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1- Parc de la Villette, Paris Bernard Tschumi designer

2- Chikatsu-Asuka Historical Museum-Tado Ando Chikatsu-Asuka, an area in the southern part of Osaka Prefecture, has one of the best collections of tumuli (kofun) in Japan. There are over 200 mounds including four imperial tombs, the site of the tomb of Prince Shotoku and the tomb of Ono-noImoko. It was an important place at the start of Japanese history. The building has been conceived as a hill from which one can see the entire excavated area. The 60 meters wide and 12 meters long stone-paved roof is shaped like an enormous stairway which may be transformed into a stage, outdoor lecture hall or simply a wide viewing platform.

The building is intended as a center for exhibiting and studying the culture of the Age of Tumuli, and my proposal was to create an environmental museum that incorporates not only the Tumuli scattered around the site but the natural environment of the burial mounds. /Tadao Ando

Ando's use of concrete as a construction material recalls the work of Le Corbusier and Louis Kahn, his architectural mentors, yet he combines this preference with a Japanese aesthetic of contrast-light and dark, interior and exterior, enclosed and expansive, hard and soft, nature and city, east and west.

3- National Library of France Dominique Perrault As an edition to the developing urban project in eastern Paris, the French National Library was built in hopes to be the most modern library in the world. The competition of 1989 that included projects from 244 internationally renowned architects was won by Dominique Perrault, who was only 36 years old. This project would be the defining design of Perrault‘s career.

Specifically designed for it’s location in the Siene Rive Gauche district, the basic concept is composed of four tall towers that define the boundaries of an esplanade, which is hollowed out of the ground to create a vast forest-garden. The four beacon-like markers with an area measuring up to 350,000 m2 were constructed on a stretch of industrial wasteland, each one comprised of wood, metal, concrete and glass.

They were designed to resemble four open books all open towards one another, to imply a volume and symbolic space. The establishment of the open square gives the notion of accessibility and availability, inviting the public to enjoy the square. It’s semi-industrial approach is obvious at every scale, particularly with the use of stainless steel. Different meshes of the steel are woven into panels to be used as coverings for walls and ceilings, as well as partitions and outdoor plantrooms. The monumental towers are draped in stainless steel, by the application of five meter high panels that are tiled to create the surfaces.

4- MINIMALISM ARCHITECTURE Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is set out to expose the essence or identity of a subject through eliminating all non-essential forms, features or concepts. Minimalism (is any design or style in which

the simplest and fewest elements are used to create the maximum effect.)

As a specific movement in the arts it is identified with developments in post–World War II Western Art, most strongly with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s. Prominent artists associated with this movement include Donald Judd, John McCracken, Agnes Martin, Dan Flavin, Robert Morris, Anne Truitt, and Frank Stella. It is rooted in the reductive aspects of Modernism, and is often interpreted as a reaction against Abstract expressionism and a bridge to Postminimal art practices. The terms have expanded to encompass a movement in music which features repetition and iteration, as in the compositions of La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, and John Adams. Minimalist compositions

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homework 05 - 321