Aquafeed vol 10 issue 4 2018

Page 1

VOL 10 ISSUE 4 November 2018

A D VA N C E S I N P R O C E S S I N G & F O R M U L AT I O N An publication

Developing feeds for tropical marine fish at near market size

The aquafeed factory: Is it going digital? Can we prevent white feces syndrome in shrimp? Managing mycotoxins in aquaculture: Aflatoxins Aquafeed processing with Twin Screw Extrusion Reduce antibiotic treatments in trout with 1-Monoglycerides

Power up your aquafeed too.


A AQ014-01

Nutriad’s aqua team works together with researchers and producers around the globe to develop an innovative range of health promotors and optimize their application under today’s challenging production conditions. Based on natural ingredients, these specialty additives reduce the impact of diseases and parasites on the productivity of fish and shrimp. Powered by scientifically proven anti-bacterial and anti-parasitic activities, immune-modulators, hepato-protectors as well as novel modes of action such as Quorum Sensing Inhibition. Today, our aqua-specific product lines SANACORE®, APEX®, AQUASTIM® and BACTI-NIL®, are applied in premium brands of functional feeds for fish and shrimp. Feed is much more than just nutrition.

Interested? Find your local contact at


Volume 10, Issue 4

A D V A N C E S I N P R O C E S S I N G & F O R M U L AT I O N

Contents Interview with Richard Sellers

News Review


New on the market


Managing mycotoxins in aquaculture: Aflatoxins


* Developing ecologically efficient, economically viable and nutritionally adequate feeds for tropical marine fish near market size


1-Monoglycerides of short and medium chain fatty acids can reduce antibiotic treatments to control Yersinia ruckeri and Flavobacterium psychrophilum in trout


The aquafeed factory: Is it going digital?


Aquatic feed processing with Twin Screw Extrusion


Can we prevent white feces syndrome in shrimp?


Calendar of events





* Cover story

To read previous issues in digital format or to order print copies, visit:


Photo: G. Mahuku/CIMMYT



Volume 10, Issue 4

A D V A N C E S I N P R O C E S S I N G & F O R M U L AT I O N

Index to advertisers



Subscription is free to industry. Subscribe from or by clicking the links below:


Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation


The Aquafeed Newsletter (weekly)





Asian Pacific Aquaculture 19


Aquaculture Without Frontiers








GFFC: 6th Global Feed and Food Congress








Mixed Cereal . Mixed Feed . Veterinary




Victam International


Wenger Manufacturing


Technical feed consulting: empowering the aquafeed value chain since 1998.

Hatcheryfeed magazine Copyright & Disclaimer

Published by, LLC., Kailua, Hawai’i 96734, USA.




Absolute protection Powered by science to actively defend against multiple mycotoxins* With 3 combined strategies


Naturally ahead



Richard Sellers is the Senior Vice President of Public Policy and Education at the American Feed Industry Association (AFIA), where he leads and coordinates legislative and regulatory representation for the industry. He has also served for a number of years as the staff representative of the AFIA Aquaculture Committee. As he prepares to retire, he reflects on 27 years of service to the association.

Interview with Richard Sellers AQUAFEED.COM First of all, would you explain what AFIA does to benefit the domestic and international feed industry? RS AFIA is the largest organization devoted solely to representing the policy interests of the total animal food industry. It was established in

1909 with two goals: feed safety and an uniformity of state feed laws—both of which are still priorities today. There are roughly 700 AFIA members from equipment, feed, pet food and ingredient manufacturers to distributors, consultants and state feed associations, and there are inter-

national members. Our principal job is to represent the industry’s interests to regulatory agencies and legislative bodies, both in states and on Capitol Hill. We provide opportunities to network, offer confidential regulatory counseling and through our 15 committees offer AFIA members the

8 opportunity to have a voice in shaping policy for the industry. AFIA’s members manufacture over 75 percent of the 238 million tons (or 214 million metric tons) of feed made in the U.S. annually.

few promotions later, I reached my current position, working with over 70 different employees in my 27 years with AFIA. It’s time to hang it up and let the awesome team we created take over!

of causing serious adverse consequences or death in humans or animals. Now, the industry must spend $1 billion annually to comply. We’re still awaiting the “regulatory revolution” at the FDA.

AQUAFEED.COM Tell us something of your AFIA journey and how you came to be in the position you are today.

AQUAFEED.COM Possibly the largest piece of legislation you have dealt with in recent times is the Food and Drug Administration’s Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). What do you think are the most important changes this act has brought to both the domestic and international feed industry?

AQUAFEED.COM You have been the staff representative on the AFIA Aquaculture Committee for even longer than has been on it! During that time, what would you say were the most important issues that have arisen?

RS I’ve had a variety of life experiences and didn’t grow up on a farm. I grew up in a suburb of Memphis, Tenn., right behind Elvis Presley’s beloved Graceland. I have a B.S. in vertebrate zoology and after college, I joined the Peace Corps to teach vocational agriculture in Nepal, where my school had a small German carp farm, part of another Peace Corps project. There was a laying hen operation, also at the school. When I came back to the U.S. after a few months, I decided to pursue a graduate degree in poultry science at the University of Arkansas. After receiving a M.S. there in animal sciences, I was offered a position with Winrock Livestock Research and Training Center in Arkansas, part of the legacy of the late Governor Winthrop Rockefeller of Arkansas. After three years, my wife took a position on the library faculty of Texas A&M University, and I continued to do consulting with Winrock. Eventually, I took a job in the Texas Feed and Fertilizer Control Service — a regulatory agency. After nearly seven years there, AFIA asked me to direct its feed control and nutrition programs. Through a

RS AFIA was involved in the legislation for some three years prior to its enactment. It was a battle. AFIA supported the bill because we knew there would be some kind of new law, and we wanted to mold it into something that was workable for the industry. After the bill was signed into law, it was another battle to develop the rules. Congress allowed the FDA to modify or exempt the feed industry, but in spite of an excellent independent economic study showing the costs far outweighed the benefits by $1 billion to $16 million for benefits, the FDA forged ahead. We worked with the agency for some seven years on these nine sets of major feed rules. Unfortunately, the FDA made the animal food industry’s rules look like human food rules despite the vast differences in the two industries. Over the past five years, in the over one billion tons of feed, a very miniscule portion have been filed as “reportable foods,” meaning capable

RS The committee has been instrumental in addressing regulatory issues of concern to this segment of the industry. For example, when the Veterinary Feed Directive came out in 1996, there was an aquaculture drug that appeared several years later. It was a big problem to find enough veterinarians to authorize those new drugs. Then, when the FDA removed production drugs that were medically important from all species feeds in 2017, there was another round of concerns for the industry and adjustments that had to be made for the aquaculture industry. Getting animal drugs approved for aquaculture is difficult enough, then adding more impediments drags the industry down by increasing costs and requiring a high-level of compliance. I’ve very much enjoyed working with the dedicated committee members of this industry and will miss them. John Stewart, AFIA’s manager of government affairs, will be the new committee staff contact.

9 AQUAFEED.COM Is U.S. certification for organic aquaculture going anywhere? The short answer is…? RS The short answer is: not in this administration. The U.S. Department of Agriculture is dismantling some of the current organic rules and proposals, so neither pet food or aquaculture rules are going anywhere anytime soon.

AQUAFEED.COM People I have interviewed have frequently complained that over-legislation, red tape and a lack of discussion and coordination between agencies have been a major impediment to the growth of aquaculture in the U.S. Do you agree? Do you see a way this could be streamlined? RS Most Americans are unaware of the behind-the-scenes work the Trump administration is doing to reduce the number of new rules that are created and streamline existing regulatory processes. At one point, the USDA was rolling back 16 rules for every new one. The Environmental Protection Agency has recalled some rules. Despite this, we have not seen the same kind of regulatory rollback at the FDA. To allow the aquaculture industry to continue to grow, we need to see a concerted effort to reduce the regulatory burden by both the executive branch and Congress.

AQUAFEED.COM Are there any signs that the present U.S. government is doing more to support aquaculture?

RS Yes. I’ve seen some very positive signs at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to support aquaculture more. However, some of these projects/initiatives are dependent on Congress acting.

AQUAFEED.COM Does U.S. aquaculture have a future? RS Yes, I think so in many areas. Never underestimate American ingenuity and tenacity. I’ve seen many positive things happen with support and action and “pushing the right buttons” in government. Just recently, we pushed for some changes to the FDA’s ingredient approval process and with tenacity, the simple change was made that will benefit the industry for years to come. Water issues will be with us for many years, maybe not as Waters of the United States rules, but the Clean Water Act will not be dismantled anytime soon. The rules can be made less onerous, and that work is happening. I am buoyed up by the actions the catfish industry took against illegal imports over and over again. They fought back in a David and Goliathtype battle and for the most part, won.

AQUAFEED.COM And finally, on a personal note, what will be your defining memories and what are you looking forward to after December? RS I’ve been to 49 of the 50 states (Wyoming, look out!) and China and

the European Union several times. Two of my fondest memories are of the AFIA Aquaculture Committee meetings in Idaho and Hawaii, where member firms in Idaho and Dr. Ron Hardy at the University of Idaho and Gary Kerr at The Oceanic Institute rolled out the blue carpet and showed us the future of aquaculture. I was awestruck. The memories of those trips remain vivid and etched in my mind. I’ll miss folks like that and our many member and especially the AFIA staff of 21, which is a close family. Many companies have asked me to help them, and if I can provide some help and not get in the way of what AFIA does, I’ll try. My wife, Marifran, is retiring at the same time, and Wyoming is on our bucket list. We love the Florida panhandle and have a condo down there that will see us from time to time. I have a grandson and a new granddaughter that need grandparents to show them love and life, and as a biologist, a love of science. I also have a 90-year-old, wonderful mother, who is a fine southern lady that needs to tell me some stories, and which I really look forward to spending more time with her at her home in Memphis. I believe government can be a powerful force for good, but it needs a lot of input, care and contact from those of us that created it. Thank you, and a very fond farewell.



NEWS REVIEW Highlights of recent news from Sign up at for our free weekly newsletter for up-to-the-minute industry news

Skretting produces commercial salmon feed containing insect meal Skretting Norway’s factory in Averøy has produced commercial salmon feed with insect meal for the first time. Nordlaks is the first customer to test the feeds containing insect meal with its 360,000 fry.

"We expect it to be as good as our regular feed and hope that the commercial test will show the same good results as Skretting has seen in its efforts to improve feed intake," said Eirik Welde, freshwater director in Nordlaks. "Insects are an important food for the wild salmon, and we see that insect meal can increase the appetite in the fish,” said Siri Tømmerås, who is responsible for feed for land-based farming in Skretting Norway. “This is an interesting find, and we continue to take advantage of this.” Skretting believes insect meal will be an important raw material in the future and is helping producers scale up production. Skretting says that they have the knowledge to do this and have chosen to do so due to the Magne Betten at Skretting’s factory at Averøy shows the insect meal that was used for the first time in a commercial feed. Photo: Marit Storvik Folland.

12 belief that insect meal will be a significant protein source for aquaculture feeds moving forward. "The challenge has been to find manufacturers that can produce enough volume with consistent, good quality,” stated Tømmerås. “We have seen more than thirty manufacturers, and ended up with a handful of suppliers that we have moved on. After a close cooperation for a long time, we have now obtained the raw material at a quality level that we can count on in the future.” In the European market, there is now little available insect meal for use on a large scale, and Skretting is working

with manufacturers who wish to come up at a commercial level. The company envisions that by 2022 there will be at least five different European suppliers, each producing 20,000 tonnes of insect meal per year. That amount equates to two thirds of the amount of soybean concentrate Skretting Norway uses today. "Our goal is that in the future, ingredients used for aquaculture feed do not compete with food for human consumption. For us it's important to invest in alternatives like insect meal," said Mads Martinsen, Skretting Norway's Product Development Director, who has several new commodity projects in progress.

"Insect meal seems to taste good for the salmon, which in nature is used to insects. We are also currently testing the plankton Calanus, which is a natural part of the wild salmon diet. When we explore further down the food chain, in fact, the Nordic waters have as much Calanus as the total biomass of all wild fish and sea mammals combined. The authorities have opened for regulated fishing, and Skretting is already commencing commercial trials with Calanus. Initial results show that salmon also like the taste of this plankton, so here we have a fantastic new resource in addition to insect meal," concluded Martinsen.

Cargill opens shrimp feed plant in Ecuador Cargill has opened a new shrimp feed plant in Guayaquil, Ecuador. With this plant, Cargill will be producing 165,000 tons per year, around 20 percent of the 800,000 tons of feed that the Ecuadorian market currently demands. The plant offers the most leadingedge technology currently available for the production of shrimp feed, Ángel Gómez, General Director Cargill Aqua Nutrition for Latin America North said. “This helps Cargill deliver on its promise of guaranteeing the best production and service to our customers.” Cargill’s investment of approximately $65 million creates 150 new jobs and enables the creation of 500 related positions – boosting the local economy and bringing nutrition technology

and services to the shrimp industry.

other under Aquaxcel.

The Vice President of Ecuador, Mrs. María Alejandra Vicuña, attended the inauguration ceremony, formally kicking off production of two lines of feed: one under the Purina brand and the

“Cargill’s investment in Ecuador also allows us to help the country and its people thrive through the production of goods and services,” added Gómez.


BioMar opens new Aquaculture Technology Center in Ecuador

From left to right:: Danny Velez, Managing Director, BioMar Ecuador; Håvard Jørgensen, Global R&D Director BioMar Group; Pablo Campana, Ecuadorian Minister of Foreign Commerce and Investments; Carlos Diaz, CEO BioMar Group; Jens Godtfredsen, Danish Ambassador to Ecuador; Laurence Massaut, R&D Director BioMar Ecuador.

BioMar Group has increased its shrimp research capabilities with the opening of its Aquaculture Technology Center in Ecuador. The ATC is a stateof-the-art trial facility dedicated to the full lifecycle of shrimp, with the most advanced technology for shrimp research in Ecuador. The official opening of the facility took place in October, with the participation of the Danish Ambassador and the Ecuadorian Minister of Foreign Commerce and Investments. ATC

Ecuador will be dedicated to testing shrimp feed and it will service the development of shrimp diets and farming practices globally. “Just one year after Alimentsa joined BioMar Group, I am happy to see another tangible evidence of the commitment towards shrimp from BioMar Group” stated Danny Velez, Managing Director in BioMar Ecuador. “The new trial center is ready to golive and we have created a strong collaboration with the global R&D

network of scientists.” The opening of the new shrimp research and development facilities is a significant step in BioMar’s strategic plans for the shrimp segment; the company is also in the process of expanding production capacity in Ecuador. “We see a significant growth potential in the shrimp feed segment,” stated Carlos Diaz, CEO of BioMar Group. “Our new research facilities will help us continue to evolve our shrimp feed

14 range while allowing us to respond faster to market and customer needs. In BioMar, we have for many years been contributing to minimizing the environmental footprint of the industry, enhancing efficiency and strengthening the health of the fish. Now, we are ready to conduct local product test supporting our global research within raw materials, process technology, health and nutrition.” The ATC Ecuador has been designed based on experience from BioMar’s trial centers across the world. It houses multiple water recirculation systems to ensure full control of the parameters during trials. The initial phase of the construction allows for the evaluation of more than 150 diets per year, simulating the complete shrimp production lifecycle.

De Heus sets sights on Indonesia Royal De Heus Group has entered the Indonesian feed market with an agreement to acquire 100% of the shares in Universal Agri Bisnisindo, an Indonesian animal feed company, held by a consortium of several private shareholders. “With a total annual sales volume of 300,000 tonnes of poultry, fish and shrimp feed, Universal provides De Heus with an ideal platform to build and further expand our activities in Indonesia,” said Koen De Heus, CEO of Royal De Heus. “The success of De Heus in Vietnam – where since last year our regional Asian head office is located - has boosted our confidence to develop our activities in the region. Besides Vietnam, we are now successfully operating two feed mills in Myanmar, constructing a feed mill in Cambodia and through this acquisition, we can enter the promising Indonesian animal feed market,” said Gabor Fluit, Regional Director De Heus Asia

Ton Hovers, an experienced professional in the Indonesian animal nutrition industry, will become a member of Universal’s Board of Directors and will focus on the further development and growth of the aquafeed business.


Skretting to cease UK production due to market overcapacity Global aquafeed compnay, Skretting has started a process of consulting with employees with the view to cease production in the UK at the end of April 2019.

This move is aimed at reducing the overcapacity in the highly competitive salmon feed market, and better utilize the company’s existing production facilities in Europe. The company has no plans to stop production in other markets and will continue to pursue its firmly established growth strategy. “Unfortunately, we are experiencing unsustainable market conditions in the UK. With a new large feed plant becoming operational in Scotland early 2019, the total feed capacity in the region is expected to exceed the total market by more than 50%. This is driving down prices, leading to an unsustainable commercial environment”, said Therese Log Bergjord, CEO Skretting. “We have therefore made the decision to start consulting with our employees on a proposal to cease feed production in the UK”. Skretting will continue to supply to the UK market where economically viable. “This is a tough decision for Skretting’s management team and our owner, Nutreco, considering the implications for our local employees and partners. In the proposed plan, all locations, including two production sites will close down, and around 100 employees may become redundant. First and foremost, we now concentrate on finding good solutions with

Skretting’s feedmills in Invergordon, Scotland (top) and Longridge, in the north of England are scheduled for closure.

our employees, customers, suppliers and partners in the UK”, said Log Bergjord. While Skretting experiences regional market challenges in the UK, the group actively pursues further sustainable expansion of the global

aquaculture industry from its operations in 19 countries across all continents. Skretting manufactures and delivers feeds from hatching to harvest for more than 60 species. The total annual production volume of feed is more than 2 million tonnes.


Evonik calls for manufacturers to utilize new feed mill in Vietnam

Evonik is inviting feed and feed additive producers to utilize a new state-of-the-art feed mill in Vietnam, which was designed to produce pelleted trial feeds. The feed mill, a scientific collaboration between Evonik and Nong Lam University, is dedicated to research trials and provides a valuable resource to foster technological advancement of a more sustainable feed industry in the country. Dr. Alfred Petri, Senior Vice President Sales Animal Nutrition at Evonik, said Evonik would work with the university to explore new concepts and feeding technologies for the future needs of the local industry. “The feed mill is

also open to other companies that wish to test their products,” he said. “Evonik alone will not be able to provide all of the solutions. We have, to a certain extent, specialized and concentrated on probiotics while other companies specialize in organic acids and alternative products. These need to be tested, compared and checked, and this is why we are looking for partners.” The facility, which took two years to complete, will help tackle challenges facing the animal feed production industry in Vietnam. “Vietnam has some very specific challenges as they are on the edge of moving away from antibiotics toward antibiotic-free

production, which may lead to adaptations in the feed production process,” said Dr. Petri. “The country is an important and growing market for specialist animal nutrition, driven by an increasing demand for safe and healthier food.” Located at the Nong Lam University campus in Ho Chi Minh City, the facility will produce mash as well as pelleted feed for research trials and is designed for handling various small batches, while minimizing crosscontamination. As well as providing a basis for better research, the feed mill will also be a valuable teaching resource for students and teachers at Nong Lam University.


Research explores ‘triple benefit’ of adding phytase to tilapia feed

Two recent studies have demonstrated that phytase offers tilapia producers a threefold benefit, affecting performance, profitability and sustainability. Results from trials, conducted in partnership with the Federal University of Parana in Brazil, were presented by AB Vista at Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture (LACQUA). They showed that the addition of 2,000 FTU/kg of their Quantum Blue phytase to tilapia diets

resulted in improvements across nutrient digestibility and retention, as well as mineral status and feed conversion rates. The studies also indicated that such performance benefits impacted positively on feed costs and environmental welfare. "The effect of phytase represents benefits for both the improved mineral status spares 0.25% of available phosphorus, reducing production costs, whilst the increased retention of nutrients results in lower levels of water pollution,” said Alexandre Barbosa de Brito, AB Vista LAM Technical Manager.

“Quantum Blue breaks down the phytate found in plant-based ingredients, releasing phosphorus that otherwise would not be available," he added. "In addition, calcium ions are released, which are usually linked to the phytate molecule – and therefore are unavailable for absorption. “In addition, it was demonstrated throughout these recent trials that phytate affects endogenous secretions by the animal, and reduces the digestibility of various nutrients in the intestinal lumen of the animals, which can be attenuated by the addition of phytase.”

Adding krill meal to feed improves growth rates of juvenile seabream meal three times a day.

A recent study found that adding krill meal to the diets of juvenile gilhead seabream resulted in improved growth performance. The 12-week grow out trial was conducted at the Institute of Sustainable Aquaculture and Marine Ecosystems (ECOAQUA), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. Directed by researchers from the Aquaculture Research Group (GIA) and Aker BioMarine, triplicate groups of fingerlings were randomly distributed in six experimental tanks, at a density of 55 fish per tank, and fed manually one of three diets including either 3%, 6% or 9% krill

Feed intake was calculated by recording uptake every day, as well as the number of uneaten pellets at each feeding point. There were no significant differences in feed intake between the control group and those fed krill meal during the trial, and survival was around 97% in all groups. Results showed that the juveniles fed the 9% krill meal diet had significantly higher body weight (32.76 g), compared with fish fed the control diet (30.30 g). This is due to krill meal’s unique profile. Protein rich with strong palatability effect and naturally containing astaxanthin and chitin, it also has an excellent lipid and mineral profile.

In addition, the fish fed 9% krill meal also displayed a reduction in the accumulation of lipid droplets in the hepatocytes and around the pancreatic islets, showing a better feed utilization and therefore, promoting fish growth. “The aquaculture industry’s goal should not be only about finding lesscostly alternative sources, it should also strive to ensure that resources are used more efficiently, improving the productivity and environmental performance of aquaculture,” Tibiabin Benitez-Santana, Director R&D Fish Nutrition, Aker BioMarine said. “Krill meal could be the solution as it is a sustainable, nutritional solution for the aquaculture industry.”


PEOPLE IN THE NEWS Margriet Drouillon presented with EAS Distinguished Service Award at AQUA 2018 contributions to the objectives and activities of the Society. Björn Myrseth, EAS President 20162018 introduced and presented the award in front of a packed auditorium at Le Corum in Montpellier. From Ghent University in Belgium, Margriet Drouillon succeeded Peter Bossier as EAS Treasurer in 2012. Her financial background and job in business development for the University were ideal attributes for the role.

inputs into the pension scheme and the liability of EAS as an employer. She developed a new template for financial reporting of the EAS accounts (profit and loss, balance sheet and cash flow), making the quarterly and annual reporting easier to understand by Board members and by members at the General Assembly.

As treasurer for six years, Margriet was instrumental in changing the way that EAS prepares and reports finances and provided substantial

As he presented the award, Björn added that he was personally very pleased to make the presentation and that “Margriet definitely merits her place as one of those few special people that have given their time and energy in abundance to further the objectives of EAS and to contribute to its development."

Goud Dhanunjaya

Tom Barber

Jason Pintuff

Nutriad has appointed Goud Dhanunjaya Regional Sales Manager Aquaculture for the Indian subcontinent (ISC). Mr. Goud has a Master of Fisheries Science (Aquaculture) from the College of Fisheries, Ratnagiri, India and 15 years of hands on experience in aquaculture sales and technical support to shrimp farms, shrimp hatcheries, aqua feed manufacturers and fish growers in Asia.

As vice president of capital sales, Tom Barber will direct sales strategies and market development initiatives for Bühler Aeroglide's full range of capital equipment and services. A 23-year veteran of Bühler, Barber has published over 25 articles and textbook chapters on thermal processing for food, feed and industrial products, and has two US patents and one European patent.

Jason Pintuff has been appointed director of process engineering, for Bühler Aeroglide. He will direct the company’s process development group, a growing center of competence that helps start-ups design winning products, combined with system evaluations and training aligned with worldwide laboratory and innovation resources.

At the opening plenary session of the EAS/WAS AQUA 2018 event in Montpellier, the European Aquaculture Society gave its Distinguished Service Award to Dr. Margriet Drouillon MBA, Aquaculture Business Developer at Ghent University in Belgium, for her commitment and


NEW ON THE MARKET Extru-Tech introduces self-adjusting die/knife cutter head Dramatic reductions in maintenance costs and downtime are just two of the benefits of a new Self-Adjusting Die/Knife Cutter System from ExtruTech, Inc. Equally important, the new advanced feature cutter head can be used across the full spectrum of wear plates. According to Norm Schmitt, corporate sales manager for Extru-Tech, the new die/knife cutter system offers a cleaner cut than cast blade configurations due to a “precision” pressure pack and individually replaceable blades, which can be sharpened from three to five times. “Not only can they be re-sharpened, but the new blades have been reported to last from 2 1/2 to 10 times longer than cast blades,” Schmitt adds. “This translates into lower overall cost, particularly when you consider the automatic adjustment feature allows one cutter head system to be used on multiple dies.

The cutter assembly is easily secured and automatically set parallel to the wear plate with just one bolt.” Schmitt notes that the self-leveling feature also allows the system to accommodate non-perpendicular die stubs and improperly installed plates. For additional ease of maintenance, the self-adjusting die/knife cutter system is sealed for wash-down and utilizes stainless steel bearings for longer life. The single cutting edge also minimizes the risk of injury to

employees and personnel. Extru-Tech, Inc., headquartered in Sabetha, Kansas, produces and markets one of the industry's most complete lines of extrusion processing systems, along with a full line of ancillary equipment and customized equipment solutions for specialized processes. Since 1985, Extru-Tech has installed extrusion systems worldwide, designed for the production of human food, pet food, aquatic feed and animal feed products.


CATC demonstrates potential benefit of SCP to shrimp farming Testing by the Center for Aquaculture Technologies in Canada (CATC) has demonstrated the potential benefit of ProTyton, a single-cell protein (SCP), to shrimp farming, developed by White Dog Labs (WDL). Initial studies demonstrated that inclusion of ProTyton into a CATC reference diet reduces mortality of whiteleg shrimp (L. vannamei) compared to a commercial diet when challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vpa) – the aetiological agent of Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND), and commonly referred to as EMS. “As reported earlier, ProTyton inclusion in Atlantic salmon feed has the potential to reduce the overall cost of diets while maintaining high amino acid digestibility values,” said Dr. André Dumas, Director of Fish Nutrition at CATC. “We then tested ProTyton in post larval shrimp diets. ProTyton inclusion (with a single replicate per treatment) doubled survival to over 80% and increased weight gain by 50% compared to the CATC diet. Given these encouraging results we recommended to perform an AHPND challenge.” The AHPND challenge was carried out by Dr. Mark Braceland, Director of Fish Health at CATC. “We acclimated shrimp to various diets over three weeks, then challenged with Vpa via per os (oral challenge), and then monitored survival over the course of a week,” said Braceland.

Tested diets included a commercial diet that was optimized for shrimp disease resistance, a CATC reference diet and four test diets with up to 20% inclusion of ProTyton in the CATC diet. Mortality rates were 33 and 55% for the commercial and the CATC diets respectively, while the ProTyton test diets performed equal or better than the commercial diet. “It is exciting to observe in this preliminary work that ProTyton addition to the CATC diet results in equal or better performance than the commercial diet for mortality," commented Braceland. "Moreover, three of the four ProTyton diets performed better than the commercial diet, and in two cases reduced mortality to a third that of the commercial diet. Further work is now planned to reconfirm and scale up ProTyton analysis, particularly in a model that is similar to field outbreaks.” “We believe these health benefits are due to the anaerobic nature of ProTyton,” explained Dr. Bryan Tracy, WDL's CEO. “It is known that anaerobic SCP can also contain immunostimulating secondary metabolites and nucleotides. Moreover, our ProTyton SCP also contains low levels of butyrate, a short chain fatty acid commonly used as a terrestrial feed additive to support gut health and reduce antibiotic use.” ProTyton is currently being produced using a 5000-gallon fermenter at WDL’s Delaware pilot facility and is being evaluated by major aquafeed

companies. The first ProTyton plant is being designed by AdvanceBio, with commercial shipments expected in Q4, 2019.

Canola alternative to fish oil Cargill has launched of Latitude™, a plant-based fish oil alternative that provides long chain Omega-3 fatty acids for aquafeed. Latitude is 100 percent traceable since Cargill manages the supply chain from the canola seed to crop cultivation and oil production.

In addition to providing a reliable, sustainable source of Omega-3, the functional elements of Latitude are equally viable for fish feed manufacturers. Fresh and saltwater feed trials have shown that 100 percent of fish oil can be replaced with Latitude in commercial salmon feed with no effect on fish growth rates, fish health or fillet Omega-3 content. “Inherent in its name, Latitude gives aquafeed manufacturers and their customers the freedom to use alternative Omega-3 sources,” said Willie Loh, vice president of market development for Cargill’s global edible oils business in North America.. “This can support the growing consumer population, as well as the global demand for Omega-3-rich salmon, known for its heart health benefits.” Salmon feed manufacturers in Chile and Canada will be able to purchase Latitude once commercially available, planned for 2020.


Yeast extract for aquaculture diets Prosaf® on both low and highfishmeal diets. When recorded after 62 days of feeding, the specific growth rate of shrimp in a low-fishmeal control group (5%) was lower than the high-fishmeal control group (15%). This negative effect was mitigated, however, by supplementing the lowfishmeal diet with Prosaf® at 2.5%, increasing the specific growth rate of the Prosaf® group by up to 18 points. Phileo has introduced Prosaf®, a highly palatable source of small size bioavailable peptides, free amino acids and nucleotides, designed to boost fish growth, performance and disease resistance. Prosaf® is a water soluble purified yeast extract, obtained by primary fermentation with a high protein content. Officially analyzed by HPLC, Prosaf® has been confirmed as containing only small peptides, more than 88% of which are below 3.6 kDa, with 38% below 1 kDa. As such, the product offers highly bioavailable nutrients to increase the palatability and digestibility of plant-based diets. Pre-launch studies with shrimp proved that supplementing lowfishmeal diets with Prosaf® results in the same feed intake, growth performance and restored immune status, as comparative diets with three times as much fishmeal content. A trial carried out in Brazil earlier this year, demonstrated that reducing the fishmeal content of shrimp diets from 12% to 3% significantly reduced feed consumption. However, when the

same low-fishmeal diet was supplemented with 2% Prosaf®, over a feeding period of 15 days, there was a significant increase in feed intake.

Trial two, carried out with shrimp diets at Prince of Songkla University in Thailand, also earlier this year, demonstrated that supplementing a low-fishmeal diet (5%) with 2.5% Prosaf® improved weight gain significantly. The trial also showed that lowfishmeal diets, supplemented with Prosaf® at 0.5%, 1.5% and 2.5% respectively, delivered weight gain results which were as efficient as those recorded for a high-fishmeal diet (15%). The same trial also included an assessment of the impact of

There is also trial evidence that Prosaf® strengthens the natural defences of shrimp in comparison to fish which are fed on a nonsupplemented low-fishmeal diet. According to the trial carried out at Prince of Songkla University, supplementing a low-fishmeal diet (5%) with 2.5% Prosaf® for 62 days significantly increased the total hemocyte count in whiteleg shrimp (L. vannamei) hemolymph. It was also observed that phenoloxidase activity was significantly improved in shrimp fed a low-fishmeal diet which was supplemented with Prosaf® (2.5%), compared to the lowfishmeal diet control group (5%).

Biomin launches mycotoxin detection service Biomin's Spectrum Top 50 is a new mycotoxin detection service for customers worldwide. The service allows for the identification of more than 50 different mycotoxins and metabolites in finished feed and raw materials. It aims to help Biomin clients identify mycotoxin issues and closely complements its mycotoxin deactivating feed additive, Mycofix®. Spectrum Top 50 relies upon liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology using a method developed by Romer Labs.



LET‘S FEED YOUR BUSINESS At ANDRITZ, we go to extreme lengths – and depths – to give you total control over your aqua feed production. Whatever fish or crustacean species you aim to feed, no one has more expertise in designing, commissioning,

and servicing the right combination of technologies to build and sustain a healthy, growing aqua feed business. Find out how our vast expertise and patented aqua feed processing technologies can feed the future of your business at

ANDRITZ FEED & BIOFUEL A/S ⁄ Europe, Asia, and South America: USA and Canada: ⁄


Managing mycotoxins in aquaculture:

Aflatoxins By Rui A. Gonçalves, aquaculture scientist at BIOMIN Holding GmbH.

Mycotoxins have been receiving increasing attention in the aquaculture industry in recent years, but there is nothing new about fungal contamination. Fungi (molds) have always played an important biological, ecological and economic role in the plant, food and aquaculture fields. When deciding which mycotoxin management strategy best meets your particular challenges, it is therefore essential to understand fungal biology and ecology, as well as the chemical structure of mycotoxins. This will help you determine how mycotoxins contaminate aquafeeds and how they can be counteracted.

Toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi Metabolic processes in fungi produce an apparently endless variety of organic compounds – so-called secondary metabolites – that are not obviously required for normal growth and metabolism. Some, but not all, of these secondary metabolites are mycotoxins. They can be split into three groups. Those are: 1) toxic to bacteria (antibiotics); 2) toxic to plants (phytotoxins); or 3) toxic to animals (mycotoxins).

Plant material is a desirable target for fungi because it contains available nutrients. Fungi can successfully colonize all parts of the plant, at all stages of crop production, and even during storage. Fungi utilize the substrate efficiently by growing over the surface and penetrating into the plant tissue. However, the presence of a fungus does not necessarily mean that there is also a mycotoxin present, and vice versa. This means that an apparently 'clean' feed or raw material may contain mycotoxins, which cannot be detected by the naked eye. Additionally, a feed or raw material contami-

24 nated with a fungus might not contain mycotoxins, but the fungus itself will affect the nutritional composition of the material and possibly its palatability.

Mycotoxin-producing fungi Aflatoxins (AF), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisins (FUM) and ergot alkaloids are some of the most common mycotoxins found in agricultural commodities, and they are responsible for millions of US dollars of losses worldwide every year. These toxins are produced by just a few species in the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either behave as commensals and grow on crops without causing obvious signs of pathogenicity, but they can also invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. The most important Aspergillus species, which are found in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce AF in maize, peanuts, tree nuts, and sometimes other agricultural products. Penicillium verrucosum produces ochratoxin A but it only occurs in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grain cereals. The important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. F. verticillioides is endophytic and ubiquitous in maize. It produces FUM, which is generally more prevalent when crops are suffering from drought stress or excessive insect

damage. F. graminearum, the major producer of DON and ZEN, is pathogenic for maize, wheat, and barley, and may produce these toxins whenever it infects grains before harvest. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces FUM and can affect several agricultural commodities, but this article will focus on AF.

How mycotoxins contaminate aquafeeds Mycotoxins contamination can either occur in the field or be caused by poor storage practices. This simple categorization has its exceptions, as the type and prevalence of mycotoxin contamination is closely linked to the type of substrate (type of plant meal; characteristics of the finished feed), geographical area, and seasonal and local weather conditions during critical plant growth stages or storage. With respect to AF, it is generally assumed that raw plant materials, such as peanuts, rice and cotton are highly likely to be contaminated by AF both in the field and in storage. However, AF contamination of other plant materials or of the finished feed itself is usually the result of poor storage.

Methods of prevention As mentioned before, not all molds produce mycotoxins, and even those that may be present without producing any toxin. Therefore, confirming mold contamination is not the same as demonstrating mycotoxin

contamination. As a result, the addition of mold inhibitors to the feed does not guarantee that it is free of mycotoxins, as mycotoxins can also be produced during the crop growth and they are not completely destroyed by processing. It is therefore advisable to monitor raw feed ingredients and finished feeds regularly for mycotoxin contamination, either by rapid on-site testing or by an external laboratory equipped with more powerful detection equipment. If feed quality has been compromised by mycotoxins, it is advisable to use a mycotoxin deactivator.

Counteracting the negative effects of aflatoxins Several methods of reducing aflatoxin bioavailability have been tested. The addition of mycotoxin binders to contaminated diets has been the most common method to reduce the effects of some mycotoxins. Binders neutralize aflatoxins by binding (adsorbing) them strongly enough to prevent toxic interactions when the animal ingests the feed and to prevent mycotoxin absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Several potentially adsorbent materials have been tested, including activated carbon, aluminosilicates (e.g. clay, bentonite, montmorillonite, zeolite, phyllosilicates), complex indigestible carbohydrates (e.g. cellulose, and polysaccharides from yeast and bacterial cell walls, such as glucomannans and peptidoglycans), and synthetic polymers (cholestyramine, polyvinylpyrrolidone and derivatives).

25 However, their binding efficacy depends on the source of the binder and the chemical structure of the mycotoxin. Binders will also be strongly affected by gastrointestinal pH, so the results of in vitro efficacy trials may differ significantly from in vivo trials. Some binders can also have a negative effect on growth by altering nutrient utilization, especially vitamin and trace mineral absorption.

nated feed. At 1,000 parts per billion (ppb) AFB1 in the diet, the registered

mycotoxin deactivator improved weight gain by 9.64%.

Table 1: Experimental diets AFB1 (ppb) Diets

Mycofix® (%) Added to diet

Measured in diet

























No Mycofix®

Sensitivity of yellow catfish to aflatoxins A trial was designed to test the sensitivity of yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, (Wang et al. 2016) to dietary AF and the efficacy of Mycofix® Secure (BIOMIN Holding GmbH, Austria) in combating the negative effects of AF.


Mycofix® Secure is a Biomin, Austria product

Material and method Twenty-four juvenile yellow catfish weighing 2.02 ± 0.10 g each were randomly allocated to 24 net cages (2.0×2.0×2.0 m; Table 1). Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiation with one of the experimental diets that contained different concentrations of pure AFB1, with or without the addition of Mycofix® Secure.

Weight gain More AFB1 in the diet was strongly associated with lower weight gain (Figure 1). This negative response was considerably less pronounced when Mycofix® was added to the contami-

Figure 1: Weight gain in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) fed diets with or without Mycofix® Source: Wang et al. 2016


Feed efficiency Dietary AFB1 of 500 ppb or more significantly increased feed conversion ratio (FCR), as illustrated in Figure 2, and FCR was 60% better than the untreated control group at 1,000 ppb AFB1. In the 1,000 ppb AFB1 group, feed efficiency was much less affected (up to 36% better) in the catfish group that received the registered mycotoxin deactivator compared to controls.

Survival rate Survival rates decreased significantly with increasing AFB1 in the diet: at 1,000 ppb AFB1, survival fell by 22% compared to the control group receiving no myxotoxins. In the 1,000 ppb AFB1 group, survival rates were

Fig. 2: Feed conversion ratio in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) Source: Wang et al. 2016

up to 10.8% better in the fish that

received MycofixÂŽ Secure (Figure 3).


Fig. 3: Survival rate in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)

... binding efficacy depends on

Source: Wang et al. 2016

the source of the binder and

Conclusion of the in vivo trial The in vivo trial demonstrated that yellow catfish are sensitive to relatively low levels of AF. The researchers observed a negative relationship between AFB1 levels in the diet and fish survival, growth and feed efficiency. Diets containing 1,000 ppb AFB1 were found to be highly toxic to the fish. The mycotoxin deactivator used in this trial (Mycofix® Secure) successfully reduced the negative effect of AFB1 toxicity on yellow catfish. These results suggest a beneficial return on investment for the use of this mycotoxin deactivator for catfish farmers throughout Asia using feed contaminated by AF.

References: Wang, X., Wang, Y., Li, Y., Huang, M., Gao, Y., Xue, X., Zhang, H., Encarnação, P., Santos, G. and Gonçalves,

R.A. (2016) Response of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) to different dietary concentrations of aflatoxin B1 and evaluation of an aflatoxin binder in offsetting its negative effects. Ciencias Marinas 2016 42: 15.

the chemical structure of the mycotoxin. Binders will also be strongly affected by gastrointestinal pH, so the results of in vitro efficacy trials

AFΩ More information

may differ significantly from in

vivo trials. Some binders can also have a negative effect on growth by altering nutrient utilization, especially vitamin and trace mineral absorption.

Rui A. Gonçalves (aquaculture scientist at BIOMIN Holding GmbH). E:


Developing ecologically efficient, economically viable and nutritionally adequate

feeds for tropical marine fish near market size By Jorge A. Suarez Ph.D. and Daniel D. Benetti Ph.D., Aquaculture Program, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science

Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) is a species of enormous commercial interest for the U.S. and Caribbean.

The R&D priorities of the Aquaculture Nutrition Program at the University of Miami is mostly funded and driven by the needs of the industry. Since feeds can represent more than 70 per cent of the production cost and increased consumption of feed occurs in the final stage of the growout cycle, the development of ecologically efficient, economically viable and nutritionally adequate diets for adult marine fish is a priority. In fact, our calculations show that more than 80% of the total feeds are consumed in the last three months of the growout cycle of most species. This dwarfs the quantities and costs of feeds used in the weaning and juveniles stages, indicating that digestibility of ingredients and overall quality rather than costs should prevail when considering diets for those earlier stages. This is well understood by feeds companies, since a large variety of high quality commercial feeds are available for those early stages. Hence, focus must be placed on formulating and developing diets specifically designed for the late growout stages of marine fish species. To this end, we have been collabo-

30 rating with renowned feed manufacturing companies to develop diets for large sizes of fish of selected species throughout the Americas and the Caribbean. With the support of NOAA, United Soybean Board, the Illinois Soybean Association, USSEC and Open Blue Sea Farms from Panama, we have been conducting research to determine the nutritional requirements and apparent digestibility of different ingredients and the replacement of fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in diets for cobia, Rachycentron canadum. We have also been conducting extensive R&D on Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) and are working closely with Martec Mariculture S.A from Costa Rica in improving diets for spotted rose snapper, Lutjanus Open Blue Sea Farms is successfully raising cobia (Rachycentron canadum) from egg to guttatus. Other marine fish species of market in a hatchery and nursery complex and offshore submerged cages in Panama. commercial interest we have been (Photo: Tyler Sclodnick, InnovaSea/Open Blue). working with are the Japanese 2013). The ability to replace such high of commonly cultured fish species flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), amount of FM are indicative that the with a range from 18 to 40 g kg -1 (Niu mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), nutritional requirements of cobia et al., 2013). Specifically, one of our Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), changes with age and that developing recent studies focused on determining red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) more cost-effective and environmenthe methionine requirements in large and hogfish (Lachnolaimus maximus). tally sustainable diets is possible (initial weight of 208g and final weight For example, one of our studies without compromising health or of 505g) Florida Pompano, Trachinofocused on the effects of replacing growth rates of this species. This tus carolinus, which consume higher dietary FM with soy-based products study corroborated the need for amounts of food. The first results of on the production performance of additional research on cobia and our investigation suggest that larger cobia between 1.8 - 3.2 kg (market other commercially important species pompano were found to perform well size of cobia is 3-4 kg or more). The being raised in the Americas - not just on levels of methionine lower than soy-based products used were deat the juvenile stage, but at all stages previously recommended. hulled SBM, solvent extracted SBM of the production cycle. The effect of dietary digestible and a novel non-GMO variety of SBM With the substitution of fishmeal in protein/digestible energy (DP/DE) (produced by Navita Premium Feed the diet, limiting components such as ratio on growth, feed efficiency (FE), Ingredients). Results indicated that up the sulfur amino-acid methionine will nitrogen (N) utilization and body to 80% FM could be replaced in larger need to be supplemented. Many composition for adult Florida size cobia, attaining a FIFO ratio of investigators have reported the pompano was investigated. In order 1.3, without compromising growth quantitative methionine requirements to achieve these results a growth trial performance or health (Suarez et al.

31 followed by a digestibility trial was carried out utilizing five diets with different DP/DE ratios ranging from 21.7 to 26.3 mg protein kJ-1. No significant differences between growth performance and liver weight were observed between all diets, except for diet 5 (DP/DE 21.7 mg protein kJ-1) which had significantly lower mean weight gain, feed efficiency, and feed conversion rate.

research and development is key to improve the ecological and economic efficiencies of marine fish aquaculture and that the success of most ongoing and future endeavors will depend on the availability of cost efficiency feeds with optimal nutritional profile and digestibility for the different species.

In conclusion, a closer look at the nutritional requirements and digestive capacity of larger size fish is necessary to optimize growth and minimize waste in commercial marine fish farms. This paramount task will be more readily attained under synergistic collaborations between all stakeholders in the productive chain, from suppliers of raw materials and aquafeed manufacturers to commercial farmers and research institutions. It is widely recognized that nutrition

Niu,J.,Du,Q.,Lin,Y.Q.,Cheng,Z.,Huang, Y.,Wang, J.,Chen, Y.F.,2013. Quantitative dietary methionine requirement of juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus at a constant dietary cysteine level. Aquaculture Nutrition, 19,677-686

meal in cobia, Rachycentron canadum: Ingredient nutrient digestibility and growth performance. Aquaculture 416 –417. 328-333.



Suarez J.A., Tudela, C., Davis, D., Daugherty, Z., Taynor, M., Glass, L., Hoenig, R., Buentello, A., Benetti, D. D. 2013. Replacement of fish meal by a novel non-GM variety of soybean

Martec Mariculture is successfully raising snapper from egg to market in an offshore cage farm in Costa Rica.

More information

Jorge Suarez, Ph.D. Aquaculture Nutrition Program Leader, University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science Florida, USA E:

Daniel D. Benetti, Ph.D. Professor & Director of Aquaculture, Department of Ecosystems & Society RSMAS - University of Miami Florida, USA. E:


1-Monoglycerides of short and medium chain fatty acids can reduce antibiotic treatments to control Yersinia ruckeri and Flavobacterium psychrophilum in trout By Manuela Parini, R&D, SILO International, Matteo Calligaris - Aquaculture Technical Consultant

mortality, unfavorable FCR and growth rate. The strategies to counteract these problems involve, in many cases, antibiotic treatments which may create resistance in the fish or delay the sale of the fish on the market because of the suspension periods observation. The consequences for the trout producers are economic losses and, in some cases, even the inability to offer the fish to the antibiotic-free supply chains.

MIC of 1-Monoglycerides at pH 6-7

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Photo: (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Trout is one of the most common freshwater cultured species in Europe. Stress factors like water temperature, environmental contamination or high

fish density often facilitate outbreaks of infections caused by Yersinia ruckeri and by Flavobacterium psychrophilum. These infections cause

For over a decade SILO has been engaged in researching synergistic compositions of 1-Monoglycerides of short and medium chain fatty acids able to inhibit pathogenic bacteria in the stomach, throughout the intestinal tract and in the liver of the animals, preserving the beneficial microflora such as that constituted by the Lactobacilli. Since 2015 SILO’s

34 researches have focused on aquaculture. A large screening work in vitro has been done in scientific collaboration with the Public Institute of Animal Health “Bruno Ubertini” (Italy). A specific composition of 1-Monoglycerides has been identified to inhibit a wide spectrum of bacteria affecting aquatic species at pH values from 2 to 7, that is also at the pH values of the gut and liver. The composition, named SILOhealth 108, inhibits Y. ruckeri and F. psychrophilum at concentrations from 0.01% to 0.1% while sodium butyrate and

formic acid show inhibitory properties at significantly higher concentrations. Results are reported in the Table 1.

Control of Yersinia ruckeri SILOhealth 108 was introduced into the trout market in 2015. The first field applications were aimed at measuring the effects of the 1-Monoglycerides composition against the Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM) caused by Y. ruckeri when the clinical signs were already present in

the trout. The following case history is an example of usage of the composition which was successfully adopted during the last three years in a large number of European trout farms. In two ponds placed in North Italy and populated with 400,000 individuals with average weight of 4045 grams, symptoms of ERM were observed: subcutaneous mouth hemorrhage (Figure 1), intestinal ascites, exophthalmos, liver and pancreas hemorrhage. The water temperature was 16°C, the density about 21 kg/m3 and the feeding level

Table 1. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the 1-Monoglycerides composition (SILOhealth 108), sodium butyrate and formic acid against gram-negative bacteria at pH 6-7.

SILOhealth 108

Sodium butyrate

Formic acid

Aeromonas hydrophila




Aeromonas salmonicida




Bacillus cereus




Edwarsiella ictaluri




Flavobacterium columnare




Flavobacterium psychrophilum




Pseudomonas anguilliseptica




Pseudomonas dermoalba




Photobacterium demselae




Tenacibaculum maritimum




Vibrio alginolyticus




Vibrio harveyi




Vibrio parahaemolyticus




Vibrio mimicus




Yersinia ruckeri




Lacobacillus acidophilus




Lactobacillus plantarum




35 1.6%. The mortality rate was 0.15% in the first two days after the first symptoms were observed. Four months before the disease outbreak the five-gram trout had been vaccinated against Y. ruckeri by

Fig. 1. Trout showing mouth subcutaneous hemorrhage. (Photo: Roberto Giavenni)

immersion. The 1-Monoglycerides composition (powder version) was administered via feed at the dosage of 1.3%: after the first two days the mortality rates started to decrease and dropped to zero after six days. The composition has been used as remedial approach in replacement of antibiotics in the farm practice. This application schema has been adopted by a large number of farms during the last three years. The results were consistent with those described in the case history above. In conclusion: potentiated sulphonamides can be replaced by the 1-Monoglycerides composition; the administration period to decrease the mortality rate to zero is longer in nonvaccinated trout than in trout vaccinated against Y. ruckeri, that is 15 days versus 6 days. The most common application of the composition is the preventive usage incorporated into the feed at the

dosage from 1% (liquid version) to 1.5% (powder version) from the weight of five grams until the trout reaches the market size. Field observations have been conducted on about 35.000 tons of biomass from 2016 to August of 2018. In trout vaccinated against Y. ruckeri the successful replacement of antibiotics ranged from 90 to 100% while in nonvaccinated trout the decrease of antibiotics usage ranged from 60% to 100% depending on farming and environmental conditions.

1-Monoglycerides proved to be a valid alternative to enteric antibiotics and to exert a beneficial effect on fish growth.

Prevention of infections by Flavobacterium psychrophilum The composition proved to be effective in preventing flavobacteriosis in trout hatcheries when used continuously in the feed for 70–80 days at a dosage of 1% (liquid version) or 1.5% (powder version). The efficacy was firstly assessed in a field trial conducted in 2016 in a trout hatchery placed in North Italy with recurrent outbreaks of flavobacteriosis (Figure 2) which used to cause mortality rates

Fig. 2. Trout fingerling showing splenomegaly caused by flavobacteriosis (Photo: Roberto Giavenni)

up-to 25%. In each production cycle two or three treatments with florfenicol were usually needed to control the disease. In one cycle the 1-Monoglycerides composition was used as preventive tool replacing florfenicol. The fingerlings, 500,000 triploids (3N) with an average weight of about 0.5 grams, received a feed supplemented with 0.5% of the composition, corresponding to 90 mg/kg of live weight/day. Only in 3.2% of the fingerlings clinical signs and abnormal mortality were observed while 96.8% of the fingerlings did not show any flavobacteriosis outbreaks during the whole hatchery cycle. Water gasoversaturation (nitrogen) was recorded and embolism in gills was found. However, despite the embolism, the gills were surprisingly in perfect conditions and no exophthalmos was observed. The survival

36 rate was 95% versus 75–80% (standard survival rate in the farm) and the average weight after 70 days of feeding was 7.5 grams versus the standard farm parameter equal to 4.5 grams. Despite the high density due to the larger average fish size no skin damage was observed. Resistance to stress conditions and skin integrity were enhanced by the composition. This application schema is nowadays widely adopted by trout producers as

standard approach to reduce/replace antibiotic treatments in the hatchery period. The composition is incorporated into the feed pellets at ratios from 0.5 to 1%.

Conclusions 1-Monoglycerides proved to be a valid alternative to enteric antibiotics and to exert a beneficial effect on fish

growth. Their capacity to positively affect the gut microflora is supported by the results recently published by the Insubria University (S. Rimoldi et al., 2018): 1-Monoglycerides have been found to modulate the gut microflora by increasing the Lactobacillus abundance in sea bream treated with 0.5% of the composition and by inhibiting the potentially pathogenic bacteria. AFâ„Ś

More information

Manuela Parini, member of the R&D team and Marketing Director, SILO International. E:

Matteo Calligaris, Aquaculture Technical Consultant, CEO, Innovaquae.


AQUAFEED PRODUCTION The aquafeed factory — is

it going digital?

By Rob Strathman, President, Famsun-USA Design and Engineering When looking outside of the aquafeed industry and into the broader manufacturing sector, we see enormous innovations coming in the area of manufacturing technology. Many experts are referring to the vast number of emerging technologies, like the Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, Artificial Intelligence, and

Big Data to name a few, as the gateway into a fourth industrial revolution (Figure 1).

These automation and data-centric technologies are promising to deliver a more efficient means of manufacturing often interchangeably referred to as either the Smart, Digital, Intelligent, or the Factory of the Future. The

Fig. 1. Are we approaching a fourth industrial revolution? Illustration by Christoph Roser at under the free CC-BY-SA 4.0 license.

highest form of this factory envisioned is one that fully integrates all manufacturing functions; internal functions, like R&D, sales, procurement, and production and external functions, such as interactions with suppliers and customers. The anticipated factory environment would include "Cyber-Physical

38 Systems" that self-monitor an entire production line, where each unit operation would be communicating with cognitive computers to decide how best to operate the process autonomously. The external environment would supposedly consist of smart sensors, artificial intelligence, and big data connected to the Internet of Things and the Cloud. A fully integrated business system enables market share growth through rapid recognition of changing consumer needs (e.g., the health condition of fish in a specific pond) and a factory agile enough to rapidly develop and produce custom products, deliver them on-demand (to that specific pond), and at a lower cost than the competition.

The evolution of Factory Intelligence Table 1 illustrates the evolution of Factory Intelligence and anticipates the changes needed to meet the vision set for the Factory of the Future. This analysis uses plant floor controls and available Factory Management Systems as a basis for assessing a factory’s analytical classification and rate. Globally, the bulk of today’s Aquafeed Factories fall somewhere between the Generation1 and Generation-2 analytical classification. Gen-3 factories are the earliest form of the digital factory and have existed within the broader manufacturing industries for a couple of decades and have been adopted by the feed

Many more years, if not decades, are expected to pass before the prescriptive version of the Factory of the Future is fully realized.

industry within the last one. Many more years, if not decades, are expected to pass before the prescriptive version of the Factory of the Future (Gen-4 and the one described earlier) is fully realized.


Table 1. Evolution of Factory Intelligence





Descriptive What Happened?

Diagnostic What Happened and Why?

Predictive What is or will Happen and Why?

Analytical Rate

Plant Floor Controls and Capability

Factory Management Systems


Push Button Controls, Paper, Files

Back Office Computer


Siloed PLC Control, Shop Floor Data & Reporting, Historical Trending


Near Real-Time

Seamless PLC Control, Shop Floor Data & Reporting, Some Autonomous Decisions, Diagnostics, Historical Trending, KPI Reporting



Seamless PLC Control, Cyber Physical Systems, Self Diagnostic, Autonomous Decision Making, Data Pool, KPI Reporting

Cognative Computing, ERP, MES Analytics, SCADA

Prescriptive 4

Here is the most Effective Way to Operate!


Focusing on the Gen-3 Digital Factory Gen-3 analytics focuses on improving and sustaining the technical and fiscal performance of the factory, through improved operational visibility. Thus, the automation systems and their abilities to harvest and analyze data are the material differences between a Gen-2 and Gen-3 factory. Figure 2 illustrates the three factory management systems commonly used throughout many industries today that have enabled mass data acquisition. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems gather real-time machine data to track, monitor, and control each unit within the operation. SCADA is an excellent diagnostic tool for analyzing real-time and historical equipment data. Most central to the Gen-3 Digital Fig. 2. Factory Management Systems. Factory is the Manufacturing Execution Software (MES). It provides a continuous improvement platform that acquires a large variety of data More than an Investment from the entire process and in return Technology provides near real-time performance analysis back to the operator, quality, The shift toward digital factories is maintenance, and management teams more than just an investment in allowing them to make faster and technology as more informed decisions to mitigate illustrated in inefficiencies. Figure 3, a strategic Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) model for includes essential functions like finance, resource planning, and supply going digital. The foundation chain management. MES connects of the model is directly to ERP for mutual sharing of a simple critical information. principle, “One cannot


improve what one does not measure!", meant to reinforce the purpose of the journey. The model includes two other significant considerations. First, the

Fig. 3. A Strategic Model for Digital Factories.

40 apparent investments in the technologies needed to generate and collect data. And second, investments in people, which includes a commitment from leadership teams to foster operational excellence (think Lean Manufacturing Principles) and subsequently in the technical resources needed to support the new software, hardware, and continuous improvement programs.

The business case for going digital One particular feed producer, who converted multiple Gen-2 factories into Gen-3’s by investing in a feedindustry specific MES system, was given new tools to track a critical metric called Yield Efficiency (YE). Their new operational visibility enabled focused re-engineering of problematic ingredients, products, equipment, and operational practices resulting in a 75% sustained reduction in material losses over a three year period; an annual value of more than 9 million USD. This same Gen-3 Factory Management System was able to track a crucial second metric called Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), a measure of ineffective runtime, to a detailed level. Through their Continuous Improvement Program, technical teams routinely identified top offending causes of line interruptions, enabling them to see exactly where to focus their re-design and investment efforts. After following this seek and correct cycle for less than 24 months, their OEE improved by more than

15%, which led to a reduction of quality defects, lower labor costs, and higher daily productivity.

Evolution of the Process The aquafeed process is also evolving as a result of collecting and analyzing operational data. Two significant performance-enhancing examples are Preconditioner Waste Control and Dual Die Throttling Valves.

Preconditioner waste control YE data has shown that the most significant source of raw material loss within the aquafeed production line is the divert valve of the preconditioner, as shown in Figure 4. This realization led to a redesign of the system, resulting in a unique and reliable control sequence.

percentage of raw material from every run into finished goods. Additionally, since the material is not allowed to exit the unit until reaching a minimum temperature of 80o C, extra benefits in food safety, factory hygiene, and reduced waste at the extruder die are also realized.

Dual Die-Throttling Valve (patents pending) OEE data has shown that the downtime necessary to replace the extruder die is one of the most consistent causes of lost production within a typical aquafeed operation. Therefore, a new solution called the

The new approach converts the preconditioner from a continuous to a batch operation during every startup. The moment the extruder is up and running, the controls shift the preconditioner back into continuous mode. This procedure has nearly eliminated the need to divert material out of the preconditioner and converts a higher Fig. 4. Material diverted from a Preconditioner.

41 .

More information

Fig. 5. Famsun’s Dual Die-Throttling Valve.

Dual Die-Throttling Valve (DDTV) as illustrated in Figure 5 has been developed. The DDTV can automatically switch back and forth between one of two manually mounted die assemblies, which has cut diet change -over downtime from an average of 30 minutes to less than 4. It also resolves lost productivity due to plugged dies and worn knife blades. For making rapid bulk density adjustments, semi-automatic Specific Mechanical Energy (SME) control is also possible with the DDTV. Operators can press a button to alter the position of the integrated throttling valve, which is designed to vary the amount of restriction encountered by the melt before it reaches the die to manipulate the melt temperature and more easily control expansion levels. Without this type of inline SME control tool, operators would be forced to stop the extruder to modify the die assembly.

Conclusion The Digital Factory produces near real -time awareness of negative performance, highlights root causes, exposes hidden deficiencies, and enables appropriate corrective action, thus drives significant financial savings, profitability, and a competitive edge. The data also quickly aligns the internal business functions on future investment needs and averts misguided investments based on inaccurate conclusions. The Digital Factory is also highly adaptable, allowing owners to readily benefit from the many new smart technologies coming to market at a feverish pace. It is this set of new capabilities that are reshaping the competitive nature of global markets, which is expected to drive continued growth in both the capability and the number of Digital Factories present in the years ahead. AFâ„Ś

Rob Strathman, President, Famsun-USA Design and Engineering E: This article is based on a presentation at’s 11th Aquafeed Horizons Asia conference, which took place March 27th, 2018 in Bangkok. Proceedings are available in our Members Section at Not a member? Sign up now for free membership to access proceedings and other premium content: Become a member now members/login/ Visit for upcoming Aquafeed technical conferences and workshops.

HatcheryFeed A division of ~ uniting the aquafeed industry since 1998 ~

The only media platform dedicated to nutrition, feed and feed management for early life stage and broodstock farmed aquatic species

Photo © Valentin Thépot




Aquatic feed processing with Twin Screw Extrusion By Alain Brisset, feed extrusion expert, Clextral

The challenges of an essential expanding market The most recent study from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO- 2016 (1)] confirms that 50% of the consumed aquatic animals in the world (including finfish, mollusks & crustaceans) come from aquaculture. With a world population of 7,3 billion people, the average fish consumption (including mollusks and crustaceans) was estimated in 2014 to be 20,1 kg/ capita. Obviously, the process of feed manufacturing for finfish and shrimp represents a key issue for insuring the delivery of consistently high quality granulates for these intensive breeding processes; for example, it is estimated that over 60% of the production expenses for farmed salmon comes from the feed cost. Additionally, we have to face challenges such as limited resources of fish flour and fish oils worldwide and a temperature increase of the earth’s environment creating irregular conditions for fish capture, uncertain cereal and pulse harvests on earth (used more & more to partially replace fish meal in recipes), and the

risks to delicate offshore aquaculture breeding facilities (waves, winds, storms, currents, pollution..).

The potential of twin screw extrusion Fish is known as a high value food for humans, with health benefits that include long chain unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins & minerals and a wellbalanced protein supply. In 2013, 3,1 billion people received 20% of their animal protein from fish origin. Therefore, fish feed processing technology plays a particularly important role to this industry.

It requires: Easy adaptation to any change in raw-material composition: moisture content, lipid content, particle size distribution, de-mixing of powdered materials. These are due to various sources of raw materials (for example, soy flour can be purchased in many parts of the world), transport and storage conditions, grinding process;

Flexibility to adjust the sinking/floating properties of the granulates to follow as closely as possible the food habits of each animal family; -

Processing a wide range of

44 recipes to respond to industry demand for foods with low or high amounts of lipids, vegetable proteins, or various sources of protein to meet the specific nutritional fish requests and adapt to rapid environmental fluctuations; Flexibility to adjust the shear, cooking and shaping conditions in the extruder and apply precise drying and coating parameters during the entire production process; Insuring a high hygienic standard, to avoid any contamination during the feed manufacturing process. Taking these considerations into account, combined with good manufacturing/breeding practices, scientific education and adapted

legislation, we can nurture high quality aquatic animals that offer health benefits to people around the world–using local production to ensure low carbon footprints and maintain reasonable sales prices.

Technology of co-rotating Twin Screw Extruder Single screw extrusion technology has offered a simplified method of continuous cooking of doughs under controlled processing conditions for many decades. 60 years ago, some pioneers developed an alternative process: corotating twin-screw technology applied to the food industry (2), which offered much greater flexibility than

single screw machines due to its intensive mixing ability with precise shear and temperature control. [“Extrusion Processing Technology”(3)] With the evolution of electronic PLC’s, mechanical features, gauges, drives, metallurgy, together with heavy R&D investment, these pioneers offered the fish feed industry more sophisticated systems, allowing the industry to move quickly into new areas–such as recipes with high amounts of fat and vegetable protein (4, 5) To illustrate this trend, S. Kaushick world expert in aquaculture, recently presented the Opportunities and Challenges of the Global Aquaculture (6) CLEXTRAL (7), a major player in Twin

45 Screw Technology for Food & Feed applications has launched innovations which offer even greater possibilities to the fish farming industry to process original recipes and use raw materials such as new pulses, proteins, insects, krill meals and possibly processed animal proteins, seaweeds, ..Etc.

Preconditioning allows moistening of the powdered mix and pregelatinization of the starch molecules through the addition of water and steam; thereby increasing the pellets’ water stability, enhancing production capacity and reducing wear on the extruder.

One of these innovations relates to Intelligence of the machine and the ability of the auto-adaptive extruder to adjust to potential raw material variations.

This patented, innovative Preconditioner+ improves heat and mass transfer to the product due to the Advanced Filling Control device (AFC); it interacts directly with the material inside the mixing chamber and enables the filling ratio to be adjusted. The AFC system uses an exclusive conveying screw inside the tank and adjusts the flow by a partial and controlled recycling of the material being processed from the outlet to the entry point, thus intensifying the specific preconditioning functions.

For example, the Advanced Thermal Control (ATC) is a self-learning, proprietary software solution that ensures absolute precision in temperature control of the barrel assembly of the Evolum+ extruder. ATC continuously monitors production parameters to ensure process and product consistency. ATC is proven to enhance process stability up to 70%, with energy savings averaging 20% by eliminating repeated heating/cooling cycles to maintain process temperature set-points in all circumstances.

Fig. 1. The Advanced Thermal Control (ATC) ensures absolute precision in temperature control of the barrel assembly of the Evolum+ extruder.

Combined with automatic start up and shut down procedures, this system represents a powerful tool to enhance the productivity of the extrusion line.

Preconditioning: higher efficiency and improved product texture Another innovation refers to the preconditioning process, a key operation in fish feed manufacturing.

Laboratory tests have proven that the final hardness of fish feed pellets increased between 7 % and 29% using the same recipe and modifying the preconditioning and extrusion parameters versus adjusting the

Fig. 2. Preconditioner+ improves heat and mass transfer to the product due to the Advanced Filling Control device (AFC).

46 végétale en Aquaculture ? » OCL 2014, 21 (4) D406 , published by EDP Sciences 2014 (6) S. Kaushi, INRA: “Global Aquaculture, Opportunities and Challenges” – presentation at the CLEXTRAL Innovation Summit, October 2016, France. (7)

AFΩ Fig. 3. Final hardness of fish feed pellets increased between 7 % and 29% using the same recipe and modifying the preconditioning and extrusion parameters versus adjusting the bottom-screw speed.

bottom-screw speed (Figure 3). During the cleaning procedure, the bottom-screw rotation is reversed to facilitate the cleaning procedure of the preconditioning chamber.

Hygiene Finally, today much attention is focused on hygienic extruder design as food security is a key parameter for the fish feed and food industries. Fish feed manufacturers want to be able to clean their extruder from the outside using hot water and sometimes with cleaning agents. The stainless steel, hygienic Evolum+ frame structure is designed to avoid water stagnation and all the extruder areas are easily accessible. The internal processing assembly of the twin-screw extruder must be cleaned easily as well: the complete quick barrel extraction device is today a paradigm to the industry. It offers

access to the screws and barrels in only few minutes and is a state-of-theart solution that simplifies preventive maintenance, wear monitoring and cleaning processes.

References: (1) FAO State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016- http:// (2) CLEXTRAL 60st anniversary, internal Publication – “60 Years on”, October 2016

More information

(3) J.M.Bouvier, O.Campanella, in “Extrusion Processing Technology” P 189-207 WILEY, 2014 (4) Program: Advanced Research Initiatives for Nutrition and Aquaculture, ARRAINA- Jan 2012-Dec 2016, Direction S.Kaushik; pres J.Dia, SPAROS/Portugal, 2014. (5) C. Burel, F. Medale “Quid de l’utilisation des protéines d’origine

Alain Brisset feed extrusion expert, Clextral E:


Can we prevent white feces syndrome in shrimp? Validating the efficacy of a functional feed additive under field conditions By Maria Mercè Isern-Subich, DVM, Ho Gim Chong, and Allen Wu, Nutriad International. White feces syndrome (WFS) is considered a major cause of significant crop failures of white shrimp in Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam and India. The disease has been attributed to the combination of increasing stocking densities and feeding rates

that results in increased accumulation of organic matter in ponds, and to the increasing pond water temperature. These lead to negative alterations of both the pond environment and the normal physiological functioning of shrimp that favor the disease

Fig. 1. Gross signs of WFS. White fecal strings floating in feed trays and whitish gut.


The disease is evidenced by the presence of abundant white fecal strings floating on the shrimp ponds and in feed trays (Figure 1). The gross signs of the affected shrimp include

48 loose carapace, distended and whitish midgut as well as whitish hepatopancreas. Microscopically, the midgut appears to be filled with vermiform gregarine-like bodies, while the hepatopancreas is characterized by the stripping of microvilli (Sriurairatana et al. 2014). The disease is associated with reduced feeding and growth retardation. Survival is generally reduced by 20-30%, with peak mortality rates observed at water temperatures above 32ÂşC and oxygen concentration below 3 mg/L (Mastan, 2015). A group of Vibrio spp. bacteria, parasitic protozoa known as gregarines, and microsporidian parasites such as Enterocytozoon hepatopenai have been related with the disease (Sriurairatana et al. 2014). In field conditions, multiple pathogenic

combinations have been associated to the disease outbreak, these varying by region and farming conditions and leading to different outcomes in terms of mortalities and growth impairment. After a strong WFS outbreak, and despite the implementation of farm strategies that can eliminate the gross signs of the disease, growth is never recovered to the pre-outbreak levels. Thus, preventive approaches rather than curative are the most efficient control strategies against the disease. A first preventive measure to control WFS is to reduce stocking densities during the hot season. This results in reduced bottom organic matter and reduced bacterial proliferation. A second and parallel approach is the dietary inclusion of functional feed additives that deliver antimicrobial activities to the digestive system.

SANACORE ÂŽ GM (Nutriad International, Belgium) is a synergistic blend of phytobiotic compounds with broad spectrum antibacterial activity and demonstrated bacteriostatic, bactericide and quorum quenching efficacy against Vibrio spp. (CuellarAnjel et al., 2011; Loc et al. 2015; Valle and Coutteau, 2015). These effects are essential in the prevention of the horizontal spread of Vibrio spp. and other opportunistic bacteria, as well as in the promotion of a betterbalanced and more robust microbial community in the digestive system. The digestive microbiota plays essential roles in nutrition and immunity (Wang et al. 2017), which may explain the positive effect of SANACORE ÂŽ GM supplementation on the animal response to parasite infections (Palenzuela et al. 2017).


Field studies The following two field studies reported here validated the preventive and curative effects of SANACORE ® GM against WFS in field conditions. These trials were conducted in “black” areas (i.e. culture areas where previous cycles failed repetitively before the trial) and executed in close collaboration with shrimp producers following the standard operational procedures of each country. The first trial was conducted in a shrimp farm located in the Penang region, Northern Malaysia. This farm was historically affected by WFS as well as by Early Mortality Syndrome and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Two ponds were used as control and six ponds were fed since first day of culture until harvest with SANACORE® GM supplemented feed (top-coating application in farm). Due to high mortality and growth retardation, emergency harvest was required in control ponds at day of culture (DOC) 42 (Table 1). Gross signs of disease were evident in treatment ponds at DOC 60, however, the outbreak was categorized as mild severity and thus production was continued and harvested as planned at DOC 129. Treatments ponds

recovered growth to acceptable levels after 14 days of first signs of outbreak. Production data in Table 1 reflects the difference in DOC between control and treated groups.

... the farm trials reported here provide evidence on the

The second trial was conducted in a farm located in the Subang-Karawang region in Northern Jakarta, an area that was heavily affected by WFS and WSSV. Previous two crops were aborted with emergency harvest due to WFS outbreak. The trial originally aimed to evaluate the preventive and curative effect of SANACORE® GM in relation to a control feed; however, and due to disease outbreak and farmer´s concern to fast spread of disease, control feed was also supplemented with a curative dose of the feed additive. The WFS outbreak was evident at DOC 23-26, and two different treatments were evaluated in three ponds each:

efficacy of SANACORE® GM to control the severity of WFS outbreak under different production conditions.

the entire production cycle. Due to delayed feed delivery, this feed was introduced at DOC 20, only 3-6 days before disease outbreak, and maintained until harvest. Feed was additionally supplemented with a curative dose (via top-coating of feed in farm) during seven days after disease outbreak was evident.

1) feeding a control feed free of SANACORE® GM during the entire production. As explained above, this control feed was supplemented with a curative dose (via top-coating of feed in farm) during seven days after disease outbreak was evident.

All ponds received seven days of the curative dose of the feed additive following the first signs of disease outbreak. Although the elimination of signs of disease was confirmed in all of them, it must be emphasized that subsequent performance significantly

2) feeding feed supplemented with a preventive dose of SANACORE® GM (added during manufacturing) during

Table 1. Experimental conditions and production data of trial conducted in a farm located in the Penang region (Northern Malaysia).

Number of ponds

Days of culture

Survival Rate (%)

Final mean body weight (g)


Total crop yield (kg/ha)



42 (emergency harvest)













Fig. 2. Average daily growth (A) and average body weight of ponds (n = 3) following treatment 1) (light blue) and 2) (dark blue). Treatment 1 consisted of a control feed supplemented with a curative dose of SANACORE® GM during seven days after disease outbreak. Treatment 2 consisted of preventive and curative dosage of SANACORE® GM. The WFS outbreak was evident at DOC 23-26.

differed between strategies. Ponds fed with feed supplemented with the preventive and curative doses of SANACORE® GM (Treatment 2) recovered average daily growth to acceptable levels 20 days after the elimination of signs of disease, while ponds receiving the control feed plus the curative dose (Treatment 1) did not recover successfully (Figure 2A). At DOC 85, average body weight in ponds following treatment 2 was 25% higher than that in ponds following treatment 1 (Figure 2B). Ponds following treatment 2 were partially harvested at DOC 85 and finished at DOC 100, while ponds following treatment 1 had to be fully harvested at DOC 85. Overall, treatment 1 yielded over three times more biomass than treatment 2 at final harvest (6726 vs. 2049 kg/Ha).

In conclusion, the farm trials reported here provide evidence on the efficacy of SANACORE® GM to control the severity of WFS outbreak under different production conditions. Although the top-coating application

of SANACORE® GM immediately following a WFS event can have a curative effect resulting in the elimination of the gross signs of disease, the dietary inclusion of a preventive dose of SANACORE® GM reduces the likelihood and severity of WFS outbreaks and ensures growth recovery post-outbreak to acceptable levels and harvest as planned.


More information and references

Maria Mercè Isern Subich, DVM, Business development manager Aquaculture Health, Nutriad International E:

Ho Gim Chong, MSc, Product Manager Aquaculture Farm Products SE Asia, Nutriad International

Allen (Ming Hsun) Wu, Regional manager Aquaculture Asia Pacific, Nutriad International E:


EVENTS 2018 & 2019 November 22 – 23: 12th World Aqua Congress New Delhi, India about_wac.html

Nov 26 – Dec 14: Course: Responsible aquaculture development for food security and economic progress Wageningen, Netherlands Research-Institutes/centre-fordevelopment-innovation/short-courses/ show/CDIcourse_aquaculture_2018.htm

For details of industry events: visit the Calendar

Submit your event details to: 18 – 29: Inclusive aquaculture development Bonn, Germany Research-Institutes/centre-fordevelopment-innovation/short-courses/ show/ CDIcourse_inclusive_aquaculture.htm

12 : 12th Aquafeed Horizons

Cologne, Germany

18 – 20: Asian Pacific Aquaculture 2019 Chennai, India

April APA2019_CHENNAI.html

28 – May 3: 23rd International

January 10 – 12: International Conference on Aquatic Resources and Aquaculture for Sustainable Development Hawassa, Ethiopia index.php/registration.html

Seaweed Symposium Jeju, Korea


15 – 17: Short Course: Applied Food & Feed Extrusion Thailand

29 – 30: 13th World Congress on

Institute for Food Research & Product Development

Aquaculture & Fisheries Seoul, Korea

31 – Feb 2: Aquaex India 2019 International Trade Exposition

11 – 12: Food and Feed Drying

Hyderabad, India

Ås, Norway

Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

Technology, Europe (Norway)

October 7 – 10: Aquaculture Europe 2019

15 – 17: Aquafeed Extrusion Technology,

Berlin, Germany


Europe (Norway)

7 – 11: Aquaculture 2019

Ås, Norway AE19_BERLIN.html

New Orleans, Louisiana, USA AC19_NEWORLEANS.html


11 – 13: 6th Global Feed & Food Congress 2019


20- 22: Latin American and Caribbean Aquaculture 2019

12 – 14: VICTAM International

San Jose, Costa Rica

Bangkok, Thailand

Cologne, Germany LACQUAA2019_%20COSTARICA.html





Theme & Topics

The 6th Global Feed & Food Congress (GFFC), organized by the International Feed Industry Federation (IFIF) with technical support provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and in collaboration with VIV worldwide will be held at the exclusive Shangri-La Hotel in Bangkok, Thailand, on 11-13 March 2019.

The 6th GFFC theme ‘The future of Feed & Food – are we ready?’ links to the global challenge to provide safe, affordable, nutritious and sustainable animal protein sources through innovative solutions to feed 9 billion people by 2050 and reflects our shared vision to achieve this for a growing world population now and for the future.

Join us

The 6th GFFC will look ahead at key topics for the feed & food chain, including:

The 6th GFFC is expected to attract executive level delegates from Asia, Europe, Africa and the Americas. Join us and you will: — Experience exceptional speakers who will share their insights on the future of feed and food. — Network and discuss strategy with business leaders, senior government officials, experts and policy makers from the feed & food value chain. — Engage with leading animal nutrition and food companies, food chain partners, international organisations, national authorities and international civil society.


Technical Support

— Digital Revolution — Sustainability — Feed & Food Safety — Nutritional Innovation — Global Regulations & Policy — Markets & Trade — Future of Farming Systems

How to register? For more information please visit

in collaboration with

Supporting Partner

Premier Media Partner

The 6th Global Feed & Food Congress 2019. 11 – 13 March 2019, Shangri-La Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand. Learn more at