Page 1

‫!‪set for success: The new drupa‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮض ﺗﻜﻨﻮﺑﺮﻧﺖ اﻟﺪوﻟﻰ اﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‬

‫‪Gulf Print & Pack 2015‬‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋـــــﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴـــــﺔ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد‬ ‫ﺑﻼﻧﻜﻴﺖ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻷوﻓﺴﺖ‬


‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋــﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴــﺔ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد‬

‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎل ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺎت اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ واﻟﻨﺸﺮ واﻟﺘﻐﻠﻴﻒ‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ اﻟﻠﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪...‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬

‫رﺋﻴﺲ اﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬

‫د‪ .‬ﺟـــﻮرج ﻧﻮﺑـــــﺎر‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺋﺐ رﺋﻴﺲ اﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬

‫وﻟﻴــــــﺪ ﻗـــﺮﻳﺶ‬

‫إﻧﺘــــﺎج اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن اﻟﻤﻀﻠـﻊ‬ ‫‪7‬‬

‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻲ‬

‫د‪ .‬ﻣﺠـــﺪي ﻋــﺰت‬ ‫د‪ .‬اﺑــﺮاﻫــﻴﻢ واﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻹﺧﺮاج اﻟﻔﻨﻲ و اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬

‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ أﺣﻤﺪ ﻣﺠﻴﺐ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‬ ‫وﺷﺮﻛﺎه‬ ‫‪10‬‬

‫‪Creative Technology‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬

‫ﻟﻺﺗﺼــــــﺎل‬

‫ﺑﻼﻧﻜﻴﺖ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻷوﻓﺴﺖ‬ ‫‪13‬‬

‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﻴﺪﻫﻢ‬ ‫‪15‬‬

‫‪۳‬‬

‫‪ ٢٠‬أ ﺷﺎرع ﻋﺪﻟﻲ وﺳﻂ اﻟﺒﻠﺪ اﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮة‪ ١١٢١‬ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻴﻔﻮن‪٠٢٢٣٩٣٨٩٩٩ :‬‬

‫‪Email: george@arabprintmedia.com‬‬ ‫‪Email: walid@arabprintmedia.com‬‬


Tel : 25216155 02 - 25216091 02

Fax : 25216093 02

.

٥٩٤ ١٢٠٠x٣٦٠٠

. .

. /

٥٠٨

٣٥٠

.

٤ / ٤٠

. .

١٢

٢١٥

Anapurna M RTR

١٤٤٠ ١٠٢٤

Anapurna M2540FB (

-

٤٫٥ ١٢

-

١٠٢٤

) ٢٥٤x١٥٤ ٤٥

١٤٤٠

٦

- ١٨ Salem Salem Street, Agouza,Giza,Egypt. - P.O Box: ٩١ Mohandesin - Tel: ٣٧٤٩٤٧٨٤-٣٧٦١٦٢١٢ ٢٠٢ - Fax: ٣٧٦٠٧٦٤٠ ٢٠٢ Website: www.amycoegypt.com Email: moguib@amycoegypt.com


‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر ﻛﺎرل دﻳﻜﺎرد ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺗﻜﺴﺎس ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﻴﺎت ﺑﺪﻋﻢ ﻣﻦ ‪.DARPA‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﻨﻤﺬﺟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺳﻴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺼﻬﺮ ‪:FDM‬‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻫﺬه اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻲ أﻳﻀﺎً ﺑﺎﺳﻢ اﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻴﻮط‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺼﻬﺮة‪ ،‬أﺳﻼك ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ أو‬ ‫ﺧﻴﻮط ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻴﺔ واﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﻜﺮة وإدﺧﺎﻟﻬﺎ اﻟﻰ ﻓﻮﻫﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﺎذﻓﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ إﻧﺴﻴﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺔ اﻟﻰ ‪ On‬و ‪.Off‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺨﻴﻦ اﻟﻔﻮﻫﺎت ﻟﺘﻘﻮم ﺑﺼﻬﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺔ وﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻫﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻮﻫﺎت أﻓﻘﻴﺎً ورأﺳﻴﺎً ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻴﺔ رﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮﻣﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‪.‬‬ ‫وﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻰ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻗﺬف وإﺧﺮاج اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺼﻬﺮة ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎت ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺼﻠﺐ اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻮر ﺧﺮوﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻮﻫﺎت‪.‬‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻳﻘﻮم ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎً ﺑﺈﻧﺘﺎج ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﺎت‬ ‫دﻋﺎﻣﻴﺔ إذا ﻛﺎن ﻫﻨﺎك إﺣﺘﻴﺎج ﻟﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻢ إﺧﺘﺮاع ﻫﺬه اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﻜﻮت ﻛﺮاﻣﭗ ﻓﻲ أواﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﻘﺮن اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم‬ ‫‪ ١٩٨٨‬ﻗﺎم ﺑﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺮاﺗﺎﺳﻴﺲ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -٣‬ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎت اﻹﺳﺘﺮﻳﻮ ﻟﻴﺜﻮﺟﺮاف‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺴﻤﺔ ‪: SLA‬‬ ‫وﻫﻲ اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻠﻤﺮة اﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻹﻧﺘﺎج ﻣﻨﺘﺞ ﺻﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﻞ‪ .‬وﻫﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم راﺗﻨﺞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻳﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ اﻷﺷﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق اﻟﺒﻨﻔﺴﺠﻴﺔ وﻟﻴﺰر ﻓﻮق‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﺠﻲ ﻳﻘﻮم ﺑﺒﻨﺎء اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫إن اﻟﺘﻌﺮض ﻷﺷﻌﺔ اﻟﻠﻴﺰر ﻳﺆدي اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻠﺐ اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب‬ ‫وﻳﻠﺤﻤﻪ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ اﻹﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﻣﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻳﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻤﻘﺪار ﻃﺒﻘﺔ )ﺣﻮاﻟﻰ ‪٠،٠٥‬‬ ‫اﻟﻰ ‪ ٠٫١٥‬ﻣﻠﻠﻢ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﺎج ﻫﺬه اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ اﻟﻰ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﺎت‬ ‫دﻋﺎﻣﻴﺔ‪ .‬وﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻢ إﺧﺘﺮاع ﻫﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم ‪ ١٩٨٦‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺎرﻟﺰ ﻫﺎل‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺑﻌﺎد‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻻت‪ :‬ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫اﻷوﻟﻴﺔ‪ ,‬اﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ اﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ‪ ,‬اﻟﻘﻮاﻟﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪ ,‬ﻗﻄﻊ اﻟﻐﻴﺎر‪ ,‬اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‪,‬‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻨﺪﺳﺔ‪ ,‬اﻟﺠﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‪,‬‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﺔ‪ ,‬اﻻﻟﻌﺎب واﻟﺘﺴﺎﻟﻲ‪ ,‬اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ )اﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ واﻟﻌﻈﺎم‬ ‫واﻷﺟﺰاء اﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ(‪ ,‬اﻟﻔﻨﻮن‪ ,‬اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ,‬اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫)اﻟﻬﻮاﻳﺔ واﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﺎت اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪,‬‬ ‫وﻣﺪى واﺳﻊ وﻣﺘﻨﻮع ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫اﻷﺧﺮى واﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺰاﻳﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮم‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻴﻮم ﺷﺮﻛﺎت ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺗﻘﻮم‬

‫ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺧﺪﻣﺎت اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺑﻌﺎد ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼء اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺮﻏﺒﻮن‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎر ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ إﻗﺘﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﻫﺬه اﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎت‪.‬‬ ‫وﻫﻨﺎك اﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ اﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎت اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻣﺠﺎﻧﺎً ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎن اﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ اﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﺪاﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎرﺣﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﻮم ﺑﺈزاﻟﺔ أﺟﺰاء ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮة ﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ وﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻜﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎت ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ اﻟﺒﻌﺪ اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻹﻳﺠﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮاﻛﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻀﻴﻒ اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ اﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻊ إﻧﺘﺸﺎر اﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎت‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد اﻟﻤﻠﻮﻧﺔ واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ إﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﺪى أوﺳﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺎت اﻟﻤﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ وﺗﻘﻮم ﺑﺎﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد اﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ ﺳﺘﻜﻮن ﻗﺎدرة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﻴﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﺷﻚ أن اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ اﻟﻘﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮم وﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﺎرة واﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﻌﺮﻓﻬﻤﺎ اﻵن‪ ،‬وذﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫أﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻌﻨﺎ اﻟﺨﺎص ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫اﻟﺬﻫﺎب ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎرة ﻟﺸﺮاء اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﺤﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮﻧﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪4‬‬


‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋــﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴــﺔ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد‬

‫إن اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﻇﻬﺮت ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻨﻮات اﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﻼل ﺛﻤﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎت اﻟﻘﺮن اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬وﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺰدﻫﺮ وﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻣﻮﺿﻮع اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ إﻻ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻴﻦ اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ إﻧﺘﺸﺮ إﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ أﻧﺤﺎء اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺪى واﺳﻊ وﻣﺘﻨﻮع ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﺎن ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺔ أراب ﭘﺮﻳﻨﺖ ﻣﻴﺪﻳﺎ أن ﻧﺘﻄﺮق ﻟﻬﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺮب ﻟﻨﻄﻠﻊ ﻗﺮاﺋﻨﺎ اﻷﻋﺰاء ﺑﺄﻫﻢ أﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎﺗﻬﺎ وﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫أ‪.‬د‪ .‬ﭼﻮرچ ﻧﻮﺑﺎر ﺳﻴﻤﻮﻧﻴﺎن‬

‫إن اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫أﻳﻀﺎً ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ اﻟﺘﺮاﻛﻤﻲ أو‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﺎف‪ ،‬وﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ وﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ أﺷﻴﺎء ﺻﻠﺒﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻒ رﻗﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت إﺿﺎﻓﺔ وﺗﺮاﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫وﺿﻊ ﻃﺒﻘﺎت ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ اﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب‪.‬‬ ‫وﻳﻤﻜﻦ رؤﻳﺔ وإﻋﺘﺒﺎر ﻛﻞ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬه اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎت ﻛﺸﺮاﺋﺢ رﻓﻴﻌﺔ ﺟﺪاً‬ ‫وﻛﻘﻄﻊ ﻋﺮﺿﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪأ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ رﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫إﻓﺘﺮاﺿﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺛﻼﺛﻰ اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب إﻧﺘﺎﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰه‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام إﺣﺪى ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫)اﻟﻨﻤﺬﺟﺔ( ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ اﻟﺒﻌﺪ وﻛﻤﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻔﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮﻣﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ‪ ،CAD‬وذﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ إﻧﺘﺎج ﺷﻲء ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ إﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻤﺎﺳﺤﺎت ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ إﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻲء ﻣﻮﺟﻮد ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﻮم ﺑﻤﺴﺢ اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺪ وإﻧﺘﺎج ﻣﻠﻒ رﻗﻤﻲ ﻟﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ اﻟﻤﻠﻒ اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ اﻟﺨﺎص‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻘﻮم اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ اﻟﻰ ﻣﺌﺂت ﺑﻞ وآﻻف‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎت واﻟﺸﺮاﺋﺢ اﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻫﻴﺔ اﻟﺴﻤﻚ‪.‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫وﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﻠﻒ اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ اﻟﺒﻌﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺑﺈﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ اﻟﻤﺮاد‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻌﻪ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮم ﺑﻘﺮاءة ﻛﻞ ﺷﺮﻳﺤﺔ وﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺼﻮرة ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ اﻟﺒﻌﺪ وﺗﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺿﻊ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة ﺗﻠﻮ اﻷﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ اﻟﺒﻌﺾ ودﻣﺠﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺎً‬

‫اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫إﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻰ‪،‬وذﻟﻚ ﺑﺪون أﻳﺔ ﻋﻼﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻼﺣﻢ ﻓﺘﻜﻮن اﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺞ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد ﻛﻘﻄﻌﺔ‬ ‫واﺣﺪة‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد‪:‬‬ ‫ان اﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎت ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ واﺣﺪة ﻓﻲ إﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﺻﻬﺮ اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺎت اﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻹﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺾ‪ ،‬وﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ اﻵﺧﺮ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮاﺋﻞ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﺞ وﺗﺘﺼﻠﺐ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ أﺷﻌﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -١‬ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎت اﻟﺘﻠﺒﺪ اﻟﻠﻴﺰري اﻹﺧﺘﻴﺎري‬ ‫‪:SLS‬‬ ‫وﻓﻲ ﻫﺬه اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ إﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺰر ﻋﺎﻟﻲ اﻟﻘﻮة ﻟﺼﻬﺮ وﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﻳﺌﺎت ﺻﻐﻴﺮة ﻣﻦ اﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ‪،‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎدن‪ ،‬اﻟﺴﻴﺮاﻣﻴﻚ أو ﺑﻮدرة‬ ‫اﻟﺰﺟﺎج وﺗﺤﻮﻳﻠﻬﺎ اﻟﻰ ﺟﺰء واﺣﺪ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬ ‫واﻟﺬي ﻳﻜﻮن ﻟﺪﻳﻪ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮم اﻟﻠﻴﺰر ﺑﺼﻬﺮ وﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ اﻟﺒﻮدرة‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺎﻣﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫إﺧﺘﻴﺎرﻳﺎً ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺴﺢ اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺎوﻟﺔ اﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫وﺑﻌﺪ أن ﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﺴﺢ وﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ إﻧﺰال اﻟﻄﺎوﻟﺔ ﺑﻤﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻚ اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة وذﻟﻚ ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ وﺿﻊ وﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪة ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻞ اﻟﺒﻮدرة اﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻢ ﺗﻨﺲ ﺗﻈﻞ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻟﺘﻘﻮم ﺑﺪور اﻟﺪاﻋﻢ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻰ‪ ،‬وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ داﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻹﺳﺘﺨﺪام أى ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ داﻋﻢ واﻟﺬي‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﻴﺰة ﻛﺒﻴﺮة ﻟﻬﺬه اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫وﺗﻘﻮم اﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎت ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺔ اﻷﺑﻌﺎد وﻳﻤﻜﻦ إﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻛﻞ اﻟﺒﻮدرة ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎم ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎت اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻢ إﺧﺘﺮاع ﻫﺬه اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫وﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﺤﻮ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬


‫اﻟﺘﺼﻴﺪ اﻟﻠﻮﻧﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮازن اﻟﺮﻣﺎدى‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺟﻮدة اﻟﺴﻄﺢ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮاﻛﺐ اﻟﻠﻮﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻼﺣﻆ أن اﻻرﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ اﻻوﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻮدة اﻟﻠﻮﻧﻴﺔ واﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺎﻗﻴﻦ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺪود أى اﻧﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻀﺮورى ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺒﻨﻮد اﻻرﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ أن اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮع ﺳﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫وﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻤﻪ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -١‬اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺎت اﻟﻤﺼﻤﺘﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻫﻨﺎ اﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ أن اﻟﺤﺒﺮ اﻟﺬى ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻗﺪ أﻋﻄﻰ اﻟﻠﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻮرﻗﺔ اﻟﺒﻴﻀﺎء‬ ‫)ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻻﻣﺮ ﺟﺪاً ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ورق ﻣﻠﻮن(‪ ،‬وﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أن اﻟﺤﺒﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺷﻔﺎﻓﺎً ﻓﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻟﻪ ﻟﻮن اﻟﻮرﻗﺔ اﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﻠﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ إﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺟﻬﺎز اﻟﺪﻳﻨﺴﺘﻮﻣﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎس ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺎت اﻟﻤﺼﻤﺘﻪ‬ ‫وﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻻ ﺗﻘﻞ اﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻮرق اﻟﻤﻐﻄﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫‪١٫٥٢‬‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮن اﻟﺴﻴﺎن‪:‬‬ ‫‪١٫٤٧‬‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮن اﻟﻤﺎﺟﻨﺘﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫‪١٫٤١‬‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮن اﻷﺻﻔﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‪١٫٦٢‬‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮن اﻷﺳﻮد‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت اﻷﻳﺰو‬

‫وﻫﺬا ﻃﺒﻘﺎً‬ ‫‪١٢٦٤٧‬‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﺳﻮف ﺗﺼﻄﺪم أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻚ ﺑﻬﺬا اﻟﺒﻨﺪ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎت‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎدة ﺳﺘﺠﺪ أن اﻷرﻗﺎم اﻟﺘﻰ ﻗﻤﺖ‬

‫)ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻟﻮﻧﻰ(‬ ‫)ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻟﻮﻧﻰ(‬ ‫)ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺣﺪود(‬ ‫)ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺣﺪود(‬ ‫)ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺣﺪود(‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ أﻗﻞ ﻛﺜﻴﺮاً ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‬ ‫)وﻧﺎدراً ﺟﺪاً ﻣﺎ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ اﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ(‪.‬‬ ‫إذا ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻗﻴﻢ اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﻠﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ أﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻨﻚ ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺒﺔ ﻣﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻷﺣﺒﺎر ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮرﻧﻴﺶ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺤﺒﺮ ﻟﻠﻌﻮدة ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ اﻟﻘﻴﻢ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫أﻣﺎ إذا ﻛﺎﻧﺖ اﻟﻘﻴﻢ اﻟﺘﻰ ﺣﺼﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ أﻗﻞ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺳﺒﻖ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع اﻟﺤﺒﺮ‪ ،‬وﻳﺤﻀﺮ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎً اﻟﻠﺠﻮء إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫زﻳﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺤﺎﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﻰ إﻋﺘﻘﺎداً ﺑﺄن ﻫﺬا‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺮﻓﻊ اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻳﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻓﻰ إﺣﺪاث ﻧﻤﻮ ﻧﻘﻄﻰ ﺧﻄﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺪاً ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮدة اﻟﺼﻮر ﻓﻰ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﺪﻳﻨﺴﺘﻮﻣﻴﺘﺮ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎس‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﻨﻘﻄﺔ اﻟﺸﺒﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﺜﻼث‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻫﻤﺎ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻟـ ‪ ٪ ٢٥‬واﻟـ ‪٥٠‬‬ ‫‪ ٪‬واﻟـ ‪ ٪ ٧٥‬وأى زﻳﺪاة ﻓﻰ أى‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺗﻌﺪ ﻧﻤﻮ ﻧﻘﻄﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫)ﺑﻌﺾ أﺷﺮﻃﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﺠﻮدة ﺗﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺘﻴﻦ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﺎط‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﻴﺔ ﻫﻢ اﻟـ ‪ ٪ ٤٠‬واﻟـ ‪.(٪ ٨٠‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬اﻟﺘﺼﻴﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫أول ﺣﺒﺮ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻮرﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻴﺎف اﻟﺴﻠﻴﻠﻮز ﻟﻠﻮرﻗﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ اﻷﺣﺒﺎر اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﺎدة ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻮرﻗﺔ وﻋﻠﻰ أﺟﺰاء ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺒﺮ اﻷول‪ ،‬واﻟﺘﺼﻴﺪ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺒﻞ اﻟﺤﺒﺮ اﻷول ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻮرﻗﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻰ اﻟﺬى ﻳﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﻻﺣﻘﺎً ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎز‬ ‫إﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎس‬ ‫اﻹﺳﺒﻜﺘﺮودﻳﻨﺴﺘﻮﻣﻴﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﺼﻴﺪ واﻟﺘﻰ ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻻ ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺄى ﺣﺎل ﻣﻦ اﻷﺣﻮال ﻋﻦ ‪،٪ ٧٥‬‬ ‫وﻋﺎدة ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮن ﺣﻮاﻟﻰ اﻟـ ‪.٪ ٨٥‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻮرق اﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻐﻄﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮن اﻟﺴﻴﺎن‪١٫٠٠ :‬‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮن اﻟﻤﺎﺟﻨﺘﺎ‪٠٫٩٠ :‬‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮن اﻷﺻﻔﺮ‪٠٫٨٨ :‬‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮن اﻷﺳﻮد‪١٫١٠ :‬‬ ‫‪ -٢‬اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺎت اﻟﺸﺒﻜﻴﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻫﻨﺎ اﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ أن اﻟﻨﻘﺎط‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﻴﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺰﻳﺎدﺗﻬﺎ ﻳﺤﺪث ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺗﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻤﻮ اﻟﻨﻘﻄﻰ " ‪" Dot Gain‬‬ ‫وﻧﻘﺼﻬﺎ ﻳﺤﺪث اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ اﻟﻌﻜﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻌﺮف ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻘﺪ اﻟﻨﻘﻄﻰ " ‪Dot‬‬ ‫‪ " Loss‬وﻳﺘﻢ اﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ أن اﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﻴﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ذﻟﻚ ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺟﻬﺎز‬

‫‪6‬‬


‫اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ اﻟﻠﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻊ اﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪...‬‬

‫إﺑﺮاﻫﻴﻢ ﻋﺼﻤﺖ واﻟﻰ‬ ‫أﺳﺘﺎذ م دﻛﺘﻮر ﺑﻘﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔواﻟﻨﺸﺮ واﻟﺘﻐﻠﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻔﻨﻮن اﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﺣﻠﻮان‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺒﺪأ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻓﻰ أى ﻣﻦ دور ﺑﺨﺼﻮﺻﻬﺎ إﺧﺘﻼف ﻓﻰ اﻟﺮأﺋﻰ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻜﺒﺮى ﺳﺘﺠﺪ أن ﻫﻨﺎك اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ واﻟﻤﻄﺒﻌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺗﻮاﺟﻪ ﻛﻞ اﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻊ اﻟﻜﺒﺮى‬ ‫ﻓﻰ ﻣﺼﺮ وﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺎرﻳﺔ إذاً ﺗﻈﻞ اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ اﻟﻠﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻫﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻠﻴﺔ واﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﻜﻮن ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ اﻷﺧﻄﺮ واﻷﺻﻌﺐ ﻓﻰ‬ ‫إدراﻛﻬﺎ وﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻣﻘﺪارﻫﺎ وﺗﺠﻨﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻳﺮى اﻻﻟﻮان ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺣﺪوﺛﻬﺎ أو ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻗﻞ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮﻣﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ اﻟﺨﺎص ﺑﻪ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻜﻮﻣﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ داﺋﻤﺎً اﻟﻤﺼﻤﻢ وﺑﻌﺪ أن ﻳﻘﻮم‬ ‫ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﻪ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻗﻠﻖ ﺟﺪاً‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫إﺳﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺄن اﻷﻟﻮان اﻟﺘﻰ ﺳﻴﺨﺮج ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫أﻟﻮان ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﻪ )ﻟﻦ ﺗﺠﺪ أﺑﺪاً ﻣﺼﻤﻢ ﻗﻠﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮوﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮان‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻳﺮى أن‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺄن ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﺨﻂ اﻟﺬى إﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺬى ﺳﻠﻤﻪ ﻓﻰ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻣﺎ إذا ﻛﺎن ﺳﻴﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻄﺒﻌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ( ﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻘﺪار اﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻳﺮى اﻟﻮان اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮع ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻷﻟﻮان ﻫﻰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻬﺘﻢ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻮان اﻟﺒﺮوﻓﺔ اﻟﺘﻰ اﻟﻤﺼﻤﻢ واﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ وﻛﺬﻟﻚ اﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫واﻓﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ أن اﻟﻠﻮن ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻨﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﻄﺒﻌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ اﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎت ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺧﻄﻴﺮة ﺟﺪاً ﻓﻰ اﻷﻟﻮان ﻟﻤﺎذا ﺗﺤﺪث ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﻓﻰ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ً‬ ‫أﺑﺪأ اﻹﻋﺘﻤﺎد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮى ‪ ...‬ﺑﻞ ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻧﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬اﻻﻟﻮان‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﺼﻞ أﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎً إﻟﻰ رﻓﺾ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﺴﻮق اﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ أﺟﻬﺰة اﻟﻘﻴﺎس‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮة ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎت )ﺗﻘﺎس ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻟﺘﻰ إﻋﺘﺎد أن ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺌﺎت اﻷﻻف ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎت ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ داﺋﻤﺎً ﻓﻬﻨﺎك داﺋﻤﺎً ﺗﻨﻮع ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﻠﻮن ﻣﻦ داﺧﻞ‬ ‫وإﺟﺒﺎر اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺪﻣﻴﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﻰ اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺎت اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﺔ ﻓﻰ اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮع ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻴﻦ اﻟﺸﺮﻳﻪ ‪...‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﺑﻄﺒﺎﻋﺘﻪ وﺗﺤﻮﻳﻠﺔ اﻟﻰ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﺣﺒﺮ ‪ +‬ورق(‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﻞ ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻳﺘﻢ اﻟﻘﻴﺎس ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﻠﻔﺎت ورﻗﻴﺔ ﻻ أﻛﺜﺮ( ﻛﻤﺎ أﻧﻬﺎ ﻗﺪ أن اﻟﺴﻮق اﻟﻤﺼﺮى ﻳﻤﺘﻠﻚ ﻗﺪر ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﺠﻮدة‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻞ أﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎً إﻟﻰ ﺳﺎﺣﺎت اﻟﻤﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻤﺎﻧﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻰ أﺳﻠﻮب اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ اﻟﻮاﺟﺐ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫)ﻳﺠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻌﺔ إﺗﻼف أى ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺠﺪ أن أﻏﻠﺐ اﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻊ أن اﻟﻠﻮن ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮع ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎت ﺗﻢ رﻓﻀﻬﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة إﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﺷﺮاﺋﻂ ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﺠﻮدة اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻟﻘﻴﺎس ﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻠﺪى اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ وﻓﻰ ﻫﺬا ﺧﻄﻮرة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮع ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﺤﻮ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻠﺨﻴﺺ اﻟﻤﺎدة اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫)ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻟﻮﻧﻰ(‬ ‫ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺎت اﻟﻤﺼﻤﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‪ :‬ﺣﺪود ‪ +‬أﻟﻮان‪.‬‬ ‫)ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻟﻮﻧﻰ(‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺎت اﻟﺸﺒﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻊ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﻜﻼ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫)اﻟﺤﺪود ‪ +‬اﻷﻟﻮان(‪ ،‬وﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن أﻏﻠﺐ اﻟﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺪود ﻳﻤﻜﻦ إدارﻛﻬﺎ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫وﻋﻼﺟﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ أن ﺣﺪوث أى‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻓﯩﻬﺎ ﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﺟﺪاً أن ﻳﺤﺪث‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﺮى ﻓﻰ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺗﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى أداء ﺟﻴﺪ وﻣﺴﺘﻮى أرﺑﺎح‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺘﺎز ﻳﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻏﻨﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫أى ﻧﻈﺎم ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻹﻧﺘﺎج اﻷﻟﻮان ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎن اﻟﻬﺪف ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﺤﺴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﺠﻮدة اﻟﻠﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﻣﻐﺎﻣﺮة اﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺑﻤﺎ ﺗﺤﻤﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫إﺣﺘﻤﺎل ﻹﺣﺪاث ﺗﻐﻴﺮات ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎرﻳﺔ اﻻﻧﺘﺎج ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ أﻏﻠﺐ اﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺗﺮﻓﺾ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎً إﺳﺘﺨﺪام أى ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺤﺪﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻹدارة اﻟﻠﻮن ﻓﻰ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﺘﻔﻰ اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫اﻹﺟﺮاءات اﻟﻤﺘﻮاﺿﻌﺔ ﻓﻰ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ اﻟﻠﻮن أﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬


‫وﻣﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﻨﻘﺎط ذات اﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻼﺻﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدة‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬وﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫‪ STARCH‬ﻣﻦ أﻫﻢ اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻟﺼﻖ‬ ‫وﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ ‪ ،‬واﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ ﻛﺮﺑﻮﻫﻴﺪرات ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ اﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎت ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﺬرة‬ ‫واﻟﻘﻤﺢ واﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ واﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺎ‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺴﻠﺔ ‪ ....‬إﻟﺦ ‪ .‬وﻫﻰ ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎت ﺻﻐﻴﺮة اﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻣﻜﺘﻈﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ وﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺬوﺑﺎن ‪.‬‬ ‫وﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎت اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻻﺗﺬوب ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺎرد ‪ ،‬وﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺘﺤﻮل إﻟﻰ ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫ﻻﺻﻘﺔ ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻳﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺨﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﺴﺎﺧﻦ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺘﻀﺨﻢ ﻟﺪرﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﻔﺠﺎر وﺑﻬﺬا ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﺮ اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﻤﺎة ﺑﺎﻷﻣﻴﻠﻮز ‪Amyl-‬‬ ‫‪ ose‬داﺧﻞ اﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎت إﻟﻰ اﻟﺨﺎرج‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﺎدة اﻟﻼﺻﻘﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈن أى ﻋﻴﺐ ﻓﻰ ﺧﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺆدى إﻟﻰ إﻧﻔﺼﺎل اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎت ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ ﺳﺘﻨﻬﺎر اﻟﺼﻨﺎدﻳﻖ‬ ‫‪ ،‬وﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺆدى إﻟﻰ ﻋﻮاﻗﺐ وﺧﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﻠﻒ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت اﻟﺼﻨﺪوق ‪،‬‬ ‫دﻓﻊ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﻀﺎت ﻋﻦ ﺗﻠﻒ ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬زﻳﺎدة ﻣﻌﺪل اﻟﻬﺎﻟﻚ ‪،‬‬ ‫إرﺗﻔﺎع اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪان ﺛﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ‬ ‫‪،‬أو ﻓﻘﺪان اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ وﺧﺮوﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ داﺋﺮة اﻟﻌﻤﻼء‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﻛﻴﻨﺎت اﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ )‪(Corrugator‬‬ ‫وﺟﻮدة اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻟﻶن ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻮﺑﺔ وﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬وﺳﻮف‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻨﺎول ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ أﻧﻮاع اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫واﻟﻄﺮق اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺧﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎ اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎ اﻟﺬرة ‪ -Maize Starch‬ﻫﻮ‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ اﻷﻧﻮاع ﺷﻴﻮﻋﺂ ﻓﻰ اﻹﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻓﻰ ﻣﺠﺎل ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ ‪،‬‬ ‫وﻟﺪﻳﻪ اﻟﻘﺪرة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺼﻖ اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺑﺼﻮرة آﻣﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬وﻟﻜﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻻﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ذات اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺎت اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ وﺧﺼﻮﺻﺂ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ اﻟﻤﺰدوج ﻣﻬﻤﺎ زادت‬ ‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎ اﻟﻘﻤﺢ ‪ - White Starch‬ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫إﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ اﻟﺪوﺑﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺎت اﻟﻤﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬وﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫اﻵﺧﺮ ﻳﺤﺪث ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻬﺸﻴﻢ ﻟﻠﺼﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ إﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺎت اﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻷواﻣﺮ ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﺴﻨﺠﻞ ﻓﺎﻳﺲ ‪. single face‬‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎ اﻟﺘﺎﺑﻴﻮﻛﺎ ‪- Tapioca Starch‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺬور‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺎت اﻟﻜﺴﺎﻓﺎ اﻟﺬى ﻳﻨﻤﻮ ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ اﻹﺳﺘﻮاﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ اﻟﺒﺮازﻳﻞ‬ ‫وﻛﻮﻟﻮﻣﺒﻴﺎ وﺗﺎﻳﻠﻨﺪ وﻓﻴﺘﻨﺎم وﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﺒﻠﺪان اﻹﺳﺘﻮاﺋﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﺨﻮض ﻓﻰ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻧﺴﺄل أﻧﻔﺴﻨﺎ ﺳﺆاﻵ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻣﺎ وﻫﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻫﻰ اﻷﺳﺒﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎدة ﻻﺻﻘﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ ؟‬ ‫وﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺄن ﻫﻨﺎك أﺳﺒﺎب‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻳﺪة أدت إﻟﻰ إﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎدة ﻻﺻﻘﺔ أﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ ‪ ،‬وﻟﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ أﻫﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫*درﺟﺔ ﻟﺰوﺟﺔ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺼﻖ ‪ -‬ﻗﻮة اﻟﺘﺼﺎق ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻗﻮة‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن ‪ -‬ذو‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫اﻟﻼﺻﻘﺔ اﻷﺧﺮى ‪ -‬ﻣﺘﻮاﻓﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ‪ -‬ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻠﻞ ‪ -‬آﻣﻦ وﻻ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮرة ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺼﺤﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻛﻤﺎدة ﻻﺻﻘﺔ ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ‬ ‫)‪(١‬اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ‪ :‬وﻫﻮ اﻟﻤﺎدة اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎدة اﻟﻼﺻﻘﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (٢‬اﻟﻤﺎء ‪ :‬وﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ اﻟﻮاﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻓﺮﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬إذ ﻳﻤﺜﻞ اﻟﻤﺎدة اﻟﻤﺬﻳﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ إذاﺑﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ )أى‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﻠﺔ( ‪ ،‬ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺨﻪ وﺗﻤﺮﻳﺮه‬ ‫إﻟﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ اﻟﻜﺮاﻓﺖ ‪ ،‬وﻫﻮ ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫أﻳﻀﺎ ﻟﺘﻔﺘﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﺎم اﻟﻮرق ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬اﻟﺤﺮارة ‪ :‬وﻫﻰ درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻟﺬوﺑﺎن اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﺎء –‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ اﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮم أن اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺬوب ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﺒﺎرد ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٤‬اﻟﺼﻮدا اﻟﻜﺎوﻳﺔ ‪ :‬وﻫﻰ اﻟﻤﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﺧﺘﺮاق‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ أﻧﻬﺎ ﻫﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﻔﺾ درﺟﺔ اﻟﺠﻠﺘﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎ إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺪرﺟﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ أﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺛﺒﺎت اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﺸﺎ اﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ ‪-Potato Starch‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ أﻓﻀﻞ أﻧﻮاع اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺳﻮاء اﻟـﻤﺰدوج ‪Double‬‬ ‫أو اﻟﺜﻼﺛﻰ ‪ ، Triple wall‬وﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻛﻨﺸﺎ ﺛﺎﻧﻮى ﻓﻰ ﻣﺎﻛﻴﻨﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺼﻖ ﻟﻴﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﻊ ورق ذو وزن أﺳﺎﺳﻰ )‪ (٥‬اﻟﺒﻮر اﻛﺲ ‪ :‬وﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ اﻹﺿﺎﻓﺎت‬ ‫وﻓﻰ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ اﻷﻣﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن اﻟﺪرﺟﺔ ﺛﻘﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬وﻧﺸﺎ اﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ ﻻﻳﺼﻠﺢ اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ إﻛﺴﺎب اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﻬﺎ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ إﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﻛﺤﺎﻣﻞ وﻻﻳﺼﻠﺢ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﻮام اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ أﻧﻪ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬

‫‪8‬‬


‫إﻧﺘــــﺎج اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن اﻟﻤﻀﻠـﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻊ أﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻨﺎ ﻋﻦ اﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ إﻟﻰ وﺟﻮد اﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎت ﻣﻦ اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎدﻳﻖ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ ﻓﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﺣﻲ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺻﻨﺎدﻳﻖ اﻟﻔﻮاﻛﻪ واﻟﺨﻀﺎر اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﺻﻨﺎدﻳﻖ اﻟﺒﻴﺘﺰا اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬وﺻﻨﺎدﻳﻖ اﻻﻗﺘﺮاع اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬وﺻﻨﺎدﻳﻖ ﻛﺮﺗﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺸﺤﻦ اﻟﺰﺟﺎﺟﻴﺎت‬ ‫واﻷﻏﺮاض اﻟﻨﻔﻴﺴﺔ ‪ ،‬واﻟﺼﻨﺎدﻳﻖ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ اﻟﺤﻘﻴﺒﺔ اﻟﻴﺪوﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻨﺎدﻳﻖ ﺷﺤﻦ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬وﺻﻨﺎدﻳﻖ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻت اﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬وﻓﻮاﺻﻞ وﻗﻮاﻃﻊ اﻟﺼﻨﺎدﻳﻖ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫وﺻﻨﺎدﻳﻖ اﻟﻬﺪاﻳﺎ‪ ،‬وﺻﻨﺎدﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﺮوض اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬واﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺼﻨﺎدﻳﻖ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ اﻟﻤﻮاد اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﻴﺔ واﻷدوﻳﺔ واﻟﻤﻼﺑﺲ اﻟﺠﺎﻫﺰة واﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ وﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫دﻛﺘﻮر ﻣﻬﻨﺪس‬

‫ﻣﺠﺪى ﻋﺰت ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻘﺎد‬

‫ﻳﺘﻜـﻮن اﻟﻠـﻮح اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮﻧﻲ اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋـﺪد ﻣﻦ اﻟﻄﺒﻘـﺎت اﻟﻮرﻗﻴـﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﺼـﻮﻗﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ‪ ،‬اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ )‪ُ (Medium‬وﺗﻀﻠﻊ )ُ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻌﺮج أو ﻣﻤﻮج( ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻹﻧﺘﺎج وﺗﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺘﻴﻦ اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻴﺘﻴﻦ )‪(Liners‬‬ ‫وﻫﻤﺎ ﻋﺒﺎره ﻋﻦ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﺴﻄﺤﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻮرق ﻳﺘﻢ ﻟﺼﻘﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫إذن ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﺒﺎره ﻋﻦ ﻃﺒﻘﺎت ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮرق ‪ ٣‬او ‪ ٥‬او ‪ ٧‬ﻃﺒﻘﺎت ﻳﻜﻮن ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ‪ ٢‬ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﻣﻀﻠﻌﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع أﻟﻮاح اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ اﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻮﺟﻪ اﻷﺣﺎدي ‪Single Face -‬‬ ‫وﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﻀﻠﻌﺔ‬ ‫وﺳﻄﻰ ﻣﻠﺘﺼﻘﺔ ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺧﺎرﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻄﺤﺔ واﺣﺪة‪.‬‬ ‫أﺣﺎدي اﻟﺠﺪار ‪Single Wall -‬‬ ‫وﻫﻮ اﻟﻠﻮح اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮﻧﻲ اﻟﻤﻌﺮوف‬ ‫وﻳﺘﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﻀﻠﻌﺔ‬ ‫وﺳﻄﻰ واﺣﺪة ﻣﻠﺘﺼﻘﺔ ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﺴﻄﺤﺘﻴﻦ‪.‬‬

‫ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲ اﻟﺠﺪار ‪Double Wall -‬‬ ‫وﻫﻮ ﻣﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﻠﻌﺘﻴﻦ وﺳﻄﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﻠﺘﺼﻘﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺜﻼث ﻃﺒﻘﺎت ﻣﻦ اﻟﻮرق‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﻄﺢ‪.‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫أﻧﻮاع اﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﺘﻤﻮج‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﺘﻤﻮج ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﺄﺷﻜﺎل‬ ‫وأﻧﻮاع ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ‬ ‫وﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻌﺎرف ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ وأﻧﻮاع‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﺘﻤﻮج ﻫﻲ )‪(A,B,C,E,F‬‬ ‫وﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ ‪ A‬ﻫﻮ اول ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ ﻣﺘﻤﻮج‬

‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮه وﻳﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ ‪ B‬و ﺣﺠﻤﻪ‬ ‫أﺻﻐﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ ‪ ، A‬ﺛﻢ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ ‪ C‬ﻟﻴﺘﻮﺳﻂ اﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻣﺎﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ ‪ A‬و ‪ B‬وﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ‪ C‬ﻫﻮ أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ اﻧﺘﺸﺎرا و ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ ‪ E‬وﻫﻮ أﺻﻐﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ‪ B‬ﺛﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ ‪ F‬وﻫﻮ اﻷﺻﻐﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﺎ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻫﺬه اﻷﻧﻮاع ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ أﻧﻮاع أﺧﺮى أﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﺠﻤﺎ وأﺧﺮى أﺻﻐﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﺎ‬ ‫وﻋﺎدة ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮن ﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺧﺎص وﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺋﻊ ‪ ،‬إﺟﻤﺎﻻ اﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻋﻦ ﻏﻴﺮه ﺑﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ ‪C‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺘﻮﺳﻂ اﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻣﺎﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ ‪ A‬و ‪B‬‬ ‫وﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ‪ C‬ﻫﻮ أﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ اﻧﺘﺸﺎرا و‬ ‫ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ ‪ E‬وﻫﻮ أﺻﻐﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ‪ B‬ﺛﻢ ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ ‪ F‬وﻫﻮ‬ ‫اﻷﺻﻐﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻫﺬه‬ ‫اﻷﻧﻮاع ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ أﻧﻮاع‬ ‫أﺧﺮى أﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﺠﻤﺎ وأﺧﺮى أﺻﻐﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻤﺎ وﻋﺎدة ﻣﺎ ﺗﻜﻮن ﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺧﺎص‬ ‫وﻏﻴﺮ ﺷﺎﺋﻊ ‪ ،‬إﺟﻤﺎﻻ اﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ اﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻋﻦ ﻏﻴﺮه ﺑﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ أﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻂ اﻟﻌﻤﻮدي وﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻮﺳﺎدة‬ ‫أﻓﻀﻞ وﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻳﻮﻓﺮ اﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ اﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ أﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﺤﻖ أو اﻻﻧﻬﻴﺎر ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ أو اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻹﻣﻜﺎن دﻣﺞ أﻧﻮاع ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻜﻮن اﻟﻠﻮح‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮﻧﻲ اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲ أو ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪار‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ اﻟﻤﺜﺎل اﻟﻠﻮح‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮﻧﻲ اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ ﺛﻼﺛﻲ اﻟﺠﺪار‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ان ﻳﺘﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ وﺳﻄﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ ‪ A‬وﻃﺒﻘﺘﻴﻦ وﺳﻄﻮﻳﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫أﺧﺮﻳﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻀﻠﻴﻊ ‪ C‬وﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام أﻧﻮاع ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ‬

‫اﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ اﻟﻤﺼﻤﻢ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻗﻮة ﺗﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﻂ وﻗﻮة إﻣﺘﺼﺎص اﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫أو اﻟﺘﻮﺳﻴﺪ أو ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺳﻤﺎﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮح اﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫وﻳﺘﺮاوح ﻗﻴﺎس اﻟﺴﻤﺎﻛﺎت ﻓﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮح اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮﻧﻲ اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﺪول اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮعاﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ ﻗﻴﺎساﻟﺴﻤﺎﻛﺔﺑﺎﻟﻤﻠﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺗﻮنأﺣﺎدياﻟﻮﺟﻪ‬

‫‪E‬‬

‫‪١٫٨ – ١٫١‬‬

‫‪B‬‬

‫‪٣٫٠ – ٢٫١‬‬

‫‪A‬‬

‫‪٤٫٨ – ٤٫٠‬‬

‫‪C‬‬

‫ﻛﺮﺗﻮنأﺣﺎدياﻟﺠﺪار‬ ‫‪B‬‬ ‫‪C‬‬

‫ﻛﺮﺗﻮنﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲاﻟﺠﺪار‬ ‫‪EB‬‬

‫‪BC‬‬ ‫‪CC‬‬

‫‪٣٫٩ – ٣٫٢‬‬

‫‪٢٫٩٥‬‬

‫‪٣٫٧٨‬‬

‫‪٤٫٠٦‬‬ ‫‪٦٫٥٠‬‬ ‫‪٧٫٣٣‬‬

‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻹﻧﺘﺎج ﻟﻠﻜﺮﺗﻮن اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ ‪-‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻹﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ إﻟﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﻴﻦ رﺋﻴﺴﻴﻴﻦ ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫)‪ (١‬إﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻠﻮح اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮﻧﻲ اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ‬ ‫وﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻀﻠﻴﻊ ‪Corru- -‬‬ ‫‪ (٢) .gating Process‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤـﻮﻳﻞ اﻟﻠـﻮح اﻟﻜـﺮﺗﻮﻧﻲ اﻟﻤﻀﻠـﻊ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ ﻛﺮﺗﻮن ﻣﻄﺒﻮع وﺟﺎﻫﺰ وﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ‪Converting -‬‬ ‫‪.Process‬‬


10


‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻤﺎﺳﻚ ﺟﺰﻳﺌﺎت اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدة اﻟﻼﺻﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ أﻧﻪ ﻳﺤﺎﻓﻆ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﺴﻴﺞ ‪ ،‬وﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ اﺧﺘﺮاق‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻟﻠﻮرق ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ أﻧﻪ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ درﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ وﻳﺴﺮع ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺼﺎق‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎت ‪ ،‬أﻳﻀﺎ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﺰاﺋﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻃﺮق ﺗﺤﻀﻴﺮ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻛﻤﺎدة ﻻﺻﻘﺔ‬ ‫)اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺧﻂ إﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ(‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺂ ﻣﺎﻳﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺦ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪ ٪ ٢٠ – ١٥‬ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﺎء ‪ ،‬وﺑﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮدا اﻟﻜﺎوﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﺤﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮى ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮى اﻟﺼﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ‪، ٪٣٥ – ٢٣‬‬ ‫وﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻟﺰوﺟﺔ اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ إﻛﺘﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ‪ ٥٠ – ٣٠‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬وﺑﻌﺪ وﺿﻊ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻤﺔ اﻟﻔﻠﻮت وﺗﺴﺨﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺠﻠﺘﻦ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻓﻰ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ‪ ،‬وﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻀﺨﻢ ﺑﻠﻮرة اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻳﺒﺪأ ﻓﻰ اﻟﺘﺠﻠﻂ‬ ‫وﺗﺘﻜﻮن ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻠﺼﻖ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﻤﻮذج ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺟﻬﺎز ﻗﻴﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ اﻟﺨﺎص ﺑﻘﻴﺎس اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫)‪(Stein Hall‬‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫وﺗﻮﺟﺪ أرﺑﻌﺔ ﻃﺮق ﻹﻋﺪاد ﺧﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎ وﻫﻰ ‪-:‬‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ ‪- No-Carrier -:‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﻃﻮر واﺣﺪ ـ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ ذوﺑﺎن ﺟﺰﺋﻰ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻄﺔ ‪ .‬وﻳﺘﻢ إﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻨﺤﻮ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ ‪ -:‬ﺗﺨﻔﻴﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻮدا اﻟﻜﺎوﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎء ﺣﺘﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪٣‬‬ ‫– ‪ ٪ ٥‬وﺗﺴﺨﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﺪرﺟﺔ ﺣﺮارة ‪ ͦ ٤٠‬م‬ ‫‪ .‬ﺛﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ إذاﺑﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺧﺰان اﻟﺨﻠﻂ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻦ ﻟﺪرﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﻤﺤﺪدة‬ ‫)ﺣﻮاﻟﻰ ‪ ͦ ٤٠‬م( ‪ .‬ﺑﻌﺪ ذﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺤﻠﻮل اﻟﺼﻮدا اﻟﻜﺎوﻳﺔ إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﻠﻮط اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺧﺰان اﻟﺨﻠﻂ ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺻﻮل إﻟﻰ درﺟﺔ اﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ‪ .‬وﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﻮﺻﻮل إﻟﻰ درﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻮراﻛﺲ ‪ .‬وﻳﻤﻜﻦ أن ﺗﻜﻮن ﻫﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ إﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺎت ﻣﻦ اﻟﻮرق ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫إﻧﺨﻔﺎض اﻹﺣﺘﻔﺎظ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎء ‪ ،‬أي‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻮرق ﺻﻌﺐ اﻟﺘﺸﺮب‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ارﺗﻔﺎع درﺟﺔ اﻟـ ‪، pH‬‬ ‫واﻟﺬي ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻔﺘﻴﺢ اﻟﻮرق ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺣﺠﻢ وﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﻮﺿﻊ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪- Stein Hall -:‬‬ ‫وﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﻦ أﺳﺎﺳﻴﻴﻦ ‪-:‬‬

‫واﻟﺼﻮدا اﻟﻜﺎوﻳﺔ واﻟﺒﻮراﻛﺲ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ إﻣﺮار‬ ‫ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﺨﻠﻮط ﻓﻰ ﻣﻮاﺳﻴﺮ وﻳﻌﻮد‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﻼط ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻘﻦ ﺑﺨﺎر داﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺳﻴﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺟﻠﺘﻨﺔ اﻟﻤﺨﻠﻮط‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻮدﺗﻪ ﻟﻠﺨﻼط ‪ ،‬وﺗﺘﻢ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ ﺑﺠﻬﺎز ﻟﺰوﺟﺔ آﻟﻰ ‪ ،‬وﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺻﻮل ﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻖ اﻟﺒﺨﺎر وﺗﺘﻢ إﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻧﺼﻒ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫اﻵﺧﺮ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﺨﻠﻮط ‪.‬‬

‫ااﻟﺠﺰء اﻷول وﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮخ ‪ ،‬وﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﺣﻮاﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪ ٪٢٠ – ١٥‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ووﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻫﺬا اﻟﺠﺰء ﻫﻰ ‪ -:‬ﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮخ )اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮى( ﻳﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫)ﻳﻠﺘﺼﻖ( ﺑﻪ ﻷﻃﻮل وﻗﺖ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ إﻛﺴﺎب اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺰوﺟﺘﻬﺎ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫أﻣﺎ اﻟﺠﺰء اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻰ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮخ ‪ ،‬وﻳﺘﻢ إﻋﺪاد ﺧﻠﻄﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻰ ‪ -:‬أوﻵ‪ -‬اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﻤﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺨﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﺎء ﻣﺒﺪﺋﻴﺂ إﻟﻰ‬ ‫درﺟﺔ ‪ ͦ ٤٠‬م ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺗﺘﻢ إﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺪﺋﻰ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ إﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﺼﻮدا اﻟﻜﺎوﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﺦ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ اﻟﻤﺒﺪﺋﻰ ﻣﻊ إﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺐ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﻤﺎم اﻟﻄﺒﺦ ‪ ،‬وﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ ﺗﺤﻮل اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻮل إﻟﻰ ﻣﺎﻳﺸﺒﻪ اﻟـ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﻠﻰ ‪ jelly‬وﻳﺘﺤﻮل ﻟﻮن اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻷﺑﻴﺾ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻠﻮن اﻟﺴﻤﻨﻰ ‪ .‬ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪-‬‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺨﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮى ﺣﺘﻰ درﺟﺔ ‪ ͦ ٤٠‬م ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﺗﺘﻢ إﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﻤﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ إﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺐ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ إﺿﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮى ﻣﻊ اﺳﺘﻤﺮاراﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬اﻟطرﯾﻘﺔ اﻟراﺑﻌﺔ ‪- High Shear -:‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻀﺎف اﻟﺒﻮراﻛﺲ وأﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﺘﻢ إﺿﺎﻓﺔ وﻫﻰ أﻳﻀﺂ ﺗﻄﻮر ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺎت ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ اﻟﺨﻠﻄﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫)ﺷﺘﺎﻳﻦ ﻫﻮول( ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻨﺪ ﻣﺤﺎوﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻟﺼﻖ ﻋﺎﻟﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺐ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺷﺘﺎﻳﻦ ﻫﻮول ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﺎﻧﻊ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ زﻳﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ ﻣﻊ زﻳﺎدة اﻟﻨﺸﺎ اﻟﻤﺒﺪﺋﻰ ‪،‬‬ ‫وﻫﻨﺎك وﺳﻴﻠﺔ واﺣﺪة ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫زﻳﺎدة اﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ ﻫﻰ اﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮخ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺰء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺧﻼط رأﺳﻰ ﻣﺰود ﺑﺮﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺐ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺘﻦ ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ ‪ - Jet Cook -:‬ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺧﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ – ﺣﻴﺚ أن‬ ‫وﻫﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻌﺪﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻫﻨﺎك اﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ )ﺷﺘﺎﻳﻦ ﻫﻮول( ‪ ،‬وﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﻟﻄﺒﺨﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ ﺧﺰان ﺧﻠﻂ وﺣﻴﺪ أﻓﻘﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ اﻹﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻀﻴﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺧﻠﻂ ﻛﻞ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺎء وﻟﻴﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺂ أن ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻃﺒﺨﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺼﻮدا اﻟﻜﺎوﻳﺔ واﻟﺒﻮراﻛﺲ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻟﻤﺎﻛﻴﻨﺔ ‪ single face‬ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ إﻣﺮار ﻋﻦ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻃﺒﺨﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻟﻤﺎﻛﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﺨﻠﻮط ﻓﻰ ﻣﻮاﺳﻴﺮ وﻳﻌﻮد اﻟﻠﺼﻖ ‪ ، glue‬وﻫﺬه اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﻼط ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻘﻦ ﺑﺨﺎر داﺧﻞ ‪ (١) -:‬اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻠﻮﻳﺎت ‪Alkali‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺳﻴﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺘﻢ ﺟﻠﺘﻨﺔ اﻟﻤﺨﻠﻮط ‪ (٢) (Caustic) Sensitivity‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻮدﺗﻪ ﻟﻠﺨﻼط ‪ ،‬وﺗﺘﻢ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮى اﻟﺼﻠﺐ ‪Solid Content‬‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ ﺑﺠﻬﺎز ﻟﺰوﺟﺔ آﻟﻰ ‪ ،‬وﻋﻨﺪ )‪ (٣‬درﺟﺔ اﻟﺠﻠﺘﻨﺔ ‪(٤) Gel Point‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺻﻮل ﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺘﻢ درﺟﺔ اﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ ‪Batch Viscosity‬‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻖ اﻟﺒﺨﺎر وﺗﺘﻢ إﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻧﺼﻒ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ وﺳﻮف ﻧﺘﻨﺎول ﻓﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺘﻨﺎ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫اﻵﺧﺮ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﺨﻠﻮط ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﺎس وﺣﺴﺎب ﺧﻮاص اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ ﺧﺰان ﺧﻠﻂ وﺣﻴﺪ أﻓﻘﻰ وأﺛﺮ ذﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮدة ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺧﻠﻂ ﻛﻞ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺎء اﻟﻠﺼﻖ ﻓﻲ إﻧﺘﺎج ﺻﻨﺎدﻳﻖ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن ‪.‬‬


Ù¤


‫ﺗﺤﺪﺛﻨﺎ اﻟﻲ اﻟﺴﻴﺪ‪ /‬ﺻﻤﻮﺋﻴﻞ ﺑﺸﺎي‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒﻴﺮ اﻟﺪوﻟﻲ اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺘﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪ UGRA‬اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻻدارة ﺟﻮدة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ واﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬي ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﻳﻴﻒ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﺮاﺋﺪة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﺣﻠﻮل ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ و ﺗﺴﻌﻲ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺋﻬﺎ اﻻﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﻮن ﻟﺮﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮي اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل ﻣﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺸﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ اﻟﻤﻌﺪات و اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ و اﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ و اﻟﺘﺄﻫﻴﻞ و ﻣﻨﺢ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺎدات اﻻﻋﺘﺮاف ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻮدةﻛﻤﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‪ UGRA‬اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻓﺼﺢ اﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﺻﻤﻮﺋﻴﻞ ﻟﻤﻨﺪوب‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺄة ﻟﺴﻮق اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ و ﺗﺘﻠﺨﺺ ﻓﻲ اﺳﺘﻴﺮاد‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻛﻴﻨﺎت ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺑﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻳﺎﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ ﺗﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻤﻬﻮرﻳﺔ اﻟﺼﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ و اﻻﺳﻌﺎر اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻮق اﻟﻤﺼﺮي وأﺿﺎف ﺳﻴﺎدﺗﻪ‬ ‫ان ﻛﺮﻳﻴﺘﻒ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﺳﺘﻘﺪم ﻫﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺪات ﺑﺎﺳﻌﺎر ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق اﻟﻤﺼﺮي و ﺳﺘﻤﻨﺢ ﺿﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺪات ﻟﻤﺪة ‪ ٢٤‬ﺷﻬﺮ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ اﻟﻐﻴﺎر واﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ و اﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺳﺘﻘﻮم ﻛﺮﻳﻴﺘﻒ ﺑﺘﺪرﻳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻼء ﻋﻠﻲ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ اﻟﻤﻌﺪات و‬ ‫ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺗﺪرﻳﺐ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎن اﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎدة اﻟﻤﺜﻠﻲ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺪات ﻣﻊ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻴﺎر و اﻟﺨﺒﺮاء اﻻﺟﺎﻧﺐ‪.‬‬ ‫وﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻤﻌﺪات واﺣﺪ ﻟﻮن‪٢،‬‬ ‫ﻟﻮن‪ ٣ ،‬ﻟﻮن و ‪ ٤‬ﻟﻮن ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ‬ ‫و اﻟﺸﺮﺷﺮة و اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ان‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮرة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪات‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﺎﺷﻲ ﻣﻊ اﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﺴﻮق‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺼﺮي ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ اﻟﻤﻘﺎس ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﺪي ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻛﺮﻳﻴﺘﻒ ﻣﻘﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪدة‪.‬‬ ‫اﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻘﺪم ﻛﺮﻳﻴﺘﻒ ﺑﺼﻔﺘﻬﺎ اﻟﻮﻛﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Studiorip‬‬ ‫و ﻫﻮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺸﻬﻮر ﻓﻲ ادارة‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺎﻛﻴﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ اﻻﻟﻮان ﻣﻦ اﻓﻼم و ﻟﻮﺣﺎت‬ ‫واﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎت اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬و ﻟﺪﻳﻪ اﻟﻘﺪرة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ادارة ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻌﺪد ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪود ﻣﻦ اﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺎت و ﺗﻐﻄﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﺎت ﻣﺠﺎﻧﺎ ﺑﺪون ﺣﺪ‬ ‫اﻗﺼﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻟﻠﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﺼﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻔﺎت‪ CIP٤ ,CIP٣‬اﻟﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮدﻳﻼت و ﻣﺎرﻛﺎت ﻣﺎﻛﻴﻨﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﻓﺮ اﻟﻬﺎدر واﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫واﻟﺠﻬﺪ‪.‬‬

‫و اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ان ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻛﺮﻳﻴﺘﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ ﻫﻲ اﻟﻤﻮزع ﻟﻜﺒﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎل ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﻟﻮان و اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ و ادارة اﻟﺠﻮدة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪SMART CTcP‬‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺪات ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ اﻟﻠﻮﺣﺎت اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻟﻮﺣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻌﺎدﻳﺔ واﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ اﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ اﻟﻤﻌﺪات اﻟﻤﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ اﻻﺗﺠﺎه اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ اﻻن‪ .‬و‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﺪي ﻛﺮﻳﻴﺘﻒ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺳﺎت اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﻛﺮﻳﻴﺘﻒ ﺗﻜﻨﻮاوﺟﻲ‬ ‫&‪Gluenz‬‬ ‫‪Jensen‬‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫‪ -Hights‬وذﻟﻚ ﻻﺟﻬﺰة اﻇﻬﺎر ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫‪Processors‬‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع اﻟﺰﻧﻜﺎت‬

‫واﻻﻓﻼم ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺳﺎت و‬ ‫اﻻﻏﺮاض‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﻮم ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻛﺮﻳﻴﺘﻒ ﺑﺼﻔﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮزع اﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ‪Bodoni‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ اﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻻﺷﻬﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫‪Press‬‬‫ﻗﻴﺎس ﺟﻮدة اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫‪ProofSIGN‬ﻟﻘﻴﺎس‬ ‫‪SIGN‬و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮوﻓﺎت اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ و ‪ViewSIGN‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎس اﻟﺸﺎﺷﺎت ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﺪي‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ اﻧﻮاع اﺟﻬﺰة اﻟﻘﻴﺎس‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻧﺘﺎج اﺷﻬﺮ اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ Teckhon‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ اﻻﺟﻬﺰة اﻟﻴﺪوﻳﺔ و‬ ‫اﻷﺟﻬﺰة اﻟﻤﺤﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ اﻷﺟﻬﺰة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪Spectrodrive‬‬ ‫اﻟﺬي ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺤﺮﻛﺔ اﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎس ﺷﺮﻳﻂ اﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻋﻠﻲ اﻻﻓﺮخ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺪم ﻛﺮﻳﻴﺘﻒ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬ ‫اﺣﺪث اﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻨﺪرات اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ رﻗﻤﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﺟﻬﺰة رﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻮرة ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻫﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻃﺎر ﺣﺮص ﻛﺮﻳﻴﺘﻒ ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ اﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺮي ﺗﻘﺪم اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل اﻟﺘﻌﺎون ﻣﻊ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻨﻈﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻃﺮاف‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ رؤﻳﺘﻨﺎ و‬ ‫ﻫﻲ وﺻﻮل ﻣﺼﺮ اﻟﻲ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ و ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻊ اﻟﻤﺼﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬


‫”‪”ADVANTAGE PLUS‬‬

‫ﺑﻼﻧﻜﻴﺖ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻷوﻓﺴﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺮاﺑﻌﺔ ‪- High Shear -:‬‬ ‫وﻫﻰ أﻳﻀﺂ ﺗﻄﻮر ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫)ﺷﺘﺎﻳﻦ ﻫﻮول( ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻨﺪ ﻣﺤﺎوﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻟﺼﻖ ﻋﺎﻟﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺐ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺷﺘﺎﻳﻦ ﻫﻮول ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮن اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﺎﻧﻊ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ زﻳﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ ﻣﻊ زﻳﺎدة اﻟﻨﺸﺎ اﻟﻤﺒﺪﺋﻰ ‪،‬‬ ‫وﻫﻨﺎك وﺳﻴﻠﺔ واﺣﺪة ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫زﻳﺎدة اﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ ﻫﻰ اﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﺒﻮخ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺰء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺧﻼط رأﺳﻰ ﻣﺰود ﺑﺮﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺐ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺘﻦ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺧﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ – ﺣﻴﺚ أن‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎك اﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻳﺠﺐ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﻟﻄﺒﺨﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ اﻹﻧﺘﻬﺎء ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻀﻴﺮ ‪،‬‬ ‫وﻟﻴﻜﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺂ أن ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻃﺒﺨﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻟﻤﺎﻛﻴﻨﺔ ‪ single face‬ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻃﺒﺨﺔ اﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻟﻤﺎﻛﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺼﻖ ‪ ، glue‬وﻫﺬه اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻫﻰ‬

‫‪13‬‬

‫‪ (١) -:‬اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻠﻮﻳﺎت ‪Alkali‬‬ ‫‪ (٢) (Caustic) Sensitivity‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮى اﻟﺼﻠﺐ ‪Solid Content‬‬ ‫)‪ (٣‬درﺟﺔ اﻟﺠﻠﺘﻨﺔ ‪(٤) Gel Point‬‬ ‫درﺟﺔ اﻟﻠﺰوﺟﺔ ‪Batch Viscosity‬‬ ‫وﺳﻮف ﻧﺘﻨﺎول ﻓﻰ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺘﻨﺎ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﺎس وﺣﺴﺎب ﺧﻮاص اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫وأﺛﺮ ذﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻮدة ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺼﻖ ﻓﻲ إﻧﺘﺎج ﺻﻨﺎدﻳﻖ اﻟﻜﺮﺗﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﻠﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫و ﻳﻀﻴﻒ أ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﻣﺎس أﻧﻪ » ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻹﻇﻬﺎر ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻫﺬا اﻟﺒﻼﻧﻜﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻛﻼء اﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻄﺎع ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ وﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﻴﻦ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ ﺗﻤﻜﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ إﻛﺘﺴﺎب ﻋﻤﻼء و‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎء اوﻓﻴﺎء ﻟﻨﺎ وذﻟﻚ ﻓﻲ ‪٧٠‬‬ ‫دوﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ أﻧﺤﺎء اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ »‪...‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻘﺪم ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ووﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻹﻋﻼم‬

‫اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ إﻻ أن ﻧﺼﻴﺐ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻷوﻓﺴﺖ ﻣﺎزال أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺳﻮق اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻰ‬ ‫وﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﻳﻜﻤﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺘﻜﺮة وإﺳﺘﻤﺮارﻳﺔ اﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫إﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﻌﻤﻼء واﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫وأﺿﺎف‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪدة‪...‬‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻮل‬ ‫»اﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻮن ﻓﻰ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﺎﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻈﻠﻮن ﻳﺴﻌﻮن ﺑﻜﺪ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﺬه اﻟﺤﻠﻮل وﺻﻨﻊ ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎرﻳﺦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻨﻮات اﻟﻤﻘﺒﻠﺔ« ‪..‬‬ ‫وﻳﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻨﻮع ﻣﻦ اﻟﺒﻼﻧﻜﻴﺖ إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﺨﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻷﺗﻴﺔ ‪-:‬‬ ‫ــ إﺗﺰان ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻟﻸﺑﻌﺎد‪.‬‬ ‫ــ اﻟﺤﺪ اﻷدﻧﻰ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﺴﺎرة ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻤﻚ‬ ‫ــ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺼﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫ــ أﻃﻮل ﻓﺘﺮة ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻤﻜﻨﺔ‬ ‫ــ ﺟﻮدة ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬


‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻮاد اﻟﺘﻐﻠﻴﻒ اﻟﻤﺮﻧﺔ اﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻫﻢ اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎت و اﻛﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﻧﻤﻮاً ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺘﺮة‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎﻻ اﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎً ﺑﺎﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻟﺸﺮق اﻷوﺳﻂ و أﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ اﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺴﺎن اﻻﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ اﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ‪..‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺮﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻓﻼم‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﻴﺪﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ رواد ﻫﺬه ‪(٢‬‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ اﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎر و اﻟﻘﻮة اﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﻜﻴﺔ" راﻳﻔﻴﻦ ﻫﺎوﺳﺮ ﻓﻴﻠﻢ"‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ اﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ اواﺋﻞ اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ اﻟﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﻻﺻﻞ‬ ‫دﺧﻠﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬا اﻟﺴﻮق و اﺳﺘﺜﻤﺮت‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺟﺰءاً ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ رأس اﻟﻤﺎل ‪ (٣‬ﺗﻤﺜﻞ اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﺮاﺋﺪة ﻓﻲ اﻋﺎدة‬ ‫و ﻛﺎﻧﺖ اﻟﻔﻜﺮة اﻻﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻜﺜﻴﻒ اﻟﺴﻮاﺋﻞ اﻟﻤﺘﻄﺎﻳﺮة اﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮ ﺣﻠﻮل اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ "دﻳﻚ" و ﻳﻘﻊ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎت اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻤﺠﺎل‪ .‬اﻻدارة ﻓﻲ ﻣﻴﻼﻧﻮ و ﻫﻲ اﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﻴﺪﻫﻢ اﻫﻢ و اﻗﻮى‬ ‫اﻻﺳﻤﺎء اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ اﻧﻮاع ‪ (٤‬اﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎوﻳﺎت اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻛﻴﻨﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮاﺻﻖ " ﻛﻮﻳﻢ" و اﻻﺣﺒﺎر "‬ ‫‪ (١‬ﻣﺎﻛﻴﻨﺎت ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺮوﺗﻮﺟﺮاﻓﻴﻮر و دارواﻧﻚ" و اﻳﻀﺎ اﻟﺸﻤﻊ "‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﻴﻜﺴﻮ و ﻣﺎﻛﻴﻨﺎت اﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻦ " ﺳﻴﻮاﻛﺲ" و ﺗﻘﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ اول‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺑﺴﺖ" و ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﻬﺎ اﺛﻨﺘﺎن ﻓﻲ اﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ و اﻻﺧﻴﺮة ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮا اﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ و اﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﻛﺎوﺗﺸﺎت اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﻀﺎﻏﻄﺔ‬ ‫"روﺳﻴﻨﻲ" اﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻻﺻﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ (٦‬ﺟﻬﺎز ﻗﻴﺎس ﻧﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﺴﻮاﺋﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ اﻟﺘﺎم ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻨﺴﺐ اﻟﻤﺘﻔﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ "ﻧﻴﺮا" اﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺔ اﻻﺻﻞ‪.‬‬ ‫و ﺗﺴﻌﻰ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﺳﻴﺪﻫﻢ داﺋﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ اﻟﺴﻮﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻤﻮردﻳﻦ و اﻟﻌﻤﻼء و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮص ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺤﻬﻤﺎ و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ اي ﻣﻌﺎرض ﺗﻘﺎم‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺮص ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﺘﻄﻮرات ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﻛﺎﻓﺔ و اﺿﺎﻓﺔ اي ﺷﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪة ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎت اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻷﻧﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻠﻮل اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪.‬‬


W

18

hen Ipex 2014 closed its doors on Saturday, Informa Exhibitions had firmly established the show’s future and new direction at the state-of-the-art ExCeL London Exhibition and Conference Centre. The event, which took place from 24th – 29th March 2014, saw a total attendance of 22,768, which included 3,532 exhibitors, with a geographical visitor split of 54% UK and 46% international. “With the fast evolving print industry and the challenges these changes represent, Informa Exhibitions has collaborated closely with its stakeholders to ensure the delivery of an informative and engaging event that offered a wide range of benefits, most importantly a good return on exhibitor and visitor investment,” comments Peter Hall, Managing Director of Informa Exhibitions. “I particularly want to thank our exhibitors for their continued support, and am delighted that we could repay their confidence in Ipex by providing a high quality international and UK audience to ensure it was the key event for the international print

community in 2014.” In addition to the exhibitors on the show floor, Ipex also delivered the most comprehensive content programme ever seen at an international print centric event. Across the six days, over 170 industry experts participated in the World Print Summit, Masterclasses and Cross Media Production theatres, and offered practical takeaways, new ideas, skills and solutions that printers can implement in their businesses. Conference producers reported a very good attendance in the 115 seminar sessions, with packed-out theatres and limited standing room only available in some of the keynote addresses. Kathy Sletten, Director, Print-Manager, Aveda Corp, Estee Lauder, spoke on the ‹An Audience with the Print Buyers› session. Afterwards, she commented: “I was pleasantly surprised to find our audience so interested and engaged, and wish we›d had more time to share with them. They asked many relevant and engaging questions, some of which have given me food for thought. We from each

other as long as we keep the dialogue going, and the World Print Summit at Ipex 2014 provided the perfect stage for some great discussions.”Carole Arrantash, from UK based Quadrant, which is part of the Linney Group, was complimentary of the sessions she attended in the World Print Summit: “This was a fabulous opportunity to gain an insight, both into what print buyers expect from their suppliers and how they prefer to be approached. To have the opportunity to ask pertinent questions to assist printers in their quest to work with such prestigious companies was also both unexpected and invaluable.” SME printers attended practical sessions that addressed their business issues and solutions to streamline production and support business growth in the Masterclasses. Bill Campbell, CEO of Australian print business, Fergies Print & Mail, says: “The Ipex Masterclasses were the main motivator for our decision to visit Ipex 2014 – they have assisted Challenge, sponsored by Burnetts, proved a hit with visitors during the show.


This entertaining competition drew 24 entrants from the around the world to compete against the clock on a Heidelberg 5-colour press. UK-based contestant Tony Dowd completed the challenge in the record time of 4 minutes 53 seconds, and was crowned the make-ready champion on Saturday. Inspiration Avenue provided visitors with an eclectic mix of visual and factual elements that demonstrated all that is great about print with three stations spread throughout the Boulevard. The Eco Zone, sponsored by Komori, also proved a popular feature for visitors. “Komori has a long-standing track record of utilising major printing industry exhibitions to highlight the benefits of product innovations and latest technology, and this was precisely the philosophy behind Komori›s decision to sponsor the Ipex Eco Zone,” comments Steve Turner, Director of Sheetfed Sales, Komori UK. “Our demonstrations of the Komori H-UV curing system, with its many ecological strengths, generated serious interest from a wide range of visitors from within and outside the UK«. In the Future Innovations Zone, which included three different sections covering 3D printing, printed electronics

and photo products, presented technologies that are set for rapid expansion over the next few years. Ceradrop co-founder Nicolas Bernardin says: “The Future Innovations Zone at Ipex provided us with the opportunity to raise awareness of the potential of printed electronics to the print industry. A large mix of visitors from the UK, Europe, USA, Middle East and Asia were enthralled by the possibilities of our X-Serie machine and what it could mean for communications in the commercial print and packaging sectors. We were overwhelmed by the interest our technology received, a curiosity that I feel we satisfied and we look forward to business opportunities that may materialise in the future.” Peter Hall continues: “The initial feedback from Ipex’s stakeholders confirms that the changes we implemented and the features we introduced provided visitors with more reasons than ever to attend. It also helped us deliver a multi-faceted show that completely supports the industry. I believe that Ipex 2014 firmly set the tone for future events.” Tim Webb, Executive Director of PICON, commented: “The decision to move Ipex to ExCeL London has been real step forward as far as our membership is concerned.

aThe location, the facilities and the staff have all contributed to a really smooth transition from Birmingham, and ultimately a successful show. Overall, the exhibition has been better than expected with a good level of high quality visitors from around the world looking to do business.” Patrick Martell, CEO of St Ives and Ipex 2014 President, concludes»: Every time I visited ExCeL this week there›s been a real buzz. It has been brilliant to see the spread of international and UK visitors who attended the show to learn, network and do business. Ipex 2014 has proved that the combination of exhibitors representing the whole print supply chain, supported by a robust content programme, is the future for events including Ipex«. Ipex 2018 will take place at ExCeL London from 19th – 24th March 2018. © 2015 Microsoft Terms Privacy & cookies Developers English (United States)

17


22

Final figures have been revealed for FESPA›s inaugural exhibition in Africa, held in Johannesburg. The inaugural FESPA Africa, formerly Sign Africa, held at Gallagher Convention Centre from 2-4 July 2014, attracted 5460 visitors from Africa, with an 11% increase of attendees from outside South Africa compared to Sign Africa 2013. The exhibition attracted visitors from nearly 40 countries, with the top five countries represented outside of South Africa being Botswana, Mozambique, Nigeria, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Exhibitors noted an increase in attendee quality and the statistics confirm this: over 67% of visitors were owners and from senior management and over half had final purchasing authority. “Exhibitors also reported onsite sales, quality leads and

positive feedback both on the new venue, and overall feel of the event, which contributed to its success,” said Dyelan Copeland, event organiser. Raymond Waldeck, Managing Director at Antalis South Africa supports this view: “The show was very dynamic, there was a great deal of energy and many new technologies were shown. We made many sales at the expo and generated real leads. The quality of the visitors was very high and we interacted with business people from around the African continent, which shows the credibility of the FESPA brand.” how they prefer to be approached. To have the opportunity to ask pertinent questions to assist printers in their quest to work with such prestigious companies was also both unexpected and invaluable.”

SME printers attended practical sessions that addressed their business issues and solutions to streamline production and support business growth in the Masterclasses. Bill Campbell, CEO of Australian print business, Fergies Print & Mail, says: “The Ipex Masterclasses were the main motivator for our decision to visit Ipex 2014 – they have assisted our management team in validating the direction we are guiding our company in. From a commercial perspective they have provided clarity to several key areas of interest.” In the content driven Cross Media Production feature, which ran from 25th – 27th March, delegates learnt how to effectively implement multi-channel communication strategies in the 1-2-1 Digital and Direct Marketing, Publishing and Brand Management Theatres. Ipex’s stakeholders were unanimous in their opinion that the feature, which had a number of supporting exhibitors, should be a key element in the future blueprint for Ipex. The innovative Ipex Make-Ready store


communication, and other imaginative displays. Lorraine Harrow, Marketing Manager at FESPA, said, “It has been a great launch event. We have seen printers from across Africa and speaking with them during the expo has reinforced the reason why FESPA has come to the African continent; through our events we are able to provide regional printers with access to a world class exhibition where they can explore a wide display of innovative technology and listen to educational content to inspire them and their business.” Exhibition Manager, Michael Ryan, continues, “We are pleased with the first edition of FESPA Africa and have learned so much in our first year. Exhibitors have givenus their feedback and the results are encouraging for next year’s show. Our unique reinvestment programme and unrivalled knowledge of our industry gives us the resources to further strengthen our brand throughout the African continent, attracting even more visitors to FESPA Africa next year.” Mike Horsten, General Marketing Manager, Mimaki EMEA agrees with this statement: “I›m very happy about the FESPA and Africa Print partnership. I think it›s a great step for the African continent to have its own FESPA which addresses the continent›s unique challenges and needs. For Mimaki, it›s really important to be present at FESPA and that is why we were at the expo in full force. We believe in what FESPA does in terms of investing

profits from the show into local communities and education for the printing and signage industry.” “The FESPA Africa exhibition gave us an excellent opportunity to showcase our products and capabilities to the digital market in Africa. We were very pleased with the numbers of high quality visitors who visited our stand and the number of valuable new contacts we made,” said Tony Cox, Business manager, Sun Chemical Limited The next FESPA Africa will take place from 22-24 July 2015 at Gallagher Convention Centre www.fespaafrica.com © 2015 Microsoft Terms Privacy & cookies Developers English (United States)

21


20

proposed for the ISO 15339 standard have been adopted in the USA as their own CGATS 21, and the initial datasets and profiles have been made available for testing on the CGATS and ICC websites, respectively. (http://www.npes.org/programs/standardsworkroom.aspx and http://www.color.org/registry/index.xalter) ISO 15339 Seven Reference Printing Conditions RPC0 (CGATS 21-2-7) Extra Large, for digital printing, special inks, and potentially other large gamut printing processes. RPC1 (CGATS 21-2-6) Premium Coated, large gamut using sheetfed offset or gravure; corresponding to GRACoL #1-2 coated paper types. RPC2 (CGATS 21-2-5) Publication Coated, for magazine publication printing; corresponding to SWOP #5 coated. RPC3 (CGATS 21-2-4) Super Calendered, for general printing on SC paper. RPC4 (CGATS 21-2-3) Premium Uncoated, for utility printing on matt uncoated paper. RPC5 (CGATS 21-2-2) Heatset News, moderate gamut for heatset or similar printing on

improved newsprint. RPC6 (CGATS 21-2-1) Coldset News, small gamut for coldset, flexo or letterpress printing on newsprint. Although some experts argue that creating colour characterisation sets for reference printing conditions would be easier than developing process-specific press targets, and could thus be more accessible for printers, others are more concerned with the different output results of the standards existing so far. Harmonisation of printing aims between the different standards, each with their own and conflicting approaches, still appears to have a long way to go. Substrate corrected colorimetric aims (SCCA) for new and non-standard paper categories, with or without optical brighteners, also remain an unresolved question. Standards may be useful for equipment and material manufacturers, as well as for print buyers, but they have to be reasonably and reliably applicable for printers as well. A group of paper manufacturers heavily involved in the development of the ISO standards itself, comprising Norske Skog, Sappi, Stora Enso and UPM, commented: “We devel op papers for customers, not

for standards.” In the meantime, who can blame the printers who apply their own standards – mostly with device link profiles, standard software, and the rule-of-thumb Delta-E 3 trick. Nevertheless, some 2,800 printing houses and 1,000 individuals worldwide have had the output quality of their printing processes certified one way or another already. Some of these certifications or qualification proofs are referring to the ISO 12647 series, such as RIT’s PSA scheme, the Process Standard Offset, Digital and Gravure (PSO, PSD, PSG) procedures of Fogra, Ugra and its European partners, Japan Color and equipment suppliers like Heidelberg, Esko and X-Rite. The majority, more than 65 percent, refer to less “universal” standards and specifications such as SNAP for coldset, FIRST for flexo, and IDEAlliance’s SWOP, GRACoL and G7, all largely based on CGATS standards and guidelines developed in the US. Captions: The seven gamuts defined in ISO 15339 Calibration of an offset press using a test file in conformity with ISO 12647-2 aims.


p o h s o Phot om o r t h Lig r o t a r Illust n g i s e InD

١٥ ٥٤

٢٠١٥

٦ ٠١١٠٠٩٦٤١١٥ / ٠١١٠٠٩٦٤١١٦ / ٠١١٠٠٩٦٤١١٩

m.nabil@petraegypt.com

www.facebook.com/PetraEgypt


An Update on Print Quality Standards

26

The question, whether process control data or colour characterisation data should determine printing aims and tolerances, has come in the forefront of ongoing efforts to develop universal print quality standards. And it looks like it is dividing those involved more than ever.

While the general secretariat of TC 130, ISO’s technical committee in charge of graphic technology, has shifted from Germany’s national standards organisation DIN to the Standardisation Administration of China, its working groups met several times over the past twelve months. The most controversial discussion was and still is the relationship between the ISO 12647 and ISO 15339 sets of standards. WG3, the TC 130 working group looking into processes and metrics, is increasingly polarised between those primarily interested in the continual development of the ISO 12647 process control standard and those moving towards the process-independent ISO 15339 standard first drafted in 2010. Ironically, both sets of standards apply to the separation and printing of our traditionally four process colours CMYK, relevant for full colour

reproduction mainly in commercial offset and publication printing, whereas packaging, signage and industrial decoration printers increasingly apply larger and specific colour gamuts, not just by adding spot colours and special inks but by converting the three or four process colours into PMS as well. These applications require tightly controlled colour management, proofing and monitoring procedures. But standards? At any rate, a long awaited update of the ISO 12647 set of standards has been finalised. The offset and proofing parts, ISO 12647-1 through 3 as well as 7 and 8, have been published in December 2013. Parts 4, 5 and 6, for publication gravure, screen and flexo, are to be published shortly. Corresponding Fogra characterisation sets and ICC profiles will be developed and released over the coming years.


No agreement could be reached on the image quality measurements required for a separately planned standard for digital printing, ISO 15311. As a consequence, this project has momentarily been downgraded to the status of a prospective standard or, in ISO language, a “technical specification”. Discussions on ISO 15339, the standard-to-be for printing from digital data across multiple printing conditions. For ISO 12647, a printing condition is a set of primary process parameters describing the conditions associated to a specific output process, including the printing process, substrate type, ink, screening, surface finish, and printing sequence. The specifics of colorant descriptions (colour gamuts) and tone value increase (dotgain) targets correspond to the different printing conditions. For ISO 15339, printing conditions are target references based on colour characterisation data defining the intended relationship between digital input data and the average achievable colour gamuts in print. ISO 12647-2, for sheetfed offset and heatset, had been slightly amended in 2007 to reflect advances in paper and

ink developments enabling improved colour gamuts. The standard’s present revision defines new TVI curves for periodic (AM) screening, TVI targets corresponding better to the characteristics of CtP plates, a better description of gray balance, and a standard method for processing non-standard substrates. The five paper types (PT) in the old standard have been replaced by eight printing substrates (PS) and their correlating colorant descriptions (CD), covering most common paper types in offset production. ISO 12647-2:2013 Eight Printing Substrate Categories: PS1 / CD1 Premium Coated, with one gamut for matt, silk and gloss coated wood-free paper; replaces PT 1 and 2 of the old standard, and the Fogra 39 dataset. PS2 / CD2 Improved Coated, for MWC and Improved LWC, not covered in the old standard; will replace Fogra 45. PS3 / CD3 Standard Glossy Coated, for standard LWC in heatset; corresponding to PT3 and Fogra 46. PS4 / CD4 Standard Matte Coated, for LWC and MFC in heatset; not covered in the old standard; Fogra 41 has been used for this type of paper. PS5 / CD5 Wood Free Uncoated, for uncoated paper in

sheetfed and heatset; corresponds to PT4 and Fogra 47. PS6 / CD6 Super Calendered Uncoated, for SC paper; not covered in the previous standard; Fogra 40 has been used for this type of paper. PS7 / CD7 Improved Uncoated Newsprint, for improved newsprint in heatset presses; not in the previous standard but covered by the Fogra 48 dataset. PS8 / CD8 Standard Uncoated, for standard newsprint in heatset, currently covered by Fogra 42. Seven Pillars of Wisdom The ISO 15339 standard defines achievable colour gamuts in printing conditions ranging from offset or gravure printing on premium coated paper to coldset printing on newsprint, while adding an extra large gamut for digital printing and special applications. Acknowledging that there is significant overlap of process, substrate and ink combinations, a choice was made for intermediate gamuts representing seven widely used printing conditions, defined by reference characterisation data specified in the standard. The standard includes a method to change the data in case the printing substrate to be used has a colour that differs from the reference printing condition. Because these data are to be used as the reference for any printing process, they are not aligned with TVI and trapping settings associated with a specific process. According to the draft standard, they need to be “middle-of-the-road” values representing a compromise between all processes: “in effect, virtual printing on a virtual printing system.” The seven characterised reference printing conditions (CRPC).

25


Worldwide industry and its global players support this leading international trade fair to present their latest print and crossmedia solutions drupa 2016, the leading international trade fair for print and crossmedia solutions, is already set for success: Worldwide industry and its global players are giving their clear support for the next drupa, and many have booked larger exhibition space than for the previous show. Even now – 17 months before the start of the show on 31st May 2016 – 80 percent of the exhibition space is confirmed as booked. If this trend continues, drupa 2016 will once again, as throughout its 60 year history, be sold out and will cover the entire marketplace relating to print and crossmedia. International global players and market leaders will be at drupa 2016 alongside upcoming and innovative companies from

set for success: The new drupa! around the world. Werner M. Dornscheidt, Chairman of the Board at Messe Düsseldorf gives his initial assessment, “In the light of the challenging environment, this is a more than outstanding result. No other industry event worldwide – neither the small, regional niche events nor national trade shows – can offer what we can. This result clearly confirms that our strategic realignment with its focus on future-oriented and highlight topics is correct. “ “touch the future”: Future technologies and markets in sight Under the motto of “touch the future” drupa 2016 will focus more heavily on future-oriented technologies such as printed electronics, 3D printing and inkjet printing with its industrial applications. forward and are opening up significant opportunities and growth potential worldwide, primarily in the field of packaging, functional and industrial printing. According to Smithers Pira (UK), sales in the packaging print sector will rise annually by four percentage points to US$ 970 billion by 2018. There are also indications of growth in the industrial and functional printing sector. Since 2008 this market, that includes printing processes for the production of decorative and laminated surfaces, ceramics, vehicle parts, promotional items or electronic products, has risen

annually by 13.4 percent and in 2013 achieved a volume of US$ 43.7 billion. Experts from InfoTrends (USA/UK) currently value the market at US$ 100 billion. “We recognised the growth potential of these markets very early on and successfully set in motion the special “PEPSO” (Printed Electronics Products and Solutions) exhibition at drupa 2012, for example”, explains Werner M. Dornscheidt. “At drupa 2016 we will cover this topic with additional events in the specialised programme and in the form of special shows, known as “touch points”.” The market for 3D printing is developing even more dynamically. The global market volume is currently estimated at around US$ 2.2 billion. The Association of German Machine and System Engineers (Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau) that recently founded the company Additive Manufacturing, is anticipating an annual growth rates of 25 percent. “We have therefore developed the “3D fab+print” brand specifically for this market segment,” says Werner M. Dornscheidt. “At drupa and other relevant Düsseldorf trade fairs, we are joining forces with other exhibitors in 3D printing technology and bringing greater focus to the entire topic of 3D”.

27


The

organizer of the MENA region’s definitive print event – Gulf Print & Pack – has announced that Heidelberg has signed up as an exhibitor for the show’s next edition which takes place 13-16 April 2015 at Dubai’s World Trade Centre. One of the biggest players in the global printing industry, Heidelberg will be using Gulf Print & Pack to unveil a raft of top quality and ground breaking new developments. It will be focusing on its Prinect workflow integration between pre-press, press, post-press and digital as well as showcasing its integrated solutions for commercial and packaging printing that are tailored to the very latest market requirements. The show is also being used for the launch of the Heidelberg Linoprint digital lineup. In addition, visitors will be able to see the developments made by Heidelberg and Gallus

promoting the future of packaging printing and gaining an edge through the latest offset, flexo and digital technologies and knowhow. Mazen El Tibi, member of the board, Heidelberg Middle East commented: “We are combining state of the art offset presses with digital printing technologies so as to be able to offer print shops solutions that bring economic benefits. Heidelberg will always prove its leadership making sure that the customers make the best return on their investments. Heidelberg will also show Fujifilm plates and chemicals. Fujifilm will take part of a total pre-press and digital solution during the event. Unique products and services will be presented and demonstrated that offer high quality, more customer economical benefits, cleaner environment and higher productivity.” Mike Simmonds, event manager at Gulf Print & Pack said: “The exhibitor line up for Gulf Print & Pack 2015 is getting more formidable every day

28

and we are delighted to have Heidelberg, one of the world’s leading manufacturers, taking part at 2015’s show. The show is the MENA region’s only major print event and as such gives printers there an unrivalled opportunity to see and meet international suppliers and learn how to grow their businesses, leverage their expertise and skills and add value to the customer.” Aimed at printers, brand owners and designers, Gulf Print & Pack 2015 will feature key suppliers from across all facets of the printing industry who will be presenting their latest products. 2015’s edition will also present new and exciting feature areas that will highlight cutting-edge technologies and print processes including a closer look at interactive print, with the latest smart and intelligent labels and packaging technologies and a 3D printing feature hosted by the 3D Printshow. Entry to Gulf Print & Pack 2015 is free and pre-registration can be made by visiting www.gulfprintpack.com.


a specialized Magazine in printing and publishing industries and packaging

Editor-in-Chief

Dr. George Nubar Deputy Editor

Gulf Print & Pack 2015 28

Walid Qorish Technical Editorial Board

Dr. Magdy Ezzat Dr. Ebrahim Waly

Graphics & Art work by:

Touch the Future (drupa) 27

Seven Pillars of Wisdom 26

First Fespa Africa expo established as a world class exhibition 22

Post Show Report (IPEX) 18

Contact Us :

20A, Adly St. Down Town, 1121 Cairo Tel.: 02 23 93 8 999 Email: george@arabprintmedia.com Email: walid@arabprintmedia.com


bH

C

Gm ated g u r r o

Tel: +20 (2) 2405 0801 - Fax: +20 (2) 2404 8418 info@sidhom.com / www.sidhom.com


Apm3