm water. Type and size are dependent on the expected flow. D2.2.2B Functionality: channels should be laid to a self-cleansing slope as per the designed flow and the type of liquid expected to flow. The rules of the different authorities on drainage and road have to be consulted. Connections must be done respecting the ground elevation and must not obstruct the flow. D2.2.2C Direction of flow: Storm water networks should be designed to discharge in the direction of flow of the main channel at appropriate elevation. The surface drain should complement the topography of the site and should contribute to place-making.

IMAGE 32: River Illustration. Wetlands © UN-Habitat

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D2.2.2D Type of drain: Open drains allow for the visual inspection of blockages but there is risk of receiving pollutants from streets and also from falling in, especially for the elderly, children and people with sensory impairments. Piped drainage systems require regular cleaning and maintenance and should be constructed with

inspection manholes at appropriate intervals. Safety should be considered in both cases. D2.2.2E Combined sewer: It is not recommended to combine sewage and rainwater in the same channel because of the hazards to health when there is overflow due to pipe clogging and heavy downpours. D2.2.2F Soakaway: The use of soakaway method for rainwater can be practical depending on the nature of the soil and the proximity of developments especially structural foundations in the area. Where the water table is high, it may be preferable to use shallow ditches filled with hard rubble to prevent erosion instead of soakaway pits. D2.2.2G Environment: Car wash facilities are required to fulfil the environmental protection requirement of having a petrol, sand or oil trap and plate separator if they are going to join their sewage with the main surface drainage line

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D2.2.3 RIVERBED The riverbed is the bottom earthen part of a river excluding the riverbank. It is the path where a river flows, or where a river once used to flow. There will not be any activity planned on the riverbed other than cleaning related tasks, minor constructions to prevent erosion and works related with river flow management.

D2.3 HARDSCAPES D2.3.1 EMBANKMENTS Embankment refers to an artificial bank raised above the immediate surrounding of land to redirect or prevent flooding by a river. It can be a raised bank running parallel along the river to carry a road or a walkway

GUIDELINE D2.3.1A As embarkments are land reclamations, structures should be checked for safety under the intended load. The structure should be designed to be stable under all stages of construction D2.3.1B Weir is a concrete or a masonry structure which is constructed across the open channel ( such as a river) to change its water flow characterstics. Weirs are constructed as an obstruction of flow of water. These are commonly used to prevent flooding.

D2.3.2 RETAINING MECHANISM

PICTURE 15: Firhouse Weir and the City Watercourse © South Dublin Libraries

Level 1

Retaining walls are vertical structures that are used as a protection to prevent riverbank erosion and failure, by resisting lateral load and hydrostatic pressure. They can be made of massive masonry, concrete or sometimes simply from gabions (containing stones) piled together one on top of each other

GUIDELINE D2.3.2A Construct retaining walls with appropriate materials and technical specifications in steep slopes where the land is unstable. D2.3.2B Retaining mechanisms made out of masonry are liable to structural failure, especially around spots where river changes direction adn volume and speed occurs. In that regard where possible it should be noted to use non-concrete-masonry retaining structures, such as the likes of gabions and landscaping interventions.

Level 2

NOTE: For design and construction of sanitary sewers lines guide; Consult: Addis Ababa Water Supply and Sewerage Authority, Addis Ababa City Plan and Development Commission and more relevant body.

IMAGE 34: Retaining Wall Illustration © UN-Habitat

IMAGE 35 River Illustration. © UN-Habitat

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D3. PUBLIC REALM

Public realms are external and outdoor spaces that are accessible to all. Beside common usage they are mostly useful in creating sense of place and collective identity. They are used for public gathering of many sorts, political, social, sporting and so forth activities.

D3.1 ACCESSIBILITY The accessibility of a public realm can be ensured by connecting it to its surrounding areas physically and functionally to create a comfortable and safe environment that is easy to walk along, navigate and connects to existing urban fabric. A successful public realm is easy to get to and get through and it is visible both from a distance and up close.

D3.1.1 PATHS, PAVING, STAIRS AND RAMPS D3.1.1.1 PATHS AND PAVEMENTS

Public Realm

Pavements must be firm, stable and slip-resistant surfaces both for foot and wheels. Safety measures should be considered whereby openings such as drainage grates and manholes will not allow wheels of wheelchair, canes or footwear to get caught. Where these can’t be relocated, the use of cane detectable rails or other barriers around the object will benefit all users. Objective: To provide paths accessible to all users IMAGE 36: River Illustration. Accessibility, Paths and Pavements © UN-Habitat

GUIDELINES: D3.1.1.1 PATHS AND PAVEMENTS D3.1.1.1A Design: Design direct and efficient routes distinct from the surrounding open space where paths cross open areas. Use textural contrast on ground surfaces to define primary routes and assist with wayfinding. Adequate hardscapes/pavement should be provided for pedestrian use to ensure the longevity of the grasslands. Locate all plantings and street furniture in an amenity zone, adjacent to the pedestrian and cyclist paths. Design paths which are as flat as possible and respecting standard slopes for wheelchair and cyclists’ access. Where the topography is a challenge, indicate ramps of standard slopes. Considerations for the disable: Provide level stopping places and rest areas along the path especially if sloped paths are longer than recommended lengths, to maximize the usability of the paths for people with reduced stamina. Provide contrast in surface tone and texture to a user with vision loss to stay on track. Consider an NOTE: For construction and building material choices for pavements; Consult: Infrastructure Coordination, Building Permit and Control Authority and more relevant body

acceptable width to allow wheelchairs and scooters to comfortably pass. D3.1.1.1B Safety: Openings and unlevelled manhole covers on pavements which obstruct smooth flow of pedestrians, cyclists and wheelchair users. Such infrastructural elements should be located out of designated paths. In areas where there are risks of falling such as steep slopes and water features, provide edge protection to enhance safety; a curb, a railing or other barrier may be used. Overhead barriers or objects protruding into the paths which are a hazard for those with visually impaired should be avoided. Provide an acceptable overhead objects clearance to increase safety for tall people, as well as for people carrying objects. D3.1.1.1C Amenity: Provide amenity strips adjacent to paths

For provision of drainage and utility lines along pavements; Consult: Addis Ababa Water Supply and Sewerage Authority and more relevant bodies

PICTURE 16 Photo of the Kabena River. © UN-Habitat

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D3.1.1.2 STAIRS AND RAMPS

D3.1.2 SEATING AREAS

Stairs may not be an option for people using wheeled mobility aids, elderly, people with special needs and visually impaired people but they will be used by people to access different levels. Where steps cannot be avoided or slopes cannot be made less steep, ramps improve access for people using mobility aids or pushing delivery carts or strollers. Handrails are a key element in the usability and safety of stairs and ramps. They also provide an important orientation cue. The shape of the rail, mounting height and continuity are key components for usability of handrails.

Seating areas along sidewalks and walkways are important for those who have difficulty walking long distances. Such space should be a place for anyone to meet up and encouraging social encounters or just wait for rides. Objective: To place seating areas where pedestrians, tourists and surrounding residents to sit comfortably and promote walkability.

They provide a secure handhold and are especially important for those with stamina issues or poor balance.

GUIDELINES: D3.1.2 SEATING AREAS D3.1.2A Resilient: Develop a standard design language for street furniture using resilient materials that are easily cleaned, maintained and repaired, quite preferably produced with local materials.

Objective: To make areas with elevation difference accessible to all users.

GUIDELINES: D3.1.1.2 STAIRS AND RAMPS

D3.1.2B Placing: Place seating on main pedestrian routes at regular intervals or at needed frequency of locational context (if seating is located less frequently, please justify). Place seating where people gather and observe activities and views. Orient seats with backs against walls and fences. In busy open areas, where there is a lot of activity to observe, design seating with no back, where people can sit on either side.

D3.1.1.2A: Accessible: Provide accessible stairs and complement with ramps where level difference cannot be avoided, or slopes cannot be made less steep. D3.1.1.2B Design: The requirements for stairs (Step, riser and thread) and ramps (slope) must be as per international and local standards with an intention to improve safety and accessibility for all users, including people with disabilities. Stairs and ramps are encouraged to be blended with the existing landscape and not be free standing.

D3.1.2C Comfortable: Locate some of seats in sheltered positions with access to morning sun and afternoon shade. The material must blend well and must be comfortable.

D3.1.1.2C Safety: Provide handrails on both sides of stairs and ramps, including at landings, and ensure they are continuously graspable along the entire length. Avoid risers of different dimension. Outdoor steps should have a material that is nonslippery when wet. NOTE: For Design and construction material guideline and standards on outdoor stairs and ramps: Consult: Addis Ababa Infrastructure Coordination, Building Permit and Control Authority, AACRA and more relevant bodies

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IMAGE 37: River Illustration. Stairs & ramps Š UN-Habitat

IMAGE 38: River Illustration. Resting Areas Š UN-Habitat

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D3.1.3 WATCH TOWER AND TERRACES

D3.1.4 SAFETY AND SECURITY

Watch tower and terraces are elevated structures to view natural and manmade artefacts in the city and surrounding areas.

Safety and security are instrumental in the utilization of public spaces. They will dictate the use of which independent of temporal and seasonal dimensions. Unless the public has confidence over its spaces usage won’t be active.

Objective: To provide elevated platform that can show multiple locations of interest from a vantage angle.

Objective: To reduce incidences of accidents, fear and crime.

GUIDELINES: D3.1.3 WATCH TOWER AND TERRACES D3.1.3A Visibility: Provide elevated tower stands with unobstructed view where people can enjoy activities.

GUIDELINES: D3.1.4 SAFETY AND SECURITY

D3.1.3B Location: Locate watch tower and terraces outside view lines to significant landmarks and historical and cultural elements.

3.1.4A Visibility: Design spaces in such a way that encourages natural surveillance to maximize visibility and avoid dark and dead corners.

D3.1.3C Safety: Provide guard rails and safety mechanisms on terraces and watch towers especially for small children. D3.1.3D Accessibility: Make top level access inclusive to all and easy to navigate to. IMAGE 39: River Illustration. Watch tower & Terraces © UN-Habitat

D3.1.4B Design: Design spaces with safety in mind. Avoid obstructions such as unlevelled pavements, holes on pathways, unprotected spaces with level differences and uncovered electrical wiring. Where necessary fence off children’s playgrounds for protection against motorized and non-motorized modes of transport. Hardscaping materials should comply with safety standards. D3.1.4C Infrastructure: Ensure all installation works are done as per international and local standards and with licenced professionals to avoid all kinds of hazard.

IMAGE 41: River Illustration. Safety and Security © UN-Habitat

IMAGE 40: River Illustration. Watch tower & Terraces © UN-Habtitat

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D3.1.5 BARRIERS AND FENCES

D3.1.7 SIGNAGE AND WAYFINDING

Barriers helps to identify boundaries and warn pedestrians from traffic accidents, slippery slopes and level differences. Fences are also used to identify areas of concern for safety reasons at public spaces such as children’s playgrounds.

Signs give information about where to go, where activities are, the kind of function buildings give. They can also act as landmarks. Objective: To locate and design signage that is clear, regularly spaced and integrated in the space in order to support easy wayfinding along pedestrian and vehicular routes.

Objective: To ensure barriers and fences contribute to safety of users and define character of space without affecting convenience and obstructing views.

GUIDELINES: D3.1.6 SIGNAGE AND WAYFINDING

GUIDELINES: D3.1.5 BARRIERS AND FENCES.

D3.1.6A Informative: Develop a standard design language for signage and maps that show pedestrian and bicycle paths, destinations, public facilities and public transport routes. Provide walking times or distance information to major destinations and facilities. Provide operating hours information at entrances to public areas.

D3.1.5A Defined space: Locate bollards to allow free pedestrian movement, while controlling vehicle access to an area.

D3.1.6B Local Character: The sign’s design language should be in keeping with the local character of an area, in terms of materials, colours and scale of images.

D3.1.5B Safety: Place bollards to be highly visible to pedestrians, drivers and cyclists and of a height with a safe top rail detail to avoid injuries.

D3.1.6C Visible: Place signs at user eye level, clear of vegetation and clear of pathways. Orient perspective maps to be consistent

with the viewer’s position; orientation plan view maps with north at the top. D3.1.6D Legible: Pathways and signs should be illuminated in areas accessed at night. Where users may not read English, ensure that the graphic language clearly indicates pedestrian paths and destinations. Use clear colours and contrasts, non-reflective surfaces and simple geographic data on maps. D3.1.6E Placement: Other than directional and road signs, Signages of service giving bodies must be placed as an integral part a building, structure or landscape and not be free standing above a person’s height.

D3.1.5C Visibility: Use highly visible barrier materials for both day and night visibility. D3.1.5D Local character: use a style, scale and materials for barriers and fences that contribute to the existing predominant or desired future character of an area. D3.1.5E carefulness: at a point where carriageways crossing the river, provide 3 meters high unclimbable transparent fence and wherever there is steep slop at riverbanks, provide fence types that are low height and transparent. D3.1.5F Security: wherever there are high security government compounds & embassy boundaries, provide green walled security fence with benches on the edges. D3.1.5G Flexibility: Implement a process to manage placement of temporary barriers and fences in public spaces by public and private entities.

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IMAGE 42: River Illustration. Barriers and Fences © UN-Habitat

IMAGE 43: River Illustration. Signage and Wayfinding © UN-Habitat

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D3.1.7 WASTE RECEPTACLES.

D3.2 ACTIVITY

An appropriate placing and use of waste receptacles are very important to keep spaces clean. Number of waste receptacles that are needed depends on the number of people who use an area, on the amount of litter generated by different space uses, and on the efficiency of sanitation program.

The aim of introducing all kinds of activities is to create engaging places, increase the enjoyment people have in those spaces or add something to existing locations in order to encourage a positive response to that space where people interact with the environment and with each other.

Objective: To provide facilities that helps to keep spaces clean all the time

D3.2.1 SPACES FOR SPORTS FACILITIES Sport and physical gymnasium are an important social phenomenon. The intention is to create spaces at riverside’s where possible for sport facilities which can give access to surrounding residents and visitors to focus on self-directed physical fitness exercises and gymnasium.

GUIDELINES: D3.1.7 WASTE RECEPTACLES

Objective: To ensure safe, functional and enjoyable spaces for sport facilities that are accessible for all users.

D3.1.7A Size: Design attractive waste receptacles of size considering how much it is expected to be used and how frequently it will be emptied.

D3.1.7C Easy to use: Receptacles should be easy for maintenance personnel to empty.

D3.1.7B Environmental: Waste receptacles should have liners to prevent wastes from leaking or falling out of the container and on to walkways.

D3.1.7D Best use: Locate waste receptacles where there are lot of people such as at busy intersections close to the crosswalks, next to take-out food shops or food vendors and at bicycle parking.

GUIDELINES: D3.2.1 SPACES FOR SPORTS FACILITIES D3.2.1A Design: Design Spaces that are convenient and accessible of a size that accommodate a wide range of sporting activities and their facilities. Include facilities at a place where adults and children perform physical finesses. Play fields must keep to standard sizes and finishing material. Design must be efficient, flexible and need considerate. Integrate public toilet and other necessary functions. D3.2.1B Comfort: Enclose the space by trees with large canopy

in a position with access to morning sun and afternoon shade. place seats around the space at sheltered position. The landscaping should be done in such a way that it is accessible by all. D3.2.1C Safety: Provide first aid and emergency service access to all spaces. Where necessary, fence off sport activities that are targeted for special groups of people. Light spaces in evenings to support safe movement and evening use.

Sports Facilities

Activity

IMAGE 44: Waste bin illustration. © UN-Habitat

IMAGE 45: River Illustration. Waste Receptacles © UN-Habitat.

IMAGE 46: River Illustration. Activity and Sports Facilities © UN-Habitat

NOTE: For standard design of sport fields and its facilities; Consult: Addis Ababa Sport commission, Addis Ababa City plan and development Commission and more relevant bodies.

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D3.2.2 PUBLIC INTERACTION

D3.2.3 PUBLIC ART

Public interaction spaces are mainly a place for users to interact, exchange ideas and perform various communal activities. It provides opportunities for relaxation, meet people and to enjoy outdoors.

Public art placed at communal spaces should be intended to be physically and freely accessible to all users, either be permanent or temporary. Whether big or small, public art is often site specific or audience specific and relates to the context in which it is cited.

Objective: To ensure safe, enjoyable and well maintained attractive public interaction places accessible for all users.

Objective: To create a sense of identity, ownership, uniqueness and entertainment to an area.

GUIDELINES: D3.2.3 PUBLIC ART D3.2.3A Design: Design public arts that resonates on reflecting local character and heritage. The design should be representative and not in conflict with the society or groups of individuals. D3.2.3B Visible: Place public arts strategically at visible and physically accessible location. The art should also be of appropriate scale and placement. D3.2.3C Durable: Use materials that enhances durability and low maintenance. D3.2.3D Complementary: The arts should be complemented by adjacent landscaping where appropriate.

GUIDELINES: D3.2.2 PUBLIC INTERACTION D3.1.2A Design: Design safe, convenient and accessible Public interaction places at possible locations of the riversides that accommodates wide range of appropriate activities and uses for everyone that can be enjoyed in varied weather conditions. Include a place where adults and children can gather and socialize. Provide seats and tables to cater for large gatherings of people. D3.1.2B Safety: Provide lighting in Public interaction places to support safe movement and evening use. Depending on crowd size, provide alternate routes for multiple access and provide connectivity to boost and allow connection of usage on both sides of the river. Allow emergency vehicle access from all fronts. D3.1.2C Maintenance: Establish a regular maintenance program for Public interaction places.

IMAGE 47: River Illustration. Public Interaction Š UN-Habitat

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IMAGE 48 : River Illustration. Public Art Š UN-Habitat

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IMAGE 49 River Illustration. © UN-Habitat

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D4. ARCHITECTURE

When Architecture and public space work together, it multiplies urban vitality effects. Architecture should work the hardest to avoid individuality and gravitate towards urban totality. Objective: To create attractive spaces and landscape that contribute to a positive neighbourhood character and relate to the community in context at human scale.

GUIDELINES: D4 ARCHITECTURE D4.A Design: Design standard, attractive spaces and landscapes to complement existing development patterns, respecting the local regulations, cultural identity and with flexibility and functionality for the intended location at sides of the river. D4.B Local Character: Provide architectural features that establish, define and enhance the surrounding neighbourhood character. D4.C Harmony: Harmonize the character of new developments such as façade in such a way that it blends with the old buildings’ character and not stand alien to the urban setting. Landscape designs should celebrate the natural topography and not be totally foreign in character

Architecture

D4.1 PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES A strong retaining wall is required to protect erosion in areas where there is a risk of moving soil especially at steep slope, at locations where the river turns abruptly and where conserved permanent and solid building structures are located at edges of the river. Objective: To ensure protective structures support safe use of public spaces.

GUIDELINES:D4.1 PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES D4.1A Design: Provide retaining walls of appropriate height, material and design complexity to protect soil erosion at banks of the river. Depending on space use, slope and elevation difference, provide guardrails on the higher side for protection of people D4.1B Protection: Provide protection to existing permanent structures that are going to be reserved within the buffer. Design solid walls where river turn abruptly at curvatures. IMAGE 50: River Illustration. Protective Structures © UN-Habitat

PICTURE 17H Photo of the Kabena River. © UN-Habitat

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D4.2 TEMPORARY SHADES

D4.3 SMALL BUILDINGS.

Temporary shades include; vender stalls, fast food corners, parking shades, shades at public gathering spaces, shades at leisure activities and shades that can be used for temporary services.

Small buildings include toilets, utility buildings such as electrical transformer houses and tele booth, guard houses, which are most often located in public spaces..

Objective: To promote all weather use of spaces by provision of temporary shades and make stay comfortable.

Objective: to ensure small buildings are safe, attractive & accessible which support use of public spaces.

GUIDELINES: D4.2 TEMPORARY SHADES D4.2A Placing: locate temporary shades where there are opportunities for informal surveillance from nearby activities, allow clear passage from pedestrian and bicycle paths and to be visible from a distance and adjacent to a busy pedestrian route. D4.2B Design: Temporary shades have to be attractive and not in contrast to the surrounding

NOTE: For design of sheds for small scale production facilities, for parking, for public gathering spaces; Consult: Addis Ababa Infrastructure Coordination, Building Permit and Control Authority, AddisAbaba City Plan and Development Commission, Addis Ababa Job Creation and Enterprise Development Bureau and more relevant bodies.

GUIDELINES: D4.3 SMALL BUILDINGS D4.3A Design: Design for the exterior of small buildings to eliminate potential concealment of spaces. Provide lighting to all sides of the buildings. Provide shelter from wind, rain and sun for users of the buildings. D4.3B Placement: Locate small buildings in a convenient place that will be used for the required service, visible to a busy public interaction and pedestrian route and allow clear passage from pedestrian and bicycle paths. D4.3C: Environmental: where applicable prevent direct connection of sewer lines from the small buildings to the river. D4.3D Form: Shape the exterior of small buildings to eliminate potential concealment places. D4.3 E User-friendly: Provide shelter from wind, rain & sun for visitors to the buildings

IMAGE 51: River Illustration. Temporary Shades Š UN-Habitat

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IMAGE 52: River Illustration. Small Buildings Š UN-Habitat

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D4.5 BIG BUILDINGS

D4.6 UNDERGROUND SPACES

Big buildings include the existing solid structured buildings, historical buildings and others which are going to be reserved within the buffer.

It is most common in public realm that underground spaces can also be used for utility lines under the other uses and basement levels for buildings. Especially useful on sites designated as unbuildable spots and where terraforming can be used as a cumulative advantage.

Objective: To maintain big buildings that require special protection.

Objective: To ensure safety of underground spaces and above ground functions.

GUIDELINES: D4.5 BIG BUILDINGS D4.5A Safety: Design for retaining wall and other protective structures wherever existing solid buildings directly interface the river and require intervention. D4.5B Aesthetics: Provide standards for façade rehabilitation of buildings directly facing to the public space. D4.5C Environmental: prevent direct connection of sewer lines from the buildings to the river. D4.3D User-friendly: Make the existing big buildings user-friendly by introducing green elements and artefacts on exterior wall and openings facing the space.

IMAGE 53: River Illustration. Big Buildings © UN-Habitat

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GUIDELINES: D4.6 UNDERGROUND SPACES D4.6A Safety: Do not provide underground spaces at places where there is problem of flooding, erosion and environmentally sensitive areas. Wherever places that underground spaces designed, provide various access points; entrances from different sides and unobstructed optimum clearance height should be maintained at underground spaces that can be used for users-oriented functions. D4.6B Design: Design spaces in a way that reflect adjacent contexts by continuing pedestrian flows and user needs such as shops, seating and entertainment elements.

IMAGE 54: River Illustration. Underground Spaces © UN-Habitat

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D5. CONNECTIVITY AND MOBILITY

Connectivity and mobility require an interconnected movement network comprising streets, roads, crossings and paths that accommodate pedestrians, cyclists and emergency vehicles. The street network as well as pedestrian paths and bicycle ways and river crossings are elements which define a place and make each area unique and connected.

D5.1 RIVER CROSSINGS Creating crossings along the river makes it easy to move around the area, provides convenience for visitors and alternatives to cross the river. Objective: To connect the urban fabric across both sides of the river in order to create easy access to pedestrians and vehicles.

GUIDELINES: D5.1 RIVER CROSSINGS

Connectivity and Mobility

D5.1A Connectivity: Provide simple bridges at acceptable intervals solely dedicated for pedestrian and cyclist crossing. Provide bridges suitable to vehicle, bicycle and pedestrian traffic wherever collector, sub arterial and principal arterial roads cross the river. D5.1B Resilient: Use resilient materials for simple pedestrian crossings that are easily maintained and repaired. D5.1C Safety: Filling and finishing materials for river crossings should be constructed to promote safe access and passage to the most vulnerable users, walking and cycling. They should be weatherproof and cycle of day considerate. Design and construction parameters should take return period flooding volume into account. D5.1D Inclusive: River crossings should be inclusive to sensory impaired users, and deploy tactile response, visual cues and signage.

NOTE: Regarding design standards for heavy duty bridges and crossings; Consult: AACRA, Infrastructure Coordination, Building Permit and Control Authority and more relevant body.

IMAGE 55: River Illustration. River Crossings Š UN-Habitat

PICTURE 18 Photo of River crossing. Š UN-Habitat

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D5.2 PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE PATHS

D5.3 LOCAL ROADS

Pedestrian and bicycle paths within the river corridor should be permeable and connected. The internal streets layout must give priority to pedestrians and cyclists and should be well connected to the city, recognizing the function and the hierarchy of the surrounding road network.

Local Roads and the surrounding urban fabric need to be connected to the pedestrian and bicycle paths along river corridors in a way that provides easy access to activities and to the public realm for nearby residents.

Objective: To ensure safe and interconnected access for pedestrians and bicycle users.

Objective: To ensure safe and convenient pedestrian access from neighbouring areas to the riverside public realm.

GUIDELINES: D5.3 LOCAL ROADS D5.3A Safety: Priority should be given to pedestrians and cyclists at the junctions between local roads and riverside paths. D5.3B Connectivity: Connect pedestrian and bicycle paths seamlessly to the existing and proposed local roads of adjacent neighbourhoods. D5.3C Design: Provide inclusive design for the physically impaired (ie tactile responses and cues for the visually impaired, ramps for the mobility impaired, visual cues ( signage) for the auditory impaired) at entrances of public space.

GUIDELINES: D5.2 PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE PATHS D5.2A Design: Design Pedestrian and Bicycle Paths in a way which facilitates easy movement and accommodates street furniture, cycle parking and landscaping. Create uninterrupted networks of walkways and bike paths with smooth and safe crossings wherever pedestrian and bicycle paths connect to vehicular streets. All pedestrian and bicycle paths should be designed in a way that prevents water stagnating on their surface. It is advisable to use appropriate surfacing materials and construction techniques so as to minimise runoff. Roadside rain gutter drains should be designed in a way which makes metal grilles obsolete: metal grilles are frequently stolen for scrap metal thus creating safety hazards for pedestrians.. D5.2B Safety: Place signs in visible and illuminated area for safe night-time usage. Use permanent and temporary barriers and level differences to discourage vehicular access to the pedestrian and bicycle network. Make sure that emergency services vehicles can reach all areas of the pedestrian and bicycle network via designated, controlled access entrances. D5.2C Inclusive: Accommodate People with disabilities and provide a safe environment for children walking or biking along the paths, using appropriate design features and signage. IMAGE 56: River Illustration. Pedestrian & Bicycle Paths Š UN-Habitat

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IMAGE 57: River Illustration. Local Roads Š UN-Habitat

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D5.4 COLLECTOR ROADS Integrating the riverside public realm into the existing urban fabric is essential. Collector roads play a vital role in guiding traffic from the existing surrounding urban fabric to and from the riverside public spaces. Objective: To create safe and smooth transition of traffic from collector roads to local roads in the riverside public realm. GUIDELINES: D5.4 COLLECTOR ROADS Please also refer to D 5.1 for relevant guidance D5.4A Connectivity: Ensure smooth connection, direct and convenient links for pedestrian and bicycle paths to the existing and proposed collector roads that cross the riverside . D5.4B Design: The width of collector streets should be sufficient in order to provide pedestrians and cyclists with forward visibility. Provide visibility splays at junctions wherever collector streets cross public spaces. Keep the kerb radius at intersections to a minimum to slow vehicle traffic down and give priority to pedestrians and cyclists. Roadside rain gutter drains should be designed in a way

which makes metal grilles obsolete: metal grilles are frequently stolen for scrap metal thus creating safety hazards for pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles.. D5.4C Accessibility: allow access to emergency services vehicles into the public realm where possible. D5.4D Safety: Provide safe and direct crossings at junctions where local pedestrian and cyclist paths meet collector roads. Provide features controlling vehicle speeds where they approach public spaces.

IMAGE 58: River Illustration. COLLECTOR Roads Š UN-Habitat

IMAGE 19 Photo of the Kabena River. Š UN-Habitat

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D5.5 PRINCIPAL AND SUB ARTERIAL STREETS

D5.6 EMERGENCY ROUTES

Principal and Sub Arterial Streets feed into collector streets. Though normally not part of public spaces near rivers, their integration with the riverside must be carefully revisited.

The requirements for emergency vehicles are generally dictated by fire service regulations. If access to large fire engines (including the need to be able to work around them where appropriate) is catered for then police vehicles and ambulances will also be able to access public space unhindered.

Objective: To create safe and smooth passage where principal and sub arterial streets cross public space. GUIDELINES: D5.5 PRINCIPAL AND SUB ARTERIAL STREETS D5.5A Connectivity: Do not directly connect pedestrian and bicycle paths to principal and sub arterial streets wherever these pass through public space. D5.5B Design: Design safe junctions where local pedestrian and cycle paths cross principal and sub arterial streets. Accommodate separate pedestrian and cyclist lanes wherever said streets pass through public spaces. Keep the kerb radius at intersections to a minimum to slow vehicle traffic down and to give priority for pedestrians and cyclists. . Roadside rain gutter drains should be designed in a way which makes metal grilles obsolete: metal grilles are frequently stolen for scrap metal thus creating safety hazards for pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles. D5.5D Safety: Provide unclimbable security barriers on both sides of streets wherever principal and sub arterial streets overpass public space. Provide security barriers to ensure pedestrians enter/

IMAGE 59: River Illustration. Principal & Sub Arterial streets © UN-Habitat

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exit the streets only at designated pedestrian points.(this is a bit old fashioned in the sense that such barriers are often removed these days to make streets ‘unsafer’ and thus slow cars down. This is ofcourse debatable. Having said that, the latest trend is to blend car and pedestrian traffic and use design features to manage flows, at least in local roads). Include features for controlling vehicle speeds where they approach or enter public space. D5.5G Visibility: Arrange vehicle crossovers to allow clear lines of sight between drivers pedestrians and cyclists . Ensure forward visibility on links and visibility splays at junctions of public space. Barriers and fences should use materials and designs that do not hinder visibility.. D5.5H Accessibility: Provide over/under pedestrian passes wherever principal and sub arterial streets cross public spaces. Allow controlled access to emergency vehicles into the public realm where possible.

Objective: To create well-functioning and accessible emergency routes into public space. GUIDELINES: D5.6 EMERGENCY ROUTES D5.6A Design: Emergency routes should be designed wide enough for fire engines to drive along them at straight sections. Along curved sections, standardized radiuses should be used in order to allow said vehicles to easily turn . Any route not leading directly to an exit (i.e. dead ends) should be provided with a turnaround area so as to avoid multi-point turns. To avoid excessive road width, layby should be provided at regular intervals to allow vehicles coming from opposite directions to get past each other. D5.6B safety: Maintain unobstructed clearance height above all access ways, including clearance from buildings, archways, gateways/doorways and overhanging structures (e.g. ducts, pipes, sprinklers, walkways, signs, beams, trees, hanging cables, etc.).

Ensure nothing blocks or partly blocks emergency routes; It should be possible to drive through emergency access routes during all local weather conditions. When a change of gradient includes a recessed threshold, such as a gutter (e.g. for storm water drainage), plan and design for the reduced approach and departure clearance. D5.6C accessibility: Fire and Emergency ramp gradients must be lower than the maximum negotiable ramp gradient. Access ramps that follow a curved or circular profile in plan view should have an optimum gradient. Access ramps should have a smooth transition between the main ramp gradient and entry/exit gradients. A transition grade should be calculated for ramp approach and departure.

IMAGE 60: River Illustration. Emergency Routes © UN-Habitat

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D5.7 BICYCLE PARKING Providing sufficient and secure bicycle parking in suitable locations for surrounding residents and visitors is critical in order to promote the use of cycles. In public space developments, designers should aim to provide access to bicycle parking at convenient locations. Objective: To ensure bicycle parking lots support the amenity and safety of the local area.

GUIDELINES: D5.7 BICYCLE PARKING D5.7A Placing: Locate bicycle parking lots where people gather, perform sports and other leisure time activities and near bus stops. D5.7B Safety: Arrange parking spaces to provide effective sightlines for cyclists when turning and reversing. Provide clear lines of sight at entries and exits to emergency vehicles parking lots. Provide lighting in bicycle parking lots that are used regularly at night. D5.7C Comfortable: Provide shaded bicycle parking spaces.

D5.8 PUBLIC TRANSPORT Integration of public spaces with public transport makes public spaces active for longer periods of time. Objective: To connect public spaces to public transport. GUIDELINES: D5.8 PUBLIC TRANSPORT D5.8A Location: Locate public transport stops at convenient and safe locations wherever collector, sub arterial and principal arterial streets cross public spaces. D5.8B Accessibility: Locate public transport stops to enable pedestrians and public transport drivers to see the stop. Co-locate public transport stops with safe pedestrian crossings or controlled intersections. D5.8C Safety: Where a stop is not at safe intersection, locate the public transport stop where pedestrians of all abilities can safely cross the road and where drivers have visibility. Provide adequate lighting on pedestrian approach paths to public transport stops for safety and visibility. D5.8D Comfort: Provide seating, shed and rain protection at public transport stops. D5.8E Visibility: Provide lighting at public transport stops to levels that enable public transport drivers to see waiting passengers.

IMAGE 61: River Illustration. Parking Š UN-Habitat

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IMAGE 62: River Illustration. Public Transport Š UN-Habitat

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D5.9 SUPPORT FACILITIES D9.5.1 PUBLIC TOILETS Elimination of open defecation is one of the key components of the rivers side rehabilitation scheme. In order to achieve open defecation free riversides, ensuring adequacy through provision of public toilets and effective operations and maintenance mechanisms is the strategic approach which the guideline emphasizes. Objective: To keep the public space clean by providing a userfriendly public toilets. Guideline: D9.5.1 PUBLIC TOILETS Location: Locate and orientate public toilets within public space to optimize ease of access, sight lines, casual surveillance opportunities and natural light and ventilation. Visibility: Locate public toilets near pedestrian paths, bicycle parking, cross-roads and facilities, with entrances facing onto the most active space, in an area highly visible from most directions, in an area where there are ‘activity generators’ such as playgrounds and picnic facilities or near retail or commercial activity within public space, Provide clear directional signage with consideration for people with vision impairments. Accessibility: Provide a continuous path with disability access of travel to toilet facility from source of demand, such as playgrounds, parking areas, bus stops, people gathering and interaction spaces Convenience: Provide a safe, secure and accessible facility with high levels of visibility, durability, security, light and ventilation.

IMAGE 63: River Illustration. Support Facilities © UN-Habitat

D5.9.2 OTHER SUPPORT FACILITIES Support facilities are facilities that support the function of public spaces. Facilities such as storage facilities, washing facilities, etc. support the operation of spaces and facilitate public enjoyment. Objective: To make public space operate at its full capacity.

GUIDELINES: D5.9.2 OTHER SUPPORT FACILITIES See also: C 4.3 Small Buildings for further guidance C5.9A Support Facilities Planning: Plan and design for all important support facilities wherever necessary. C5.9B Support Facilities Integration: Integrate support facilities to public spaces in such a way that can ensure best use of spaces and their utilization.

IMAGE 64: River Illustration. Support Facilities © UN-Habitat

PICTURE 20: Photos of the Kabena River. © UN-Habitat

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D6. INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES

Spatial and functional connectivity of spaces corresponds to the provision of urban infrastructures and services organization. Public Space, Infrastructure and Landscape create an interconnected matrix for spatial continuity of spaces. Infrastructure and services provide the backbone of transformation. They are key elements of public spaces, visible at an initial phase and building on through time, supporting several cycles of transformation. D6.1 SPATIAL INTEGRATION Objective: To create good quality network of places, connect public spaces and tie them in with the existing urban fabric.

GUIDELINES: D6.1 SPATIAL INTEGRATION D6.1A Accessibility: Create clear access to public spaces with smooth connections to the existing and proposed roads of the neighbouring urban areas. D6.1B Connectivity: Connect all infrastructures and services with the existing city infrastructure and take into account the proposals of the city structure plan. D6.1C Integration: Prepare urban network integration plans for all infrastructures and utilities.

Infrastructure and Services

IMAGE 65: River Illustration. SPACIAL INTEGRATION © UN-Habitat

PICTURE 21 Photo of the Kabena River. © UN-Habitat

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D6.2 STRUCTURAL AND SAFETY ELEMENTS In public spaces, it is essential to have passive safety measures like innovative and architectural attractive elements, landscape elements, gardening principles or artwork as part of safety structures. Objective: To ensure safety in public spaces.

GUIDELINES: D6.2 STRUCTURAL AND SAFETY ELEMENTS D6.2A Circulation: Introduce stand-off buffers between public spaces and risky areas whenever possible. In all cases, utilise appropriate signage and landscape design elements. D6.2B Design: Incorporate protective structure design in the built-in landscape components of public spaces. D6.2C Safety: Apply protective safety elements like signs and signals. IMAGE 67: River Illustration. Electrical Elements © UN-Habitat

D6.3 LIGHTING AND ELECTRIC ELEMENTS GUIDELINES: See also: D 4.3 Small Buildings D6.3A Design: Use an underground cable electric system and structures for electric elements wherever possible D3.1.4B Safety: At places where pedestrian and bicycle paths pass through public open space, light the paths to the same level as surrounding streets; at places where a path passes through an underpass, light the approach and exit path to the same level as the underpass; at places where there is potential pedestrian-vehicle and pedestrian bicycle conflict, light the entire area. There should be regular maintenance culture of light fixtures in public spaces to assure safety.

IMAGE 66: River Illustration.Structural and Safety Elements © UN-Habitat

D6.3 LIGHTING AND ELECTRIC ELEMENTS Efficient and people-oriented lighting and electric elements facilitate the occupancy of public spaces and enhance safety. well located and adequate lighting elements permits the function of public spaces for active usage at night. In addition, the interaction of different coloured lights enhances natural beauty of places. When installed on the pedestrian and cyclist realm, lighting creates the necessary conditions to move more safely when there is no natural light. Objective: To ensure lighting and electric elements promote safety and sustainable use of public spaces and contributes to local character and cultural values without affecting safety of adjacent uses by its light spill over.

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D3.1.4C Comfortable: Use lighting types that minimize distortion and glare and maximize colour recognition of objects and surfaces with flexibility to gradual transition between bright-lit and dimmerlit areas. Provide consistent, continuous lighting levels along paths controlling unwanted light spill to sensitive uses. Provide lighting level that enable recognition of an approaching person’s face from safe distance. D3.1.4D Sustainable: The use of solar technology and sensor activated lights is encouraged for its environmental and economic benefits. Use low-energy, long-life, high colour rendering index,

IMAGE 68: River Illustration. Lighting © UN-Habitat

glare-controlled light fittings. D6: 3E Visibility: Locate electric poles along pedestrian and bicycle paths without obstructing the movement of people and cyclists. D6.3F Integration: Integrate electric elements with signs, landscaping and other public space elements. D6.3G Consistency: Provide consistent electric elements that ensures continuous lighting levels along paths controlling unwanted light spill to sensitive uses. D6.3H Placement: Place electric poles away from tree canopies verandas and existing overhead wires. In areas where electric poles are adjacent to pathways, direct the light beam downwards. Place lighting and electric elements in the locations that are efficient and serving multiple activities. Integrate lighting with signs, landscaping and structures. Emergency vehicle stops, bicycle parking hoops, way-finding signs, assembly areas and other public space elements must be well lit. D6.3I Sustainability: Use durable, low-energy, long-life electric elements. D6.3J Safety: Make sure that electrical wiring systems at public spaces meet international safety standards.

NOTE: For standard design for public space electric elements and underground cabling standards Consult: Ethiopian Electric Utility and more relevant body

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D6.4 SANITARY AND MECHANICAL ELEMENTS New sanitary elements should be designed to accommodate gravity assisted flow to be collected by the sewer mains located at standard depth and gradient, away from riverbank zone, wherever possible. Sewer mains collect all the sewage coming from different uses and transport it to treatment plants. Treatment plants should be provided out of the river buffer where possible. The location, size and capacity of treatment plants depends on the intended level of water purification.

Objective: To prevent direct disposal of untreated sewage from different uses into the river.

D6.5 SOLID WASTE COLLECTION GUIDELINES: ELEMENTS

D6.4

SANITARY

AND

MECHANICAL

D6.4A Integration: Design a sanitary system that can accommodate the surrounding development. D6.4B Sustainable: Provide sewage mains at standard depth and grade that can accommodate flow by gravity. Wherever possible acceptable location before green zone. D6.4C Relocation: Relocate existing sewage lines located in environmentally sensitive areas to streets or other appropriate areas where possible. D6.4D Treatment: Locate treatment plants where topography is convenient, and outside the river flood buffer. Utilize treated water for irrigation.

IMAGE PICTURE 22: Photo of the Kabena River. © UN-Habitat

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IMAGE 69: River Illustration. Sanitary and mechanical Elements © UN-Habitat

The need to provide suitable opportunities for the storage and collection of waste is a major consideration in the design of public spaces, site layouts and individual streets. Storage may be complicated by the need to provide separate facilities for refuse and the various categories of recyclable waste.

Objective: To facilitate small-scale solid waste management in locations suitable for easy removal and transportation. NOTE: For transfer station location and standards for waste receptacles; Consult: Addis Ababa Solid Waste Managment Agency

GUIDELINES: D6.5 SOLID WASTE COLLECTION See also: D 3.1.7 Waste Receptacles D6.5A Placing: Locate temporary solid waste transfer stations where there are opportunities for informal surveillance from nearby activities. Sufficient access should be provided to solid waste transport vehicles and adequate circulation spaces should be provided around collection points. D6.5B Environmental: Plant trees at boundaries of temporary solid waste transfer stations. Implement suitable design solutions to stop solid waste from entering the rain and sewage system and from finding their way into the rivers. D6.5C Regulated: Provide shelter from wind, rain and sun in solid waste transfer stations.

IMAGE 70: River Illustration. Solid Waste Collection © UN-Habitat

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D6.6 TELECOMMUNICATIONS This part of the guideline addresses specific requirements for the design of telecommunications infrastructure in public spaces and the integration of the highlited infrastructure in public space. Public space landscaping and usage must not interfere with telecommunications provision to the general public and telecommunications provision should be considerate of public space utilisation requirements as well. Objective: to ensure the smooth integration of telecommunication facilities and public space

GUIDELINES: D6.6A Design: Integrate the design of physical pathways of telecommunication cables/optical fibres with other utility lines. Provide spaces to build small buildings dedicated to telecommunication network requirements (cabling and equipment etc). Identify telecommunications outlet locations in conformance with the customer’s requirements. Take safety and security considerations into account when designing public spaces around existing telecommunications infrastructure. D6.6B Accessibility: Provide good mobile phone coverage and wireless internet access to using the public spaces. D6.7C Futureproofing: In consultation with the telecommunications authority, provide and safeguard suitable locations where 4G and 5G mobile phone infrastructure could be installed in the future.

IMAGE 71: Street Section. Telecommunications © UN-Habitat

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IMAGE 72: River Illustration. Telecommunications © UN-Habitat

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E- STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVEMENT

IMAGE 73 River Illustration. © UN-Habitat

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E. STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVEMENT

E. STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVEMENT The involvement of all interested and affected parties is highly advisable in public space rehabilitation, development, maintenance and management. City and Federal government agencies, developers, community organizations, environmental groups and the public; all have a stake in the development of the river corridors. Participation with regard to design and implementation; builds trust and relational ties with stakeholders, hence empowers development partners. Therefore, stakeholder engagement is essential for the full implementation of the guideline. Objective: To enable stakeholders to engage in the design of public spaces and in the implementation of solutions that are better adjusted to their needs.

E1 UTILITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE BODIES E1.1 Electricity (EEP and EEU) E1.1A Identify and source all available standards, existing electricity line plans and set or adapt new power and utility standards where necessary.

E1.2B Design for alternative telecommunication supply options such as; ground lines/optical fibre, wireless etc‌ E1.2C Ensure underground and overpass electric Utility lines are designed as per the country’s standards

E2 MUNICIPAL SECTOR E2.1 Water and Sewerage Service Authority E2.1A Identify and source all available existing and proposed water and sewerage line network plans along and across the river. E2.1B Identify, source and/or set pipe/Channel along the river/ size, underground depth and river crossing structures standards. E2.1C Identify, source and/or set criteria for wastewater and runoff treatment and filtration locations respectively, before joining the river or be used for landscape irrigation or washing. E2.2 Solid Waste Managment Agency E2.2A Identify, source and/or set standards for layout of solid waste transfer site, preparation and location layout of garbage containers and waste receptacles. E2.2B Identify, source and/or set standards for lifting and transporting solid waste by garbage container lift trucks.

E1.1B Design for alternative power supply options such as: solar energy, wind power, hydropower, and using waste for energy production.

E1.3 Roads Authority

E1.1C Ensure underground and overpass electric Utility lines are designed as per the appropriate standards.

E1.3A Identify and source all available existing and proposed road network plans, along and across the river.

E1.2 Telecommunication

E1.3B Provide and/or set cross-section Standards of all types of roads integrated with other utility standards such as electric utility, telecom, drainage pipes and sewer pipes.

E1.2.A Identify and source all available standards, existing telecom line plans and set or adapt new telecom standards where necessary.

E1.3C Provide and/or set standards for bridges, culverts and river crossing structures.

E2.2C Identify, source and/or set standards for lifting and transporting dry waste with covered and compressor vehicles. E2.2D Identify, source and/or set road and other public space cleaning standards.

E2.3B Identify, source and/or set standards for location and size of firefighting and emergency vehicles parking lots and stations as well as minimum road and pathway width standards. E2.4 River Basin and Green Areas Development and Administration Agency E2.4A Identify, source and/or set standards for parks, botanical and zoological garden. E2.4B Identify, source and/set standards for plants, flowers, grasses species and patterns of planting. E2.4C Identify, source and/or set standards for integration and/or relocation wherever there is cemetery within a buffer. E2.4D Consult parties that will be affected by the river side projects develop resettlement action plan and livelihood strategies, clear sites to be developed and handover for developers.

E3.1 City plan and Development commission.

capturing in development zone across the river.

E3.1A Provide existing and proposed land use and infrastructures network plan.

E3.2B Undertake property valuation and pay compensation for displaced people.

E3.1B Delineate river buffer.

E3.2C Prepare land for relocation around the original settlement areas as much as possible.

E3.1D Issue Urban Planning standards for Urban River buffers. E3.1E Develop a Master plan for River buffer. E3.2 Land Development and Urban Renewal Agency E3.2A Undertake studies and come with proposals on land value

E. Stakeholder Involvement

E2.3A Identify, source and/or set standards for fire hydrants locations.

E3 REGULATORY BODIES

E3.1C Approve designs and proposals in public spaces and control implementation.

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E2.3 Fire and Emergency Prevention and Rescue Agency

E3.3 Infrastructure Integration, Construction Permit and Control Authority E3.3A Coordinate the planning, design and implementation of public infrastructure works (together with infrastructure developers and regulatory institutions). E3.3B Approve designs and issue construction permit as per the structural plan and subsequent codes, regulations and guidelines

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developed by the Addis Ababa Plan and Development Commission and the Ethiopian Standards Agency. E3.3C Conduct periodic inspections during construction of projects as per the construction permit and issue occupancy permit upon completion after final inspection. E3.4 Environmental Commission.

Protection

and

Green

Development

E3.4A Create public awareness about the project. This responsibility is shared among other institutions and the cities media office. E3.4B Provide and/or set environmental standards about discharge

and emissions. E3.4C Check environmental quality of water and air as per the standards. E3.4D Approve environmental impact assessment and evaluate environmental audit. E3.4E Issue environmental sustainability designs and construction guideline and standards E3.4F Issue standards for sourcing of water from urban rivers for different activities.

E4 ECONOMIC SECTOR E4.1 Trade Bureau E4.1A Set standards for small businesses operating in public spaces. E4.1B Regulate small businesses as per their standards.

E4.2B Set size and aesthetic standards for sheds of micro and small-scale production and display. E4.2C Set quality and emission control standards for existing industries within the buffer in collaboration with the EPA.

E4.2 Industry Bureau E4.2A Set functional regulations for micro and small-scale production industries within the buffer not only, but also for industry using the river in any way. They have to collaborate with EPA on that

E4.3 Investment Agency E4.3A Draft and implement strategy to promote investment opportunities in public space.

E5 SOCIAL ENTITIES AND COMMUNITIES E5.1 Affected Communities

E5.2 Communities in surrounding development areas

E5.1A Whenever there is an intention of development projects along the river sides, the affected communities such as settlers (formal and informal) and those who make businesses either sourcing water from the rivers or using plots of land along the rivers should be consulted early on to allow them to influence key stages rather than just allowing them to comment on designs after they have been completed.

E5.2A The surrounding communities who could be influenced by the project must participate, give their inputs and cooperate in the process. E5.3 Other social entities E5.3A Local community organisations Such as CBO’s and other non-statutory stakeholders should consult the community in addition to statutory requirements.

PICTURE 23 Photo of different business activities. Š UN-Habitat

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F- REFERENCE LIST

IMAGE 74 River Illustration. © UN-Habitat

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LOCAL:

INTERNATIONAL:

1.

Addis Ababa Main City Center Urban Design Guidelines, Volume I- III, AASOID & EiABC, 2015

1.

Activity Centre Design Guidelines, The State of Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment, 2004.

2.

Birhanu Mekonen (2007); Characterstics of riverbank informal settlements in Addis Ababa: the case of Great Akaki river; Msc Thesis in Urban Design and Planning; Addis Ababa University School of Graduate Studies.

2.

Chicago River Corridor Design Guidelines and Standards, City of Chicago Revised Edition, 2005

3.

Ethiopian Building Code Standard, Building Spatial Design, Ministry of Urban Development & Construction, 2013

3.

Council, Brisbane City. “Public Toilet Design Guidelines.” 2013. (https://www.brisbane.qld.gov.au/sites/default/files/public_toilet_ design_guidelines_updated.pdf)

4.

Local Development Plan Manual, Ministry of Works & Urban Development: Federal Urban Planning Institute, 2006

4.

Firefighting Operations emergency vehicles access Guide, Fire and Emergency New Zealand operations, 2018.

5.

Structure Plan Manual Ministry of Urban Development and Construction, Revised Version, 2012

5.

Hillside design Guidelines, The government of Western Australia, June 2011

6.

Urban Design Manual Ethiopia, Ministry of Urban Development &Housing, 2016

6.

Public Realm Urban Design Guidelines, Local Government Association of South Australia, 2014

7.

Urban Design Manual, Ministry of Urban Development & Housing, 2016

7.

Sewer Design Guide, City of San Diego Public Utilities Department, 2015

8.

Urban Planning and Implementation manual of Ethiopia, Ministry of Works and Urban Development, 2008

8.

Urban Design Guidelines for Victoria, The State of Victoria Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, 2017.

9.

Waterbank Precinct Development Guidelines, Government of Western Australia Metropolitan Development Authority, 2015

10. Public Art & Public Space, University of Belgrade (Faculty of Architecture), 2019.

0101 |

F. REFERENCE LIST

F. REFERENCE LIST

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THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

G-APPENDIX

IMAGE 75 River Illustration. © UN-Habitat

0103 |

C. APPENDIX

C. APPENDIX

| 0104


THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

ETHIOPIANS PROCLAMATIONS

WHAT IS ABOUT miscellaneous provisions, exploration, discovery

NUMBER 1090/2018

and study of cultural heritage, management of cultural heritage.

WHAT IS ABOUT general provisions, management of hazardous

MAIN TITLE urban planning proclamation

waste, transboundary movement of hazardous wastes, miscella-

NUMBER 574/2008

MAIN TITLE institute of biodiversity conservation and research

WHAT IS ABOUT general provisions, initiation and preparation of

NUMBER 120/1998

urban plans, plan approval, publicity, implementation and revision,

WHAT IS ABOUT establishment, inapplicable laws, transfer of

MAIN TITLE Ethiopian water resources management

development authorization, land information, redevelopment and

rights and obligations, duty to cooperate, penalty, requirement of

NUMBER 197/2000

its dimensions, development freeze and land acquisition, allocation

permit, books of account, budget, general management of the insti-

WHAT IS ABOUT general provisions, supervising body, inventory

of powers and duties, miscellaneous provisions.

tute, the Ethiopian agriculture organization board, organization of

of water resources and registry of actions, permits and professional

the institute.

licenses, water charges, servitude, water banks and harmful effects of

MAIN TITLE river basin councils

neous provisions.

water, association of water users, transitory provisions.

NUMBER 534/2007

MAIN TITLE the new urban lands lease holding proclamation

WHAT IS ABOUT river basin high councils and authorities, wa-

NUMBER 721/2011

MAIN TITLE expropriation of landholdings for public purposes

ter use permits, information system and river basin plans, miscella-

WHAT IS ABOUT fundamental principles of lease, administration

and payment of compensation proclamation

neous provisions.

of urban land lease-holdings, clearing urban land, miscellaneous

NUMBER 455/2005

provisions.

WHAT IS ABOUT expropriation of landholdings, determination of

MAIN TITLE building proclamation

compensation, miscellaneous provisions.

NUMBER 624/2009

MAIN TITLE policies, plans and packages of ministry urban devel-

WHAT IS ABOUT administration aspects, land use, water supply

opment and construction

MAIN TITLE appropriation of land for government works and pay-

and sanitation, fire protection, culpable infringements of building

NUMBER

ment of compensation for property proclamation

rules, miscellaneous provisions.

WHAT IS ABOUT procurement of works and users’ guide, ULG-

NUMBER 401/2004

DP resettlement policy framework, ULGDP project implementation

WHAT IS ABOUT appropriation of land, valuers, compensation,

MAIN TITLE lease holding of urban lands

plan, environmental and social management framework, procure-

miscellaneous provisions.

NUMBER 721/2004

ment of small, operation manual for ULGDP for regional, selection

WHAT IS ABOUT principles of lease holding, miscellaneous pro-

of consultant, procurement of goods, financial management guide-

visions.

lines, urban good governance reform package, national urban development policy.

MAIN TITLE condominium proclamation NUMBER 370/2003

MAIN TITLE urban plan proclamation

WHAT IS ABOUT registration and certificate, ownership, unit

NUMBER

owners association, sale and lease of an unit, common expenses and

WHAT IS ABOUT Boundary of urban, base map and hierarchy of

surplus, amalgamation of association, termination of condomini-

plan, urban plan

um, co-operatives’ condominium, miscellaneous.

preparation and implementation, powers and duties of different or-

/2017

gans, miscellaneous provisions. MAIN TITLE to provide for research and conservation of cultural heritage

MAIN TITLE to provide for hazardous waste management and dis-

NUMBER 209/2000

posal control

0105 |

C. APPENDIX

C. APPENDIX

| 0106


THE SHEGER RIVERSIDE CORRIDOR DESIGN GUIDELINE

Sheger Riverside Corridor Design Guideline | 2020

0107 |

Profile for ARCHITECT LEON KIOKO

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DRAFT | Addis Ababa Sheger Riverside Corridor Design Guideline 2020 | UN-Habitat  

DRAFT | Addis Ababa Sheger Riverside Corridor Design Guideline 2020 | UN-Habitat -- Compilation, Graphics & Illustrations Data Collection Da...

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