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installations. None of those studies had undergone independent scientific review. No air testing studies were found for either ultraviolet (UV) lightor hot water-CIPP installations, two other CIPP processes. Each study had some valuable information, and lacked technical details where results could be translated to other CIPP installations for best practices. Publicly reported air contamination incidents associated with CIPP installations, 59 of them, were summarized in the study. Some incidents involved illness complaints, building evacuations, emergency service personnel responses, and in many cases were reported in the press. Since the study was published, more air contamination incidents have occurred in Nyack, N.Y.; Dublin, Calif.; Lee’s Summit, Mo.; Beaver, Penn.; and San Diego, Calif., and involved an elementary school and residences. During the 2017 field study, sanitary sewer and storm sewer CIPP worksites were monitored in Indiana and California. Testing revealed that during

steam-cured CIPP installations, many types of materials were created and released into the air. These materials included particulates, droplets, partially cured resin, organic vapors, and water vapor. While historically referred to as “steam” (and thus implying only water vapor), the emission was instead a “multi-phase mixture” or emission cloud. A variety of volatile organic compounds, VOCs, and semi-volatile organic compounds, SVOCs, were measured in the emission cloud. These included suspected carcinogens, hazardous air pollutants, suspected endocrine disrupting compounds, and other unidentified compounds. Some of the compounds included acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 4-tertbutylcyclohexanol, 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), phenol, styrene, and 1-tetradecanol. These chemicals include materials used for CIPP manufacture, in addition to chemicals created and emitted into the air during the manufacturing process. Non-styrene compounds contributed to chemical toxicity for mouse lung

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cells. Further description of the results can also be found on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Science Blog entitled “Cured-in-PlacePipe (CIPP): Inhalation and Dermal Exposure Risks Associated with Sanitary Sewer, Storm Sewer, and Drinking Water Pipe Repairs.”

What engineering companies and municipalities can do Because limited information is available about the chemical exposure risks and their severity, immediate upgrades in worker and public safety are recommended. Many of the 60-plus air contamination incidents associated with CIPP installations indicate that chemical emissions can cause adverse health effects. Available incident and worksite testing data indicates health impacts can occur. While research efforts continue at Purdue University and other organizations begin to evaluate worker and public exposures, immediate worksite and public safety changes should be implemented. Changes should include what defines qualified CIPP contractors, construc-

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APWA Reporter, February 2018 issue  

February 2018 issue of the APWA Reporter, the official magazine of the American Public Works Association

APWA Reporter, February 2018 issue  

February 2018 issue of the APWA Reporter, the official magazine of the American Public Works Association