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Architectural Proposal FOR A

RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL,PATHANKOT

Submitted by: Bhanu Mahajan(606) 10th sem. B. Arch

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Undertaking This is for your kind information that I am working on the projectResidential School, Pathankot as my B.Arch Thesis. I hereby state that the work submitted by me is my original and wherever I have incorporated information/graphic or data collected from other sources, it has been duly acknowledged. Bhanu Mahajan B. Arch Xth Semester G.N.D.U.

Recommendation This is to certify that the thesis report entitled RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL, PATHANKOT submitted by Bhanu Mahajan in partial fulfillment for the completion of degree of bachelor of architecture of Deptt. ofArchitecture, G.N.D.U. is found to be satisfactory and hereby approved for submission.

Thesis guide ______________

Thesis coordinator _____________

Ar. Paramjit Singh Mahoora Ar. Minakshi Deptt. of Architecture Deptt. of Architecture Guru Nanak Dev University Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar Amritsar

Head of Dept. ______________ Ar. Karamjit Singh Chahal Deptt. of Architecture Guru Nanak Dev University

Amritsar

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Acknowledgement I wish to express my hearty appreciation towards all the teachers and my colleagues who have given me a helping hand in the completion of this project . I would like to express my sincere gratitude towards my guide Ar. Paramjit Singh Mahoora for his generous guidance, support and sincere advice. I would like to express my special thanks to Ar. ANIL LAUL (Anagpur Building Centre) for providing me with all the possible help. Also I am thankful to SATPREM MAINI(UNESCO representative for Earth Architecture,South Asia and Director of Auroville Earth Instt.) I am thankful to Head of deptt. Ar. Karamjit Singh Chahal and my panel teachers, Ar. Pinto Emerson, Ar. Rawal for their timely discussion and encouragement. I would like to thank Ar. Harvinder Kaur for her guidance, support and encouragement. I am also thankful to Ar. Sandeep and Ar. Rajni Sikri for their kind cooperation and support. I would like to express my special thanks to my parents who have played an important role of a silent motivator behind the completion of this project and inspiring me ,and most importantly the almighty whose blessings have made all this possible.

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CONTENTS 1.

INTRODUCTION

P. 3-6

2.

LITERATURE REVIEW

P.. 7-15

3.

LIBRARY CASE STUDY

P. 16-21

4.

LIVE CASE STUDIES  

SELAQUI SCHOOL, DEHRADUN DEEPALAYA SCHOOL, NEW DELHI

P. 22-36 P. 37-45

5.

SITE ANALYSIS

P. 46

6.

PROJECT REQUIREMENTS

P. 47

7.

DESIGN CRITERIA

P. 47

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INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION •School is such a place where a child starts his real development. It provides an environment where the future mankind is shaped. •School is child’s first institution which is responsible for shaping his character & building his future. It gives society a civilized person, a more sensitive & competent citizen. •School provides an access to the latest technology and thoughts. •A Residential School is one where students stay in the hostels and pursue their studies. They live in with fellow students. •Some schools offer residence as an option for outstation students while in some others, availing the residence facilities of the school is compulsory. •Residential schools essentially provide food and lodging for a specific fee. Varied number of students share rooms or dormitories and remain under the guidance of house master or house mistress or matron.

It is essential that the built environment of the school should be conducive for learning. Design should enhance the environment which support the creative skills of a child.

FROM THE HISTORY The concept of grouping students together in a centralized location for learning has existed since Classical antiquity. Formal schools have existed at least since ancient Greece, ancient India (Gurukul) and ancient China. Many of the earlier public schools in the United States were one-room schools where a single teacher taught seven grades of boys and girls in the same classroom.

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INTRODUCTION

Cost effective approach •Cost Effective' is not only concerning economy. The respective costs are one important consideration but just as important is the question of how much energy (or fuel) was used in their manufacture. •Use of inappropriate building technologies and designs is the largest single contributor to environmental degradation, depletion of natural resources and inequitable distribution of wealth and opportunity. Developing nations like India must therefore focus on the use of appropriate technology in their building industry. •By careful selection of materials and technologies in order to reduce consumption, it is possible to significantly reduce emissions. There are a no. of the available and usable technologies in India, which have proven to be successful after years of trial by scientists, engineers and architects from different parts of the country. •IT MAY BE NOTED THAT COST-EFFECTIVE CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGIES DO NOT COMPROMISE WITH THE SAFETY AND SECURITY OF THE BUILDINGS AND MOSTLY FOLLOW THE PREVAILING BUILDING CODES.

RELATED STUDIES Workshop of CSEB, RAMMED EARTH and other earth construction techniques at Auroville.

Study of various techniques developed and promoted by agencies like C.B.R.I. and B.M.T.P.C.

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INTRODUCTION

AIM & OBJECTIVES •To design a school which will provide good built environment with a blend of cluster and courtyard planning and merging the built form with open space and landscape for a soothing environment. •To incorporate the Cost Effective Construction Techniques by using Appropriate Building Materials and Techniques and by using recycled material to achieve economy in initial construction and maintenance costs.

VALIDITY With the growing population, the school construction is essential in every pat of the world. But due to high construction costs and depletion of natural resources, there is need to incorporate cost effective and innovative technologies .

•Pathankot is located at the junction of three Northern statesPunjab, Himachal Pradesh and J&k, so it acts as an ideal location for setting up of a residential school. •Natural beauty of the site provide an excellent environment for a residential school. • Also the nearby areas have developed as educational zone with the opening up of educational institutes

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INTRODUCTION

SITE LOCATION •The site is located very near to Pathankot on NH20 highway. •It is 12 kms from Pathankot Bus Station. •It is 11.5 kms from Pathankot Railway Station. •Pathankot is the nearest airport which is connected to Delhi •Site is irregular in shape. •There are no trees on the site.

PUNJAB

PATHANKOT

To Dalhousie To Pathankot ACCESS One side of the site is connected by the road at front and there is no other approach to the site. SITE AREA 16.5 Acres

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LITERATURE REVIEW

SPACE REQUIREMENTS OF CLASSROOM A classroom should not be mere enclosure of space to cater for the large variety of activities. It must provide a flexible space to meet the need of the changing educational pattern furniture & equipment. With the use of moveable furniture it is possible to achieve a variety of seating arrangement to meet the diverse needs of multifarious activities of the students. So the planning of classroom should be the outcome of a careful analysis of space requirements for different activities & arrangements. To arrive the suitable shape & size of a classroom the following factors are critical: Basic dimension of children & their space requirements. Dimension, incidence & arrangement of furniture and equipments. Number of students to be accommodated. Types of activities to be carried out. Diverse seating arrangements essential for these activities.

According to standards: Forty students per class is the commonly accepted standard. An area of 1.2 sq. m. per child is required for the effective performance of all the activities in the classroom. Nearly square shaped classrooms are functionally better then other form of same area. A classroom of 7.30 x 6.90 m in size for 40 students is considered suitable.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Land Area Requirement As Per N.B.C.(for a residential school) Built up area- 28% Open space- 72% Built up area includes: School building area- 18% Residential area- 10% Open area includes: Parking, Playground and fields- 72% C.B.S.E NORMS Infrastructure The infrastructural facilities should be as follows:- . (i) Class rooms - minimum size should be 8 m x 6 m (approx 500. sq. ft.). (ii) Science Labs. (Composite for Secondary or/and separate Physics, Chemistry and Biology for Senior Secondary)- minimum size should be 9 m.x 6 m.each (approx 600 sq. ft) and fully equipped. (iii) Library - minimum size should be 14 m.x 8 m. fully equipped and with reading room facility. (iv) Computer Lab. and Math Lab. - No minimum size is prescribed, however, the school should have separate provision for each. (v) Rooms for extra curricular activities - either separate rooms for music, dance, arts & sports or one multi purpose hall for all these activities should be available. Physical Facilities 1. Class rooms should be adequate in size. The minimum floor space should at least be 1 sq. metre per student. 2. The school have suitable furniture in the classrooms and office equipment and furniture according to the strength of students and the staff.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

3. The School should have adequate facilities for providing recreation activities and physical education as well as for conduct of various activities and programs for developmental education and for the social, cultural and moral development of the students and for safeguarding their health. 4. i) Adequate ground to create out door facilities for a 200 metre track; (ii) Adequate land for kabbadi and Kho-Kho; and (iii) Facilities for playing Volleyball. The Library should be well equipped and spacious. It should have at least five books per student in its stock subject to a minimum of 1500 at the beginning. The pupil teachers ratio should not exceed 30.  The number of students in the class should not be very large. The optimum number in a section of a class is 40.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

ORGANISATION OF SPACE The built form of a school can be broadly classified into five types namely single and double corridor, courtyard, cluster & campus. SINGLE CORRIDOR TYPE:

This is the most straightforward & simple arrangement of school building, allows a linear assembly of classroom along a corridor having several advantages: Clarity of organization. Ease of natural lighting & control of access to facilities. May separate the different aspects of the building. L & S shape corridor can provide interesting visual spaces with classrooms arranged along its spine. DOUBLE CORRIDOR TYPE:

Double corridor provides a compact form, economy and flexibility as compare to single corridor type building. The various factors of this type of design are: Make a continuous close area. Built quickly & accommodate a higher ratio of functional areas. It reduces the exposed perimeter, which is suitable for hot climate. The major odd factor with type of design is that light & ventilation should be carefully workout (may include skylight, double height corridor, dormer window etc.) COURTYARD TYPE:

This type of planning is quite common in India & hold illustrious places in the traditional academic buildings. The various factors of this type of design are: Provides central shaded area, a controlled play area and a variety of adjacent verandah, corridor and rooms. Provides better interaction between student & faculty and fulfill the shortcomings of covered spaces (in hot climate). Separate courtyard can be used for different function & level of education, with several independent buildings around their own central courtyard.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

CLUSTER TYPE:

The cluster approach attempts to translate the need for segregating educational, academic, service & other functions to a well define zones. The various factors of this type of design are: The classrooms are arranged in groups or clusters around a common area. The creation of a common space along with classroom clusters gives the school a more intimate spatial quality & a greater sense of identity.  A module of classrooms can be extended in stages, as need increases. The circulation is a difficult problem, which can be resolved by careful planning.

CAMPUS TYPE:

Large school & educational centres demand a combination of built forms. The planning of a large school involves the integration of corridor, nucleated, cluster & courtyard forms. The various factors of this type of design are: It focuses on the creation of a variety of exterior & interior spaces. It emphasis on the relationship of building & open spaces. The campus plan is a large courtyard type consisting of several buildings around a series of courtyard. Campus design use both – classical models of organization with a central green and formal pathways & also non-classical arrangements including the organization of irregular geometry or a series of courtyards, each having separate identity.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

Manavsadhna Activity Centre and Crèche

Estimated start of construction - June 2008 Organization - Yatin Pandya (Footprints E.A.R.T.H.) City/Country -Ahmedabad, India Completion of project-February 2009 Site area: 145 Sqm. Construction Cost: 7,00,000 INR Manavsadhna is a social NGO that engages in the service of humanity. To address the issue of educating, while employing the slum children, the NGO created an activity centre in the middle of a squatter settlement. The centre also operates as an informal school in the morning. In the afternoon it trains the youth with vocational skills for better employability. And in the evening it transforms into community centre with sports, leisure, gymnastics as well as social gathering facility. This multi-use centre was created as a demonstration of the indigenously developed and locally produced building components created by recycling the domestic and municipal waste. This meant reduction in waste thrown, thereby reduction in environmental pollution. The building components thus produced are, cheaper and better performing than the conventional alternatives readily employed. In an adjoining plot a crèche was developed. Young children in slum areas have problem of being looked after through the day, when both parents are out at work for earning livelihood

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LITERATURE REVIEW

MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY

WALL TYPES: Fly ash, cement. Waste residue bricks Glass bottle, flyash, cement mortar Plastic bottle, flyash, cement mortar Vegetable/fruit crate, flyash, cement mortar DOOR TYPES: Wooden crate and oil tin sheet Fibre reinforced plastic WINDOW TYPES: Window/ fruit crate, discarded reinforced bars. ROOF TYPES: Glass bottle, plastic bottle Corrugated G.I. sheet FLOOR TYPES: Flyash, glazed ceramic tiles

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LITERATURE REVIEW

TANISANDRA SCHOOL Low-cost low-maintenance school extension, Bangalore, India Estimated start of construction -Dec 2007 Organization -L&S Architects City/Country -Bangalore, India

This small school extension project in Tanisandra, Bangalore, India, shows in a convincing manner how local and robust materials and technologies can lead to an outstanding result, i.e.: a cost effective, durable, functionally sound and aesthetically rewarding as well as environmentally-compatible school building.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

TANISANDRA SCHOOL For this project we must adopt only simple and robust materials and technologies to ensure a cost-effective building with good functioning for years to come in the face of intense wear and tear, vandalism, effects of weather and almost complete absence of maintenance.

Construction of Rammed Earth Walls The cost effective techniques

used are: 1. Rammed earth walls 2. Foundations in stone masonry. 3. Floor slab with vaulted earth block panels on concrete joists. Economic performance and compatibility The works contract is a pilot venture and is input-cost based and must lead to an understanding of the market factors for disseminating earth technology in mainstream construction. Earth construction for walls is the least costly construction essentially for its low embodied energy, high manual labor and low diesel input.

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LIBRARY CASE STUDY

DASHMSH ACADEMY LOCATION The Academy is located four kilometers away from the famous Gurudwara Takhat Sri Keshgarh Sahib at Anandpur Sahib.. It is well connected by rail and road and is 80 Kms from Chandigarh towards Nangal Dam.

CLIMATE: Characterized by its general dryness, a hot summer and a bracing cold winter. The temperature ranges from minimum of 4° C in winter to 45° C in summer. ABOUT THE SITE SITE AREA : 200 acres ARCHITECT: Satnam Namita And Associates , Chandigarh COMPLETION YEAR: 1982 The site has a gradual slope of 5-6m which has well incorporated in the design of the school especially through landscaping

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LIBRARY CASE STUDY

SITE PLAN Entrance is through 32’ wide road west facing.

32’ w i d e

Academic

road

Faculty residence

Play field

The entire site has been laid out as a mix of formal and informal areas.

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LIBRARY CASE STUDY

ZONING

ADMINISTRATIVE BLOCK reception, visitors lounge , offices , conference room

ACADEMIC BLOCKS - - consists classrooms , labs, teachers room , toilets , student's lounge , library , open air theatre etc. RESIDENTIAL ZONE HOSTEL BLOCKS -- separate blocks for girls and boys FACULTY HOUSING

BUILT - UP -7.3% PLAY FIELDS - 30% OPEN SPACES 63.7%

SERVICE ZONE DINING BLOCK – dining hall , kitchen, canteen STUDENT CENTRE - gymnasium, table tennis, swimming pool , tuck shop SERVICE AREA – Water tank , electric substation, etc. RECREATIONAL ZONE ---- athletic track , football field , cricket stadium , gymnasium, hockey fields

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LIBRARY CASE STUDY

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER The Architecture of the campus incorporates variation of scale that in turn is an expression of the buildings function and intent, as dining and gymnasium has more imposing scale.

Different shapes of buildings are used to identify its dignity.

A bond between enclosed, semi enclosed , open to sky spaces i.e. added to the richness of spatial character..

Largely built up from locally available material stone.

Natural contours have been used as an inherent part of landscape.

The structure is framed RCC in certain buildings.

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LIBRARY CASE STUDY

ACADEMIC/ADMIN. BLOCK Consists administrative block, school blocks , library , open air theatre Separate buildings blocks for each junior , middle , senior blocks Junior block nearest to the public entrance.

SENIOR SECTION

MIDDLE SECTION ARTS SECTION

LIBRARY

JUNIOR SECTION OAT LABS SCIENCE BLOCK ADMN.

CLASSROOM CLASSROOM SIZE= 7.3X8.5 M NO. OF STUDENTS= 24 USE OF MOVABLE FURNITURE

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LIBRARY CASE STUDY

LABS LAB SIZE= 7.3X11.5 M NO. OF STUDENTS= 52 PREPARATORY AND STORAGE SPACE PROVIDED ALONG WITH LABS

HOSTEL BLOCK CONSISTS OF THREE SEPARATE HOSTELS BLOCKS EACH HOSTEL CONSISTS 8 DORMETRIES, COMMON ROOM, WARDEN’S RESIDENCE COURTYARD TYPE PLANNING

DORMITORY DORM. AREA= 140 SQ.MT. NO. OF STUDENTS= 26 COMMON TOILETS AND DRESSING FOR 2 DORMS.

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LIVE CASE STUDIES 1. SELAQUI SCHOOL, DEHRADUN 2. DEEPALAYA SCHOOL, NEW DELHI

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CASE STUDIES

SELAQUI SCHOOL It is a Co-educational and fully Residential School. Client’s programme was to built an international level school which will develop the individual and promote equality of gender and train future leaders in a multicultural and secular environment. LOCATION It is located in the picturesque Doon Valley, heavily forested and tucked into the foothills of middle Himalayas.

The school campus is located on Dehradun-Chakrata road, about 20kms from Dehradun. The route from Dehradun passes by Forest Research Institute, India’s premier flora conservation body and Indian Military Acedamy and furthur through lush green forests. CLIMATE: Summers are hot and temperature ranges between 27° C to 41° C while winters are more pleasant and may get cold as the temperature ranges from 5° C to 27° C. ABOUT THE SITE SITE AREA : 52 acres ARCHITECT: Amardeep Singh, Gurgaon. The site is approached via the industrial land of the region. The site has gradual slope which has been well incorporated in design. The site for The Selaqui School is very picturesque with splendid views of the surrounding hills, proximity to a river, undulating land and a magnificent Peepal tree of 200years of age.

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CASE STUDIES

APPROACH: The main entrance of the site is west facing through a 18’ wide road.

B

The service entrance is through 15’ wide road South facing.

C

A

2

SITE PLAN 11

13 12

18

12

17

C

13 14

28

26

25

26

29

19

29

28

12

16 15

12

10

13

30

28

14 20

24

3

31 26

5

23

9

4

31

8

22

6

B

1 27

21

7

N

ADJACENT PLOT OF PHARMA CITY

A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

MAIN ENTRANCE SERVICE ENTRANCE ACEDAMIC BLOCK AUDITORIUM SQUASH COURT MUSIC ROOM ADMINISTRATION/ LIBRARY 8. ADHAARSHILA 9. SCULPTURE ROOM 10. SWIMMING POOL

11. STP 12. BOYS HOSTEL 13. HOUSE MASTER’S RESIDENCE 14. GIRL’S HOSTEL 15. DINING HALL 16. KITCHEN 17. HEALTH CENTRE 18. UTILITIES 19. FACULTY HOUSING 20. SENIOR FACULTY

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

GUEST HOUSE CHAIRMAN’S RESIDENCE PRINCIPAL’S RESIDENCE ATHLETICS TRACK CRICKET GROUND FOOTBALL GROUND HOCKET GROUND BASKETBALL COURT VOLLEYBALL COURT TENNIS COURTS PARKING

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CASE STUDIES

PLANNING ANALYSIS The layout of the building, the intensive and luxurious landscaping merges beautifully with surroundings, thus adds to a quiet and learning environment in the school. Sports fields have been incorporated in master plan with some sports fields becoming a part of hostels.

Staff, services and maintenance have been planned on the periphery with a separate service entry.

Vehicular traffic is limited to the periphery with an intention to encourage pedestrian movement.

entry

Around this court are the major blocks that form the backbone of the campus.

The academic block is placed in front of the main entry. The hostels are placed seperately on the rare side of the site.

Architectural Proposal FOR A RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL,

The entry road leads to the court of assembly, which is organized around the peepal tree that exists on the site.

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CASE STUDIES

ZONING The various blocks consists of:  Academic: offices, classrooms, labs, teacher’s rooms, toilets etc.  Hostel block: separate hostels for girls and boys with common rooms and warden residences.  Staff Housing  Dining block: common dining for students and staff and kitchen.  Sports facilities: swimming pool, tennis, basketball, volleyball, cricket, football, squash and horse riding .  Other facilities including Infirmary, Auditorium, sculpture workshops SPATIAL ANALYSIS - Relation of open and built up

Built up area includes: 1. School building area: Acad /Admin=3 Acres (5.8%) Supp. Facility =1.3 acres (2.5%) 2. Residential=3.5 acres (6.7%) Open area includes: Parking and Playfields= 44.2 acres (86%)

As per N.B.C. codes : Built up area- 28% Open space- 72% Built up area includes: School building area- 18% Residential area- 10% Open area includes: Parking, Playground and fields- 72%

Construction Phases: Constructed

Proposed Alterations

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CASE STUDIES

DESIGN CONCEPT The philosophy of the school emphasis on tradition, and this is translated into an architecture, which works in harmony with the tradition of the local architecture.

Campus type planning has been involved with the integration of cluster and courtyard forms. Interconnection of various activity zones is done in order to make every zone easily accessible to the users.

AERIAL VIEW OF ACADEMIC BLOCK

The approach is achieved by traditional Indian concept of building elements like courtyard, verandahs, terrace, jalis, deep overhangs, local material, tradition and craftsmanship.

 Proper zoning of academic block, staff-hostels, students hostels, play fields etc. is done to avoid any interference in different type of activities

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER The Architecture of the campus incorporates variation of scale that in turn is an expression of the buildings function and intent, as dining and academic block has more imposing scale. Conforming to the climate of the region as well as to the traditional architectural expression sloping roofs been incorporated for the entire complex. These sheltering roofs have large overhangs to protect the buildings from the regions fairly heavy rainfall.

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CASE STUDIES

ACADEMIC BLOCK The academic block is placed in front of the main entry and side of the court of assembly

Named Nalanda, after the famed Indian university, the academic block is organized around various levels. These levels are negotiated by steps that are on each of the four sides of a courtyard.

N

Lower Level Plan

Informal seating spaces are provided so that they can be used by students during their free time  It shows an exciting and remarkable play of terraces and courtyards

At the exact centre of this academic building lies the data centre. Being at the lowest level the roof of this centre becomes the connecting bridge between the blocks.

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CASE STUDIES

ACADEMIC BLOCK The academic block is organized around four courts thus around four such split level stair device. This allows the division of the block into four sub blocks namely, the social science block, the physical science block, the business science block and the arts block. The corridors are single loaded with good lighting Corridors are 1.8m wide

CLASSROOMS FACULTY ROOMS

As per standards: Min. width of corridor: 1.8 m

ACTIVITY ROOMS LABORATORIES

Lower Level Plan

Mid Level Plan

COURTYARDS TOILETS

CIRCULATION SPACE : Approx 30-35% EAST-WEST SECTION HEAD MASTER’S OFFICE, P.A. OFFICE, CLASS RM.

ACTIVITY ROOM, CLASSROOM, COMP.LAB, FACULTY, TERRACE, TOILETS ACTIVITY ROOM, CLASSROOM, LABS, FACULTY, COURTS, DATA CENTRE

SCHEMATIC SECTIONS THROUGH COURTYARDS

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CASE STUDIES

ACADEMIC

CLASSROOM LAYOUT

Classrooms are bright and airy, are square in plan with a chamfered corner. All the classrooms are provided with natural lighting and display.

Inferences Flexibility in layout has been done by incorporating movable furniture in the classrooms. There is no provision of storage spaces for students Glare on blackboard in some class rooms makes it difficult for students due to the orientation of class room.

Laboratory SIZE: 7.5m x 12.7m

CLASSROOM SIZE: 7.5m x 7.5m Student strength: 25-30 i.e. 56.2 sq.mt. for 30 pupils. Chalkborad size: 1200x2100 AS PER STANDARDS: 60 sq.mt. for 30 pupils Min. room area:48 sq.mt. Storage space: 1 locker per student

Student strength: 33 i.e. 95 sq.mt. for 33 pupils. AS PER STANDARDS: 86 sq.mt. for 33 pupils Minimum size:54 sq.mt.

Store

There are labs for computer, physics, chemistry and biology in the school.

Worktops

Inferences Besides working area,Technician’s space, preparatory space and store is provided

Labs are well lit and ventilated. Enough storage space has been provided. Lecture area

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CASE STUDIES

RESIDENTIAL It consists of: HOSTELS FOR GIRLS AND BOYS

&

Hostel blocks The hostels are placed seprately and on the rare side of the site. The playfields are provided separately as well as in between the hostels.

STAFF HOUSING

4 no. Hostel blocks for boys 2 no. hostel blocks for girls. Dining block is placed between the girls and boys hostel blocks.

One cluster consists of:

Common Room

 12 seven bedded dorms  12 four bedded dorms  1 common room  2 caretake’s residence  2 housemaster’s residence

Caretaker residence

dormitories

Housemaster’s residence Hostel plan Each dormitory opens up into the corridor facing the central court

Courtyards within hostels

Two adjacent dormitories share common toilets

Architectural Proposal FOR A RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL,

Common toilets

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CASE STUDIES

Dormitories On ground floor  No. of dormitories:6  Dormitory size: 7.4x7.1  Area: 52.5 sq.mt  As per standards:42 sq.mt. for 7 students

Internal Circulation

Each dormitory on ground floor is shared by seven students and on first floor is shared by four students.

On first floor  No. of dormitories:6  Dormitory size: 5.4x5.3  Area: 28.6 sq.mt Dormitories are well lit and ventilated. There is a lack of security as all dormitories open towards the courtyard There is no provision for a separate study room.

Staircase dimensions: Riser : 6.5” ,Tread :12”

Staff housing

Ground floor: 2 bedroom set for 16 staff members

First floor: 1 bedroom set for 16 staff members

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CASE STUDIES

STAFF HOUSING

Ground floor layout Entrance

First floor layout

Drawing room

There is a proper segregation between teacher's residences as well as the hostels. The teacher’s residences open up into a central green space which serves as separate outdoor space.

LIBRARY Library of area 107sq.m is provided including store of 10.5sq.m. Sitting arrangement for 40-45 student with14 stacks for books. Library is in the separate block along with the administration. Library has been located in such a way to make it easily accessible to the students and for teachers. SPORTS FACILITIES Various sport facilities are provided in the campus:Cricket, football, hockey, lawn tennis, horse riding, squash, swimming pool, basketball, volleyball.

HEALTH FACILITIES The school has well-equipped ten-bedded Infirmary to address the medical problems of the students it has separate provisions for boys and girls including an isolated air-conditioned ward

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CASE STUDIES

SERVICES Dining block It has a different architectural character than rest of campus. The folded plate roof gives it more imposing scale.

Storage spaces kept at rear end near the service entry

Location on site

Passage between storage and cooking

 It is placed in centre of boys and girls hostel.  It serves 500 students at one time.

Service block The service block is placed at the southern side so that it is directly accessible from the service road It contains: Laundry Carpentry Store for furniture Electricity rooms

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CASE STUDIES

LANDSCAPING There is perfect integration of the architecture of the school with its landscape. There is an interesting blend of hard as well as soft landscape. All the paths are lined with shrubs Shade in parking Tree lined paths and trees thus helping to soften the look. The layout of the buildings, the extensive and luxurious landscaping merges beautifully with the surroundings. All this adds to a quiet, serene and pollution free environment, which further enhances the living and learning environment in the school.

Extensive use of hedges and climbers MATERIALS The buildings are largely built of locally available stone. This is the river stone which has been cut and dressed and used as random rubble masonry. Exposed brickwork has been used in certain buildings to cover R.C.C. elemants and to provide a contrast to monolithic character of stone. In certain parts of acedemic block, funicular shell roofing has been employed. These provide distinctive character to the acedemic bulding and also reduce cost of construction.

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CASE STUDIES

INFERENCES ALL THE BLOCKS ARE WELL INTEGRATED WITH THE SITE AND MERGES INTO THE OVERALL LANDSCAPE AND WELL CONNECTED TO EACH OTHER THROUGH WALKWAYS THE ACADEMIC BLOCK HAS BEEN EXCELLENTLY DESIGNED AROUND A CENTRAL TERRACE AND COURTYARDS. THERE IS A VISUAL CONTINUITY OF THE CLASSROOMS TO COURTS AND TERRACES. OPEN SPACES ALL AROUND ENHANCE OUTDOOR LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND RELATES WELL THE BUILT FORM.  THERE IS PERFECT INTEGRATION OF THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE SCHOOL WITH ITS LANDSCAPE. THERE IS AN INTERESTING BLEND OF HARD AS WELL AS SOFT LANDSCAPE. USE OF LOCAL MATERIALS AND SIMPLE TECHNIQUES GIVES IT AN ETHIC LOOK AND FORMS A PART OF LOCAL ENVIRONMENT.

LIMITING THE VEHICULAR MOVEMENT TO THE PERIPHERY ALLOWS A TRAFFIC FREE ENVIRONMENT AND SAFE PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT WITHIN THE CAMPUS. THE MOVEMENT THROUGH INFORMALLY LAID CORRIDORS SURROUNDED BY COURTYARDS IS A PLEASANT VIEW. HOWEVER HOSTELS LACKS IN SECURITY

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CASE STUDIES

DEEPALAYA SCHOOL It is a Co-educational School. This school was meant to cater to an extremely impoverished community located in the dirtiest area of a slum settlement. LOCATION The Deepalaya School is located in one of the largest slums of Delhi at Sanjay Colony, Okhla Industrial Estate, New delhi. OKHLA

INDIA

SANJAY COLONY DELHI

The route passes by Okhla Estate Marg and it is located 19 kms away from New Delhi railway station. It had a very poor access, but was the only piece of land available in the dense settlement.

CLIMATE: The climate of Delhi is a monsoon-influenced with high variation between summer and winter temperatures and precipitation and has relatively dry winters and has a prolonged spell of very hot weather. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −0.6 °C to 47 °C. ABOUT THE SITE SITE AREA : 2200 SQ.MT. ARCHITECT: Anil Laul, Faridabad. The site is approached via the industrial land of the region. The site is located in the dirtiest area of a slum settlement right next to a community toilet, in the dense settlement of 600 dwelling units per hectare, housing approximately three thousand families.

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CASE STUDIES

DESIGN CONCEPT The School was built to exemplify a creative, cost-effective design with spatial configurations and interaction spaces to match the scale of a growing child. It is a conviction that providing well planned, designed buildings would inspire a positive response in the children. The idea was that an inspiring building does not have to be expensive and that innovative materials, colour and texture can generate a built quality that would actually change human behaviour.

PLANNING

Lab

Play Area Admn./ acedemic

Junior section

N Toilets Entrance

The school building for the Deepalaya Education Foundation was built in two major Phases. In first phase, the ground floor, was framed around a central courtyard. The first phase was built by the Nizamuddin Building Centre (sponsored by HUDCO and the Slum Dept.)  In the second phase, the courtyard was covered with a large span of Funicular Shells and the other blocks were added gradually. The second phase was designed and built by the Anangpur Building Centre

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First phase Second phase

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CASE STUDIES

FLOOR PLANS

The ground floor is framed around a central semi-open space and built with pre-finished Blocks in order to ensure permanent finishes at low cost. A variety of stones and broken tiles to achieve colour and texture were used to form patterns so as to integrate art into the built form. The roofs with brick Funicular Shells of varying patterns generate a warm and colourful environment. On first floor , a series of classrooms built as cubes on Vertex, only using the top half. In plan these forms generate a series of Hexagons. The steel trussed structures are covered with Mangalore tiles. The A-Frame is construced over the assembly area.

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CASE STUDIES

HOLLOW CORE INTERLOCKING BLOCK This walling system employs the concept of "Surface Engineering" by using an impervious diaphragm on the exterior surface exposed to weathering with a lean back up material constituting the main body of the blocks. The blocks have these Qualities: Impermeable non-erodable diaphragm with lean back up material for the body of the block. Aesthetically pleasing with the use of waste material like stone pieces, broken tiles, marble chips etc. MOULD SIZE: 8”X8”X8” 8”X16”X8” 8”X24”X8” SECTION The male and the female profiles are made to interlock. The hollow in the block provides for easy handling by the mason.

Additional Benefits: Involves simple procedure. lower maintenance costs Filling the hollow core with waste polythene can increase thermal insulation. Appropriate and cost effective

Process 1. Rich cement slurry is poured over the desired colour and pattern. 2. Lean concrete mix Is then laid over. 1. 3. Then compacted. 4. A pipe is Inserted in mould. 5. Balance mould is filled leaving enough space to 5. finish the Second Impermeable diaphragm 6. Marble powder is spread over the finish and pipe is gently removed. 7. The block is demoulded after few minutes and cured 8. Waste polythene filled in hollows provides insulation.

2.

3.

4.

6.

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7.

8.

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CASE STUDIES

FUNICULAR SHELL ROOFING A funicular shell is a doubly curved structure on edge beam. The funicular shell roof is one such compression structure, which ensures conservation of natural resources by utilising waste materials effectively and optimising the use of expensive steel and cement. Further, the arch distributes the point load in all directions equally thus, is able to withstand impact loading at any point. Cinder filling Ring Beam R.C.C. 1:2:4

SECTION The rise to span ratio is 1:6 and the span of shell is 1.5 m

Casting of Funicular Shell Roof Interesting patterns have been created by artistically mingling the chosen materials along with waste by-products like edging of marble / granite slab and broken tiles.

Cement slurry in the ratio 1:2 is used to keep the materials in position.

To achieve flat surface, cinder has been used as filler material over funicular shell. It eliminates use of high-energy steel reinforcement used in the conventional RCC roof. It allows efficient use of waste materials and provides personality, colour and texture. I It minimised the requirement of internal plasters. It provided roofing at a comparatively lower cost i.e. 15% cheaper. The upper half of the edge beam is casted along with the funicular shell.

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CASE STUDIES

A- FRAMES This manner of construction allows for flexibility, and also offers different spatial compositions. The idea behind this form of structure is the triangulation of cuboid that uniformly distributes the load. The skeleton of the structure is a steel welded truss member that is connected with cuboid nodes used as connectors.

Process The A-Frame structure is lifted off the ground on columns having standard RCC footings, The members of the structure are 6 ft in length with a cross section of 8"x8“.  All inclined members are made of 8 mm MS square bars with 6 mm trussing, while all horizontal members are made of 10 mm MS square bars, again with 6 mm trussing. These components have been left exposed without any concreting.

Additional Benefits: This form of reinforcement consumes 30% less steel. They are stable without concrete as concrete is reduced to a filler material. The members can be filled with concrete at any point of time subsequently. A variety of structural combinations are possible using the same principles and techniques of the standard AFrame structure These members are more resilient than Reinforced Cement Concrete and have a larger strength even without the concrete component

Section

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CASE STUDIES

OCTAGEODULE Octageodule is a low rise dome with four-point support. Based on the triangulation, the octageodule has an advantage that it is low rise and has four supports, providing a more efficient and convenient usage of space below.

THE PLATE JOINT SYSTEM

Hexagonal and Pentagonal plates

Simple mild steel plates are used, which are easy to fabricate.

The members of the domes have been fabricated using single and double T sections, upon which the roofing is laid.

Single and Double Tsection members A simple hole and slot in the plates provide for variations in angles. The hole fixes the distance and the slot provides adjustment for the angles.

DISREGARDING CONVENTIONAL BALL NODE SYSTEMS The ball itself is expensive. When used for domes, the variations in angles makes the ball joints a complex component to fabricate. The ball joint relies heavily on specialized steel, threading of bolts made of special steel.

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CASE STUDIES

CUBE ON VERTEX A series of classrooms are built for the School using the Cube on Vertex framing system. The basic form utilised here is a regular cube. When it is rotated and placed on its vertex, a whole range of design options open up.  The inclined faces of the "Cube on Vertex" behave as deep beams, resulting in a structure that utilises the full potential of form. Removal of the three lower surfaces of the "Cube on Vertex" results in hexagonal plan.

A skeleton comprising of 8" X 8" X 6'-0“ trussed beams with corner assembled using a cube of size 8" X 8" X 8" as connector.. These are lifted on stub coloumns to achieve clear height.

ROOFING These steel trussed structures are covered with terracotta 'Mangalore’ tiles which are fixed over timber purlins which in turn are fixed over the ply, without any unnecessary false ceiling.

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CASE STUDIES

INFERENCES THE MOST IMPORTANT LESSON LEARNT WAS THAT HUMAN BEHAVIOUR CAN BE CHANGED THROUGH AN INNOVATIVE, APPROACH TO DESIGN AND USE OF MATERIALS, AND A VARIETY OF INTERESTING SPACES. THE PROJECT’S SUCCESS CAN BE MEASURED IN THE CHILDREN'S WORK AND A TRANSFORMATION IN THEIR ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE SCHOOL. THE NATURE OF THE BUILDING IS PLAYFUL AND IMAGINATIVE. IT IS INTERESTING THAT ONE FINDS NO VANDALISM AND VERY LITTLE GRAFFITI IN THE BUILDING, THUS INDICATING THE CHILDREN'S RESPECT FOR THE PLACES CREATED. THE A-FRAMES, FUNICULAR SHELL ROOFING THAT ARE USED, HAVE PROVED TO BE THE ONLY SUCCESSFUL CONSTRUCTION METHOLOGIES FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE. THE BUILDING USED FAR LESS CONCRETE AND STEEL THAN CONVENTIONAL STRUCTURES, THUS REDUCING COST. SINCE THE PRODUCTS ARE MANUFACTURED ON SITE, THERE IS A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF SAVING IN TRANSPORTATION COST. THE MANUFACTURE AND CONSTRUCTION WITH THESE MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES PUT WASTE MATERIALS TO GOOD USE i.e. A STEP TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE APPROACH.

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CASE STUDIES

SITE ANALYSIS

ACCESS One side of the site is connected by the road at front and there is no other approach to the site. SITE AREA 16 Acres

SITE CONSTRAINTS Permissible ground coverage = 35% Setbacks : Front = 18m. Sides = 9m. Rear = 9m. F.A.R = 1.0

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CASE STUDIES

REQUIREMENTS Educational space: It includes classrooms, labs, library, activity rooms etc. Administration: It includes principal’s room,general office, staff rooms,store Services and support: It includes kitchen, canteen, common room, medical unit Play Area: It includes play areas and games facilities for different age groups Residential: It includes separate hostels for boys and girls, staff housing.

DESIGN CRITERIA The basic design idea for the school is to create an environment where children can learn and easily associate themselves with the surroundings. In a school, the child is focal point of all the activities. So it is designed to give him all experience and opportunities that are supportive in his physical and mental development. The design has to be simple and functional. The design will be the blend of cluster and courtyard planning. The courtyard provides a shaded central space, a controlled play area and a variety of adjacent verandahs, corridors and rooms, whereas arranging the classroom in groups or cluster allows flexibility of space making this configuration one of the most flexible possibility of school design.

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CASE STUDIES

BIBLIOGRAPHY  FOOTPRINTS EARTH( YATIN PANDYA) (PDF.)  NATIONAL BUILDING CODES 2005  NEUFERT ARCHITECT’S DATA  TIMES SAVER STANDARDS  LIGHTING FOR ESTABLISHMENT(PDF.)

SCHOOLS

AND

EDUCATIONAL

 C.B.S.E. NORMS FOR SCHOOLS DESIGN  TANISANDRA SCHOOL, BANGLORE (PDF.)  AUROVILLE EARTH INSTITUTE, AUROVILLE  ANANGPUR BUILDING CENTRE, FARIDABAD  B.M.T.P.C. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS

www.wikipedia.com www.anangpur.org

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Thesis Case Study Report  

Residential School

Thesis Case Study Report  

Residential School

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