The Guardian A Publication of the International Association of Emergency Managers Student Chapter at American Public University System July 2012
Volume 6, Issue 4
Inside this Month’s Issue: President’s Message 2 Starting your CEM packet
Earthquake Dangers 8 APUS-IAEM Student 16 Chapter Page CEM / AEM Exams
The Guardian A bimonthly publication of the International Association of Emergency Managers Student Chapter at American Public University System
Officers 2012-2013 President: Craig Mercier Vice President: Amanda Metzger Secretary: Allen Straub Treasurer: Karyn Harwood-Myers Past President: Jim Garlits Faculty Advisor: Professor Elizabeth Russell Program Director: Dr. Thomas D. Phelan
The Guardian Editor: Victoria C. Locey Contributors: Daniel Hahn Ed (Charles) Oâ€™Neil
Message From The President By Craig Mercier, IAEM Student Chapter President IAEM-USA@APUS
Since I took office I been impressed with the people I work directly with in both the Executive Board and each of the committees. Each elected official and volunteer has made at least one contribution since May of this year. Student Affairs has also been a great help in answering questions relating to chapter processes and procedures. As of July we have 249 members. That represents a 41% increase in members since I took office in May of this year. We have another campaign scheduled to roll out in September which could continue to increase our numbers. IAEM Student Region has identified our chapter as the largest and most active student chapter in all of the IAEM worldwide. My goal as President is to continue this trend and shoot for a membership number of 300 before I leave office next year. Expanding our membership is only one of my goals but we are currently working on several projects to help us increase membership numbers and assist members in preparing their AEM/CEM packages. Soon, we plan to roll out a Professional Development Certification Program which will give members the opportunity to accumulate points based on completion of AEM/CEM requirements, contributions within the chapter and their community and completion of classes or courses offered on various FEMA and Emergency Management websites. Those members who accumulate the most points could earn an award of $325 to pay for their application to the AEM/CEM certification. When the program has been finalized and approved we will notify the membership via email. A few other projects that are in the works are a Student Handbook, Executive Board Handbook, newly designed Guardian newsletter, a website that could potentially replace Team lab in the future and the continuation of our Distinguished Speaker Series. You should be receiving in your emails shortly a link that will give you, the Continued on p. 4
Cover Photo: Chester Morse Reservoir Part of Seattle's water supply, formed by damming the Cedar River Retrieved from: http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/htmls/fish6526.htm NOAA's Historic Fisheries Collection; March 1976; NMFS/Northwest Fisheries Science Center; Pacific Northwest Collection
Tropical Storm Debby over Florida; captured by NOAA's GOES-13 Satellite on June 22 at 1601 UTC (12:01 p.m. EDT). NASA GOES Project Photo obtained from http://www.nasa.gov/images/ content/662063main_20120622_96L_AIRS_full.jpg
Presidentâ€™s Message (contâ€™d) member, an opportunity to provide feedback on how the Executive Board and IAEM Student Chapter components are doing in your opinion. The survey is anonymous, and will better help the Executive Board understand our weaknesses so we can improve on them. It should stake you approximately 3-5 minutes to complete. Those members who are serious about working towards their AEM/CEM Certifications with IAEM should get involved within our chapter and join a committee or consider running for an Executive Board position in 2013. These positions count as contributions towards the requirements of both the AEM and the CEM packages. I also encourage you to take advantage of those AEM and CEMs who are currently members at the IAEM Student and USA region. Those individuals have been through the process and can serve as a great mentor throughout the application process. All it takes is one hour each month by each of our members and we can accomplish over ten days worth of work. Together we can accomplish our goals and yours as well.
IAEM-USA Student Regional Professional Development Series July 21, 2012
11:00 am edt
Principles of Emergency Management in the Public Sector Guest Presenter: David Christensen, Director of McHenry County Emergency Management Illinois
~~~~ July 22, 2012
11:00 am edt
Principles of Emergency Management - Private Sector Guest Speaker: Tres Brookes, Northern Branch Director of CEMA, Inc. Telephone: 641-715-3635
Access Code: 670812#
Starting your CEM Packet by Jim Garlits
For a student, one of the most intimidating aspects of being a member of the International Association of Emergency Managers might be the prospect of compiling a packet for consideration as a Certified Emergency Manager (CEM). But you shouldn’t think of it that way. Given, that a good number of our members, especially in the Master’s Degree programs, are already respected professionals with long resumes and many contributions within the field, where does that leave the rest of us? Hardly at square one. It may be years before some of us reach the point where our experience allows us to submit a full packet, but that doesn’t mean we have to wait. Using your education, FEMA training courses, and your gains in theory and practice, you can apply for the Associate Emergency Manager (AEM), and still be working on job experience and contributions all the while.
contributions toward making this Student Chapter successful can gain you contributions to the field. You have to have six of them accepted by the CEM board to get your credential. Writing an article for this newsletter counts. Being on a committee counts. But lets talk about the easiest one of all, which is legislative contact. IAEM’s wording says, “contact an elected representative … regarding an emergency management issue.” You have to include both a copy of your letter and a copy of their response. That is it. Too easy, you say? But very important. As professionals, we must let our lawmakers know what we want, and what is best for the emergency and disaster community.
As a full member of IAEM, you should be receiving periodic messages from your region requesting legislative input. Next time you receive one, take them up on it. If you compose and send it from a web portal, make sure you have a copy emailed to yourself, and check The mere act of physithe box that says you cally putting what you want a reply from the do have into a binder legislator. You can and periodically asking have this done within a yourself what you’ve Jim Garlits’ own CEM packet, almost ready to go. Photo by the author. month with very little done recently or what effort. Imagine the you are going to do, to feeling of accomplishment you’ll have when you get fill out the individual sections, puts you in the mood to that reply in the mail from your elected official, and seek out opportunities . can three hole-punch it and stick it in your CEM binder. And don’t think you have to stop at one letBesides job experience, the second most dreaded ter. As professionals, we should do it often. section to complete is probably contributions to the field. I’m not sure why people feel this way, because Garlits is the immediate past president of IAEM Stufor me this has been the most rewarding, the most dent Chapter at APUS. fulfilling, the most fun. Even now as a student, your
Tropical Storm Debby - 2012
Sinkholes are popping up all over caused by the huge amount of rain deposited on Suwannee County, Florida from Tropical Storm Debby Photographs Courtesy of Daniel Hahn
â€œThe map at right shows areas
of the United States where certain rock types that are susceptible to dissolution in water occur. In these areas the formation of underground cavities can form and catastrophic sinkholes can happen.â€? To learn more about sinkholes visit the United States Geological Survey (USGS) at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/ earthgwsinkholes.html Data and map obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey at: www.usgs.gov/edu/earthgwsinkholes.html
Tropical Storm Debby - 2012 By Daniel Hahn I was deployed under mutual aid to provide support to the Suwannee County Emergency Operation Center after Tropical Storm Debby went through Florida. TS Debby was a rain producer. Suwannee County is a bowl surrounded by a river on about 75% of their border. The residents are used to flooding, but this was different. Traditional flooding in Suwannee consists of the rivers rising, cresting, and subsiding. Those who live near the rivers understand the threat and for the most part have mitigated against it by raising their homes. TS Debby was different, it dropped water where the residents were not used to seeing it - in the land between the rivers. Suwannee County has a history of sinkholes. Apparently the limestone rock under the county has pockets of air and water. This I was told, is above the aquifer. Suwannee County is well known for its cave diving experiences, which gives you an indication of the number of underground accesses and the type of terrain we are discussing. SO why did TS Debby have such an adverse affect on the county? Well it dumped 20 inches of water in a very short period of time where 20 inches is seldom seen. Two weeks after the rain, there are still areas that are inaccessible due to the thick clay not allowing for water percolation into the ground. Secondarily, you have sinkholes. Take a nationwide drought and drain some of the water from the limestone pockets. Add the weight of 20+ inches of water on dry land over some of the now dried out limestone, and you have a recipe for trouble. There were about 300 sinkholes reported in the first week after the flooding. There are a few pictures of sinkholes with this article located in the town
of Live Oak. If you want to see real bad flooding YouTube Tropical Storm Debby, Live Oak, Florida. Public health was an obvious issue. The Health Department ordered tetanus shots for anyone that wanted them, especially those who were working in the flood waters. Septic tank issues and well water damage put the whole county under a boil water notice. At one time, during a tour given by the sheriff, we came across a graveyard where national guardsmen had pulled floating caskets off the road. It takes a lot of water to pull up a casket. One land owner said his hay field had water up to the top of the fence. He then heard a rumbling sound, saw a 30 foot spout of water shoot into the air, then said it looked as if someone flushed his hay field as all the water swirled down a giant sinkhole. The lesson for everyone is that no matter what the maps say, everyone lives in a flood zone. Even if you live in a low risk area implementing mitigation is important.
Remnants of Tropical Storm Debby ; The MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the remnants of Tropical Storm Debby over the Atlantic Ocean on June 28, 2012 Photo obtained from NASAâ€™s Earth Observatory at: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hurricanes/ archives/2012/h2012_Debby.html
EARTHQUAKE DANGERS IN THE PACIFIC By Ed (Charles) O’Neil
March 11th 2012 marked the one year anniversary of the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami that completely devastated the country of Japan. This is a grim reminder that the Pacific Northwest has the potential for the same type of strong megaearthquake (ScienceDaily, 2012). For many in the northwest, this was a wake-up call. There is a good chance that in the next 50 years the Pacific Northwest will be hit by a large earthquake. Unlike those in Japan, who were prepared for such a disaster, those that live in the Northwest are completely unprepared for such a catastrophe. If an earthquake on the magnitude that hit Japan last year were to hit the Northwest tomorrow, nearly all of the major cities’ bridges would be heavily damaged and most likely useless, the electricity could be out for weeks or months, water and sewer systems would be wrecked, and the loss of life could be into the thousands. While it is completely impossible to predict or know when or just how large the quake will be, a scenario is being used in this paper to represent the expected death toll of commuters in the Puget Sound region during the evening rush hour after a 9.0 earthquake and the ensuing tsunami, which is eerily similar to the one that occurred in Japan last year. While this scenario is completely fictitious, it is based on studies and facts to show the death and destruction that could become a reality in the not so distant future (Gilles, 2012).
earthquakes that caused damage in the last 125 years. Major earthquakes in 1946, 1949, and 1965 killed 15 people and caused millions of dollars in property damage. While most of these earthquakes occurred in western Washington, several, including the 1872 quake which is the largest historic earthquake in the state with a 7.4 magnitude, occurred in eastern Washington. Earthquake histories of thousands of years from ancient countries like Japan, China, Turkey, and Iran indicate that large earthquakes occur in hundreds or thousands of years. Washington’s written historical record starts around 1833, making it an inadequate timeframe to sample earthquake data. Instead, geologists use paleoseismology to extend the historical record where they were able to find evidence of prehistoric earthquakes in the state where there had been no significant historic events, which would suggest that the whole state, not just the Puget Sound region, is at risk (Walsh, Gerstel, Pringle and Palmer, 2012).
Types of earthquakes that can affect the Pacific Northwest
Image obtained from National Park Service at http://www.nps.gov/klse/naturescience/seismic-activity.htm
More than 1,000 earthquakes occur in Washington State every year. There were at least 20
Washington is part of a convergent continental margin, the boundary between two teccontinued on next page
EARTHQUAKE DANGERS IN THE PACIFIC tonic plates. The Cascadia subduction zone, which is the boundary between the North America plate and the Juan de Fuca plate, is over 680 miles long and lies roughly 50 miles offshore from San Francisco in northern California to Vancouver Island in southern British Columbia. The two plates are moving at a rate of about 2 inches a year. Also, the northward-moving Pacific plate is pushing the Juan de Fuca plate north as well which is causing a seismic strain to accumulate. Earthquakes are caused by the release of this slowly accumu“There are three types of lated strain (Walsh, earthquakes that can occur Gerstel, Pringle and Palmer, 2012). in the Pacific Northwest region.”
There are three types of earthquakes that can occur in the Pacific Northwest region. Shallow Crustal, Intraplate and Subduction or Interplate. Shallow crustal earthquakes are quakes that usually occur within about 20 miles of the Earth’s surface. Examples of this type of earthquake have occurred near Bremerton in 1997, near Duvall in 1996, near North Bend in 1945, and on the St. Helens seismic zone, which is a fault zone running through Mount St. Helens, in 1981. All of these earthquakes were in the magnitude 5 to 5.5 ranges. The largest earthquake in Washington, the North Cascades earthquake of 1872, was a shallow crustal quake. Recent studies in the state are discovering new fault hazards. The Seattle fault runs east and west through south Seattle. Several other faults of this nature have been discovered in the Puget Sound region but are only now being studied in detail (Walsh, Gerstel, Pringle and Palmer, 2012).
The best known shallow crustal earthquake in the Northwest is the Scott Mills earthquake in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. This quake happened on March 25, 1993 with a magnitude of 5.6, making it the largest quake in the Northwest since the Elk Lake earthquake in 1981. The epicenter was roughly 33 miles south of Portland, Oregon. The tremor was felt as far north as Seattle. There was no significant damage and it is suspected that the lack of injuries is due to the timing of the quake, occurring in the early morning hours (Ludwin, Qamar, Malone, Crosson, Moran, Thomas, and Steele, n.d). The second type of earthquake that can occur in the Pacific Northwest is the Intraplate Zone Earthquake. Intraplate zone earthquakes can occur in the area where the Juan de Fuca plate dives under the North America plate. These quakes usually occur between 15 and 65 miles below the surface. Earthquakes are caused by the release of slowly accumulated pressure as the Juan de Fuca plate dives under the North America plate. These types of earthquakes usually have normal faulting and there are no large aftershocks. These earthquakes are caused by the
continued on next page
EARTHQUAKE DANGERS IN THE PACIFIC changes in the minerals in the plate as it moves deeper into the mantle. As temperature and pressure increase, the minerals become denser and more stable under the increased temperature and pressure. The plate shrinks and stresses build up that pull the plate apart (Walsh, Gerstel, Pringle and Palmer, 2012). The largest examples of this type of quake in the Northwest are the magnitude 7.1 Olympia earthquake in 1949, the magnitude 6.5 SeattleTacoma earthquake in 1965, and the magnitude 6.8 Nisqually earthquake of 2001. There have been 6 earthquakes in the Puget Sound region with magnitudes of 6.0 or more since 1870. The Nisqually earthquake occurred on February 28, 2001, with a hypocenter of 32 miles. The hypocenter is the point below the surface where the rupture starts. The rupture area was about 18 miles by 6 miles and slipped about 3 feet. The epicenter was located off of the Nisqually delta in the Puget
Sound. The quake was felt in Vancouver, British Columbia to the north, in Salem, Oregon in the south, in Spokane, Washington to the east, and Salt Lake City, Utah to the southeast. Most of the damage occurred in Olympia and Seattle (Walsh, Gerstel, Pringle and Palmer, 2012). The third type of earthquake that can occur in the Pacific Northwest is the Subduction Zone or Interplate Earthquake. Subduction zone earthquakes occur where tectonic plates meet. There is major evidence that suggest a large magnitude earthquake along the Cascadia subduction zone could occur resulting in a magnitude 8 or higher range. The evidence suggests that these earthquakes have occurred along this fault in the past and happen every 550 years on average. There is also evidence to suggest that the recurrence interval is irregular. Earthquakes can occur between 100 years and 1,100 years. The last of these earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone occurred about 300 years ago (Walsh, Gerstel, Pringle and Palmer, 2012). There are two great examples of this type of an earthquake. The first is the December 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake, and last yearâ€™s Tohoku quake off the coast of Japan. The Boxing Day quake as it is now referred to, had a magnitude of 9.1 to 9.3, making it the third largest earthquake to ever be recorded on a seismograph. This earthquake also has the longest duration of shaking ever observed that lasted almost 10 minutes. It caused the entire planet to vibrate almost a half an inch and caused earthquakes in Alaska (thelivingmoon, 2010).
Figure 1.0 - Pacific Northwest Earthquake Sources (PNSN, 2012)
The other quake, the Tohoku quake on March 11, 2011 was recorded as a magnitude 8.9, the biggest quake to hit Japan since the late continued on next page
EARTHQUAKE DANGERS IN THE PACIFIC 1800s. This lently (PNSN, quake was 2012). the result of Subduction the Pacific Zone earthplate diving quakes are under the the largest island of earthquakes Japan at the in the world, J a p a n and are the Trench. The only places Pacific plate capable of moves west producing Figure 2.0 - Cascadia Subduction Zone away from earthquakes (Washington State Department of Ecology, n.d.) the North greater than America plate at about three inches a year. The magnitude 8.5. The Cascadia Subduction Zone has Japan Trench subduction zone is extremely vola- produced magnitude 9.0 earthquakes in the past, tile, with 9 earthquakes of magnitude 7 or more and will again in the future. The last known occurring since 1973 (Foxnews, 2011). These are megathrust earthquake in the Pacific Northwest the same types of faults that are located off the occurred over 300 years ago in January, 1700. Evicoast of the Pacific Northwest. It is assumed from dence shows that these earthquakes have octhese two examples that any earthquake that is a curred about seven times in the last 3,500 years, mega quake will have similar results as these. with an average of 1 every 400 to 600 years (PNSN, 2012). The Cascadia Subduction Zone The Cascadia Subduction Zone is unique in The Cascadia Subduction Zone fault is a 680 the worlds subduction zones because it produces mile long dipping fault that reaches from Vancou- very few earthquakes unambiguously on the plate ver Island to Cape Mendocino California. It sepa- interface. Based on the evidence of the occurrates the Juan de Fuca plate and the North America rences of megathrust earthquakes, the Cascadia plate. The Juan de Fuca plate moves toward the Subduction Zone seems to be more strongly North America plate, and eventually is forced be- locked than other subduction faults. This has led low it (PNSN, 2012). to discussions by geologists as to whether the entire Cascadia Subduction Zone will always rupture At a depth of less than 20 miles, the Cas- into a magnitude 9 or higher earthquake, or if cadia Subduction Zone is locked by friction while magnitude 8 or 8.5 quakes can also break parts of pressure slowly builds up as the plates are forced the zone (PNSN, 2012). against each other, until the faults slip past one another along the fault in a megathrust earthFigure 2.0 shows the Juan De Fuca Plate quake. Observations of this fault are rare and it remains unclear if the fault is stuck or slipping si- moving away from the Pacific plate and how it is continued on next page
EARTHQUAKE DANGERS IN THE PACIFIC being forced under the North America plate. Currently, it is believed that these plates are locked with pressure from both plates being exerted on each other. Eventually one of these plates will slip and cause a mega earthquake of at least a magnitude 8.7. This would be 1,000 times more powerful than the magnitude 6.6, 1994 Los Angeles earthquake. There will be over 2 minutes of shaking, the ocean floor will drop, causing a tsunami to form and destroy much of the Pacific coast. The Olympic peninsula will rise in elevation quickly and many coastal areas will fall well below sea level (WSDE, n.d). Tsunami Tsunamis are extremely large waves that are caused by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions under the ocean. Tsunami is the Japanese word for harbor wave. Energy from the underwater event causes the initial wave, which splits into two halves, one half going out to sea and the other heading toâ€œWhen the tsunami is out in deep wards the coast ocean water the waves do not (CNN, 2011). When increase in height very much at the tsunami is out in all.â€? deep ocean water the waves do not increase in height very much at all. But as the waves get closer to shore they build up to bigger heights as the depth of the ocean decreases. The speed of tsunami waves depends on how deep the water is and not the distance from the source of the wave. Tsunami waves may travel over 500 mph in deep waters; slowing down only when they reach the shallower coastal waters (NOAA, 2011). The largest tsunami ever recorded was on Ishigaki Island, Japan, in 1971. It was 278 feet high. While this wave did not cause major dam-
age, it did move a 750 ton piece of coral almost 2 miles inland (NOAA, 2011). The tsunami that hit Sendi, Japan on March 11, 2011 was over 60 feet high. It was caused by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake 45 miles off the coast of Japan. The earthquake caused a 50 mile wide by 180 mile long slab of the ocean floor to rise and fall, forcing it almost 80 feet to the west. The tsunami wave traveled more than six miles inland and killed over 14,300 people with approximately 12,000 still listed as missing and presumed dead. The largest portion of the wave was over 124 feet high when it hit the fishing port of Koborinai, well north of the quake center (Vergano, 2011). The earthquake that generated the tsunami that hit Sumatra in 2004 was estimated to be 23,000 times more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The quake was centered off the coast of Sumatra, when the India plate slid under the Burma plate. The rupture caused by this slipping was over 600 miles long, which moved the sea floor by 30 feet horizontally and about 10 feet vertically. The 50-plus foot high tsunami waves that radiated from the earthquake zone hit the coastlines of 11 Indian Ocean countries, drowning people in their homes or on the beaches, and destroying property from Africa to Thailand (National Geographic, 2005). The death toll estimates are between 275,000 or more, making this the second deadliest earthquake in history. The deadliest occurred in Shansi, China on January 23, 1556 when a magnitude 8.0 killed over 830,000 people (MSNBC, 2005). The Disaster Scenario This scenario will be based in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. It will depict a magnitude 9.0 earthquake on the Cascadia Subduction Zone that runs from Vancouver Island in continued on next page
EARTHQUAKE DANGERS IN THE PACIFIC Canada all the way south to Northern California. impassable over large stretches, and landslides This fault is a mirror image of the fault that rup- will limit highway travel between the coast and tured off the coast of inland areas. Destruction Japan in 2011 that killed of roads, runways, ports, over 15,000 people. The and rail lines will leave quake in Japan was cities isolated. Residents caused by the Pacific and visitors will be replate sliding under Jasponsible for doing most pan, in the Northwest it of the rescuing of people will be the Juan De Fuca that become trapped in plate sliding under the the debris and may be North America plate. responsible for the immeMost Americans, if diate clean-up and orgaFigure 3.0 â€“ The Alaskan Way Viaduct (Rethinking I-81, 2008) asked would say that nizing to distribute relief the San Andreas Fault in supplies. California is the deadliest earthquake threat, but this distinction belongs to the Cascadia fault The I-5/Highway 99 corridor in the based on the information that is being gathered Seattle area will see disruptions in utilities and from the Japan quake. The last Cascadia earth- transportation lines for several months. The quake happened on January 26, 1700, it was esti- earthquake in this scenario is not very conducive mated to be a magnitude 9.0 based on data gath- for the survival of tall buildings. This will lead to a ered from the tsunami waves it generated significant number of deaths in downtown Seat(Johnson, 2012). tle. Long bridges and utility lines are also at risk, which will create serious long term economic Ground shaking, landslides, liquefaction, losses. Landslides could block east-west travel tsunamis, fires, hazardous material spills, and through the Cascades. As the center of the rebuilding damage are some of the issues that will gional transportation network, closures at any occur from a Cascadia subduction zone earth- point along this route could have severe consequake. The ground could shake for about four quences. All the bridges must be inspected before minutes. Different parts of the state surrounding the transport of relief supplies can begin, debris the Puget Sound area will feel different effects must be moved to open the roads and detours from the earthquake. around severely damaged areas must be established. Coastal regions will experience strong shaking, landslides, and tsunamis. Buildings, There are several other major highways in roads, bridges and utility lines will receive differ- the Puget Sound region; I-5, I-405, SR 520, SR 167 ent amounts of damage. Injuries and fatalities are and I-90. SR 520 and I-90 both have floating likely. Within minutes, a tsunami will arrive, caus- bridges that cross Lake Washington and connect ing a panic among residents and visitors as they the City of Bellevue with Seattle. I-5 and I-405 try to head for higher ground or inland as soon as carry between 200,000 and 350,000 vehicles a the shaking stops. Coastal Highway 101 will be continued on next page
EARTHQUAKE DANGERS IN THE PACIFIC day, depending on the locations where traffic is measured. SR 167 carries about 116,000 vehicles, while SR 520 carries 111,000 and I-90 carries 141,000. While some of these vehicles will be counted on more than one highway per day, it is a suggestion of just how much traffic is flowing in and out of the area during the peak rush hours (WSDOT, 2003). Eastern Washington residents may experience a lower level of shaking. They will definitely feel the economic effects from the regional damage and this region will be important staging points for recovery efforts in the Puget Sound area.
rated soil that was used as fill dirt when the Seattle tide flats were being reclaimed in the early 1900s. Seattle also constructed a sea wall made of timber and concrete that runs parallel to the viaduct. This was built in the 1930s with four different types of materials (Kramer and Eberhard, 1995). The viaduct was built from 1949 to 1953 as a double-deck, two-lane highway running north and south. The viaduct is slated to be replaced with a tunnel 56 feet wide under the sea of Seattle sometime after 2015. In the past when earthquakes occurred in Seattle, the viaduct became the victim of liquefaction, a phenomenon where soil loses its strength during an earthquake and gives way. This liquefaction is expected to send most of the Seattle water front into Elliott Bay. Scenario Earthquake Losses
Figure 4.0 – Collapsed Alaskan Way Viaduct Picture of what Alaskan Way Viaduct would look like after a 9.0 Cascadia Subduction Zone Earthquake.
The current biggest threat to the people of Seattle is the Alaskan Viaduct that runs through downtown Seattle. It carries roughly 86,000 vehicles a day and is one of only two north-south high ways through downtown. After the collapse of the Cypress Viaduct in Oakland during the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989, Washington engineers took a hard look at the viaduct here in Seattle. It was discovered that the viaduct sits on loose satu-
Property damage and economic losses can expect to reach approximately $33 billion. Deaths – more than 1,600; injuries – more than 24,000. Buildings destroyed – 9,700; buildings severely damaged and unsafe to occupy – 29,000. Buildings moderately damaged whose use is restricted – 154,500. Fires about 130, causing nearly a half billion dollars in property damage. The economic impact of the scenario earthquake on the region and the State of Washington primarily depends upon how quickly the heavily damaged transportation system is placed back into service. A 2001 study by the Federal Emergency Management Agency found that Washington has the second highest risk of economic loss caused by earthquakes in the nation, a close second to California. Seattle ranks seventh among cities nationwide at economic risk for earthquakes while Tacoma ranks 22nd. continued on next page
EARTHQUAKE DANGERS IN THE PACIFIC Many residents believe that the Nisqually earthquake is the largest that could hit the Puget Sound region. Research studies of residential and small business damage after the 2001 event provide confirmation. However, it was not the region’s big one – an earthquake such as the one on the Cascadia Fault that will cause devastating damage and widespread disruption to the region and the state. References AutoBlog. (October 30, 2010). Seattle Earthquake Viaduct Simulation Released. Retrieved from http:// www.autoblog.com/2009/10/30/video-seattle-earthquakeviaduct-simulation-released-timing-po/ CNN. (March 12, 2011). What is a Tsunami? Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/03/12/ explainer.tsunami.japan/index.html
tsunami_a_year_later/t/ deadliest-earthquake-year-fivecenturies/ National Geographic. (January 7, 2005). The Deadliest Tsunami in History? Retrieved from http://
news.nationalgeographic.com/ news/2004/12/1227_041226_tsunami.html National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (November 17, 2011). A tsunami is a wave caused by earthquakes or undersea volcanic eruptions. Retrieved from http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/tsunami.html Pacific Northwest Seismic Network. (2012). Cascadia Subduction Zone. Retrieved from http://www.pnsn.org/ outreach/earthquakesources/csz Rethinking I-81. (September 30, 2008). Seattle’s Alaskan Way Viaduct. Retrieved from http://oclblog.wordpress.com/ category/seattle/
Foxnews. (March 11, 2011). Earthquake Science: The Japanese Quake Explained. Retrieved from http:// www.foxnews.com/scitech/2011/03/11/earthquake-science -japanese-quake-explained
The Living Moon. (2010). Endangered Earth: Subduction Zones. Retrieved fromhttp:// www.thelivingmoon.com/45jack_files/03files/ Endangered_Earth_Subduction_Zone_01.html
Gilles, N. (March 15, 2012). The First Four Minutes: A Timeline of Portland's Upcoming Cataclysmic Quake. Retrieved from http://www.portlandmercury.com/portland/the-firstfour-minutes/Content?oid=5766214
Science Daily. (February 21, 2012). Tohoku Grim Reminder of Potential for Pacific Northwest North American Megaquake. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com / releases/2012/02/120221125407.htm
Johnson, M.A. (March 8, 2012). Quake Catastrophe Like Japan’s Could Hit Pacific Northwest, New Data show. Retrieved from http://usnews.msnbc.msn.com/ _news /2012/03/08/10603138-quake-catastrophe-likejapans-could-hit-pacific-northwest-new-data-show?lite
Vergano, D. (April 25, 2011). Japan’s Tsunami Waves Top Historic Heights. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/ news/world/2011-04-24-Japan-record-tsunami-waves.htm
Kramer, S.L and Eberhard, M.O. (July 1995). Seismic Vulnerability of the Alaskan Way Viaduct. Retrieved from http:// www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/363.4.pdf Ludwin, R.S, Qamar, A.I, Malone, S.D, Crosson, R.S, Moran, S, Thomas, G.C, and Steele, W.P. (n.d.) Scott Mills Earthquake Summary. Retrieved from http://old.pnsn.org/SEIS/ EQ_Special/ScottsMills/scottsmills.html MSNBC. (February 10, 2005). 2004 Deadliest earthquake year in five centuries. Retrieved from http:// www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6948775/ns/world_news-
Walsh, T.J, Gerstel, W.J, Pringle, P.T, and Palmer, S.P (2012). Earthquakes in Washington. Retrieved from http:// www.dnr.wa.gov/researchscience/topics/ geologichazardsmapping /pages/earthquakes.aspx Washington State Department of Ecology. (2012). Offshore Fault. Retrieved from http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/ sea/coast/waves/fault.html Washington State Department of Transportation. (2003). Freeway Network: Usage and Performance. Retrieved from http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/research/reports/ fullreports/623.1.pdf
IAEM@APUS S TUDENT PAGE IAEM Student Chapter at APUS
Masters of Disasters: AMU/APU Emergency Management & Homeland Security Students
WANT TO JOIN OUR CHAPTER? go to:
https://www.iaem.com/members_online/ members/newmember.asp And join as a student for $30 (Beginning in October it increases to $40, join today!) Once you have joined IAEM, you will receive an email receipt verifying that you joined or renewed. Forward the email along with your APUS student ID number to: Craig Mercier at: email@example.com
Upon receipt of your email copy we will add you to the IAEM-USA Student Chapter at APUSâ€™ collaboration portal on TeamLab.
Upcoming Events July 21
July Monthly Meeting at 12:00 noon
August Monthly Meeting at 12:00 noon
September Monthly Meeting at 12:00 noon You can participate in the IAEM-APUS Monthly Membership Meetings by calling toll free: Teleconference Number: (866) 706-1130 Passcode: 4201538
The Guardian is always in need of photos and narratives from AMU and APU students engaged in activities related to the fields of : Emergency and Disaster Management, Homeland Security, Fire Management, Safety,
Articles Book Recommendations Essays Photos
Continuity of Operations (COOP), Contingency Planning,
and Intelligence Studies.
For publication in The Guardian! please send to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Materials can be sent to the editor at: email@example.com
Innovative solutions and technology for improving community preparedness Best practices on collaborative emergency management planning Challenges and barriers to planning and preparedness integration across disciplines Latest federal initiatives, including the "Whole Community" Approach to Emergency Management
UPCOMING CEM & AEM EXAM DATES For complete details and instructions on how to register for the preparatory course or certification exam, please visit the International Association of Emergency Managers website at: http://www.iaem.com/certification/CEMPrepCourse.htm August 1, 2012
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Preparatory Course: 8:00 am—1:00 pm Exam Only: 2:00 pm—4:00 pm Registration Deadline: July 22, 2012 ———————————————————————————————- —————
September 13, 2012
Indiana Government Center, Indianapolis, IN Preparatory Course: 8:00 am—12:00 pm Exam Only: 1:00 pm—3:00 pm Registration Deadline: August 20, 2012 ————————————————————————————————————-
For More Information or to Register for the CEM / AEM Preparatory Course Webinar On-Demand go to: http://knowledgepress.com/viewpublication.php?event_id=354&act=fea
Review of Certified Emergency Manager® program requirements (experience, education, professional contributions and more); Application procedures; Tips for successful program completion; Overview of the exam; Standards upon which the exam is based; Sample exam questions; and A Q&A period.
IMPORTANT: The preparatory course does not teach Emergency Management principles but rather it reviews CEM and AEM program requirements and provides tips on how to successfully complete the certification exam and avoid test anxiety