Page 1

VOL 10 ISSUE 1 January 2018

A D VA N C E S I N P R O C E S S I N G & F O R M U L AT I O N An publication

Interview with Hans Erik Bylling Understanding the sink float phenomenon Using yeast products in reduced fish meal diets

Bioactive Peptides from hydrolyzed proteins Probiotics for immune fitness and gut health Bacterial protein meal Aquafeed Horizons Asia 2018

Insects in aquafeeds

ANDRITZ partnership We will go all the way with you ANDRITZ offers a broad range of after-

strial equipment for the feeding and fueling

market services, which includes ser-

indu­stries. We design and manufacture all

vice, support and follow-ups, r­epairs

key process equipment as well as offer

and spare and wear parts. ANDRITZ is

complete plant solutions.

Your partner for Feed & Biofuel Technologies

a global leading supplier of technologies, systems and services of advanced indu­

ANDRITZ Feed & Biofuel A/S Europe, Asia, and South America: USA and Canada:


Volume 10, Issue 1

A D V A N C E S I N P R O C E S S I N G & F O R M U L AT I O N

Contents •

Interview with Hans Erik Bylling


Certification leads to better market penetration and safer consumption


* Pioneering the potential of insects


Understanding the sink float phenomenon in aquafeeds


Bioactive peptides from hydrolyzed proteins: a new opportunity for aquaculture


Probiotics to boost immune fitness and gut health


Bacterial protein meal a gut-healthy and sustainable alternative to the scarce resource of protein from fishmeal


Supporting carnivorous and marine fish health using yeast products in reduced fish meal diets


Technology and ingredient advances focus of Aquafeed Horizons Asia ‘18


Calendar of Events





*Cover story

To read previous issues in digital format or to order print copies, visit:



4 Volume 10, Issue 1

A D V A N C E S I N P R O C E S S I N G & F O R M U L AT I O N

Index to advertisers Andritz Feed & Biofuel


Aquaculture Without Frontiers (AwF) Aquafeed Horizons Asia 2018






CPM Asia




Famsun (Muyang)

17 8

Geelen Counterflow






Contact us

Subscription is free to industry. Subscribe from or by clicking the links below:


Aquafeed: Advances in Processing & Formulation


The Aquafeed Newsletter (weekly)


Hatcheryfeed magazine

Technical feed consulting:

Laurent Bellec


MVC: Cereals Mixed Feed - Veterinary






Victam Asia 18


World Aquaculture Society: Aqua 18


Wenger Manufacturing


Published by, LLC., Kailua, Hawai’i 96734, USA. empowering the aquafeed value chain since 1998.

Copyright & Disclaimer


Hans Erik Bylling is the Chief Executive Officer and Group President of Aller Aqua, a family owned company through three generations. Aller Aqua has produced fish feed for more than 50 years, and has factories in Denmark, Poland, Germany, Egypt, China and Zambia. Their broad product range consisting of feed for 30 species of fish is currently exported to more than 60 countries worldwide.

Interview with Hans Erik Bylling AQUAFEED.COM Aller Aqua made headlines this year for inaugurating two feedmills, in two different continents, within a month of each other. Before we talk about this exceptional achievement I’d like to ask you to talk a little about the company and the Bylling family. How and when did it all begin? HEB It began in 1910 when my granddad started working at Aller Mill. Back then we predominantly worked with various feedstuffs in a broader sense. In 1912 he took over the mill with my grandma, and that was the start of the Aller Aqua history. We produced the first fish feeds in 1963 and the fish feed business grew from there. In 1996 my brother and I decided to split the

company in 3 targeted companies, Aller Mill, Aller Petfood and Aller Aqua. I was, and still am, in charge of Aller Aqua. We now have a total of 6 factories, and the inauguration of Aller Aqua Qingdao with my son, Anders, as CEO was a particularly proud moment for me.

can now produce more than 300.000 tons per year. We predominantly serve the European, African and Asian markets. Due to all the recent expansion, we now employ approximately 300 individuals worldwide.

AQUAFEED.COM And now? Where is Aller Aqua today in terms of size, markets served and feed volume?

AQUAFEED.COM Your global growth plan seems to be to have a presence in emerging markets? Is that accurate? What is the rationale for this strategy?

HEB Aller Aqua has grown significantly. Over the last year we have inaugurated the 3rd production line in Egypt, as well as the factories in China and Zambia. These 3 additions to the business have doubled our production capacity, and we

HEB It is true, we have taken some brave steps in emerging markets. It has caused some setbacks, but in total it has been very beneficial for us. We have seen opportunities in emerging markets before other companies, and we have


“The Chinese are very focused on European standards. By sourcing raw materials in Europe we can maintain the high standards the Chinese are used to from our side”

used these to our advantage. When entering new markets we have done so wholeheartedly, utilized first-mover benefits where applicable and had some solid strategies in place. It has also been crucial for us to find the right people locally to get the setups off to a good start.

AQUAFEED.COM As we mentioned in the beginning, you commissioned two feedmills at the end of 2017 – one in Zambia and the second in China. Would you tell us a little about each one – something of the technology, capacity, species, market served etc. HEB Aller Aqua Zambia came about as we needed a factory in Africa due to growing demand for our feeds on the continent. We entered an off-take agreement with Yalelo, one of the world’s biggest Tilapia producers. This

ensures that we get off to a good start. At the same time, we have a production capacity of 50.000 tons per year, which allows for serving a wider market. We have built the factory with very modern technology – in fact the most modern in Southern Africa – to ensure both quality, efficiency and sustainability. We have a lot of CSR activities connected to the Zambian factory, where we will source 90% of the raw materials locally, boosting the local economy. In China we inaugurated Aller Aqua Qingdao. Here we have taken a different approach. In China it is very important that the feed is of European standard, and we have therefore established us there without a local partner. This has enabled us to train our own staff in European practices. We will also source most of the raw materials in Europe to ensure that our customers get the feed they know and love. We have also used very high-tech equipment here. Aller Aqua Qingdao will allow us to serve both the Chinese market, but also other Asian countries. The factory in Qingdao has a production capacity of 45.000 tons per year.

AQUAFEED.COM As a Danish company, you must have encountered a lot of challenges when building in countries such as China, Zambia and Egypt. Can you tell us about some of them and how you overcame them?

HEB That is correct. When building in Egypt we had a local partner which was a big help for us. We did have some issues during the civil war, which caused us to find some alternative solutions to ensure continuous production. We arranged transport to and from the factory, and

overnight stays for staff during curfews. In Zambia the challenges were mainly caused by the lack of infrastructure. All deliveries to the factory had to travel a couple of hours via a dirt track. Additionally, we hit the rain season, which further complicated deliveries and building work. In China we had no local partner, and the bureaucracy and amount paperwork caused a lot of extra work, which again caused delays, resulting in the factory being opened later than anticipated. You will find challenges everywhere. We have a strong setup and creative people in place to overcome these.

AQUAFEED.COM Consistent supply and quality of ingredients is always a crucial element of feed manufacturing. In Zambia you are using mostly local ingredients, while in China you are sourcing your ingredients from Europe. Why have you taken these different approaches? HEB As explained earlier this is down to cultural differences. The Chinese are very focused on European standards. By sourcing raw materials in Europe we can maintain the high standards the Chinese are used to from our side. On the other hand in Zambia, we saw an opportunity to make a real difference to the local economy by sourcing locally.

AQUAFEED.COM Sustainability is high on Aller Aqua’s agenda. Are you able to maintain the standards you have set for yourselves in these different countries? HEB It is always our goal to achieve a high level of sustainability. This is done

7 via the very modern production methods used in the factories, and constant optimization of these. Both the production and the feeds themselves are highly sustainable compared to the alternatives. Basing factories in two of our important sales areas lowers transportation and ensure fresher feeds.

AQUAFEED.COM How do you support your customers in these diverse markets? What role does R&D center in Germany play, for instance, and your local teams? HEB One of our core values is local presence. Whenever possible we employ or cooperate with a person who speaks the local language and has knowledge from the region. Internally, knowledge sharing, is high on the agenda. We share knowledge internationally via an intranet, and via our yearly sales kick off

where all the latest information is relayed and reviewed. R&D spend a lot of time explaining about their latest findings and new feeds. On some markets, f. ex. Africa, R&D develop high quality feeds optimized to the local farming conditions. R&D communicate daily with all factories regarding the recipes for the feeds. From the headquarters in Christiansfeld, we daily support the sales staff around the world with knowledge, materials and marketing.

AQUAFEED.COM What potential do you see for aquaculture in general and Aller Aqua in particular in the regions in which you have invested most recently – in China, Africa and the Middle East? HEB The potential for aquaculture worldwide is enormous. In China, Africa and the Middle East there is a very

positive development and growth in aquaculture, as well as support from the governments. An increase in aquaculture support many of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals in terms of protein rich food, increased income and our situations in the aforementioned areas create income, education and healthy food.

AQUAFEED.COM And lastly, what is the one thing you would you like to see happen in aquafeeds in the future? HEB It is my hope that we can one day convince the critics of aquaculture of the vast benefits of farmed fish – both in terms the protein we can produce in a very sustainable way compared to beef, chicken and pork, but also in terms of the farming methods available.




Certification leads to better market penetration and safer consumption By Soparat Bamrungsak and Tipong Narkmit, Control Union Thailand

Internationally recognized standards, validation and verification process under the guidance of knowledgeable auditors, quality controls and laboratory analysis are key elements in preserving consumers’ interests and ensuring food safety. Tilapia Lake Virus (TiLV) on 3 continents; Tilapia fed with pig & goose manure (making them more susceptible to diseases) in China; trash on the floor and flies over baskets of shrimps in unchilled rooms; EU concerns on shrimps from India containing antibiotics; doubtful allegations of organic salmon. These are a few examples of the 2017 aqua feed and aquaculture scandals which highlighted some concerns in the sector. As a continuously growing industry it is normal that stakeholders question themselves on how to preserve consumers’ interests and ensure food safety. So far there is no unique solution but (inter)nationally recognized standards, validation and verification process under the guidance of knowledgeable auditors, quality controls and laboratory analysis are definitely elements pushing towards those goals to ensure quality and risk control. In this article we will highlight the benefits of the above mentioned suggestions. To do so, we will discuss some key steps along the value chain such as feed production, aquaculture,

Control Union’s BAP and ASC experts conducting a shrimp farm audit in Thailand.

processing and storage, and shipment. According to international standards, such as GMP+, talking about feed safety implies a set of minimum criteria which need to be fulfilled before even starting the audit and certification process. Prerequisites programs (PRP) are aimed

to ensure that the auditee’s system is sufficiently complying with the minimum requirements of the regulatory program and allowed to move to more advanced and specific steps. Regarding the first key phase, GMP+, an international standard for the last 26

10 years, is probably the most advanced, reliable and complete scheme which exists and which guarantees a high level of feed safety for food. By clearly defining the do’s and dont’s of every particular role within the feed sector, the certificate provides any stakeholders with a verified quality of the system and products, and an assurance that the product is safe to be consumed by the cultivated stocks and later on by human beings. More than simply ensuring those parameters, GMP+ certificate offers, among other benefits, better access to the market, optimizing the costs of productions and the costs of compliances. There is also another growing scheme belonging to IFFO which focuses on fishmeal and fish oil as the main feed ingredients. This program slightly differs from the first one but follows the same purpose, which is to guarantee the food safety of those products and that the fishing controls are sufficient to ensure that marine fisheries on which fishmeal and fish oil depend remain responsible and are not over-exploited. Once the primary components have been recognized as feed safe, they are ready to be used for the stocks. On this level, food safety can be ensured through multiple schemes depending on personal requirements. No less than 4 programs are internationally recognized and slightly differ in the scope and parameters they cover. The first one, ASC, is putting its emphasis on responsible farming and divides its approach into 4 main pillars. The second one, BAP, introduces itself as the “one-stop-shop” program covering different areas and levels of the supply chain, avoiding the need to deal with many criteria and schemes. The third one, Global Gap, is

also providing an option to cover the entire supply chain from feed to fork by discussing different topics such as legal compliance, health & safety, animal welfare, etc. For every single level there is a specific section providing the minimum requirements, which all can be double checked with the CoC standard. Finally, the Organic Aquaculture standard represents the transposition of organic agriculture practices to the marine world and prohibits the use of antibiotics and fertilizers for instance. The next levels are processing and storage before shipment. It implies that facilities are involved and once again they should have prerequisite programs in place to ensure that the system is ready for food safety assessment. Several options are available and depend on personal preferences. For instance, BRC, IFS and FSSC 22000:2005 are some of them and are based on the well-known HACCP program. Within those standards topics such as environment of the facility, safety of the area, waste management, ventilation and type of floors, management system and specialized team, validation and verification system are discussed and detailed. This is made to ensure the safety of raw materials, ingredients and equipment. Moreover, this also guarantees that products are handled in safe conditions and safe environment, avoiding contamination from biological, physical and chemical hazards. The final stage, namely shipment, usually follow suit with quality control and lab analysis. Indeed, as it has been mentioned earlier, every year some scandals directly or indirectly affect the seafood industry. Most of the times, those problems are discovered when it is too

“A certificate remains a piece of paper which has no value if it has not been granted by a trustful, recognized and accredited entity. Therefore, customers should conduct due diligence when choosing their partner”

late and people already got sick or the disease/virus/bad practice is already spread around the world. One way to prevent those risks is the use of quality controls and lab analysis accordingly to legislations or certification schemes, such as required by GMP+. The main advantage is the possibility to determine the presence of residues and contaminants within the products. This is aimed to control and prevent risks coming from Aflatoxins, mycotoxins, dioxin, antibiotics, fertilizers, GMO, etc., all of which have adverse effects on the consumers. However, it is important to underline that those two activities can be

11 conducted earlier and at any stage of the process. Indeed, it is for instance often required from fish farmers to conduct a quality check to avoid bad quality feed and any kind of contamination or components going against their own certification duties. Same is true for a processor who is sourcing from different suppliers and who does not want to see cross contamination happening in his facility. To conclude, it is true that being granted with a specific certificate or conducting quality checks might be costly and might appear as an excessive investment. However, ensuring quality and reliability would provide a bigger return on investment by allowing premium on certified products and a better penetration of the market. Nevertheless, a certificate remains a piece of paper which has no value if it

has not been granted by a trustful, recognized and accredited entity. Therefore, customers should conduct due diligence when choosing their partner and should not fall into the trap of going for cheap ones and getting several claims and complains afterwards, costing more money due to counter expertise, trials and a bad reputation.

More information AFâ„Ś

Soparat Bamrungsak International auditor E: Tipong Narkmit International auditor E: Stephan Moreels Business Development Manager E:



Pioneering the potential of insects Ÿnsect launched its demonstration unit "Ÿnsite" in Damparis near Dole, Jura in France. The pilot production facility started by Ÿnsect in September 2016 in the business park, Innovia Pôle, is a world first; the construction of a first plant in France is planned for 2018. Philippe Caldier reports.

"Ÿnsect was created in 2011 on a visionary principle: to position insect proteins at the heart of the agrifood chain in order to meet sustainably the planet's growing demand for meat and fish". Antoine Hubert, President and cofounder of Ÿnsect, believes that insects "prove a legitimate, sustainable and natural solution" to meet the challenge of the expected shortage of protein resources to meet the demand of nine billion inhabitants that the planet will count by 2050. Specifically, Ÿnsect aims to give insects the place that should be theirs in the food chain. Insects are at the base of the

The installation of the demonstration unit on the Innovia Pole was motivated by the close presence of well-established insect know-how and know-how in the field of robotics (micromechanics, watchmaking, etc.) which are essential for its proper implementation.

food pyramid and are an integral part of the diet of the majority of wildlife. For fish, studies show that the share of insects consumed by wild trout is about 40%. In wild poultry, such as pheasants or partridges, the proportion of insects in the diet can rise to 50% during their growth phase, and represents 10% to 20% in adults. This share is not negligible in other vertebrates. It the wild boar (of the pig family) it is 5%, and up to 3% in canines and felines. In cats in particular, the consumption of insects, even in small quantities (0.2 to 3% in wild cats), is essential, because it provides them taurine, an essential amino acid for the

absorption of lipids by the body, and chitin that promotes digestion, fulfilling the same role as fiber. After studying breeding methods and technologies for the extraction of proteins, lipids and chitin from many species of insects - beetles, flies, butterflies, locusts - Ÿnsect focused on the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, which possesses numerous physiological, technical and biochemical assets for the breeding and its processing. Indeed, the species is gregarious (the larvae live naturally at high densities of population), nocturnal (no need to spend energy to light the breeding), and with high protein

14 contents (nearly 55% in dry matter). Finally, Tenebrio molitor can grow in dry substrate, which has advantages in terms of cleaning.

Ÿnsect in dates: 35 M€ of funds raised since 2011 2011: Creation of Ÿnsect by four founders with complementary skills and entrepreneurial experience. 2012: Ÿnsect integrates the Agoranov incubator. It also co-coordinates one of the largest R & D

3 000 m² of technologies Sandrine Huet, Customer Service Manager, welcomed us at the demonstration facility, called Ÿnsite. Most of the 3,000 m² is dedicated to the breeding and processing of insects into proteins and oils. At the start of the visit, a model of this "farm of the future" stands in the entrance hall, showing the different phases of breeding and processing of insects.

programs in the world based on the insect. The project, called DESIRABLE, is granted 1M€ by the French national research agency, ANR. 2013: Ÿnsect launches its laboratory scale production in partnership with renowned research centers. 2014: Ÿnsect is joined by reputable partners to develop its strategy. Ÿnsect raises 1.8M€ with Emertec Gestion and Demeter Partners. Ÿnsect wins the innovation world prize 2030 and is the French CleanTech Company of the year. Ÿnsect opens a new facility at Genopole biocluster, southeast suburbs of Paris, housing its pilot plant. 2015: Ÿnsect closes a second financing round of 5.7 M€ at the end of 2014, and with the help of 6 M€ of public support, Ÿnsect invests 10 M€ in the construction of Ÿnsite, a pilot farm-hill. Ÿnsite, a world premiere, integrates all the break-through technologies developped by Ÿnsect.

The first phase is a breeding phase. Then the larval growth phase takes place in plastic bins stacked vertically on pallets stored on several levels, until the larvae reach an optimum stage to be processed at about 15 weeks of age.

The Ÿnsect team has 35 employees of various profiles.

The larvae are fed two to three times a week with wheat bran, the pallets being fed automatically under a feeder. To this automatic feeding of the larvae are added various sorting operations during the whole growth period (sorting of the eggs, of the dead insects, of excrement

technology fund BPI, Quadia SA and its historical shareholders. This fundraising allows Ÿnsect

From rearing to larval processing

2016: Ÿnsect delivered to its first customers in the pet food sector, after the opening of its technological and commercial demonstration unit. Ÿnsect obtains the ISO 9001 certification, underlining its strong commitment to the quality of its products and its organization. December 2016: Ÿnsect closes a third financing round of 14.2 M€ from the French Eco to accelerate its development and launch its project to build its first large-scale unit, mainly for the aquaculture sector. This latest table round brings the total funds raised, from public and private sources, to 35 M€ since 2011, one of the largest levels of investment in this sector worldwide. February 2017: Official inauguration of the demonstration unit "Ÿnsite".

15 or of the larvae at maturity to be transformed ...) and the visitor can observe these operations thanks to a glazed corridor located at the center of the pilot unit. "All the operations of breeding and sorting are automated, so as to reduce the difficulty of the work of the operators, and to ensure a maximum level of hygiene", comments Sandrine Huet. A continuous quality control is carried out via integrated sensors, which makes it possible to detect any weak signals and to guarantee the constant quality of the products.

A global demand Once mature, the larvae are automatically transported to the processing plant, which consists of several successive operations: steam steaming, separation of the products by pressing and centrifugation, and drying and bagging of the finished products.

Feeding of larvae is based on wheat bran and takes place two to three times a week, until they reach an optimum stage for their processing. The larvae are raised in stacks of tanks stored on pallets, in a controlled environment temperature (25 to 27 ° C) and humidity.During their breeding stage, the larvae undergo multiple sorting operations.

ingredients are produced by Ÿnsite: -ŸnMeal, an ingredient naturally rich in protein (more than 70%) but also in fiber and fat. ŸnMeal is in the form of a brownish fine powder. It is most often

Currently two types of premium

Bio-inspired farm hill An ant hill in nature

Air flow

-ŸnOil, a light oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is also intended for the feeding of domestic animals and farmed fish. Ÿnsect delivered to its first petfood customers in 2016 and its first customers in aquaculture since July 2017, when the European Commission authorized the use of insect proteins in broodstock fish feed.

Ÿnsect’s farm hill

Air flow Air flow Air flow

Air flow

used up to 5 to 30% of pet or farmed fish diets.

Air flow

Inspired by insect ingenuity, Ÿnsect built vertical farms of Molitor – mealworm beetles. Ÿnsect calls them ‘Farm-hills’, in reference to their inspired-by-nature origin (according to the principle of biomimicry, drawing inspiration from nature).

"While our first customers are French, we have growing demands from many countries or regions of the world, such as Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, North and South America and Asia" says Sandrine Huet, adding: "The Ÿnsite demonstrator has proven the relevance of our technology and our know-how. We are therefore preparing the

16 construction of our first commercial plant in France from 2018 ".

ŸnMeal is an ingredient naturally rich in protein (more than 70%) but also in fiber and fat. ŸnOil is a light oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids extracted mechanically from Molitor larvae.

The droppings of the larvae are in the process of being upgraded to organic fertilizers, this process being in the approval phase. Finally, with its products such as chitin and its derivatives (chitosan, etc.), Ÿnsect will enter the market for biomaterials, nutritional supplements (animal and plant nutrition) or water treatment.

"The Ÿnsite demonstrator has proven the relevance of our technology and our know-how. We are therefore preparing the construction of our first commercial plant in France from 2018"Sandrine Huet


More information Philippe Caldier is an independent journalist E: Contact Ÿnsect at: E:



Understanding the

Sink / Float Phenomenon in aquafeeds By Dennis Forte, Dennis Forte & Associates Pty. Ltd.and Gordon Young,Food Industry Engineering

Aquatic feeds manufactured by extrusion are typically designed to either exhibit “100% Sink” or “100% Float” behavior (Figure 1). But sometimes a small proportion of the product may not exhibit the desired behavior i.e. a few of the pellets might float, instead of sinking, or vice versa. A related quality control issue is when the feed

Fig.1 The extrusion process used for the manufacture of aquatic feeds can generate product that either sinks or floats, or a mixture of both

sinks, as required when produced, but some time (days) later, a proportion of the feed becomes floating. This is referred to as the

Sink / Float Phenomenon. This article discussed the causes of these issues.

Archimedes' Principle states that the buoyant force on a submerged object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. A practical result of this is that an object will float if its density is less than the density of the surrounding fluid, or will sink if its density is greater than that of the surrounding fluid. Note it is the density of each individual pellet that is important – the Pellet Density. However, in the aquafeed industry, a more convenient measure is Bulk Density.

The Bulk Density is directly affected by Pellet Density – but also relates to the way the pellets pack within the sample container (Figure 2). Bulk Density is an indirect – and inexact – measure of pellet density, but it is a product parameter that can be easily measured and relates to the sink/float behavior – see Table 1 – so it is commonly used as a quality control parameter.

19 The Direct Expansion Process Pellet (and therefore bulk) density is developed by the extrusion process, through direct expansion which promotes the development of a porous internal structure within the pellets (Figure 3).

Fig.2. The definition of the product bulk density and the pellet density

Table 1 Typical Targets for Product Bulk Density (kg/m3)

Sink/Float Characteristic

In Sea Water

(3% salt)

In Fresh Water

Fast sinking

> 640

< 600

Slow sinking

580 - 600

540 - 560


520 - 540

480 - 520


< 480

< 440

Water density (@ 20 oC)




The extrusion melt is delivered to the die at an elevated pressure and (typically) also at an elevated temperature. As it passes through the die, moisture in the product flashes into stream, driving rapid expansion. The direct expansion process may be considered as consisting of three distinct phases. These are shown schematically in Figure 3 and discussed in detail in Forte & Young (2016).

The transformation of the structure from malleable to rigid, will occur at a specific product temperature known as the Glass Transition Temperature, Tg, which is dependent upon the product composition and especially its moisture content. An example of a phase transition curve for corn starch is presented in Figure 4. The Melting Temperature, Tm, is also presented.


Fig.3. (a) The direct expansion process as used in a typical extrusion cooking process and (b) The changes in product dimension (i.e. diameter) and the product temperature as a function of time

20 Fig.4. The phase transition curve for corn starch

Due to the dynamic nature of the extrusion process, the flow of the melt from the die is not uniform. This leads to the manufacture of a product with a range of pellet sizes, as shown in Figure 5. The degree of control of any given process is reflected in the degree of variation in pellet size.

Fig.5. The direct expansion process generates a pellet size distribution rather than a single pellet diameter

The Pellet Drying Process Another critical part of the process for

manufacturing aquatic feeds is the pellet drying process (post-extrusion). The drying process results in pellets which

21 Figure. 6. During drying a moisture gradient is established within the pellet itself. The average moisture is correct.

If the drying process is carried out in a manner which is too aggressive (for example by using an excessively short time,

excessively high temperature, or a high air velocity), then the product can undergo a significant amount of shrinkage.

have the desired average moisture content, but in fact there is a moisture gradient within the pellets; they are very dry on the surface with a wetter core (see Figure 6). If the drying process is carried out in a manner which is too aggressive (for example by using an excessively short time, excessively high temperature, or a high air velocity), then the product can undergo a significant amount of shrinkage. The core of the pellet â&#x20AC;&#x201C; which is still in a hot, malleable state, above its glass transition temperature â&#x20AC;&#x201C; is compressed by the drier, non-malleable surface layers (see Figure 7). This can result in significant stresses being established within the pellet. Over time the moisture gradient established within the pellet during drying will equilibrate (see Figure 8). As the moisture migrates to the surface layers, the total pellet moisture content will remain the same, but as the surface gains moisture, it softens (glass transition temperature decreases). Depending

Figure. 7. If the drying process is too aggressive, then significant Shrinkage of the pellet may result.

Fig.8. Moisture migration within the pellet will result in equilibration. This can lead to swelling of the pellet to relieve the stored stresses.

22 upon the amount of shrinkage which has previously occurred, the residual stresses may begin to “relax” because the pellet can now swell. The swelling will typically take about 2 to 3 days. But this swelling is not observed visually – can it be sufficient to change the sink/float behavior?

The effect of the changes to the pellet size upon the pellet density The Pellet Density (for a cylindrical pellet) is defined as: ρP = m / VP = m / [ π R2 L ] Consider the following practical example. The data was obtained from a random sample from an operating extruder:

Target Pellet Diameter, D = 8.0 mm Radius, R = 4.0 mm Target Pellet Length, L = 12.0 mm Pellet Volume, Vp = 603.2 mm3 Weight of sample collected, M = 330g Number of Pellets collected, # = 510 Therefore:

Av. Pellet Weight, m = 0.65 g per pellet Av. Pellet Density, ρP = 1072.7 kg m-3 Pellets with the correct geometry (and hence the correct pellet density) would sink in both fresh water and in salt water. What would the impact be if the pellet geometry was to change due to either shrinkage (or swelling)? Lets say the pellet radius increases by an amount δR = 3% (or just 0.12 mm), then the Pellet Volume will increase to Vp = 639.9 mm3. The Pellet Density will now be ρP = 1011.2 kg m-3 and the pellet would sink in fresh water, but would float in salt water!

If the Pellet Length increases by an amount δL = 6% (or just 0.72 mm), then the Pellet Volume will change to Vp = 639.4 mm3. The Pellet Density will now be ρP = 1012.0 kg m-3 and the pellet would sink in fresh water, but would float in salt water! These very small (visually imperceptible) changes in the size of the pellets (especially its radius), resulting from either the direct expansion process or the drying process, can lead to sufficient changes in the pellet density to change the pellet from sinking to floating.

Conclusion Very small changes in the geometry of the pellets, especially radius, can lead to significant changes to the Pellet Density, and therefore determines whether the pellet sinks or floats. The dynamic nature of the direct expansion process used for the extrusion cooking of aquatic feeds results in the manufacture of a product with a pellet size distribution. The degree of control of the process is determines the extent of the variability – therefore poor process control can lead to some pellets sinking and some floating, even if bulk density is correct. In addition, poor control of the drying process can result in internal stresses developing which cause pellets to expand imperceptibly in the days following production. This can lead to some pellets, which would sink immediately after production, becoming floating pellets a few days later.

More information

Dennis Forte, Dennis Forte & Associates Pty. Ltd., E: Gordon Young, Food Industry Engineering, E: The authors present annual “Aquafeed Extrusion Technology” short courses. The next course will be April 23-25, 2018, at NMBU (Norwegian University of Life Sciences), Ås (near Oslo), Norway. This 3-day course covers the principles of extrusion, the design of extrusion processes for aquatic feeds, as well as how the formulation interacts with the extrusion process. Principles learned will be demonstrated using the extruder in the Centre for Feed Technology pilot plant. The program provides a good background in general extrusion technology, but is specifically directed at aquafeed extrusion. The course is relevant to both single and twin screw extrusion technology. The course will cover topics from the basics of extruders and their configuration, through what is happening chemically and physically inside the extruder barrel, to an understanding of extruder dies and extruder instability. They also run extrusion training programs in Europe, Asia and Australia



Bioactive Peptides from hydrolyzed proteins: a new opportunity for aquaculture By Oriol RoigĂŠ, Bioiberica, Barcelona, Spain. The farming of fish and shrimp can still be considered a young and developing industry, since it only started in the 50s and did not explode till the 90s (FAO). Since then, it has become the alternative to wild capture, and has already achieved a production level of around 50 per cent of total marine organismsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; harvest. Given the potential and relevance of aquaculture (which is important to meet the global animal protein demand), and the fact that it is a young industry (there is room for improvement and growth), companies and administrations are putting efforts and resources in to it.

Without a doubt, aquaculture nutrition and feeds is one of the most studied fields, with many researchers investigating how to obtain maximum profit for the best price. Protein plays an important role in fish feed, and it makes the difference in terms of feed efficiency, quality, production and profit (Hou et al., 2017). Traditionally, one of the main sources of protein in fish feed is fish meal, for different reasons (reasonable price, broad offering, availability, good qualityâ&#x20AC;Ś). However, in recent years the trend has been to reduce the amount of this raw material, because of the environmental impact, the fluctuation of price and all the uncertainties of the

geopolitical scene. Soybean meal is being used to replace fishmeal protein in feed. It is well known that soy is a good source of protein and it is also attractive in terms of price. However, its efficiency in terms of fish growth and production is not as good as using fish meal, because these animals demand an animal-like protein profile rather than a vegetablelike protein profile. For this reason the addition of animal origin protein hydrolysates in feeds with reduced or without fish meal and with high levels of soybean meal is increasingly common. Animal protein hydrolysates are a highquality source of free amino acids, small peptides (di and tripeptides) and other oligopeptides (length from 2 to 20 amino

acids) obtained from different animal byproducts using chemical, enzymatic or microbial hydrolysis (Pasupuleki & Braun, 2010) (Dieterich et al., 2014). Animal protein hydrolysates are very interesting products in the field of animal nutrition. One of the best known hydrolyzed proteins is hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa, also known as porcine solubles or porcine digestible peptides. This is a product that is commonly associated with the manufacturing process of heparin, the pharmaceutical anticoagulant drug, which is in fact isolated from porcine intestinal mucosa. Bioiberica (Barcelona, Spain) is the leading heparin manufacturing company in the world, and has for many

24 years been using the by-products of heparin production (hydrolyzed porcine intestinal mucosa) to create a source of premium quality (pharmaceutical quality) protein for animal feed under the brand Palbio. Bioiberica currently manufactures two products: Palbio 50 RD (fluid bed dried with 50% of protein) and Palbio 62 SP (spray dried with 62% of protein). Porcine mucosa hydrolysates are already being used all around the world in the pig and poultry industry, where they have proved to be excellent products as fish meal replacers, plasma replacers and soybean meal replacers, improving the production parameters and reducing feed cost. Fish and shrimp have only been farmed for 50 years, which means that aquaculture nutrition, compared to other animal nutrition fields, is a relatively new science. Porcine mucosa hydrolysates are still not very common in aquafeeds, and while its use and properties are widely known in other animal sectors, they are still an unknown ingredient in aquaculture. However, the potential and advantages of the inclusion of porcine mucosa hydrolysates in fish and shrimp feeds are immense and very promising. One of the main characteristics of porcine digestible peptides is its high digestibility because of its rich composition in free amino acids, dipeptides, and small peptides. In the case of Palbio 50 and Palbio 62, for example, the average molecular weight of the protein content is just 400 Da. These low molecular weights make these products the most digestible protein source in the market for animal feed. More specifically, spray dried hydrolyzed porcine mucosa (Palbio 62) has a protein digestibility of 98.8% in shrimp, which makes it one of the

highest quality protein sources for this species. The inclusion of these products in aquafeed formulations adds extra nutritional value to the feed. Not only because of the high bioavailability of these peptides to the animal body, but also because of the activity of these peptides in the body. It is widely accepted that hydrolyzedproteins (either from animal, plant or other sources) are rich in bioactive peptides. The value of bioactive peptides goes beyond its nutritional function: they are of huge interest because of their biological, physiological or regulatory functions in the organism (Hou et al., 2017). Bioactive peptides are indeed a revolution in animal feed, as it is possible to get specific biological reactions that have a positive effect in the animal body through nutrition. Small peptides from animal products have been found to have, among other things, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties by scavenging free radicals or inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory compounds (Shimizu & Son, 2007) (Bah et al., 2016) (Memarpor-Yazdia et al., 2012) (Power et

al., 2013). These bioactive molecules show their activity at the intestinal level: they can remove the oxygen radicals caused by digestion and reduce its production (Ryder et al., 2016) (Zambrowicz et al., 2015); or they can attack pathogenic bacteria in the intestine by breaking their cell membranes (Lima et al., 2015) (Osman et al., 2016) (Wald et al., 2016). In the case of porcine intestinal mucosa hydrolysates only a few studies have been published, but some bioactive peptides with different biological activity have already been identified (Table 1) (Agerberth et al., 1989) (Bah et al., 2016) (MemarporYazdia et al., 2012) (Power et al., 2013). The value of bioactive peptides is slowly gaining relevance in the aquaculture nutrition. Their presence in the diet might be very helpful to increase feed efficiency and improve the overall production and survival of the animals. Shrimp farming, for example, has exponentially grown during the last decades. However, as volume increased, the efficiency of production decreased reaching very low survival ratios that threatens the sustainability of this

Table 1. Known bioactive peptides present in hydrolyzedporcine intestinal mucosa.

Bioactive peptides in Porcine Intestinal Hydrolysates Peptide PEC-60 Dopuin

Function/role immunomodulation, regulatory, gastrointestinal system Probably immune/defensive system and probably gastrointestinal system


Antimicrobial (Gram+ and Gram-)

Lysozyme C

Antimicrobial (Gram+ and Gram-)


Antimicrobial (Gram+ and Gram-)

Cryptidn-related peptides

Antimicrobial (Gram+ and Gram-)

Phospholipid-sn-2 esterase C-type lectin

Antimicrobial (Gram+) Antimicrobial (Gram+)

25 activity. Of course, the strategy to face this problem is multidisciplinary, but improving nutritional strategies with high quality hydrolyzed proteins rich in bioactive peptides could add a new functionality to the feeds. These new functionalities would suppose an incredible advantage for this situation: not only the excellent nutritional quality and digestibility of the protein would help, but also the antimicrobial, immunomodulation or other characteristics of these peptides would improve the overall health and would absolutely benefit the production by decreasing the risk of diseases, mortality or other problems. As an additional example, bioactive peptides could also be useful to overcome the inflammation caused by the increasing levels of soy in fishmealfree diets. The anti-inflammatory properties and the high digestibility of these peptides can compensate the negative effects of soya anti-nutritional factors.

Fig.1. Weight of young gilt-head bream after 134 days with diets with different inclusion of hydrolyzed porcine mucosa (Palbio 62, Bioiberica).

Besides the promising potential and the experience in other species, very little is yet known about the use and positive effect of the porcine mucosa hydrolyzed proteins in aquaculture feeds. However, Bioiberica (the leading company in porcine intestinal mucosa hydrolysates) has started proving these effects in both fish and shrimps using Palbio 62 SP (with 62% of hydrolyzed bioactive peptides). In a first trial, Palbio 62 was tested on young 11g gilt-head bream fed on 100% plant-based diets with no fish-meal over 134 days. Results (shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2) display a significant improvement on production parameters after 134 days, increasing overall weight, specific growth ratio and improving FCR in diets with just 1% of Palbio 62.

Fig.2. Specific growth rate (SGR) and FCR of young gilt-head bream after 134 days with diets with different inclusion of hydrolyzed porcine mucosa (Palbio 62, Bioiberica).

In a second trial, same Palbio 62 inclusion was tested in shrimps (Litopenaeus vanammei). In this trial, different groups

with different conditions were tested (partial/total replacement of fishmeal by soybean meal with/without 1% Palbio 62

26 Table 2. Composition of the shrimp diets based on different levels of fishmeal substitution by soybean meal and inclusion of porcine hydrolyzed mucosa (Palbio 62, Bioiberica).




Control 0: (Fishmeal 25%)


Control 1: soybean meal 35% + 12,5 % fishmeal


Palbio 62 1% + soybean meal 35% + fishmeal 12, 5 %


Control 2: soybean meanl 55% + fishmeal 0%


1% Palbio 62 + soybean meal 55% + fishmeal 0%

bioactive peptides needs to be studied in detail and the benefits of these new functionalities should be further tested in specific cell systems and field trials. However, the inclusion of hydrolyzed porcine mucosa is already a reality with great improvements, and the future is, at least, promising.

Conclusions The inclusion of hydrolyzed proteins from porcine intestinal mucosa opens a new scope in aquaculture and the aqua feed industry. This highly nutritional protein source, well known in other animal nutrition fields, is making his way through fish and shrimp farming. As a by-product from the manufacturing of heparin, it has a pharma quality level, which makes it a very interesting and trustworthy product. Furthermore, protein hydrolysates contain bioactive peptides that, beyond the nutritional value, they have a specific biological function in the intestine, which makes this kind of products a health and growth promoter through immune system modulation, anti-inflammatory effects, antioxidation, anti-microbial and regulatory compounds.

Fig.3. Weight of shrimps at 12 weeks fed with different diets with/without fishmeal replacement and Palbio 62 inclusion.

inclusion, Table 2). Results are shown in Figure 3. Logically, the group with no fishmeal replacement had better productive results than the partial or total replacement. However, with 1% Palbio 62 inclusion, the best results were obtained in the partial replacement with soybean meal group. In addition, the group with total soybean meal replacement performed better with 1% Palbio 62 inclusion that the group with partial

soybean meal replacement without Palbio 62. This would suggest that the inclusion of just 1% of Palbio 62 compensates the total elimination of fishmeal, and that the best production results are obtained with a partial replacement adding just 1% of Palbio 62. Further research needs to be done to undercover the full potential of the application of porcine intestinal mucosa hydrolysates in aquaculture. The role of

AFâ&#x201E;Ś More information Oriol RoigĂŠ Product Manager Animal Nutrition Bioiberica Barcelona, Spain.

E: References are available by request.

Biotronic Top3 ÂŽ


breakthrough in

pathogen control!

The Permeabilizing ComplexTM blend in BiotronicÂŽ Top3 weakens the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, thus boosting the synergistic effect of its components, the organic acids and the phytochemical.

Naturally ahead

Naturally ahead


Probiotics to boost immune fitness and gut health By Benedict Standen, PhD, Product Manager, BIOMIN Despite growing trends in probiotic use, their application in aquafeeds has been constrained by the aggressive feed manufacture process, which kills or maims heat sensitive bacteria. Recently, advances in post pellet application and other technologies are overcoming this hurdle and the benefits are being observed around the world. Probiotics offer feed millers the opportunity to produce value added functional feeds. Once the feed is consumed, a successful probiotic will colonize the intestinal tract and exert a number of benefits, often relating to enhanced immunity and disease resistance. The intestine is one of the main portals of entry for invading pathogens. In order to successfully infect the host, a pathogen must navigate and survive multiple obstacles and attacks, executed by the hostâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s immune system.

of mounting an immune response against a wide range of pathogens. Secondly, due to the ectothermic nature of fish, adaptive immunity can take considerable time. For example, antibody production in salmonids can take up to six weeks, compared to just hours or days for the innate immune system.

Reinforcing the first line of defense The mucus layer produced by goblet cells provides the immediate line of defense. The mucus functions to trap and remove pathogens by providing both a physical and chemical barrier, since it contains a number of antimicrobial compounds. This mucus layer can be modified by the

commensal microbiota as well as probiotic bacteria. For example, after feeding tilapia with a commercial probiotic for five weeks, it was discovered that there were approximately 60% more goblet cells in the intestine (Figure 1). These additional goblet cells could contribute to a greater production of mucus, thus providing a more impenetrable barrier, potentially retarding pathogens and preventing their attachment to the underlying epithelia.

Strengthening the barrier: microvilli density Beneath the mucus layer, lies the epithelia, primarily consisting of enterocytes. These cells are lined with

Innate immune response = 1st consideration As with mammals, the fish immune system can be separated by innate (nonspecific) and adaptive (specific) responses. Compared to mammals, fish are more dependent on the innate immune response for two main reasons. First, the innate immune system has developed to be non-specific and is therefore capable


Goblet cells Control


Fig. 1. The abundance of goblet cells and IELs (per 100Âľm) in the intestine of fish fed with and without dietary probiotics. (Source: BIOMIN)

29 microvilli. Using electron microscopy, it was shown that the probiotic significantly increases microvilli density in the gut. The benefit of this increase is two-fold. First more numerous microvilli will increase the surface area so the host can acquire more nutrients from the feed. Second, any gaps between microvilli present an opportunity for pathogens to translocate the epithelia and infect the fish (Figure 2). Thus a higher microvilli density, caused by the probiotic, contributes to a more efficient barrier between the inside of the gut and the outside, blocking pathogens.

Larger leukocyte infantry Assuming a pathogen was able to breach the epithelia, an army of white blood cells, collectively known as intraepithelial leucocytes (IELs), would be waiting to attack the pathogen. Our research at Plymouth University consistently demonstrated that tilapia feeds supplemented with probiotics resulted in significantly larger popula-


tions of IEL. This increase was between 22-38% depending on the probiotic dosage, as well as the duration of feeding (Figure 1).

Intestinal gene expression analyses show that

Better immune readiness All pathogens express pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on their cell surface. These are recognized by their respective receptor molecules such as TLR’s which notify the host on the pathogen type (i.e. bacterial, viral, fungal etc.; Figure 3). Intestinal gene expression analyses show that probiotics can up-regulate the expression of TLR2 by approximately five-fold in tilapia. TLR2 is important for recognizing Gram-positive bacteria. This is particularly important because tilapia (along with many other warm water species) are susceptible to a number of Gram-positive infections, most notably Streptococcus. Once activated, TLR’s initiate a number of molecular pathways which result in the production of pro-inflammatory

probiotics can up-regulate the expression of TLR2 by approximately five-fold in tilapia

cytokines. The same probiotic addition to tilapia diets caused an increase in proinflammatory gene expression, IL-1β and TNFα. These data are suggestive of a fish which is more prepared to fight off potential future pathogens since the host can recognize and clear the threat much more rapidly, thus it has greater immune readiness.


Fig. 2. Electron micrographs showing microvilli from fish fed a control diet (a) and probiotic supplemented diet (b). Gaps between microvilli (MV), as seen in micrograph a, provide an entry point for opportunistic pathogens. Compared to micrograph b, the microvilli provide an impenetrable barrier, blocking pathogen entry. (Source: BIOMIN)

30 Getting the right balance The gut is home to a large number of commensal microorganisms. It is important that these are protected by the host as they provide important functions in intestinal development, nutrition and immunity. Antiinflammatory cytokines are part of a tolerance mechanism which acts to desensitize the host, thus it does not initiate an immune response to attack ‘good’ bacteria. Furthermore, they act to balance out the pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus maintaining an equilibrium within the mucosal immune system. In vivo trials using tilapia, demonstrates that the gene expression of two antiinflammatory genes, IL-10 and TGFβ, can also be increased by the addition of AquaStar® Growout. This result tells us two things; firstly, that the host does not see the probiotics as a threat and secondly that the probiotics can help to promote and maintain mucosal tolerance.

Overall immune fitness: an extension of gut health If a pathogen is successful in overcoming the localized immune system (i.e. within the gut), it is then at the mercy of the systemic immune system. In fish, this is controlled by the head kidney. Therefore, head kidney tissues were also analyzed for immune related gene expression. Similar to the gut, RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the gene expression of immunity genes (TLR2, pro- and antiinflammatory) were all elevated in probiotic fed fish. This reveals that probiotics can have a wide reaching benefit on host immunity, not just in

Fig. 3. Modulation of intestinal immunity through TLR signaling. Pathogens (and probiotics) bind to TLR. Upon activation, adaptor proteins such as myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MYD88) are recruited. When this happens, IkB (inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB)) is phosphorylated (P) and degraded by the cell. This allows NFkB to pass from the cytoplasm into the nucleus of the cell where initiates the cytokine transcription. (Source: adapted from Cerf-Bensussan & Gaboriau-Routhiau, 2010.)

localized tissues where the initial exposure occurred, but also at the whole organism level.

Conclusion Probiotics can improve the intestinal barrier function, promote a state of superior immune readiness and enhance tolerance mechanisms, both within the intestine and other immuno-important tissues. This opens the door to healthier

animals, fewer instances of disease and less chemotherapeutical intervention in aquaculture production. AFΩ More information

Benedict Standen, PhD Product Manager, BIOMIN E:


Bacterial protein meal: A gut-healthy and sustainable alternative to the scarce resource of protein from fishmeal By Ina K. Julegaard, Commercial Animal Nutritionist, Unibio Group


inclusion levels of fishmeal and increased use of plant-based protein sources and fish byproducts. It is a complex task as the demand for high-quality fish remains strong. By way of example, fishmeal produced from fish waste accounted for 29% of global fishmeal production in 2013-2015, while the equivalent number for 2025 is 38%. This will affect the The rapidly growing global aquaculture composition and quality of the fishmeal, industry and the limited supply of leading to a decreased protein content fishmeal have forced fish farmers to and increased amounts of minerals and reduce their dependence on traditional small amino acids (glycine, proline, marine raw materials through reduced hydroxyproline). The difference in composition, with a lower protein content, may affect the nutrition of the carnivorous fish as they require a higher amount of protein to achieve optimal growth. Studies have also been conducted to investigate the possibilities of using soybean meal as an alternative to fishmeal as it is a common source of 1954 1964 1974 1984 1994 2004 2014 protein for many other livestock animals. Capture fisheries However, inclusion of soybean meal has Aquaculture shown to cause soybean meal-induced enteritis in salmonid fish, which is a Fig. 1. Relative contribution of aquaculture and capture fisheries to fish for human consumption. disease causing inflammation in the (Green, K. Seafish Insight. The global picture â&#x20AC;&#x201C; fishmeal production and trends. FAO SOFIA Rep. (2016)).

Fish for human consumption

The global demand for fish for human consumption has increased significantly over the past fifty years with a worldwide increase per capita from 10 kg in the 1960s to 20 kg today. Furthermore, aquaculture production continues to grow and has since 2014 accounted for more than half of all fish for human consumption (Figure 1). This has led to a growing demand for fishmeal as it is the primary source of protein in aquaculture feed. However, fishmeal is a scarce resource as it is dependent on wild fish populations, which cannot follow the

increasing demand for fish. With the continuous rise in living standards, aquaculture will become even more intensive, subsequently raising global fishmeal requirements and demands. Since fishmeal is a scarce resource and aquaculture is growing, new alternatives to fishmeal will have to be found.

32 distal intestine. The anti-nutritional factor of soybean meal disrupting the mechanisms of the gastrointestinal tract is caused by alcohol-soluble components such as saponins. The gastrointestinal tract provides absorption of nutrients and ensures a good gut health by simultaneous immune reactions towards deleterious feedstuffs. However, this homeostasis seems to be disrupted by the saponins in soybean meal, which cause an impaired immune tolerance. The presence of enteritis will last as long as the fish are fed with soybean meal, but the intestinal tissue will recover after three weeks if the fish are fed a diet free of soybean meal. This is a problem not only observed in salmonid species; it has also been seen in Asian sea bass, channel catfish, gilthead sea bream and common carp. Therefore, soybean meal is not a suitable protein source for farmed fish.

Fig. 2. AAs (%of CP) of UniproteinÂŽ in comparison with fishmeal and SBM

Bacterial protein meal grown on methane has been shown to be a suitable protein source for farmed fish,

particularly for the salmonid species and other monogastric animals. UniproteinÂŽ is a bacterial protein meal grown by

33 aerobic fermentation of methane by use of the methanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus. It is a proteinrich biomass produced by a microbial culture with methane as the sole carbon and energy source. The bacterial biomass resulting in the production of Uniprotein® is heat-treated for a short period of time to sterilize the product and then spray-dried to a powder or pellet product – consisting of 72.9% crude protein, 9.1% crude fat in the dry matter and with a moisture content of 68%, which is comparable to fishmeal. Also, the amino acid composition of Uniprotein® is similar to that of fishmeal, which makes it an ideal protein source to replace fishmeal. Thereby, it can be used as a direct supplement in feed for all animals and fish.

In addition to the fact that bacterial protein meal is a suitable replacement for fishmeal due to its chemical composition, it has also been shown to have some positive immune stimulatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract of salmonid species. In salmon a bacterial protein meal content of up to 36% in the diet has resulted in an improved specific growth rate (22%) and a significantly higher feed efficiency ratio (10%) compared to fishmeal diets. Inclusion levels of bacterial protein meal of up to 36% also showed a higher retention of nitrogen (16%) and a higher retention of energy (14%) compared to a fishmeal control diet. These results indicate that inclusion of bacterial protein meal improves the gut health of the fish and the function of the gastrointestinal tract, thus increasing digestion and utilization of the nutrients.

Dietary treatment (%BPM)

Relative feed intake (%BW-1, grey bars), specific growth rate (SGR, white bars) and feed efficiency ratio (FER, black bars) of Atlantic salmon fed with increased levels of BPM (mean±S.E.M., n=3). Significant differences (P≤0.05) are indicated with different letters. Fig. 3. Dietary treatment (%BPM)

(Aas, T. S., Grisdale-Helland, B., Terjesen, B. F. & Helland, S. J. Improved growth and nutrient utilisation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets containing a bacterial protein meal. Aquaculture 259, 365–376 (2006)).

The gut health improving effects of bacterial protein meal are also seen when bacterial protein meal is fed together with soybean meal. It is shown that nucleic acids and phospholipids may be beneficial to the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract. The crude fat of bacterial protein meal consists mainly of phospholipids which, together with the nucleic acids, may affect the immune reactions and improve the intestinal growth and the gastrointestinal differentiation in the digestive tract of the fish. Thus, bacterial

protein meal may trigger the immune response in the gastrointestinal tract of the fish and thereby prevent soybeaninduced enteritis. To summarize and conclude, bacterial protein meal is an important and valuable protein source and can be used as an alternative to fishmeal in the aquaculture industry. Furthermore, bacterial protein meal can provide savings on feed through an increase in specific growth rate and feed efficiency ratio due to its gut health improving factors.


More information

Ina K. Julegaard, Commercial Animal Nutritionist, Unibio Group E: References available on request

DOCUMENTING AQUATIC FEED MILLS Through the photography of Laurent Bellec The distinctive architecture of aquaculture feed mills will be captured in a new artistic book, thanks to a partnership between and renown feedmill photographer, Laurent Bellec. The book will be a collection of the diverse, and sometimes

Be part of the project! Feature YOUR mill in this important record. To learn more, contact Laurent Bellec at:

beautiful aquafeed mill structures to be found around the world.

Laurent Bellec has published two collections of European feedmills, which were created in association with FEFAC, the federation of European feed manufacturers and with the support of several industry sponsors. His photographs are shown at feed industry trade shows as art books. This new collection will follow the theme of Bellec's previous photographic and editorial work: enhancing contemporary industrial aesthetic design. The aim is to launch the project of a first edition at the next VICTAM ASIA in Bangkok in March 2018. Laurent Bellec is currently accepting sponsors and partners, who will be offered various special benefits.


Supporting carnivorous and marine fish health using yeast products in reduced fish meal diets By Otavio Serino Castro, Nadège Richard, Philippe Tacon, Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, France.

Recently, new nutritional solutions and novel protein

sources have allowed the development of diverse fish meal replacement strategies. The success of

Due to its unique nutritional value, combined with the presence of functional compounds like β-glucans and mannan-oligosaccharides, yeast products represent a valuable tool to support gut health and increase fish resistance against pathogen infection in reduced fish meal feed formulations.

each approach relies on the equilibrium among diet characteristics,

environmental conditions, fish health and stress status. However, even a nutritionally well designed feed formula can result in reduced growth and significant higher mortality,

depending on the field challenges.

Gut health implications Marine and carnivorous fish species are known to be more sensitive to nutritional imbalances and dietary antinutritional factors, such as mycotoxins, enzyme inhibitors, saponins, oxidized lipids, etc. Yet, the harmful physiological effects caused by these compounds in fish metabolism is determined by the interaction of several factors, like its concentration in the feed, exposure time, life stage, pathogen pressure, etc. The soybean-induced enteritis is a major challenge limiting fish meal reduction for some species. It also illustrates how alternative protein sources can affect fish performance in different degree and intensity. During initial stages of feeding, impaired digestive functions and

intestinal inflammatory responses can be triggered. When the exposure is chronic, a more severe impact can be observed, such as morphological changes in the intestine (folds shortening; loss of vacuolization in the enterocytes; widening of the central lamina propria and leukocytes infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa). These negative impacts affect not only fish nutrient utilization capacity and growth, but also their ability to cope with environmental challenges and pathogens.

Improving grouper survival A trial was carried out at Guangdong Ocean University, China, to evaluate the effects of a functional protein supplementation (autolyzed baker’s yeast Nutrisaf®) on disease resistance in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), fed decreasing levels of fishmeal, substituted by vegetal protein sources. Four isoproteic, isolipidic and isoenergetic diets were formulated to generate two control groups with a high and a reduced fish meal inclusion (FM and SBM diets respectively) and two

36 Table 1. Formulation and proximate composition of the experimental diets (% dry weight). FM


Nutrisaf® 1

Nutrisaf® 2




Dehulled soybean meal





Nutrisaf® 501





Corn gluten meal





Wheat gluten meal





Wheat flour





Fish oil



















Crude lipid





Crude protein





Ingredients Fishmeal



Nutrient composition

* Standard inclusion: lecithin; CaH2PO3 ; vitamin and mineral premix ; antioxidant; vitamin C and choline chloride

other diets corresponding to the Soy Bean Meal (SBM) diet supplemented with Nutrisaf® at 1 and 2% (Table 1). Fish with 10.0 ± 0.05 g initial body weight were randomly distributed into 18 tanks (30 fish/tank), with three replicates per treatment. Water temperature was 29 ± 1°C. After an 8-week feeding period, mRNA expression of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α, pro-inflammatory cytokine) was assessed in grouper intestine. Additionally, 10 fish per tank were challenged with pathogenic Vibrio harveyi via pectoral fin injection (1.6 x 108cfu). Cumulative mortality was evaluated during seven days’ post challenge. The TNF-α mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the reduced fish meal groups supplemented with Nutrisaf® at 1 and 2% compared to the SBM control

group. Results obtained in the Nutrisaf®supplemented groups did not differ significantly from the FM control group (Figure 1). Significant higher survival rates were observed after V. harveyi challenge with both Nutrisaf® supplementation dosages. Survival of the Nutrisaf®-supplemented groups were numerically higher than survival of FM group although the difference was not statistically significant.

Improving Japanese seabass survival In a previous study, Yu et al. (2014) evaluated the effects of increasing doses of yeast parietal fractions (Safmannan®) on innate immunity and survival of Japanese seabass (18.30 ± 0.01 g initial body weight). Fish were fed on reduced

fish meal diets (from 38.5 to 25% in the diets) as control diets (FM and SBM diets respectively) (Table 2). Two other diets were formulated, corresponding to SBM diet supplemented with 0.5 kg and 2 kg/ ton of Safmannan®. Diets were isoproteic, isolipidic and isoenergetic. Each experimental feed was distributed to six replicates (30 fish per tank) during 10 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, some immune parameters were measured in fish plasma (4 fish per tank). Fish were then challenged with Aeromonas veronii (intramuscular injection at 8 x 104 cells/100 g body weight) and their survival was monitored along 1 week. At the end of the 1-week challenge, fish plasma was sampled for immune parameters measurement. Fish fed SBM diet supplemented with 0.5 kg/ton of Safmannan® increased significantly the IgM plasmatic levels after infection (Figure 2). The same dosage resulted in higher survival after Aeromonas challenge (85%), compared to both the FM and SBM control groups. Japanese seabass survival rate was the lowest in the non-supplemented group with decreased fish meal inclusion (SBM control group, 42%). FM group reached slightly higher survival than SBM group. These results demonstrated that supplementation of yeast parietal fractions can improve fish immune status and promote better fish survival even compared to a high fish meal diet. To assess the effects on seabass gut health, a histological analysis was also performed in intestine samples of fish from FM, SBM and Safmannan® (supplemented at 2 kg/ton) groups. Results demonstrated a significant improvement on the height of mucosal folds of both anterior and distal

37 Table 2. Formulation and proximate composition of the experimental diets. Safmannan®


(0.5 kg/ton)

(2 kg/ton)








Soybean protein concentrate





Wheat flour





Fish oil





Microcrystalline cellulose














Proximate composition (% dry matter) Crude lipid





Crude protein








Soybean meal

Ingredients (%) Fishmeal



Premix: Vitamin and mineral mixture: 1%; Monocalcium phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2): 1% for FM diet, 2.1% for SBM and Safmannan® diets; Choline chloride (50%): 1%; Methionine hydroxy analog-Ca (98%): 0.1% for SBM and Safmannan® diets.

intestines. The height of mucosal folds in the group supplemented with 2 kg/ton of Safmannan® were significantly higher than low fish meal control group (Figure 3).

Conclusion Yeast product applications to counteract harmful physiological effects induced by alternative protein sources represent a promising way to support fish meal replacement strategies in carnivorous marine fish diets. Different yeast products can be used in different ways to strategically prevent damage in the gut, increase nutrient utilization, fish immune status and resistance against pathogenic bacteria infections.





Nutrisaf® 1%

Nutrisaf® 2%




Nutrisaf® 1%

Nutrisaf® 2%

Fig.1. Orange-spotted grouper TNF-α mRNA expression in intestine at the end of the feeding trial (A) and cumulative survival after 7-day period post Vibrio harveyi infection (B). Mean values with different letters are significantly different (P<0.05; One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc test).

Fig.2. Japanese seabass plasma IgM concentration (μg/mL) before and after challenge (A); and cumulative survival during the 7-day period post Aeromonas veronii infection (B). Mean values with different letters are significantly different (P<0.05; One-way ANOVA and Duncan’s multiplerange post hoc test).

2018 Information for Advertisers Now available Request our media pack:

39 (A)


High fishmeal

High soybean meal

Safmannan® at 2 kg/T Fig.3. Japanese seabass mucosal fold height (μm) in the anterior and distal portion of the intestine (A); sections of the intestine of the different experimental treatments (B).

References Yu H.H., Han F., Xue M., Wang J., Tacon P., Zheng Y.H., Wu X.F., Zhang Y.J., 2014. Efficacy and tolerance of yeast cell wall as an immunostimulant in the diet of Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Aquaculture 432, 217–224.

Different yeast products can be used in different ways to strategically prevent damage in the gut, increase nutrient utilization, fish immune status and resistance against pathogenic bacteria infections

More information

Otavio Castro Global Species Manager/Aquaculture Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care E: AFΩ


AQUAFEED HORIZONS ASIA 2018 March 27, 2018, BITEC Bangkok, Thailand

Join us! Register now

Welcome Dr. Juadee Pongmaneerat, Thai Dept of Fisheries, Thailand; Meredith Brooks, Associate Editor, LLC, Hawaii, USA Extruded Aquafeed Quality Management; Relationship Between Technology and Extruded Aquafeed Quality Thomas Ellegaard Mohr, ANDRITZ Feed & Biofuel, Denmark

Balancing Nutrient Levels Through the Application of Functional Additives: Survey of Nutrient Levels in Commercial Shrimp Feeds in India Alexander van Halteren, Nutriad International NV, Belgium Comparing Novel Single Cell Protein Technologies For Economical Fishmeal Replacement David Tze, Novo Nutrients, USA

Aqua Feed Production – How Extrusion Reliability affects Factory Performance

Insects: the missing link in aquaculture

Rob Strathman, Famsun-USA, USA

Tarique Arsiwalla, Protix, The Netherlands

Optimizing design and operation of the pre-drying product transport process

Aquafeed Probiotics - Challenges and Opportunities

Anders Fjeldbo Haubjerg, Sr., PhD., Graintec A/S; Assistant Professor, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark Advancements in Micro Aquafeed Extrusion

Benedict Standen PhD, BIOMIN GmbH, Austria Nucleotides and Bioactive Peptides: Boosting the Functionalities of Aquafeeds Francisco González, PhD., Bioiberica S.A.U., Spain

Ramesh Gangatharan, Wenger Manufacturing Inc., USA Immunity - The Next Frontier in Aquaculture Nutrition Mycotoxin challenge in aquaculture feeds Maarten Jay van Schoonhoven, Olmix group, Netherlands Sponsored by:

And supported by the Thai Department of Fisheries

Kabir Chowdhury PhD, Jefo Nutrition Inc., Canada


Technology and ingredient advances focus of Aquafeed Horizons Asia ‘18 The 11th Aquafeed Horizons Asia Conference, taking place on the first day of the feed and grain industries trade show, Victam Asia 2018, will bring together fish and shrimp feed processors, nutritionists, buyers and other industry professionals from throughout the region and beyond to learn about the latest developments in aquafeed production.

Extrusion technology Generally, fish feed, and increasingly shrimp feed, is produced by extrusion. This complex and nuanced technology is the focus of the processing talks at Aquafeed Horizons Asia 2018, where technical experts from leading technology companies will discuss latest developments. Different types of feed are subject to different demands, for example, the feed’s functionality on fish farms in terms of floatability or sinkability and the pellets’ durability to assist mechanical handling without generating fines. Thomas Ellegaard Mohr (Andritz) will explain how changing trends in raw materials also present new challenges that extrusion technologies and process control must meet. According to Rob Extrusion technology is ideally suited to the wide ranging demands of aquafeed production Strathman (Famsun), factory performance is hindered by inflexible and need to find efficiency in every aspect of 1.2mm dia. range, are required in the unreliable hardware and software used production has driven other manufacturnursery phase of aquaculture. Their in the extrusion systems of today. ing industries to dramatically change manufacture involves a series of However, we can redesign the systems of course; the future of aquafeed producmeticulous steps to be followed, from the future, allowing significant tion will be digital. the selection of high quality ingredients improvements in factory performance to to specific grinding, sifting, mixing, Micro aquafeeds, in the of 0.5mm to be realized. He will point out that the

42 precision twin screw extrusion and optimal drying process. Ramesh Gangatharan from Wenger will explain how advanced computer controls, variable frequency drives, unique die designs and specially selected dryer screens all contribute to a smooth process at high production capacities. In-line moisture and density monitoring systems can be fixed at critical points to monitor the production process so as to minimize production of out of spec product and to have a final product which is uniform in size, shape and density. Recent research on the drying of extruded feed, particularly as related to technical product quality, has identified a connection between drying parameters and mechanical durability. The initial phase of drying is important to avoid early and spatially uneven glass transition

following evaporative cooling. It follows that high air velocity, high temperature and high humidity are recommended. Obviously, extruded feed products start to flash off and dry, immediately when exiting the extruder. Hence, focus needs to be put on the design and operation of the different transport mechanisms, immediately upstream the dryer. Validated model simulations visualize how many existing airlifts and conveyor belts could damage the pellets when transported to the dryer. Different process design options for new as well as existing production lines, will be presented by Anders Fjeldbo Haubjerg, PhD, Process Engineer at Graintec and Assistant Professor, University of Southern Denmark, and compared in terms of energy efficiency, capital and operational expenditure, impact on mechanical durability, flexibility and

hygienic design. The airlift using heated air is superior for durability of the product for existing production lines. Energy efficiency can optionally be optimized by invoking recirculation of the transport air. For new production facilities, process designs facilitating stacked dryer and extruder layout are superior.

Mycotoxins No conference on aquafeed production, especially in Asia Pacific, would be complete without addressing the threat of mycotoxins. There is an increasing trend towards plant ingredients in aquaculture feeds, and a commensurate rise in the risk of mycotoxin contamination. These toxins are produced as secondary metabolites by fungi and can have serious detrimental effects on fish

HatcheryFeed A division of ~ uniting the aquafeed industry since 1998 ~

The Hatcheryfeed magazine uniquely addresses the need for practical information about feed and nutrition related to aquatic hatcheries. Join the thousands of hatchery operators, aqua farmers, feed manufacturers - and all those who want to know about the latest developments in feed for early life stage and broodstock aquatic animals.


Contributions invited All topics of relevance to hatchery feed and feeding, feed production, feed management, nutrition etc. for learly lifestage and broodstock fish, crustaceans and shellfish, and live feed production.

Contact us to submit editorial or advertising:

Focus: Freshwater feed & nutrition

Subscribe and read past issues at

43 and shrimp, ranging from mortalities in severe cases, to economic impacts such as reduced growth, reduced immunity, decreased feed efficiency. They can be caused by a single mycotoxin, or as is more common, by more mycotoxins working together synergistically, causing even more damage. Clinical signs of mycotoxicosis can easily be overlooked or misinterpreted, often leading to a wrong approach in dealing with the negative effects, Maarten Jay van Schoonhoven (Olmix) will say. Knowledge and awareness of the role of mycotoxins in aquaculture feed production is necessary, just as adequate strategies with a wide spectrum are necessary to deal with mycotoxin risk management.

Replacing fishmeal New technologies are emerging to take on the growing opportunity to replace fishmeal in whole or in part. Aquacopia co-founder and now CEO of NovoNutrients, David Tze, will argue that given the relative simplicity and efficiency of microbes, compared to reduction fishery species, plants, or insects, it makes sense to consider the merits of various microbial single cell protein technologies. These newer technologies include fermentation of bacteria, microalgae, yeast, and other fungi. The substrates may be purchased or received as waste streams. Those inputs might be solid, liquid, or even gas. But there are questions: What challenges will these new technologies face as they break from the lab and race to scale up to commercialization? What advantages does each have? Can any be economically produced? If so, what global scale are they likely to achieve? What might be the

Increased use of plant based ingredients in aquafeed formulations raises the risk of mycotoxin contamination.

effect on the feed industry and players within it? Insects are a natural source of nutrients for many fish species and can be produced sustainably. The EU has approved the use of processed insect proteins in aquaculture since 1 July 2017 as it is convinced this new feed ingredient can be produced in a safe manner and offer the quality needed for robust performance and health of the fish. Tarique Arsiwalla, founder of Protix,

Insects are among the novel ingredients being introduced into the aquafeed market.

will focus on the use of insect proteins in diets for shrimp, Atlantic salmon and trout. Trial results will be shown as well as first commercial use of the products in Europe. The opportunities for the Asian market include the use of not only insect proteins, but also insect lipids in diets for young animals and challenged species. The potential for antibiotics reduction will also be touched upon.

Functional feed The optimal nutrient profile of a shrimp feed depends on many factors, including the culture density, environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, oxygen, etc.), productivity of the pond water, the stability of the feed, feeding method, frequency, etc. These factors often differ depending on the season, region, farm or even pond, which makes the selection of the ideal feed rather a complex and often unstable decision for

44 the farmer. As a result, research in optimizing feed formulations under practical conditions continues to be a major objective for feed producers. Also, we can expect a wide variety in nutritional specifications among commercial shrimp feeds as composition may depend on the target market.

Increasing cost and fluctuating availability of raw materials in combination with an increasingly competitive market is demanding a creative mind from the shrimp feed formulator. The nutritional strategy is key to maintaining or gaining market share. Aside from that, diseases like white spot, vibriosis and white gut/ faeces are an emerging risk during the production cycle of shrimp in India and require good nutritional support to the animal. Alexander van Halteren (Nutriad) will present a study that investigated the different nutritional strategies in

commercial shrimp feeds in India during 2016, when the number of shrimp feed suppliers increased sharply. Feed samples of 8 major brands were collected in the market and analyzed for proximate composition as well as a number of essential nutrients (amino acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids). Some of the nutrient levels detected during the survey, revealed the potential for functional feed additives to optimize nutrient utilization in shrimp feeds in India. Beneficial bacteria, probiotics, are becoming increasingly popular in aquaculture. Amongst other benefits, probiotics can boost immunity, improve disease resistance, reduce feed conversion ratio, improve growth performance and survival and improve water quality. The benefit obtained is largely depend-

ent on the probiotic formulation. Different probiotic strains have different modes of action; thus, they can bring different benefits to the host. For example, Bacillus spp. are capable of producing enzymes contributing to improved digestibility and feed conversion, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have functions in intestinal colonization and immunity. However, since probiotics are `live' microbial components, they are sensitive to heat and pressure, which makes their inclusion in aqua feeds difficult, regardless of whether pelleting or extrusion technologies are used. Generally, post pelleting application (PPA) is necessary. Benedict Standen, PhD, (Biomin) will tell delegates how, using PPA, a novel application for probiotic usage in fish and shrimp feeds has been developed that guarantees high probiotic viability without compromising

45 the shelf life of the compound feed. This presentation will discuss the benefits of in feed probiotics and summarize results from recent trials, including probiotic application at the feed mill. Applying innovative solutions such as immunomodulation through nutrition and the use of bioactive peptides as a functional, high-quality source of hydrolyzed protein can contribute to achieving health benefits in marine species. The beneficial effects of dietary nucleotides of yeast origin and bioactive peptides from intestinal mucosa have already been demonstrated in several studies in shrimp, salmon, tilapia, meager and sea bream among other species. Nonetheless, further research studies are still warranted. Francisco González (Bioiberica) will discuss scientific studies currently focused in evaluating the effects of bioactive peptides on growth, nutrient utilization, digestibility, intestinal health and meat quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with high levels of vegetable protein, and the effects of dietary nucleotides in white

shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) affected by Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND). Besides that, new product developments are also undergoing and should soon lead to specific formulations for other marine species of high commercial value, such as sea cucumber.

In recent years, there has been increasing attention to natural immunestimulants or organic acids or other bioactive compounds for antibiotic free production. Immunostimulants are naturally occurring compounds that modulate the immune system by increasing the host's resistance against diseases caused by pathogens under duress. Several products such as betaglucans, chitins, mannoproteins, peptidoglycans, alginates, bacterial compounds (lipo-polysaccarides - LPS) and some phytogenic compounds are being used as immunostimulants. Jefo’s Kabir Chowdhury, PhD will cover mainly the stress related factors in major farmed species and some relevant immunostimulatory solutions available today to

Victam Asia 2018 Aquafeed Horizons Asia will once again take place alongside VICTAM ASIA, the most important exhibition for the feed industries in the region. VICTAM ASIA will take place from March 27-29, 2018, in the Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre (BITEC). For aquafeed producers, VICTAM trade shows provide an opportunity to see key processing equipment all in one place, as well as ingredients and services. In addition to Aquafeed Horizons, there will be other conferences and seminars. Entrance is free of charge. Preregister on line and see full details at:

11th Aquafeed Horizons Asia’s international technical conference for industry professionals

When March 27, 2018

Where BITEC, Bangkok, Thailand

Who Aquafeed nutritionists, processors, mill managers, and other aquafeed professionals from throughout Asia Pacific and beyond

Why Learn about the latest advances in aquafeed processing and formulation, and network with your fellow industry professionals

Registration & Details


The joined meeting of the European Aquaculture Society and World Aquaculture Society organized by

We are the producers, the investors, the suppliers, the processors, the vendors, the scientists, the educators, the students and the consumers of farmed aquatic products. gold sponsor

was premier sponsors

For More Information Contact: Conference Manager P.O. Box 2302 | Valley Center, CA 92082 USA Tel: +1.760.751.5005 | Fax: +1.760.751.5003 Email: | | For TRADE SHOW information contact:



For details of industry events: visit the Calendar




30 - Feb 1: International Production & Processing Expo (IPPE) Atlanta, Georgia

23 - 26: Aquafeed Extrusion Technology, Europe Norway

4 - 6: International Conference on Aquaculture Copenhagen, Denmark


23 - 25: Asian Pacific Aquaculture 2018 Taipei, Taiwan

11– 14: AquaVision 2018 Stavanger, Norway

25– 26: Aviana Nigeria 2018 Ibadan, Nigeria


19 – 22: Aquaculture America Las Vegas, Nevada

26 – Mar. 16: International short course: Responsible aquaculture development for food security and economic progress Netherlands

26 - 27: Food & Feed Drying Technology, Europe Norway

4 - 6: INDOLIVESTOCK 2018 Jakarta, Indonesia

25– 26: Aviana Kenya 2018 Nairobi, Kenya

March 14 - 16: International Conference on Marine Science & Aquaculture 2018 Saban, Malaysia

20 - 21: 6th International "Fresenius Feed Conference" Bonn, Germany

27: Aquafeed Horizons Asia 2018 Bangkok, Thailand 27—29: VICTAM2018 Bangkok, Thailand

May 15 - 17: Offshore Mariculture Asia 2018 Singapore asia

23 - 24: Aquaculture UK 2018 Exhibition Aviemore, Scotland

24 - 25: 11th Global Summit on Aquaculture and Fisheries Osaka, Japan

Submit your event details

25 - 27: Applied Feed and Extrusion (Asia) Bangkok, Thailand

August 25- 29: AQUA 2018 Montpellier, France

October 23 – 26 Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture 2018 Bogotá, Colombia


27 – 29





Page 1




Asia’s largest feed and grain event Your global marketplace – an international event in an international city being held in a country with large home markets GGG What’s on show at VICTAM Asia 2018? • Feed production technology • Packaging • Energy efficiency • Auxiliary equipment GGG What’s on show at FIAAP Asia 2018? • Ingredients • Additives • Formulation • Laboratory equipment • Quality control GGG What’s on show at GRAPAS Asia 2018? • Rice milling and sorting technology • Flour milling technology • Flakers, extruders • Grain processing systems • Additives GGG Industry conferences • The FIAAP Asia Animal Nutrition Conference 2018 • Petfood Forum Asia 2018 • Aquafeed Horizons Asia 2018 • GRAPAS and Global Milling Conference Asia 2018 • Third ASEAN Feed Summit

GGG Supported by • Thai Ministry of Agriculture & Co-Operatives • Thai Department of Livestock Development • Thai Department of Fisheries • Thai Feed Mill Association • Thai Rice Milling Association • Thai Chamber of Commerce • Thailand Convention & Exhibition Bureau GGG Organized by Victam International BV, PO Box 197, 3860 AD Nijkerk, The Netherlands T: +31 (0)33 246 4404 F: +31 (0)33 246 4706 E: GGG More information Please visit our website: See us on Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and Google+ or scan the QR code:

Aquafeed vol 10 issue 1  

Aquafeed magazine is focused on advances in feed formulation and processing for aquculture.

Aquafeed vol 10 issue 1  

Aquafeed magazine is focused on advances in feed formulation and processing for aquculture.