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Parks and Recreation Ontario 1185 Eglinton Avenue East Suite 406 Toronto, Ontario M3C 3C6 Tel: 416-426-7142 Fax: 416-426-7371

Philip Fenech B.Arch, O.A.A. MRAIC SHORE TILBE IRWIN & PARTNERS 672 Dupont Street Suite 500 Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z6 Ph 416 971 6060

Agenda Building an Aquatic Center requires attention during the design stage to ensure a high level of quality •

Design Process - Review

The Aquatic Centre – Use

The Aquatic Center - Environment


General Discussion & Review

– – – –

Water Air Light and Sound Materials

Design Process Review A Typical Process What should you be aware of • • •

Are there any choices during design What are the risks What are the trends

What level of quality is required • • •

Why is that level of quality required What would occur if it is not achieved How can it be delivered within the budget

The Feasibility Report Determining Scope •

Provides information on site, budget, program and timeline.

Reflects the intention of the master plan.

Includes a demographic analysis and business plan.

Involved community and stakeholder input.

First indication of a building program: - pool size based on population growth - room sizes developed from other programs

First indication of the construction budget: * - affects of escalation

* What is the level of quality in that budget?

Feasibility Budget, Program & Site

Design Process Review Balancing Program and Budget •

Establish a detailed list of pool tanks and support spaces.

Help establish what can fit into the overall area of the Aquatic Centre.

What is the goal and purpose of the space?

Test the program and budget compatibility.

Pre-design cost estimate based on area. *

Adjust the program to suit the budget or increase the budget to accommodate the program.

Do not move forward until reconciliation.

Obtain collective support of the revised program

Seek Community Support

Program Class D Costing

Schematic Design Design

Class C Costing


* Compare the construction rates

Class A Costing

Contract Documents

Class A Costing

Design Stages Schematic Design •

To establish the general design direction • Comprehend design concept • Understand physical character • Program and space relationships

Information required includes • Program • Site survey • Soils test • Codes and regulations • Budget

Medium • Sketch Plans or 1 to 3 schemes • Sketch Elevations and Perspectives • Models • Outline specifications

Costing Review – Class C Costing

Confirmation – design has met the program and adheres to the current budget

Schematic Design

Design Stages Design Development – Systems •

A refinement and expansion of the Schematic Design • Develop architectural, structural, mechanical & electrical designs • Review with Authorities having Jurisdiction • Produce comprehensive Specifications

Structural Design • Structural system – steel , concrete, block, wood

Mechanical and Electrical Design • Establish mechanical air and water handling systems • Provide for future changes • Allow for variation in room use • Design for special environmental Conditions

Electrical Design • Estimate incoming loads • Select lighting types • Establish IT, AV & Security requirements

LEED • Determine the LEED initiatives and scoring

Design Development

Design Stages Design Development – Micro-planning •

A refinement and expansion of the Schematic Design • Develop architectural, structural, mechanical & electrical designs • Review with Authorities having Jurisdiction • Produce comprehensive Specifications

Micro-planning Meetings & Project Data Sheets • Confirm room size and layout • Adjacencies, views, access • General height, proportion and character • Materials – Floor, Wall, Ceiling • Service and support spaces and rooms • Millwork, counters and built in units • Mechanical systems • Power and lighting • AV, IT, Security and Hardware systems

Costing Review – Class B Costing

Confirmation – design has enhanced the program and adheres to the current budget • All decisions are recorded • Design specification checklist is established • Detailed information has been costed

Design Development

Design Stages Contract Documents •

Translation of the design into workable construction diagrams • Documents are part of construction contract • Basis of Contractors own Shop Drawings • Must be factual, consistent and coordinated

Materials and Finishes • Review of all interior and exterior materials

Further Review of Mechanical and Electrical Documents • Detailed information on specified systems • Understanding of HVAC, plumbing and electrical layout • Provision for maintenance

Final Review • Specifications • Contract • Documentation and review with Micro-planning Minutes

Costing Review – Class A Costing 50% and 80%

LEED • Confirm the LEED initiatives and scoring

Contract Documents

Tender Tender Calls - quality and cost • • • • •

Negotiated Invited Pre-qualified Construction Management Open

Tender Forms – creating choices • • • • •

Base Bid Itemized Prices Alternate Prices Separate prices Unit Prices

Design Process Review A Typical Process What should you be aware of • • •

Are there any choices during design What are the risks What are the trends

What level of quality is required • • •

Why is that level of quality required What would occur if it is not achieved How can it be delivered with the budget

Design Process and Aquatic Centres A high level of attention •

Most Expensive Recreation Space to build

Most Expensive Recreation Space to operate

Most Demanding Environment

Strong Community Demand - Appeals to all ages and abilities

Highly Regulated

Aquatic Centres Definition A collection of rooms that include : •

Pool tanks

Pool decks

Change Rooms

How are these rooms different from other program components •

The Use

The Environment

The Level of Maintenance

The Use Water everywhere Pool Tanks for: Swimming Teaching Water Play Therapy Water – Containment and Quality

The Environment Moisture and Humidity

Air – Quality Light and Sound – Control and Comfort Materials – Moisture Resistance

The Use - Water Tank construction Concrete • Tile Finish. • Plaster Finish • Conventional Construction • Requires Skilled trades • Construction time restraints • Durable • Periodic maintenance and cleaning

Average Cost : $ 550,000 for tank and tile work

The Use - Water Tank construction Metal panels • Fused and loose PVC finish • One large manufacturer - Myrtha • Specialized Installation • Offers features unlike a concrete tank • Faster Construction time • Side walls are durable, floor is thick PVC • Less maintenance

Cost Impact : up to 10% more than concrete/tile

The Use - Water Waterproofing Membranes • Applied below tile at Deck • First line of defense • Manufacturer compatibility • Skilled installation

Crystalline • Applied during concrete construction • Systemic defense and requires time

Cost Comparison : approximately equivalent

The Use - Water Waterproofing Initial testing during construction • Backfill before testing • Level of risk

Continual Inspection and Maintenance • provision of tunnels • inspection of concrete and penetrations • possibility of repair • accommodates mechanical equipment

Average Cost : $200,000 to $ 250,000 for tunnels

The Use - Water Water Quality – Sanitization/ Oxidation Chlorine • Conventional and economical System • Gas, bulk, dry delivery systems • Requirements by code

UV and Chlorine • UV reduces monochlorimines • UV attacks a wide range of bacteria ( crypto ) • relatively simple technology

Average Cost : $ 45,000 for UV system

The Use - Water Water Quality - Sanitization/ Oxidation Salt Water – In line Electrolytic •a low concentration of salt reacts with an electrolytic cell to produce a chlorine gas into the water • creates a water ‘softness’ that people enjoy • less irritation to skin and eyes • less hazardous to handle salt than chlorine • addition of salt to the water increases corrosion on piping, heat exchangers and pumps • electrolytic cells have a finite life and are costly to replace • may not meet surge in chlorine demand • higher capital costs

Average Cost : $ 75,000 to $125,000 for a typical ‘Salt Water’ upgrade

The Use - Water Water Quality - Filtration High Rate Sand • vertical or horizontal are conventional systems • economical • does require frequent backwashing

DE or Pressurized DE • highly effective • water efficient • higher capital cost • larger and more complex equipment • two significant manufacturers

Average Cost : $ 45,000 to $65,000 premium for DE ( NB )

The Use - Water Water Control – Gutters ‘YMCA’ open roll out gutter • open water gutter • water line is 50mm below deck • easy to maintain

Trench and grate gutter • water gutter is below grate • water line is 20mm below deck • greater water overflow capacity • provides ‘fast water’ for competitive swimming • easy water access • formwork complexity

Cost Impact: grating costs = $45/ft : tile gutter costs = $85/ft

The Use - Water Water Accessibility and Flexibility Movable Pool Floors • provides programming flexibility • should not be considered mobile accessible lift • 3 typical systems • bouyant structure • recessed side wall track • scissor jack • requires bulkhead

Lifts • no longer the preferred method for barrier free access • ramps are required by accessibility guidelines • more ground floor area required for ramps

Average Cost : $ 180,000 to $300,000 /floor + $200,000 for bulkhead

The Environment - Air Air Comfort – Temperature & Humidity Dehumidification • Warmer air carries more vapor and releases it as it cools creating condensation • Dehumidification removes the moisture from the air during the return air cycle. • Requires an enclosure for the unit • Allows energy recovery

Complete Air Exchange – RTU • Enhancement of the conventional air handling system • Custom Roof top units required • Will not be effective in humid summer season

Average Cost : $ 250,000 cost for Dehumidification upgrade

The Environment - Air Air Comfort – Chlorimines Water off gassing – low level return • Higher levels of air borne chloramines are found in the centre of pool tanks • Low level return air can aid in drawing off the contaminated air and prevent stratification •Air quality is a reflection of water quality – too little chlorine increases chlorimines

Low level supply • Low level supply provides fresher air close to users

Cost Impact : Additional costs due to tunnels or buried duct work

The Environment - Air Air Comfort – Distribution Low Level supply • Provides air with less velocity – comfort and efficiency • Provides air that conditions walls and windows • Ensures an air supply that does not cause drafts on swimmers or pool surface • Perimeter ductwork , curbs and grilles required • Reduces exposed duct work

High Level return • Draws off warm moist air where it accumulates • Aluminum ductwork required Goals – air temperature 1 deg C above water temperature and relative humidity of 60%

Average Cost : Additional costs due to tunnels or buried duct work

The Environment - Air Vapour control – Balancing Maintaining Negative Pressure • proper size of mechanical equipment

negative pressure

• proper control and balancing system • continuous seal at the perimeter walls • constant monitoring – drafts and smell are indicators • without this balance the moisture in the walls or plenums will lead to building failure

Cost impact : Integral Cost

negative pressure

The Environment - Air Vapour Control - Containment Membranes • Exterior wall materials – block , AVB, insulation, masonry • Interior Wall materials – block , AVB, • Roof materials – wood/metal AVB, insulation, roofing • Windows – Aluminum frame, AVB continuity • Doors – seals, closers, • Maintaining a consistent sealed enclosure

Cost Impact : Integral Cost

The Environment - Air Vapour Control - Containment Thermal Capacity • Types of insulation – spray, polyiso • Expected R Values – R 18, R 20 minimum • High R values reduce vapour transmission • Building mass provides R Value • Contributes to LEED scoring

Average Cost : Integral Costs

The Environment – Light Control & Comfort – Artificial Lighting Location and Level Considerations • Code requirements •Maintenance requirements - location • Reflectance and Glare – angle of light source Types • Indirect Lighting • Indirect / Direct • Direct • Light Tubes • Underwater

Cost Range: $ Direct, $$ Direct/Indirect $$$ Indirect $$$ Light tube

The Environment - Light Control and Comfort – Natural Light Glare control • Glazing tints and reflectivity – reduces glare but decreases transparency • Dark Ceramic Fritting – reduces glare without reflectivity • Interior Shades – additional cost but effective and provides flexibility • Window Location – low level glazing allows light without glare • Skylights – can provide even lighting but require air circulation to prevent condensation

Average Cost : $18 to $20 per square foot of mobile shades

The Environment - Sound Conditioning Sound System Design

• custom designed for the expected uses • moisture resistant speakers and mounts


• safe levels for operation- 80 db maximum with less than 2 sec reverberation time • ceiling panels – moisture resistant insulation with perforated vinyl • Wall Panels- similar to ceiling or moisture treated ‘tectum’ • Securing and suspending - 6 Mo stainless steel rods at ceiling locations • Avoid perforated metal deck or acoustic block

Average Cost : $18 per square foot for panels = $ 75,000

The Environment - Materials Moisture Resistance - Flooring Slip Resistance and Maintenance • Slopes –within 1% to 4% by code • Slip Resistance factors – 6% or Class B ( 12deg to 18 deg incline ) • Polymer Grout / Epoxy Grout/ Waterproofing • Tile size – 25mm x 25mm, 50mm x 50mm or 250mm x 120mm • Sheet goods – slip resistant safety flooring ( locker zones only ) • Poured Epoxy on Concrete

Cost Impact : larger format tiles =$140 /m2 : mosaic tiles = $120/ m2 + costs for epoxy grout ( 20%)

The Environment - Materials Moisture Resistance - Walls/Ceilings Water Resistance and Maintenance • Tiles – all surfaces close to water and touch ( 2m or less from floor area ) • Paints – epoxy paint or high quality alkyds on all other surfaces • Block walls in all wet areas • Siliconized gypsum board or cement board for all ceilings or bulkheads • Special Coatings

Cost Impact : Integral Cost

The Environment - Materials Moisture Resistance - Roofing Water Resistance and Longevity • Wood decking provides very good resistance to moisture – 60mm t & g spruce/pine/fir with a clear moisture resistant treatment applied in the shop prior to installation. • Steel Deck must be special order with special fasteners - pre coated poly chloride finish on both sides • Concrete provides best resistance to moisture but increased structural costs • Suspended systems – avoid fully suspended interior ceilings below roof structure

Average Cost : Wood Deck $100/m2 : Metal Deck $40/m2

The Environment - Materials Moisture Resistance - Structure Long Term Corrosion Resistance • Steel – special high zinc content primer applied in shop with 2 coats of epoxy paint top coats - requires careful on site inspection • Concrete – a good durable interior material for pools with only a sealer required • Wood Glulam Beams- moisture resistant treatment required. In combination with wood deck provides a long lasting aquatic roof.

Average Cost : Wood glue laminate premium over steel = 20%

The Environment - Materials Moisture Resistance - Glazing Thermal Resistance • Curtain Wall –R4 compared to R18 of the wall. -continual supply of warm supply air required - must be a quality curtain wall system - warm edge spaces • Window Wall – not recommended for Aquatic Centres • Skylights – effective for day lighting the pool surface but mechanical system required to reduce condensation • Translucent Wall systems – improved insulation value with soft interior lighting

Cost Impact : Integral Cost

The Environment - Materials Moisture Resistance - Doors & Hardware Corrosion Resistance

• Hollow Metal Doors – increased galvanizing with epoxy paint finish – good but will deteriorate where paint finish has been damaged • Stainless Steel Doors – 316 quality stainless steel , # 7 finish – better but requires constant maintenance •Aluminum Doors – annodized finish - best alternative to date but may oxidize in time • Fibreglass Doors – a very durable solution but costs are high • Hardware - Chrome plated bronze in lieu of stainless steel

Average Cost : st. steel or alum, door = $500: hollow metal = $200

The Environment - Materials Moisture Resistance - Equipment Lockers and Partitions • Enamel Painted Metal – ensure full galvanized primer. Resistance to moisture is limited and dependent upon quality of manufacturer • Stainless Steel- textured finish. Much better resistance to moisture but chlorimine action could cause discoloration. • Plastic – polyethelene. Resistance to moisture and corrosion but susceptible to scratching, burning and gouging • Phenolic – best alternative. Tough, durable and resistant to moisture. Heavy weight panels will wear on hinges of lockers and partitions

Cost Impact : single tier steel = $230 : phenolic = $ 425 : Stainless Stl.=$700

The Environment - Materials Moisture Resistance - Equipment Rails and Guards • Stainless Steel – high quality stainless steel 316 # 7 finish with pacification by installer -difficult to control supply and manufacturing of quality stainless steel. - may still be susceptible to surface discoloration • Painted Galvanized Metal – full galvanizing required with epoxy paint top coat. -Base of rail posts and any damaged areas will rust • Structural Glazing at pool deck perimetereffective barrier that is resistant to moisture but must be cleaned and properly specified for maximum strength • Extruded Fibreglass – effective moisture resistant material but not appealing or versatile

Cost Impact: + 15% for #316 stainless steel in lieu of #304

Aquatic Centre Construction Costs Typical Costing 1. A ‘Typical’ Program – Net Areas A1. A2. A3. A4. A5. A6. A7. A8. A9. A10 A11 Total

Leisure Pool 6 lane x 25m Pool Whirl Pool Deck Areas On deck Pool Viewing Pool Monitor/ First Aid Pool Staff Areas Family Change Rooms Male Change Rooms Female Change Room Storage

A12 Total

Pool Tunnels / Mech

1500 3700 500 7500 500 200 200 1800 1300 1300 500 19,000 6,000 25,000

2. Gross Up – add 10% 19,000 + 1900 = 20,900 6,000 + 600 = 6,600

3. Pre Design Estimate ( 2009) 20,900 x $450/sf = $9.4M 6,600 x $200/sf = $1.3M Total

= $10.7M

Includes: Escalation to tender date + .5%/mon Design contingency + 10% Construction contingency + 4%

Aquatic Centre Construction Costs Component Cost distribution A ‘Typical’ Aquatic Centre 1.





Building Shell - Foundations/Basement - Structure & Pool tank - Exterior Enclosure Building Interiors - Partitions and Doors - Finishes - Fittings and Equipment Mechanical - Plumbing and Drainage - Fire Protection - Heating and Air Conditioning - Controls - Pool Mechanical Electrical - Lighting and Distribution - Systems Site,Escalation, Contingency and GC OH&P



14% 7% 25%

Aquatic Centre Construction Costs Concept to Final Costing – Cost Control Some cost savings options ( top ten ) 10 Deck and Tank Finish 9 Tank Construction –Concrete vs Steel 8 Tank Design – Gutter vs Skimmer 7 Mechanical and Electrical Systems 6 Wood or Steel Roof Deck and Beams 5 Dehumidification Avoid compromises to material and mechanical systems that will affect building performance in the future.

4 Water features and Slide 3 Area of support rooms and change rooms 2 Area of tunnels 1 Area of pool tanks and pool deck

Summary What should you. as an operator , be aware of during the design and construction phases of a new aquatic centre •

There are choices of systems and materials that can be addressed during the design stages

The trend is towards better construction to avoid some of our past mistakes

The risks have increased due to the high costs and elevated levels of use.

Summary What level of quality is required or an aquatic centre


A higher level than the adjacent spaces is required due to constant stresses on the components


If a high level of construction is not provided there will be higher maintenance costs


Poor quality construction or materials may lead to building failure

Summary How can a high level of construction be achieved within the budget

•Establish the level of quality and priority •Tour recent facilities to see advancements in design •Assess the risk and life cycle costs •Ensure the bidding process provides for upgrades and choices •Engage knowledgeable team members, consultants and contractors Building Aquatic Centres that last requires attention to many components. It is not how much you build but how well you build it


Parks and Recreation Ontario 1185 Eglinton Avenue East Suite 406 Toronto, Ontario M3C 3C6 Tel: 416-426-7142 Fax: 416-426-7371

Philip Fenech B.Arch, O.A.A. MRAIC SHORE TILBE IRWIN & PARTNERS 672 Dupont Street Suite 500 Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z6 Ph 416 971 6060

PRO - Design of Facilities and Maintenance