Issuu on Google+

República Bolivariana De Venezuela Ministerio Del Poder Popular Para La Educación Superior Instituto Universitario Politécnico “Santiago Mariño” Chair: English I Professor: Aracelis Torres

Barrios, Ricardo I.C.: 19.593.083

July 2012


INTRODUCTION Nonvascular plants are the simplest of all land dwelling plants. Like their closest ancestors, the green algae, they lack an internal means for water transportation. They also do not produce seeds or flowers. They generally only reach a height of one to two centimeters, because they lack the woody tissue necessary for support on land.

Plants that don't have specialized systems on the order of xylem and phloem for moving water through internal tissues are non vascular plants. For example, a tree's xylem is a channel for moving water and nutrients upwards through a tree. A tree's phloem is a channel for flowing the end products downwards from the photosynthetic interaction with sunlight.

So non vascular plants have no leaves, roots or stems. Their two main examples are the green algae and the bryophytes. The bryophytes include the mosses [Bryophyta], the liverworts [Marchantiophyta], and the hornworts [Anthocerotophyta]. Liverworts may appear to have leaves. But they aren't true leaves, because of the lack of vascular tissue. Instead what they have are rounded parts called lobes.


HEMILEIA VASTRATIX

Kingdom

Fungi

Division

Basidiomycota

Class

Pucciniomycetes

Order

Pucciniales

Genus

Hemileia

Species

H. vastatrix


USTILAGO MAYDIS

Kingdom

Fungi

Subkingdom Dikarya Phylum

Basidiomycota

Subphylum

Ustilaginomycotina

Class

Ustilaginomycetes

Order

Ustilaginales

Genus

Ustilago

Species

U. maydis


PHYTOPHORA INFESTANS

Kingdom Chromalveolata Phylum

Heterokontophyta

Class

Oomycota

Order

Peronosporales

Family

Pythiaceae

Genus

Phytophthora

Species

P. infestans


FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

Kingdom Fungi Division

Ascomycota

Class

Sordariomycetes

Order

Hypocreales

Family

Nectriaceae

Genus

Fusarium

Species

F. oxysporum


TAPRINA DEFORMANS

Kingdom Fungi Phylum

Ascomycota

Class

Taphrinomycetes

Subclass

Taphrinomycetidae

Order

Taphrinales

Family

Taphrinaceae

Genus

Taphrina

Species

T. deformans


RHIZOPUS STOLONIFER

Kingdom

Fungi

Order

Mucorales

Family

Mucoraceae

Genus

Rhizopus

Species

R. stolonifer


RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI

Kingdom Fungi Phylum

Basidiomycota

Class

Agaricomycetes

Order

Cantharellales

Family

Ceratobasidiaceae

Genus Species

Rhizoctonia R. solani


OPHIOSTOMA ULMI

Kingdom

Fungi

Subdivision Pezizomycotina Class

Sordariomycetes

Order

Ophiostomatales

Family

Ophiostomataceae

Genus

Ophiostoma

Species

O. ulmi


MYCOSPHAERELLA MUSICOLA

Kingdom Fungi Phylum

Ascomycota

Class

Dothideomycetes

Subclass

Dothideomycetidae

Order

Capnodiales

Family

Mycosphaerellaceae

Genus

Mycosphaerellaceae

Species

M. musicola


CLAVICEPS PURPUREA

Kingdom Fungi Division

Ascomycota

Class

Sordariomycetes

Subclass

Hypocreomycetidae

Order

Hypocreales

Family

Clavicipitaceae

Genus

Claviceps


ALBULGO CANDIDA

Kingdom

Chromalveolata

Phylum

Heterokontophyta

Class

Oomycota

Order

Peronosporales

Family

Albuginaceae

Genus

Albugo


PHYTOPHTHORA CAPSICI

Domain

Eukaryota

Kingdom Chromalveolata Phylum

Heterokontophyta

Class

Oomycetes

Order

Peronosporales

Family

Pythiaceae

Genus

Phytophthora

Species

P. capsici


PENICILLIUM EXPANSUM

Kingdom Fungi Phylum

Ascomycota

Class

Eurotiomycetes

Subclass

Eurotiomycetidae

Order

Eurotiales

Family

Trichocomaceae

Genus

Penicillium

Species

P. expansum


ASPERGILLUS NIGER

Kingdom

Fungi

Phylum

Ascomycota

Subphylum Pezizomycotina Class

Eurotiomycetes

Order

Eurotiales

Family

Trichocomaceae

Genus

Aspergillus

Species

A. Niger


BOTRYTIS CINEREA

Kingdom

Fungi

Phylum

Ascomycota

Subphylum Pezizomycotina Class

Leotiomycetes

Order

Helotiales

Family

Sclerotiniaceae

Genus

Botryotinia

Species

B. cinerea


TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM

Kingdom

Fungi

Division

Ascomycota

Subdivision Pezizomycotina Class

Sordariomycetes

Order

Hypocreales

Family

Hypocreaceae

Genus

Trichoderma

Species

T. harzianum


PUCCINIA PURPUREA

Kingdom

Fungi

Phylum

Basidiomycota

Class

Urediniomycetes

Subclass

Incertaesedis

Order

Uredinales

Family

Pucciniaceae

Genus

Puccinia

Species

P. purpurea


BREMIA LACTUCAE

Domain

Eukaryota

Kingdom

Chromalveolata

Phylum

Heterokontophyta

Class

Oomycetes

Order

Peronosporales

Family

Peronosporaceae

Genus

Bremia

Species

B. lactucae


UNCINULA NECATOR

Kingdom

Fungi

Division

Ascomycota

Class

Leotiomycetes

Order

Erysiphales

Family

Erysiphaceae

Genus

Uncinula

Species

U. necator



NON-VASCULAR PLANTS