The Guardian A Publication of the APUS Chapter of the International Emergency Managers Student Association November 2009 Volume 3, Issue 3 Inside this issue: Message from the President
IAEM SR Election
EM in Schools
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APUS IEMSA Wins Chapter of the Year By Dawn Heyse APUS IEMSA Vice President The APUS IEMSA Chapter was recently selected as the IAEM Student Council Chapter of the Year for 2009. Chapter President Dorian Young, pictured at right with outgoing Student Council Treasurer Matthew Feryan (left), accepted the award on the chapter’s behalf at the IAEM Annual Conference on November 4th. The awards committee cited our “chapter’s dedication to providing opportunities for EM students to grow” as a deciding factor in our selection as Chapter of the Year. Many thanks and hearty congratulations to all of our members who have made this achievement possible! Good job, everyone!
FEMA’s Fugate Speaks to APUS EDM Students By Dorian Young APUS IEMSA President On November 18, 2009, our IEMSA Chapter was greatly honored to host a question and answer session with FEMA Administrator Craig Fugate. This was the inaugural event of the 2009-2010 'Masters of Disaster'-- AMU Guest Speaker Series. The purpose of this speaking series is to expose EDM students to the teachings and experiences of eminent members from the field of emergency and disaster management and allow for an interactive opportunity. Questions were submitted by the Chapter membership and a set of twelve were chosen by the Chapter Executive and approved by Faculty Advisors to be posed to Administrator Fugate. The selected questions reflected a cross-section of the various current issues and trends in the field of EDM. They are all of particular interest to students. Welcoming words and introductions were provided by AMU’s EDM/Fire Management/Homeland Security Programs Director Professor Chris Reynolds and Provost Dr. Frank McCluskey. Chapter President Dorian Young read each question to Administrator Fugate, prefaced by some salient details of the respective student originator thereof (i.e. name, EDM program, occupation and location). Administrator Fugate provided full, interesting and insightful responses which were appreciated by one and all. This event was recorded with the kind permission of Administrator Fugate for future public dissemination. The recording may be accessed at http://www.kador.com/modfugate.mp3 The next two distinguished guests in the Masters of Disaster Guest Speaker Series have accepted invitations to join us via teleconference. Professor Emeritus Joseph Scanlon will join us this coming January, and Professor Emeritus Dr. Thomas Drabek will join us on February 4, 2010.
The Guardian A quarterly publication of the American Public University System Chapter of the International Emergency Management Student Association
Message from the President By Dorian Young APUS IEMSA President In my message for this issue of the Guardian, I wish to present you all with an early Christmas gift. Please find set forth below a listing - complete with ‘hot’ hyperlinks - of the various speciallydedicated events, activities and sources of information available to EDM students at our university. In effect, I hereby present you with a “one-stop” reference listing for your ease and convenience. Thanks to all Chapter members & Professors Reynolds and Kemp for making all this possible.
Officers 2009-2010 President
Season’s Greetings, Dorian IAEM Annual Conference
Dorian Young Vice President Dawn Heyse Secretary Darren Endris
Treasurer Jeremy Beck Faculty Advisor
Picture slide as show compiled by Professor Reynolds of AMU “delegation” at IAEM conference – including Dorian receiving the IAEM’s 2009-2010 “Chapter of the Year Award” for and on behalf of the Chapter membership!): http://tinyurl.com/ydn5q6a Recording made at IAEM conference of Student Workshop on “Job opportunities in EDM” with high-level panel which included Disney’s top EDM Manager, Salvation Army EDM Manager, President of the IAEM et al.: http://www.kador.com/STE-001.mp3 Forthcoming AMU Radio program: Issue & Trends... by Prof Reynolds + Dorian Young with interviews of AMU students, faculty and alumni + other interesting personages from live from the floor of the recent IAEM conference: http://www.live365.com/stations/amuinternetradio? site=pro See online Webcasts of IAEM conference presentations and workshops: http://www.iaem.com/ events/Annual/Webcast2009/index.htm
Michael Kemp Program Director Dr. Christopher Reynolds
The Guardian Staff Editor Dawn Heyse Chief Contributors Dorian Young Joshua Nebelsiek Clifford Lindell Tracy Hughes
Masters of Disaster Guest Speaker Series The purpose of this speaking series is to expose EDM students to the teachings and experiences of eminent members from the field of emergency and disaster management and allow for an interactive opportunity. Future Guest Speakers include Professor Emeritus Joseph Scanlon speaking on the subject of mass death, (January 12th, 2010,) and Professor Emeritus Thomas Drabek speaking on his new book, The Human Side of Disaster (February 4th, 2010). Why not ask Santa for a copy of Professor T. Drabek’s new book for Christmas? Read it so you know whereof he speaks when he addresses our EDM student body in February. You can purchase a copy at: http://www.amazon.com/Human-Side-Disaster-Thomas-Drabek/dp/1439808643/ref=sr_1_1? ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1259605568&sr=8-1 LinkedIn: Masters of Disaster AMU Group For AMU/APU students, faculty and alumni. Over 500+ members, Discussion, EDM News items, Jobs...Jobs...Jobs: http://www.linkedin.com/groups?gid=1022797&trk=hb_side_g IAEM Student Chapter
• • • •
Recording of last Chapter meeting of Nov. 28th, 2009: http://www.kador.com/REC_0022.mp3 IAEM-SC, AMU/APU Student Chapter webpage (links to previous issues of The Guardian): http://www.iaem.com/about/membership/StudentChapters/APUS.htm AMU/APU Student Chapter webpage on APUS general website: http://www.apus.edu/student -affairs-center/Student-Involvement/Student-Organizations/IEMSA.htm Please visit regularly our IEMSA Student Chapter classroom + the EDM Sound Off Chat Group at University Commons— both available once you log in to the AMU/APU website. N.B. All recordings were made and are being disseminated with the express permission of all participants.
Volume 3, Issue 3
APUS Students Sweep IAEM SR Elections By Dawn Heyse APUS IEMSA Vice President Elections for the International Association of Emergency Managers Student Region were held this past September. At the end of polling, which included a run-off election for 1st Vice President in early October, three of the five offices were held by APUS IEMSA students! The new officers were installed at the IAEM Annual Conference earlier this month. Please join me in congratulating the new IAEM-USA Student Region officers: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■
President — Nancy Harris, AMU 1st Vice President — Michael Kelley, AMU 2nd Vice President — Eric Sawyer Secretary — Jeanette “Jet” Holt, AMU Treasurer — Mark Warnick, Capella University
AMU Receives Academic Recognition Award Extract from IAEM News Release The Academic Recognition Award recognizes an academic leader or institution that has made a significant contribution to the formal education of students pursuing a career in emergency management or through research and development of paradigms or standards that have helped shape the broader field of emergency and disaster management. The 2009 recipient of the IAEM Academic Recognition Award is the American Military University for its undergraduate and graduate degree program in emergency and disaster management. The university is 100% online and was originally designed in the mid 1990’s to meet the higher educational needs of active duty military personnel stationed around the world. Since then, AMU has grown to include civilians as well as military. AMU is the first 100% online university to be accredited by the Foundation of Higher Education (FoHE) for Disaster and Emergency Management and Homeland Security, and its faculty members are actively involved with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Higher Education Initiative. Technological innovation is a hallmark of AMU, which also has its own radio show on AMU Radio, “Issues and Trends in Emergency Management,” hosted by Program Director Dr. Chris Reynolds, CEM. AMU has the largest IAEM Student Chapter, which publishes a monthly newsletter and holds monthly teleconferences with members and special guests.
APUS Masters of Disaster at the IAEM Annual Conference in Orlando, FL
NIMS Directives and Liability By Bradley M. Pinsky This article originally appeared in Fire Engineering Reprinted with permission When President Bush signed Homeland Security Directive 5 (HSPD-5), he likely did not envision increasing occasions for fire departments’ and first responders’ liability. HSPD-5 directed the secretary of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to develop and administer a National Incident Management System (NIMS), which would provide a consistent, nationwide approach for federal, state, local, and tribal governments to work together to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic security incidents. Most states have implemented NIMS; if a state fails to implement NIMS, the result is a loss of significant federal funding opportunities. For possibly the first time, a high-level court in New York State held that the failure to follow a mandatory, nondiscretionary NIMS directive served as a basis for liability against a fire department.1 Although the holding is law only in New York State, many states follow similar legal principles. The holding, therefore, should concern first responders in all states. In this article, I will discuss the court’s holding and its impact on first response agencies. Then I will ask you to consider other policies and procedures that the first response agency may have adopted that also possibly could lead to liability if the document does not include proper wording. MARCH 7, 2002 On this date, the Manlius (NY) Fire Department in Onondaga County responded to a basement fire in a two-story residence in the Pompey Hill Fire District. An incident command structure was in place. At least one county fire coordinator (CFC) responded to assist in command operations. In central New York, fire departments are not “countywide” departments but are controlled by various smaller municipalities such as villages, cities, and fire districts. CFCs assist in locating resources. Members of the first-due Manlius unit were assigned to perform vertical ventilation. Following its completion, they were assigned to fire suppression. Efforts to attack the basement fire had been ineffective, although the on-scene incident commander (IC) might not have fully known it. Pretrial discovery revealed allegations that the CFC did not report to either the IC or the operations officer after his on -scene arrival. Instead, testimony revealed that the CFC decided to take a “quick look” at the fire. Testimony further alleged that the CFC told the firefighters about to enter the structure, “We’re going to have to get a line in here.” It is unclear exactly to what that statement referred. There is disputed testimony about whether the CFC was wearing a white (command) or black fire helmet. Thus, the question of whether the CFC assumed a command role outside of the incident’s command structure arose. This fact was vital to the court’s inquiry. Immediately thereafter, two firefighters from Manlius Truck 2 entered the house’s first-floor mud room, while a third firefighter fed the attack line to them from the garage. As the third firefighter tried entering the mud room, he saw that the first floor had collapsed and his fellow crew members had fallen into the involved basement. One of the fallen firefighters was able to reach up and grasp the third firefighter’s hands. The CFC, the Manlius deputy chief, and the third firefighter made rescue efforts. Unfortunately, the heavy involvement of the basement, first floor, and garage areas forced the rescuers’ evacuation and the rescue effort’s termination. Two firefighters died. One of the firefighter’s wives sued the CFC and Onondaga County, his employer. Although the law in many states precludes firefighters’ families from suing a fire department or other fire agency for causing their injuries or death, New York State permits such suits under New York State General Municipal Law 205-a. The fallen firefighter’s wife alleged that her husband’s death was a direct result of the CFC’s command given outside of that incident’s command structure and, had that command not been given, her husband would not have entered the building at that time and died minutes later. In most states, including New York State, juries cannot base liability on a firefighter’s on-scene decision. That rule is based on the principle that the public should not second-guess a first responder’s emergency decision or tactic. New York State’s second highest court ruled that the failure to follow NIMS may serve as a basis for liability, as it “mandates a reasonably defined and precedentially developed standard of care, and does not require the fact’s trier to ‘second-guess [a firefighter’s] split-second weighing of choices.’ ” This surprising ruling means that first responders and their paid or volunteer agencies may be held liable for failing to adhere to those mandatory NIMS requirements. Although in this case the lawsuit was brought by a firefighter’s wife, most states do not prohibit a citizen from suing a fire department. Whether the suit is brought by a firefighter, a firefighter’s family member, or an injured civilian, the concern is the same: Failing to follow portions of NIMS can lead to the loss of a lawsuit. Continued on page 5
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NIMS Directives and Liability Continued from page 4
Review of the 130-page NIMS manual (available at: http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nims/nims_doc_full.pdf) reveals many directives that impact the fire service and other first responders. Thus, if the failure to follow such mandatory directives results in harm, this could lead to liability. It is unclear whether the NIMS program drafters intended the word “must” to carry liability for noncompliance, but the New York court viewed the word’s use seriously. Following are examples of NIMS directives that presumably require no “split-second weighing of choices”: “Accountability. Effective accountability at all jurisdictional levels and within individual functional areas during incident operations is essential. To that end, the following principles must be adhered to: (1) Check-In. All responders, regardless of agency affiliation, must report in to receive an assignment in accor dance with the procedures established by the IC. (2) Incident Action Plan (IAP). Response operations must be directed and coordinated as outlined in the IAP. (3) Unity of Command. Each individual involved in incident operations will be assigned to only one supervisor. (4) Span of Control. Supervisors must be able to adequately supervise and control their subordinates, as well as communicate with and manage all resources under their supervision. (5) Resource Tracking. Supervisors must record and report resource status changes as they occur.” (p. 19, em phasis added) “Establishment and Transfer of Command. The command function must be clearly established from the beginning of incident operations. The agency with primary jurisdictional authority over the incident designates the individual at the scene responsible for establishing command. When command is transferred, the process must include a briefing that captures all essential information for continuing safe and effective operations.” (p. 18) “Exercises. Incident management organizations and personnel must participate in realistic exercises—including multidisciplinary, multijurisdictional, and multisector interaction—to improve integration and interoperability and optimize resource use during incident operations.” (p. 11) “Incident Management Communications. Preparedness organizations must ensure that effective communications processes and systems exist to support a complete spectrum of incident management activities.” (p. 55) OPERATING PROCEDURES AS A BASIS FOR LIABILITY NIMS is used as a basis for liability because it was an adopted state standard that required no discretion. If an agency is not careful, operating procedures and policies could also serve as standards against which a judge or jury evaluates negligent or reckless conduct. The law in many states precludes evaluating a first responder’s actions when such actions involve decision making or “judgment calls.” However, some first response agencies have implemented policies under the title Standard Operating Procedures, which give the impression that certain actions are mandatory and not discretionary. Such documents could be introduced into court against the agency to prove that the first responder failed to follow adopted, nondiscretionary procedures. Many states prohibit the introduction of policies into evidence in a court proceeding when such policies implement a standard of care higher than the recognized standard of care. This exclusionary rule’s purpose encourages, not discourages, agencies from imposing expectations of the best conduct by creating liability for not meeting that conduct. First response agencies will customarily be liable for not adhering to the standard of care if that standard’s breach resulted in injury or death but will not be liable for failing to provide the “best” care. The question will arise as to what the standard of care may be in any given circumstance. First response agencies increase the risk that their policies are introduced as the “standard of care” by using the term “standard” in the name of the document. Documents such as “Standard of Care” and “Standard Operating Guidelines” create confusion and increase the risk that juries can view these documents as the “standard” against which the first responder must have acted. Therefore, consider the following actions:
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Name the document Best Practice Guidelines. Most states do not permit the introduction of the “best practice” when such practice is stricter than the recognized “standard of care.”
Insert introductory language in your Best Practice Guidelines, which describes the document’s purpose. An example of such language follows: This document represents a series of best practices. The document is intended only for the use of this agency and not for any other agency. The document is not intended to be relied on by any other individual, public or private, or agency. The document may not be used in court or in any other forum against the agency or against any individual, other than use by the agency. The imposition of discipline by the agency against any individual under control of this agency is not proof of the failure to comply with the standard of care, but only with this agency’s practices. In many cases, these best practices strive to exceed the standard practice. Adoption of the NFPA [standard], when done, is not a recognition of the standard but an attempt to achieve the best practice. Failure to adopt the NFPA [standard] is not the failure to meet a standard of care but a conscious choice of which practices are the best practice for this agency.
Eliminate words such as “must” and “shall” from best practices, and use words such as “should.” Words that indicate there is no discretion might permit that procedure as a “standard.”
Separate policies from procedures, and keep them in separate manuals or sections of a manual. Determine what items are policies and what are “best practices.” Policies are mandatory in nature. There is no discretion or judgment as to how to follow a procedure. Generally, firefighting issues are all discretionary and should not be policies. Examples of policies include wearing seat belts while in a vehicle, using a spotter to back up a vehicle, avoiding engaging in sexually harassing conduct, and keeping medical information confidential. Breaches of policies usually involve some sort of discipline. Breaches of procedures usually involve retraining or reviews of decisions.
Review which policies and procedures are actually being enforced. If a policy is not being enforced, either enforce it or change the policy. For example, many departments require emergency vehicles to stop at red lights when responding to an emergency; if operators are only “slowing down” at lights, the policy is not effective. Change the policy to mandate only that conduct required by state law, or enforce the policy as written.
An unenforced policy is a liability that the agency cannot afford to maintain. Again, policies carry discipline. Is the agency ready to discipline for violations of a policy? Are the officers ready to avoid ignoring such violations? Endnote 1. Donna L. Prince, Individually and as the Parent and the Natural Guardian of Philip Lawrence L., an infant, and as Administratrix of the Estate of Timothy John L., Deceased. v. Mike Waters, As the Fire Control Coordinator of the County of Onondaga, and County of Onondaga, Defendants-Respondents, (CA 07-01233, 2/1/2008). To access this Article, go to: http://www.fireengineering.com/fireengineering/en-us/index/articles/display.articles.fire-engineering.volume162.issue-3.departments.fire-service-court.nims-directives-and-liability.html
BRADLEY M. PINSKY is an attorney in Syracuse, New York, and a captain in the Manlius (NY) Fire Department. His law practice represents approximately 200 fire departments, fire districts, and ambulance services throughout the state. He is the author of the N.Y.S. Fire Department Law & Management Resource Manual. He served on the legal panel at FDIC 2008.
Coming Soon! IEMSA on http://www.orgsync.com/
Volume 3, Issue 3
Emergency Management in Schools By Joshua Nebelsiek MA EDM Student The excerpts below are adapted from an original paper written for EDMG503 in February 2009 Introduction Central to effective emergency management and preparedness are planning and implementation. The weight of importance between the two lies with implementation. Schools today often engage in or hire out the formulation of emergency plans for their districts or jurisdictions and then fall short in the rehearsal or implementation phase of emergency management. Further, when plans and programs do exist they lean toward a focus on specific, locally precedented threats rather than an all-hazard approach; often discounting the inconceivable or distasteful subjects of terrorism. Background Schools house high density populations for large portions of the year and ranging from just a few hours per day to the equivalent of full work schedules. Below the high school and college levels these populations could be considered high risk based on the maturity level and ability to cope with emergency situations of the majority of the population. When a disaster strikes a community during the times that children are in the care of the school, parents trust that they will be safe while they seek safety themselves which may lead to family separations. A Government Accounting Office (GAO) report delivered to Congress in May of 2006 entitled, “EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT: Status of School Districts’ Planning and Preparedness”, primarily addressed that while many US school districts have implemented multi-hazard emergency programs the execution of these plans falls short in several areas. The study specifically noted how few of the districts had involved community partners when developing the plans. Additionally, the report pointed out that it was rare for school districts to exercise the plans or conduct training with the responder community. The lack of partner organization involvement in school plans could prove highly detrimental in the event of a large scale emergency situation. The Government Accounting office delivered a follow on study in 2007. Entitled, “EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance,” focused largely on the fact that many districts needed further guidance developing effective plans that meet accepted minimum standards. This report immediately pointed out that at the time no federal law existed to require emergency management plans or programs in schools but noted that thirty-two states had enacted state laws to that effect (GAO, 2007, June, p. 1). These reports all serve to highlight the need for schools to develop effective programs and point out specific shortfalls in existing programs. Emergency management in schools is an ongoing issue, yet the solutions remain in their infancy. One question that must be asked is; do schools have the resources available to develop, exercise and maintain these programs in order to protect the students and faculty? Resources A key argument in the past for not having well developed emergency management programs has been a lack of expertise or trained personnel capable of managing the programs resident within the education system in various jurisdictions. Arguably, universities with Emergency and Disaster Management degree programs would fare better in this light than would other colleges or high schools and lower level institutions. This lack of organic expertise leads to further program deficiencies in the jurisdictions that are working toward comprehensive programs. The GAO pointed out that many of the programs fall significantly short in the realm of program development, coordination, exercise and maintenance. This proves, at least initially, that a key resource in the management of emergency programs in the academic arena is a lack of the correct personnel and expertise. This does not say that schools are devoid of emergency program personnel or mechanisms do not exist to correct this issue. In fact, many schools have security and medical/health sections and all schools have an administrative staff. The discrepancy lies in their training and backgrounds. These professionals are not emergency management professionals and specialize in their areas or responsibilities. In order to counter these deficiencies however, both the federal and state governments have established multiple programs to provide either funding, informational or developmental tools to schools. The U.S. Department of education manages the “Readiness and Management for Schools Technical Assistance Center,” webpage. This webpage provides links and resources for schools and administrators to draw from while developing their emergency management programs. Using this webpage as a start point, multiple resources can be found that negate the arguments that schools do not have the resource tools available to manage EM programs effectively. Additionally, the publication, “Action Guide for Emergency Management at Higher Education Institutions,” is resource tool for schools that have not yet or are in the Continued on page 8
Emergency Management in Schools Continued from page 7
early stages of developing a comprehensive emergency management program. Published in January of 2009, the guide is not a template for a program but takes the readers through the variety of considerations to look at from early threat identification and assessments through the implementation and exercise of the fully developed plan in addition to maintenance considerations for the program. In addition to providing program development and training resources there are a variety of funding resources available to institutions to further bolster their efforts. While one argument is that schools may not have the resident expertise to administer emergency management programs, there are a variety of federal and state programs available to counter this deficiency. Through training programs, development aids or funding to hire/train emergency management professionals, schools can overcome this key obstacle to effective programs. With this being the case, the quality of the plans in development or currently in place must be examined. Plans The Government Accounting Office report, â€œEMERGENCY MANAGEMENT: Status of School Districtsâ€™ Planning and Preparednessâ€?, notes that while a large number of schools, nearly 97% in 2007; have plans, many of them are not all hazard plans and a large percentage of schools limit plans only to a small number of specific hazards. Much of this disparity is based on individual district threat/hazard assessments and is to be expected to one degree or another. It is evident that like with other level emergency plans, schools must take an all-hazard approach. Undoubtedly, prior to landfall of Katrina in 2005, local authorities across the states impacted, had scarcely considered the long term separation of children from their families in the aftermath of a disaster but this was exactly what occurred as families, told that their children were safe, were forced to seek safety for themselves. No one could have predicted the severity of either event. All hazard plans account for the unforeseeable to some extent. Also, as mentioned earlier the GAO discovered a very low percentage of plans that made provisions for their special needs populations and the younger the population the higher the percentage that could be considered special needs. As Allen mentioned the youngest of children separated from their families during and after Katrina were so traumatized that they forgot their own names, slowing the process to reunite them with family (p. 2). Regardless of plan content however, a written plan is not readiness. A written plan does not ensure safety in and of itself. Plans once constructed must be rehearsed and exercised. Those affected must be aware of the content of the plans and how to execute the prescribed actions. The Government Accounting Office noted that an estimated 43% of schools never incorporated outside agencies or partners in the development of their plans; 27% never trained with emergency response agencies of any sort in the exercise of their plans; and only 29% trained with partner agencies in any capacity (GAO, 2006, p. 16). The 2007 GAO report states that urban schools were more prone to coordinate or exercise plans with emergency response agencies than rural schools (p. 36). It also noted that approximately three quarters of all schools did exercise their plan within their school community but mostly exclusive of other agencies. The extent of these exercises, whether they are internal or not, also varies greatly from table top to full scale. Not only do schools report difficulty in exercising plans, they also report difficulties with training school personnel, students and families. The GAO report lists that schools find managing the time to train staff members extremely limited and that training time is also shared with training time devoted to educational program requirements (2007, p. 39). Closely tied to the exercise of plans is the update/revision cycle. Once a plan is exercised schools must have some mechanism for revision and application of lessons learned. In their 2007 report, the GAO states that an estimated 50 % of schools with plans revise them regularly, but at least 10 % have reported never having revised their plans. The reasons vary but the major disparity lies between rural and urban schools. Urban schools are more likely to revise and update plans, according to data gathered by the Government Accounting Office (2007, p. 35). Summary Schools house high density and high risk populations for large portions of the day and year. To that end, parents expect a certain level of safety and protection for their children during those times. The assumption is that schools at all levels have appropriate emergency management plans and programs in place that address not only specific threats but all hazards. To date there is no federal level legislation that mandates specific program requirements or practices, but over half of the individual states mandate some aspect of emergency management for schools within their bounds. That said, while the federal government does not mandate any requirements, they do provide numerous resources to aid schools at all levels in ensuring their programs are comprehensive and relevant. Similarly every state provides resources to schools as well. Government reporting revealed that schools note competing interests between delivering students with an education Continued on page 9
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Emergency Management in Schools Continued from page 8
and a safe environment and a lack of resources towards development and maintenance. Further, under the current administrations, schools rarely develop and rehearse plans that are coordinated with outside agencies, hindering their effectiveness and update plans only in accordance with applicable requirements. Conclusions With the amount of resources available to schools and local governments through state and federal programs, there is little reason to argue that effective and relevant programs should not be the norm in schools today. The populations represented in the schools are the future and must be protected. There is currently a disparity between the reported/perceived state of emergency readiness in schools today and the reality. Many schools have a large number of program shortfalls that must be addressed but will meet regulation requirements if enforced. Those regulation requirements must be uniform to ensure solid programs. Appropriate emphasis on emergency management in schools should be directed by the federal government and administered by the states rather than localities. This would ensure appropriate cross-leveling of resources and a uniform level of program quality.
References Allen, E. (2005). Missing Children: Getting Home After Disaster Strikes. The Challenge, Vol. 14 Issue, p. 1-2. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from http://rems.ed.gov/views/documents. Bowles, M. (2007). A Helping Hand. The Journal, Vol. 34 Issue 10, pS4-S5. Retrieved January 17, 2009, from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.apus.edu/. Department of Education. (2009). Action Guide for Emergency Management at Higher Education Institutions. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from http://rems.ed.gov/views/documents. Department of Education. (2009). Readiness and Management for Schools Technical Assistance Center. Retrieved January 29, 2009, from http://rems.ed.gov/. Government Accounting Office (GAO). (2006, May). EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT: Status of School Districts’ Planning and Preparedness. Retrieved January 17, 2009, from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07821t.pdf. Government Accounting Office (GAO). (2006, June). EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance. Retrieved January 17, 2009, from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07609.pdf. Healthyschools.org. (2005). IN THEIR OWN WORDS: 9/11 Parents Help Other Parents & Schools with Lessons Learned. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from http://www.healthyschools.org/documents/INTHEIROWNWORDS.pdf MacNeil, W. & Topping, K. (2007). Crisis management in schools: evidence based prevention. Journal of Educational Enquiry, Vol. 7, No. 1. Retrieved January 17, 2009, from http://www.literacy.unisa.edu.au/. Price, D. (2006). Emergency Management for Schools. Retrieved January 17, 2009, from http://www.connectlive.com/events/edschoolsafety/edschoolsafety.pdf. Roberts, M. & Stephens, M. (2002). Emergency Management in Schools. Retrieved January 17, 2009, from http://www.aic.gov.au/conferences/schools/roberts.pdf.
China Validates National Response Plan By Clifford Lindell MA EDM Student There has been a significant shift in the nature and intensity of threats to China. Many international relations scholars have noted that especially since the end of the Cold War, while the risk of military attack by other countries has seriously diminished for China, domestic threats and challenges to the “individual” have risen precipitously. Perceptions of a conventional threat have given way to a more diverse range of contingencies including natural disasters, industrial incidents, social unrest, and economic crises. Three decades of economic growth have considerably improved the quality of life for Chinese citizens. Yet such economic growth has also created risks to human security. China’s primary security risk is now the individual, not the state. As the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) crisis demonstrated, globalization, modern medical practices, urbanization, climatic change, changing social and behavioral patterns and the chance that individuals will be confronted by life-threatening contingencies pose the greatest challenge to the government. As opposed to traditional military defense of the state, such crises and their management constitute a “gray area” that will be a profound test not only to China’s highest leadership but also to the global community. These emerging non-traditional security threats differ significantly from traditional state-centric paradigms both in their causes and the policies designed Continued on page 10
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to ameliorate them. Natural and anthropological crises have been a reality in China for centuries. However, the frequency and occurrence of major crises have dramatically risen in the wake of the economic, social and environmental transformations of the past three decades. As China shifted from a revolutionary era under Mao Zedong to Deng Xiaoping’s reforming age, major socio-economic changes have magnified tensions between humans and nature creating a variety of new risks and challenges. A look at the largest and most politicized crises such as SARS, avian flu, the Songhua River benzene spill and the exceptionally high number of accidents and fatalities in China’s coal mining industry support this trend. Environmental, social and health incidents have all increased and pose greater challenges than they have in the past. (Kaibin, Z, 2007) As such, many crisis management experts say that China is presently near the ‘bottom of the curve’ and that the frequency and vulnerability of the nation to crises will get worse before it gets better. Along with changes in the threats to Chinese society, the approaches to addressing these challenges have also shifted. An increased reality of crisis is complicated further by poor government crisis management. States in transition often suffer from inadequately robust crisis management regimes, as their political and social structures are in flux with frequent and wide-ranging changes in the socio-economic order. Institutional weakness hampers China’s ability to sufficiently cope with crises of varying scales and complexities. The high number of fatalities from many sources of crisis is inconsistent with China’s economic boom. While 28 years of rapid economic development have hugely boosted China’s private sector, the capacity of government has lagged behind. The social cohesive power of former institutional norms, rules, organizations and routines has greatly diminished while no new alternative institutional structures capable of managing and making sense of crises have been created. The ineffective system and political sensitivity of crisis management means that China is likely to become more vulnerable to disasters, disturbances, and other critical contingencies. One of the key tasks for the Chinese government and Chinese society in the years ahead will be to address both why existing institutions do not have the robust ability to combat crises and what the potential solutions are to appropriately address future crises. (Kaibin, Z, 2007) Many aspects of the structural and organizational environment of the Chinese government and its agencies limit the ability to develop and implement a sound crisis management system. An outline of such constraints provides an important framework to understand its approach and actions to date. A combination of a lack of clarity about the roles that different levels and different functional sectors of the government should play and the persistence of self-interested action among government players pose serious limitations to appropriate state action in situations of crisis. Recent major health crises in China have brought to light these institutional barriers, which are an important first step to making effective change. There exist many incoherencies and inconsistencies both between different levels of government and with government bureaucratic agencies. China’s government is organized in a largely vertical system, with five levels of government: central, provincial, prefecture, county, and township. The roles and responsibilities of government are ambiguous, with many jurisdictional gaps and contradictions. Structural inefficiency, paired with poor communication both vertically between different government levels and horizontally between different bureaucratic agencies, results in an inability to create a clear crisis management system. Government and agency action under such a system is often fragmented and ineffective. Jurisdictional gaps and contradictions in government department roles and responsibilities (that affect how crises are handled) exist between departments of public health, transportation, rail, civil aviation and quarantine, as well as between departments in different regions. Although many of these became manifest during the SARS epidemic and avian flu incidents, the central and local governments have not yet succeeded in their resolution. Safety experts have stressed that China’s emergency response systems fall under 17 different departments, each independent, but whose responsibilities often overlap, leading to a waste of resources. The “stove-pipe” nature of China’s bureaucratic organizations continues to hamper effective action. Further, there is a lack of clarity in the reporting process of potential emergency situations between government agencies in the Chinese system. At best this state of affairs discourages timely and accurate reporting and at worst distorts the reality of circumstances by embellishing optimistic information and suppressing bad news. The result is often government inaction and the magnification of a crisis. The recent case of the Songhua River incident illustrates the interplay of these factors that lead to breakdowns in communication and a delay in reporting. What should have been a small and relatively localized incident became a major emergency Legislative measures also operate to inhibit effective communication both between government entities and with Chinese citizens. Under Chinese law, certain crises are classified as “state secrets.” For example, in accordance with China’s classification and policy treatment of infectious diseases, epidemics are classified as “state secrets” whereby national level authorities have control over all public announcements about disease outbreaks while provincial and local officials have no power to comment publicly. (Kaibin, Z, 2007) The structure and organization of China’s government fail to institute an atmosphere that promotes accountability and transparency. This reality limits the government’s ability to act efficiently in situations of crisis and conflict. Furthermore, the existence of complex loyalties, diverse interests and structural rigidity paired with a lack of cooperation between Continued on page 11
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different levels of government and government agencies limits transparent action. Under the current vertically oriented political system, local government officials, who are appointed from above and lack accountability to local people, have a tendency to stray from good governance practices. Major recent crises have brought to light the institutional and structural limitations to the development of an effective crisis management system. The context that governs planning, action, cooperation and communication largely explains the Chinese government’s approach in situations of crisis. The modus operandi of responding to crisis has been to deny or conceal its existence, and utilize a reactive approach. (Kaibin, Z, 2007) Following the array of recent crises in China, leaders have realized the critical need to enhance the capacity of contingency planning and emergency management, particularly at the local level. Officials have begun to link the development and maintenance of a sound emergency response system to a “harmonious society.” Consequently, over the past three years since the SARS crisis, many steps toward the development and implementation of crisis management mechanisms have been put into action. Such initiatives illustrate an acknowledgement and identification of the necessity for an operational mechanism, particularly with regard to increasing local accountability, public awareness, improving communication and strengthening scientific research and education. One major initiative to create a sound crisis management system in China has been the development of an emergency contingency plan. Beginning in 2004 and released in 2005, the State Council, China’s Cabinet, created a national plan for emergency responses, which became a guide for the prevention and treatment of various incidents. This new general contingency plan formulates an emergency forecast and response mechanism with unified command mandates for rapid reaction and high efficiency. (China.org.cn, 2006) The plan grades emergencies into four levels based on their “severity” and “emergency,” represented by the colors blue, yellow, orange and red (threat level ranging from the least to the most severe). (China.org.cn, 2006) Emergencies are also categorized into natural disasters, anthropological accidents, public health incidents and social security crises. This initiative serves as an overarching guide for a countrywide emergency response system. It requires that the State Council institute sub-plans for specific emergencies and relevant government industries develop sector specific plans. Such initiatives prescribe action plans at the local level for municipal government or any enterprise schemes that involve large events. The plan increases both the capacity of and coordination among the hierarchy of first-responders. According to the Ministry of Civil Affairs (MOCA), in 2005 the natural disaster reaction systems were activated 30 times, running a total of over 100 days and involving the evacuation of over 16 million victims. (China.org.cn, 2006) In addition to the efforts to create an emergency response plan the Chinese Government has prioritized the development of a permanent emergency management bureau. In December 2005, a national level Emergency Management Office (EMO) was officially established. (Kaibin, Z, 2007) This office provides a framework for a comprehensive emergency management program that directs planning, preparation, response and recovery. The EMO serves as an interagency liaison for all emergency management and national security program activities through the State Council, ensuring integrity through the integration of all programs, systems, assets, capabilities, training, and response mechanisms. Permanent emergency management organizations have also been established in place of temporary organizations to coordinate departments at the provincial and ministerial levels. The end of 2005 had set up emergency response offices up by health departments in 27 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities across China. A number of cities, including Shanghai, Nanning and Shenzhen have also begun operating emergency response centers. (Kaibin, Z, 2007) Another initiative of the Chinese government has involved a number of improvements to the legal framework. First, an amendment to China’s constitution, replacing the term “martial law” with “states of emergency,” allows for a more inclusive legislative context that ensures action for a wider variety of emergency situations including natural, public health and economic crises. Under this amendment, the president of the PRC is entitled to declare a state of emergency, increasing opportunities for the allocation of state funding. Second, the development of new Chinese legislation has helped to create adequate emergency management system procedures. Both the Temporary Regulations on Dealing with Health Emergencies in 2003, and the Emergency Management Law, scheduled to pass within its current five-year legislative period (2002-2007), are examples of such efforts. An acknowledgement of the need for an effective communication channel between the government and the public led the government to institute a requirement for all national and provincial departments to establish a “news-briefing spokesperson system.” In 2004, up to 70 departments under the State Council and 20 provincial governments had allocated designated spokespeople for press conferences during situations of crisis. Further, as of August 2005, the Chinese government no longer considers natural disaster fatalities to be classified both at the national and provincial levels. Another important government initiative has been an effort to publicize issues pertinent to emergency management on the government’s official website, launched on Jan. 1, 2006. Scientific research and technical training programs are also being revamped. (Kaibin, Z, 2007) First, in 2004, 100 million RMB was allocated to establish a special fund for research projects, including the project “New Infectious Disease Continued on page 12
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Prevention and Control Technology and Its Application.â€? Second, Chinaâ€™s Eleventh Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development included the creation of a public safety panel that will work to promote broader public safety education and training initiatives through the media, schools and communities. Such initiatives intend to teach citizens about risk avoidance, disaster prevention and first-aid. A number of programs have been very successful in their development and implementation. Examples include: a program in public primary and middle schools where students are now required to partake in accident prevention drills, and the educational initiative of the Haidian Public Safety Museum which is designed to educate citizens about effective crisis response. Despite such initiatives, more efforts should be put in place to help educate disadvantaged social groups as they are the most vulnerable in society and the most likely to suffer from various unexpected crises. The Chinese government has taken a more hardline approach toward the creation of an accountable and transparent government in situations of crisis. In the past three years a number of officials have resigned or been dismissed for their inability to control emergency situations. Most notably, the former Health Minister Zhang Wenkang was fired for covering up the SARS crisis in 2003, and the former Environment Minister Xie Zhenhua resigned in 2005 after the pollution of the Songhua River was realized. While the acknowledgement of a lack of accountability is an important first step, the Chinese government needs to develop more initiatives that promote its attainment. (Kaibin, Z, 2007) The plan was put test on 12 May 2008. China's worst earthquake in more than 30 years struck southwest China on May 12, leaving nearly 87,000 dead or missing. The victims include at least 9,000 children who were crushed to death when their school buildings collapsed on them. About 362,000 people were injured when the 7.9 magnitude quake struck southwestern Sichuan province and around 5 million people lost their homes. Thousands of aftershocks and heavy rainfall compounded the difficulties for military, government and private workers trying to deliver aid and ensure people get shelter. The government says the quake damage could exceed the devastating 1976 tremor in the northeastern city of Tangshan that killed up to 300,000 people. Roads and phone lines in Sichuan were cut off by the quake, which caused buildings to sway as far away as the Thai capital Bangkok. The epicenter was in the mountainous county of Wenchuan, which has a population of about 100,000 people. In the worst hit areas - the hilly, rural area of Beichuan as well as Wenchuan to the southwest - buckled and blocked roads mean supplies and rescuers struggled to arrive. According to official statistics from the Information Office of the State Council, the death toll is 67,183 people, with an additional 361,822 people injured and 20,790 people missing. More than 45.61 million people were affected and around 15 million people have been relocated. A total of 64,719 bodies have been buried in Sichuan Province alone. Soldiers and medical personnel have rescued 83,988 people from debris. Around 5.46 million homes have been destroyed; an additional 5.9 million homes are seriously damaged. Millions of livestock and a significant amount of agriculture were also destroyed, including 12.5 million animals, mainly birds. In the Sichuan province a million pigs died out of 60 million in Sichuan province. (United Nations Report) The Government of China reported that earthquakes have damaged 2,380 dams across the region, including 1,803 dams in Sichuan province alone. Of these, the Government reports that 69 are at risk of rupturing, including the Zipingpu Dam, upriver from Dujiangyan in Sichuan province. The Government of China has estimated that the possible rupture of earthquake/landslide-caused lakes threatens 700,000 people. The Government Continued on page 13
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reported that priority attention is focused on a quake lake in Tangjiashan, Beichuan County, which is blocking the Jianhe River and, with more than 128 million cubic meters of water behind it, believed to pose the greatest risk to human welfare. Nuclear facilities and radioactive sources have been confirmed safe and under control, according to Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP). A total of 50 radioactive sources with potential environmental risks have been identified. Of those, 35 have been recovered and stored by local environmental authorities. The remaining 15 radioactive sources either remain buried in debris or are located in buildings with a high risk of collapse and difficult to reach. National Response According to the Ministry of Civil Affairs, around 566,400 tents have been delivered to the affected areas, including 3.5 million quilts; 8.34 million items of clothing; 450,000 tons of fuel; and 940,000 tons of coal. As of 26 May, 1,600 temporary homes have been set up in the earthquake-zone and 4,000 temporary homes are under construction. The Government of China has decided that 1.5 million temporary houses will be built for survivors. (United Nations Report) According to the Office of the UN Resident Coordinator’s China Situation Report, the Government of China has turned its primary attention from search and rescue efforts to finding shelter for earthquake survivors. Large ‘tent cities’ are appearing in affected areas with more than 30,000 people. Sanitation has emerged as a concern in the temporary settlements. (United Nations Report) 9.4 billion yuan (US$ 1.35 billion) in cash and relief materials have been forwarded to the earthquake-affected areas. The Government of China’s Disaster Relief Fund for Earthquake-stricken areas reached 19.2 billion yuan (US$ 2.76 billion) as of 27 May; the fund includes both central and local budgets. Wealthier provinces and cities have been ordered to provide immediate technical and financial aid to their partnered affected communities. (United Nations Report) The State Council Earthquake Relief Headquarters have established 9 working groups on earthquake relief: 1) Disaster relief and rescue (lead: General Staff HQ); 2) Basic needs of the people (lead: Ministry of Civil Affairs); 3) Earthquake monitoring (lead: Seismological Bureau); 4) Health and epidemic prevention group (lead: Ministry of Health); 5) Public information (lead: Central Propaganda 3 Department); 6) Production recovery (lead: Ministry of Industry); 7) Infrastructure protection and reconstruction (lead: Development & Reform Commission); 8) Water conservancy (lead: Ministry of Water Resources); and 9) Public Security (Lead: Ministry of Public Security). Ministry of Health (MoH) has deployed a Cell Phone Epidemic Emergency Reporting system to ensure rapid detection and response to potential epidemics as of 22 May 2008, No major epidemic diseases or emergency public health problems have been reported as of 26 May 2008. (United Nations Report) The Ministry of Health reported that hospitals have taken in 88,617 injured people since the earthquake of which 58,356 have been discharged. Ministry of Health also reported that much of the earthquake-affected region’s health infrastructure has been damaged; 12 field hospitals have been established to assist medical capacities. The Chinese Military mobilized around 178,000 thousand armed forces and as many as 50,000 medical personnel in relief efforts. (United Nations Report) The Population and Family Planning Commission announced that families, which have lost an only child, would be permitted to have a second child. The new regulation also pledges an annual allowance of US$ 85 dollars to parents over 50 years of age whose only child was killed or seriously disabled by the earthquake. (United Nations Report) Heritage experts are assessing damages to cultural relics in the disaster region, including many world and national heritage sites. One of the world’s oldest flood-control and irrigation systems, the Dujiangyan waterworks, suffered significant damage from the earthquake. It is one of 79 heritages sites in Sichuan to have been hit hard by the quake, amounting to more than 60 percent of the national heritage sites in the province. As of 30 May 2008, the Government relief fund for the earthquake-stricken areas reached US$ 3.2 billion. Domestic and foreign donations have reached US$ 5.7 billion. One of the major crisis’ that arose was the debris from the earthquake damage located at The lake in northern Sichuan province, formed when a massive landslide blocked a river, holds 34 billion gallons of water and is rising by three feet each hour. The rescue took the number of people moved out of the threatened valley to almost 160,000 from more than 30 townships. It is estimated by the Chinese Government that the recovery of the Earthquake devastated area will not be complete Continued on page 14
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until the year 2010. China's ruling Communist Party said on Monday its rapid response to the Sichuan earthquake demonstrated its commitment to the people, but acknowledged that voluntary groups might have a role to play in reconstruction. (Hornby, L, (2008) Individual citizens raced to help party members, government officials and troops after the 7.9 magnitude earthquake struck Sichuan on May 12, killing up to 80,000 people and leaving 5 million homeless. From taxi drivers ferrying the injured to hospitals to car clubs delivering supplies, the quake volunteers have such cachet that party members dispatched to the disaster zone also call themselves 'volunteers.' (Hornby, L, (2008) The China Emergency Response Plan that was designed, was designed with nine kinds of accidental calamities, listed on the plan, involve production safety, railway transportation, civil aviation, marine salvation, subway transportation, large-scale power failure, nuclear, environment and communication security. The plan aims to regulate management and procedure of emergency response for the nine kinds of accidental calamities, increase the government's efficiency and competence in the face of accidental calamities, minimize the casualties and property losses, safeguard people's life and maintain social stability. The State Council on Jan. 8 2006 issued a general plan on emergency response to guide the prevention and treatment of various incidents including natural disasters, accidents, public health incidents and social safety incidents. The plan stipulates that the State Council is the highest organ in the management of emergency response. An office in charge of emergency response management will be set up by the State Council to collect information of various incidents and coordinate the emergence response work. The incidents are ranked as Class I (most serious), Class II (serious), Class III (relatively serious) and Class IV (ordinary) (China.org.cn (2006). The alarm of the incidents will be shown with colors of red, orange, yellow and blue respectively, according to the general plan. Those who make outstanding contributions to emergency response will be awarded, while those who fail to report the true state of incidents or cover up accidents will be punished according to law and regulations, the plan says. The first meaningful step the government took was in information disclosure. Governments at different levels have gradually accepted the practice of informing the public about incidents and making transparent the process through which the government is dealing with crises. A set of general guidelines for emergency response, legalized requirements for transparency in public safety incidents and stipulated penalties for those burying information. Preparedness, coordination of related parties and information transparency are among the key elements of emergency management. Response procedures and requirements for transparency are already in place. Now smooth co-ordination is needed to improve them. Safety education for the public has long been a weak point of China's public management. Drills for emergencies are rarely heard of. Education has been somewhat improved in some primary and high schools. But more efforts are needed to make the information reach the general public. The revision of the China National Response plan has been given two years to take its course. It is tragic that the way a countries Emergency Response program is test is by such a horrific tragedy. There is no way that a country could prepare for the devastation that ensued after this Natural Disaster. China has taken great strides to mirror the National Response Plan of the United States. They have set up the controlling government as the overall responders, but are powering down to the local and state providence for taking care of their own Emergency Response postures. This disaster is a good study for the potential calamity that could hit the West Coast of the United States. Could we do any better with the same severity of an event such as this? References China.org.cn (2006), Emergency Response Plan issued, retrieved 7 Jun 08 from http://www.china.org.cn/english/2006/Jan/154434.htm Hornby, L, (2008), China Communist praise own, NGO's fast quake relief, retrieved 12 Jun 08 from http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/ newsdesk/pek281791.htm Kaibin, Z, (2007), Crisis Management in China, China Security, Winter 2007, p.p. 90-109, World Security Insititute Richardson, A, (2008), Chinese Volunteers soldiers in quake aftermath, retrieved 12 Jun 08 from http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/pek171773.htm United Nations Report, OCHA Situation Report No. 10, Sichaun Province, China Earthquake, 30 May 08 United Nations Report, OCHA Situation Report No. 9, Sichaun Province, China Earthquake, 27 May 08 Xinhau (2006), China issues Emergency Response Plan, retrieved 6 Jun 08 from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2006-01/08/content_510350.htm
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MOD Guest Speaker Profile: W. Craig Fugate By Tracy Hughes MA EDM Student On May 19, 2009, W. Craig Fugate took charge of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It was a position he had been offered a few years earlier and declined. At 49 years of age, Mr. Fugate took charge of a federal agency under a new President and a new Director of Homeland Security. The emergency management community as a whole is thrilled that “one of their own” will be there to support their disaster response, recovery, mitigation and preparedness efforts. W. Craig Fugate was born at the Jacksonville Naval Air Station to a career Navy man. His parents died just five years apart when Mr. Fugate was a young man. During his time at Santa Fe High School, Mr. Fugate was active in Future Farmers of America where he earned the American Farmer Degree. But later, following in his father’s footsteps, Mr. Fugate became a volunteer firefighter even before he graduated from high school. After attending Florida State Fire College, Mr. Fugate worked his way up the fire department ladder to become a paramedic and later a lieutenant. In 1987, he was appointed to the position of emergency management chief in Alachua County. During this time, emergency management as a career was in its infancy. After a decade in emergency management at the county government level, Mr. Fugate was appointed to the Chief of the Bureau of Preparedness and Response with the Florida Division of Emergency Management. Four years later, in October 2001, Governor Jeb Bush appointed Fugate to lead the state’s Emergency Management Division. After just two years with Fugate in charge, Florida was the first statewide emergency management agency to receive accreditation from the Emergency Management Accreditation Program (EMAP). Time Magazine reports that Mr. Fugate “liked to surprise the 130 state employees he oversaw with ‘thunderbolt’ exercises by walking into their offices and saying, ‘Okay – there’s a fire in the building and you have to evacuate. What do you do?’” His tenure as Florida’s emergency management leader was a busy one as Mr. Fugate led his team through Hurricanes Charley, Frances, Jeanne and Ivan in the summer of 2004, which earned him Florida’s Distinguished Service Medal awarded to him by the Florida National Guard and the Neil Frank Achievement Award. Similar hurricane activity impacted Florida in 2005 as Dennis, Katrina and Wilma made landfall. In 2006, William Craig Fugate was inducted into the National Guard Association of Florida’s Hall of Fame for his work supporting Florida through two of the busiest hurricane seasons. With his appointment to the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, Mr. Fugate's emergency management career has covered the full spectrum, from his start as a first responder, moving into emergency management at the local government level, up the chain to Chief of a state emergency management agency and now the top man at a federal agency. Fugate now manages an agency of 4400 workers whose job is to respond when conditions are more severe than the states can handle alone. According to Time Magazine, he has the “daunting task of rescuing America from man-made and natural disasters, as well as nuclear attack.” In his spare time, Craig and his wife, Sheree enjoy sea kayaking, maintaining a website with information on the activity at www.seakayakflorida.com. Craig Fugate “tweets” regularly and can be followed on Twitter at CraigatFEMA. Resources Stephey, M. J. . "FEMA Chief W. Craig Fugate." Time. 06 Mar 2009. Web. 13 Nov 2009. "W. Craig Fugate Sworn-In as FEMA's New Administrator." FEMA. 19 May 2009. Web. 13 Nov 2009. "Bio - About Me." DisastersRUs. Web. 13 Nov 2009. <http:// www.disastersrus.org/bio.htm>.
Volume 3, Issue 3
Books of Interest Hurricane of Independence: The Untold Story of the Deadly Storm at the Deciding Moment of the American Revolution, by Tony Williams. Sourcebooks, Inc., 2009. 320p. From Publishers Weekly In his first book, Williams sheds light on the obscure hurricanes that battered America's east coast all the way up to Newfoundland in September 1775. But this account promises more than it delivers: the first vaunted storm at the deciding moment of the American Revolution affected the colonies very little, while the second hurricane hit Canada and killed some 4,000 cod fishermen, but is tangential to the American uprising. Williams consequently presses the storm of war metaphor and fills out the book with lengthy descriptions of what was going on in various American cities hit by the hurricane. He is on surer ground in his discussions about how weather influenced political affairs and its potent religious symbolism. Were the storms evidence of God's desire to punish the rebels for their insolence toward King George III? If so, then why were the British prevented from attacking Dorchester Heights by a fierce storm, and why was Lord Cornwallis's plan to escape from Yorktown frustrated by a powerful gale? Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Submitted by Joshua Nebelsiek The Roar of the Heavens, by Stefan Bechtel. Citadel Press Books, 2006. 308p. From back cover: Hurricane Camille, packing winds over 200 miles per hour, slammed into Mississippi’s Gulf Coast on August 17, 1969, killing 23 people, sweeping enormous tankers miles inland, and leaving behind 100,000 tons of debris. Yet her real fury would be unleashed a thousand miles inland and two days later. This is the story, told by the survivors and key players, of a meteorological event so powerful and rare that scientists considered it possible only once in a millennium. Camille approached the theoretical limits of what weather can do, and those who witnessed her wrath will never forget the Roar of the Heavens.
Trivia Challenge Think you’re smarter than the student to your left and right? Take the Guardian Trivia Challenge and find out! 1. Name the researcher who published the ground-breaking study on the 1917 Halifax explosion. 2. Name (2) two of the four (4) situations for which the Department of Homeland Security shall assume overall Federal incident management coordination responsibilities within the Framework and implement the Framework’s coordinating mechanisms? 3. What is a sustained action used to analyze, reduce and or eliminate the risk to people and property from hazards and their effects? The first student to email the correct answers to all three questions to email@example.com wins the prize below! If no one answers all three correctly, the prize will go to the first student submitting the most correct answers. The answers and the name of the winner will be printed in the next issue of the Guardian!
Trivia Challenge Prize!
Winner of Last Issue’s Trivia Challenge:
The Winner of this issue’s Trivia Challenge will receive a pocketsized copy of the 2008 Emergency Response Guidebook, a guidebook for first responders during the initial phase of a dangerous goods/ hazardous materials transportation incident.
Joshua Nebelsiek Joshua will receive the Self-Powered Emergency Radio featured in the August issue. Answers: 1. Piecemeal 2. The September 11, 2001 terror attack 3. False
Member Spotlight Mr. Micheal Kemp is currently an Associate Professor with AMU and a Senior Consultant with Integrated Solutions Consulting. Mr. Kemp is formally educated having completed several advanced degrees to include emergency management (ADB & MS), criminal justice (MS), and education (Graduate Certificate). He is a certified emergency manager (CEM) and a certified incident commander. Mr. Kemp has worked in conjunction with various levels of government and various universities concerning mitigation, vulnerability identification, weapon of mass destruction, the Emergency Management Accreditation Program (EMAP), the Foundation of Higher Education accreditation (FoHE), and other emergency management and home land security related projects Domestically, Mr. Kemp has spent the past 16 years participating in various emergency management activities to include working with the state of Indiana to develop a hazard identification and risk assessment model; the state of Minnesota concerning critical infrastructure and mitigation issues; the state of Florida during the 2004 hurricane season (disaster declarations #1545, #1539); the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center as a training assessor and evaluator --via the Rural Crime and Justice Center; and the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Emergency Management Institute (FEMA EMI) concerning several ongoing projects. Internationally, Mr. Kemp was involved with mass casualty research concerning the 2004 Sumatra Tsunami and participated in various international humanitarian missions within Albania, Zaire, and The Democratic Republic of the Congo. Mr. Kemp served in the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) for 4 years and spent another 4 years in the Army National Guard (NG). While serving in the USMC, he was principally an antiterrorism and physical security specialist with the Marine Corps Security Force Battalion (Keflavik Iceland) and a Sergeant of combat Marines serving in the Infantry as a Combined Anti-Armor Team (CAAT ) team leader for the 1st BLT/ 8th Marines. Professor Kemp’s service in the NG included completing tours as a Survey team leader with the 81st Civil Support Team – Weapons of Mass Destruction (81st CSTWMD) and serving as a Company Nuclear/Biological/ Chemical officer with the 164th Engineer Battalion, North Dakota Army National Guard. Mr. Kemp currently serves in various emergency management and civic related organizations including the International Association of Emergency Managers (IAEM), where he currently participates on both the Education and Marketing committees; the Foundation of Higher Education, an organization dedicated to accrediting emergency management academic programs; Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW), American Veterans (AMVETS), and The Free Masons Daylight Lodge 135.
A Maryland native and a 1999 graduate of Patuxent High School, Michael J. Kelley reported for basic training at Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, SC. Following graduation from Marine Combat Training, he reported to the Air Traffic Control School in Pensacola, Florida. He earned initial Air Traffic Control qualifications at Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, S.C., where he served as a flight data controller, ground controller, and an On the Job Training Instructor for both positions. Mike then reported to Marine Air Control Squadron 2, Detachment Alpha, where he continued to work as an Air Traffic Controller in the Operations section. Following his service in the Marines, Mike remained in Beaufort working in the private sector for several years, eventually taking a job with the American Red Cross as the Preparedness, Health and Safety Services Director for the Palmetto Chapter. While there, he expanded the training and education program by adding many new classes to include becoming the only chapter in South Carolina authorized to teach First Responder Certification. In April of 2008, Mike participated in Operation Vigilant Guard, functioning as a Red Cross liaison officer. Later that year, he helped oversee Red Cross operations during Tropical Storm Hannah including writing the Incident Action Plan for the chapter. While working there, he completed the FEMA Professional Development Series, and attended the WMD Hazmat Technician Course at the Center for Domestic Preparedness, and the Enhanced Incident Management/Unified Command Course at the National Emergency Response and Rescue Training Center. In the fall of 2008 he left the Red Cross to obtain his Bachelors Degree. Mike briefly attended Frederick Community College before transferring to American Military University in Spring 2009. Currently he is finishing his undergraduate degree in Emergency and Disaster Management and is a member of both AMU’s IEMSA chapter and the South Carolina Emergency Management Association. Mike was elected as the IAEM Student Region 1st Vice President this past month. He is certified as an Advanced Level Emergency Manager (AL), and is a WMD Hazardous Materials Technician. He has received the Master Military Emergency Management Specialist Badge, the Global War on Terrorism Service Medal, and the National Defense Service Medal. He is a qualified instructor for the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program, the Community Emergency Response Team program, the Modular Emergency Response Radiological Transport Training course, and is a First Responder Instructor Trainer and Military Emergency Management Specialist Academy Instructor.