Easy Call. Big Payoff.
Save Energy. Save Money. Motor-driven equipment accounts for 63% of your plant’s electricity consumption every minute of every day. Your choices are to let your electricity bills continue to grow or call in Baldor’s Installed Base Evaluation Team to identify improvements you can start making today.
targeting inefficient motors and mechanical drives as well as identifying systems where adjustable speed drives could be added to save even more energy. This report will provide recommendations for immediate action along with long term strategies… all positively affecting your bottom line.
The Baldor IBE Team uses advanced data collection equipment and software to work with your plant maintenance personnel to take an accurate account of your motors, drives and mechanical power transmission products, both in operation and from spares inventory. The IBE Team will produce a comprehensive report and plan,
If you’re ready to do something about your growing electricity consumption, email the Baldor IBE specialists at IBETeam@Baldor.com or call (864) 281-2100 to receive case studies with realworld savings. It’s an easy call with a big payoff.
©2012 Baldor Electric Company
Contents MARCH 2014 • VOL 27, NO 3 • www.MaintenanceTechnology.com
FEATURES Know Your Critical Equipment Real-world benefits go well beyond easier decision-making. Jane Alexander, Deputy Editor
DEPARTMENTS 6 Forward Observations
Sustaining Operator-Driven Reliability Research shows that ODR success can be elusive. Here’s how to make it work. Jane Alexander, Deputy Editor
12 Don’t Procrastinate… 14 40 43 45
Technology Drives Public-Transit Efficiencies
An Australian tram operation uses a centralized data system to improve maintenance and performance.
Neil Roberts, Yarra Trams
Innovate! News Products Marketplace Index Compressed Air Challenge My Take Manufacturing Connection
Fighting Clogs Efficiently at a Wisconsin Wastewater Station The growing popularity of single-use towels and baby wipes has become a maintenance nightmare for water-treatment operations. It should scare any operation that requires clean water.
Increasing Electrical Safety in a Brewery An upgraded design for plugs and receptacles reduces shock potential in wet environments. Jane Alexander, Deputy Editor
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
March 2014 • Volume 27, No. 3 ARTHUR L. RICE
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The Truth About Compressed Air! If you think compressed air is too expensive and noisy - read this. The facts will surprise you!
Compare these Blowoffs
Facts about Blowers
There are a variety of ways to blow the water from the bottles shown in the photo below, but which method is best? To decide, we ran a comparison test on the same application using four different blowoff methods: drilled pipe, flat air nozzles, Super Air Knife (each using compressed air as a power source), and a blower supplied air knife (using an electric motor as a power source). Each system consisted of two twelve inch long air knives. The following comparison proves that the EXAIR Super Air Knife is the best choice for your blowoff, cooling or drying application.
Energy conscious plants might think a blower to be a better choice due to its slightly lower electrical consumption compared to a compressor. In reality, a blower is an expensive capital expenditure that requires frequent downtime and costly maintenance of filters, belts and bearings.
The goal for each of the blowoff choices was to use the least amount of air possible to get the job done (lowest energy and noise level). The compressed air pressure required was 60 PSIG which provided adequate velocity to blow the water off. The blower used had a ten horsepower motor and was a centrifugal type blower at 18,000 RPM. The table at the bottom of the page summarizes the overall performance. Since your actual part may have an odd configuration, holes or sharp edges, we took sound level measurements in free air (no impinging surface).
Here are some important facts:
Filters must be replaced every one to three months. Belts must be replaced every three to six months. Typical bearing replacement is at least once a year at a cost near $1000.
Blower Air Knife
This common blowoff is very inexpensive and easy to make. For this test, we used (2) drilled pipes, each with (25) 1/16" diameter holes on 1/2" centers. As shown in the test results below, the drilled pipe performed poorly. The initial cost of the drilled pipe is overshadowed by its high energy use. The holes are easily blocked and the noise level is excessive - both of which violate OSHA requirements. Velocity across the entire length was very inconsistent with spikes of air and numerous dead spots.
The blower proved to be an expensive, noisy option. As noted below, the purchase price is high. Operating cost was considerably lower than the drilled pipe and flat air nozzle, but was comparable to EXAIR’s Super Air Knife. The large blower with its two 3" (8cm) diameter hoses requires significant mounting space compared to the others. Noise level was high at 90 dBA. There was no option for cycling it on and off to conserve energy like the other blowoffs. Costly bearing and filter maintenance along with downtime were also negative factors.
Flat Air Nozzles
EXAIR Super Air Knife
As shown below, this inexpensive air nozzle was the worst performer. It is available in plastic, aluminum and stainless steel from several manufacturers. The flat air nozzle provides some entrainment, but suffers from many of the same problems as the drilled pipe. Operating cost and noise level are both high. Some manufacturers offer flat air nozzles where the holes can be blocked - an OSHA violation. Velocity was inconsistent with spikes of air.
The Super Air Knife did an exceptional job of removing the moisture on one pass due to the uniformity of the laminar airflow. The sound level was extremely low. For this application, energy use was slightly higher than the blower but can be less than the blower if cycling on and off is possible. Safe operation is not an issue since the Super Air Knife can not be deadended. Maintenance costs are low since there are no moving parts to wear out.
Blower bearings wear out quickly due to the high speeds (17-20,000 RPM) required to generate effective airflows. Poorly designed seals that allow dirt and moisture infiltration and environments above 125°F decrease the one year bearing life. Many bearings can not be replaced in the field, resulting in downtime to send the assembly back to the manufacturer.
Blowers take up a lot of space and often produce sound levels that exceed OSHA noise level exposure requirements. Air volume and velocity are often difficult to control since mechanical adjustments are required. To discuss an application, contact:
11510 Goldcoast Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45249-1621 (800) 903-9247 Fax: (513) 671-3363 email: email@example.com
See the Super Air Knife in action. www.exair.com/48/akvideo.htm The Super Air Knife is the low cost way to blowoff, dry, clean and cool.
Blowoff Comparison Comp. Air Type of blowoff
Horsepower Sound Purchase Required Level dBA Price
Annual Electrical Cost*
Approx. Annual Maintenance Cost
First Year Cost
Flat Air Nozzles
Blower Air Knife
Super Air Knife
*Based on national average electricity cost of 8.3 cents per kWh. Annual cost reflects 40 hours per week, 52 weeks per year.
Shop Goes to College Rick Carter Executive Editor
att Crawford’s excellent 2009 book Shop Class as Soulcraft offers an impassioned case for a return to the values once represented by public-school shop class. I read it recently thanks to my wife, who noticed it in the library of the high school where she teaches—a school, like many others in the U.S., that closed its first-rate shop program. The book relates how Crawford’s circuitous career (he went from electrician to writer to motorcycle mechanic) taught him the value of hands-on work, and why it all began with shop. His opening snapshot of the afterlife of the lathes, table saws and other equipment that was discarded “when shop class started to become a thing of the past,” then offloaded to secondhand markets across the country, is a sobering symbol of a larger loss for America’s youth. Shop was not a universal career-starter, of course, but it brought value by introducing a non-college option, something most of today’s public-school students, and many industrial workers, have missed. The good news today is that this void has not been ignored: The nation’s two-year community colleges are helping to fill it by re-imagining shop’s original mission as career training, shaped by and for manufacturers.
The nation’s community colleges have re-imagined shop’s original mission as career training, shaped by and for manufacturers. Educator and former MARTS presenter Mark Combs has been a part of this effort since 2008, working with manufacturers and faculty to create courses and schedules that accommodate the needs of both workers and community-college students interested in industrial careers. It began for Combs when he was Program Manager for Business Training at Parkland College, a two-year school in
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
Champaign, IL. The nearby Kraft Foods operation asked if the school could train the plant’s workers to become maintenance technicians. The request led to a partnership with Kraft that exists to this day. At the time, Parkland’s Industrial Technology program lacked the resources to meet Kraft’s needs, so Combs enlisted other local manufacturers with similar needs to join a training partnership. He then applied for and received a grant from the U.S. Department of Labor. “This allowed the college to get new equipment and hire people to help train both incumbent workers and college students,” says Combs. The manufacturers also donated equipment, manufacturing expertise, served on curriculum advisory boards and covered half of their employees’ tuition. The other half was covered by the local workforce-investment agency. Parkland’s courses filled quickly: 35 incumbent workers at first, says Combs, along with 45 full- and part-time college students, “most of whom were unaware that manufacturing employment paid so well and actually had career opportunities.” Not everyone completed the program, but those who did went on to well-paying positions with Kraft or the other partners. Though the original grant ended in 2012, it was designed so enrolled workers could continue training afterward. The last who signed on under the original funding will finish in 2015. Combs, who now teaches part-time at Parkland, says the school has become an established training source for local manufacturers. “We have an Industrial Maintenance Technology Certificate for technicians that did not exist before, and over $750,000 of equipment purchased with grant money that is used in classes to help train maintenance technicians.” Those classes are offered on a regular basis, he says, and people are enrolling in them. A similar situation may be underway at a community college near you. According to Combs, you’ll probably find the classes and programs there that can help train your workers. If not, he says, most faculty and department chairs are eager to hear what’s needed. These schools are aware of the skilled-labor shortage, and want to help address it. All you may have to do is ask. MT&AP
Hourly Compensation Systems: Does Yours De-motivate? Bob Williamson Contributing Editor
oney motivates us—or does it? When we receive higher pay, does it compel us to improve our performance, be more productive or become more loyal? Not necessarily. The perception that our pay is sub-par, however, can be a serious de-motivating factor that affects both performance and productivity. In the workplace, employees are subject to a wide variety of job classification systems and pay grades that guide the amount of monetary compensation they receive. While some pay rates are negotiated through collective bargaining or are the product of compensation studies, most are based on business needs, comparable job roles, responsibilities and rates in the region. In an era of growing skills shortages, we need to ask: “Is our hourly compensation system a de-motivator? Does it discourage current employees and chase away the best and brightest we need to attract?” Let’s explore the typical hourly compensation of maintenance employees to see how pay can de-motivate, and what can be done to change this dynamic. Consider the following real-world example from my own archives:
When employees perceive that their pay is sub-par, their performance and productivity can be negatively affected. Happy and not-so-happy campers The XYZ Manufacturing Co. (not its real name) was a preferred employer in the area. A well-established operation, it was staffed with a highly experienced 165-person maintenance workforce for everything from facility and utilities to assembly and production processes. XYZ had two primary maintenance
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
job classifications: Mechanical Maintenance and Electrical Maintenance. Maintenance workers were slotted into one of these classifications from the start of their seniority in the maintenance department. Electrical Maintenance work included power distribution, machinery electrical systems and instrumentation/controls. Mechanical Maintenance work included welding and fabrication, machining, lubrication/oilers, fork trucks and machine repair. Each job classification had the same four negotiated pay grades and hourly rates. The lowest pay was for new hires and trainees, the highest was for the most senior maintenance employees. Progression from entry-level to top pay was basically automatic unless penalizing behaviors or habits occurred, which was rare. After 15 years, all 165 maintenance employees were at the top pay grade and receiving top hourly pay, including those who hired on within the previous five years. While the most senior maintenance employees received top pay, those with lower seniority quickly caught up with them. This made XYZ’s compensation system easy to manage. Annual across-the-board raises and contract negotiations were relatively straightforward. But the monetary increases affected all maintenance employees exactly the same way because all were at top pay. The not-so-happy-campers were those employees who performed highly skilled instrumentation/ controls and machine-repair work. They were stuck at the top pay grade along with those in markedly lower skill-level roles. Electricians, lubrication/oilers and fork truck mechanics, for example, were paid the same as machine repairmen and instrumentation/ controls technicians. The electricians, oilers and mechanics felt that pay was NOT an issue: They could focus on their work. However, the machine repairmen and instrument/controls technicians—whose jobs required continual skills and knowledge upgrades every time new automated machinery was installed in the plant—were highly de-motivated by their pay and disgruntled about their workloads.
Breaking the camel’s back De-motivation among the top-skilled machinerepair and instrumentation technicians came to a head when XYZ’s primary processes were upgraded in a major engineering project. “Why should we master new technologies again and again,” they asked, “while our fellow maintenance workers get the same pay we do and don’t have to continually learn new technologies?” Further complicating matters, XYZ was unable to find new, highly skilled machine-repair and instrumentation/controls technicians, despite the fact that new hires would start at the top pay grade. The company was unable to attract the best and brightest it needed to maintain, calibrate, troubleshoot and repair the new automated manufacturing technologies. In a practical sense, something had to be done to recognize that certain maintenance jobs required higher, frequently changing skills and knowledge. Stalemate. The skills shortage was the real eye-opener for both the personnel department and the maintenance employees. Though XYZ’s top-performing maintenance employees ranked as senior personnel, they started to look for work elsewhere. Their skills, knowledge and experience were increasingly in demand.
Pay-for-applied-skills to the rescue It was necessary to find a way to “stratify” the maintenance job-performance skills sets required at XYZ. This had to be done in a way that would provide advancement opportunities for all who were interested without penalizing anyone. A new, opt-in training and advancement program was created, which proceeded as follows: A detailed duty-task analysis was performed to identify job-performance requirements (skills and knowledge) for current as well as higher-level skilled job roles (machine repair and instrumentation/controls). Three new pay grades topping out at more than a $2.00-per-hour increment were identified with specific requirements for advancement. The new pay grades reflected opportunities for crossover skills where instrument/controls personnel would acquire certain critical mechanical skills, and machine-repair personnel would acquire certain critical electrical/electronic skills for a “multi-skill maintenance” approach.
Aptitude and ability “assessments” (not “tests”) were required to begin training, and for all higherlevel job classifications. Assessments included mechanical aptitude, learning ability and computer literacy, plus reading, writing and basic math. Individual scores were to be reported only to the person being assessed and the training manager. The existing skills and knowledge of those entering the training program were identified. Maintenance employees wishing to train for higher-level jobs then reviewed the detailed duty-task analysis of the higher-level skills and knowledge as a “selfassessment.”
Companies can’t afford to let their compensation systems keep them from attracting the best and the brightest workers. Also, several highly skilled machine-repair and instrument/controls and employees were selected and trained to be instructor/trainers. Their first assignment was to construct training devices with actual plant equipment that would duplicate the critical new-technology machines and controls and some essential prerequisite skills. Following their “self-assessments,” employees were asked to demonstrate their abilities to perform the identified duties and tasks on actual plant equipment or on the training devices. This performance demonstration was observed and monitored by the job-specific instructors/trainers, a supervisor and another hourly maintenance person. Training began on critical skills for improving existing manufacturing processes, as well as those needed for emerging technologies. A variety of approaches were used, from self-study to classroom and vendor/OEM to on-job coaching. All training conformed to the duty-task analysis. Written testing was not used to verify job skills and knowledge. The same hands-on performance demonstration process—according to the duty-task lists—was used after training to assure proper job performance.
MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 9
The skills shortage opened eyes. The company’s high-performing maintenance employees started to look for work elsewhere because their skills, knowledge and experience were in demand. Pay no longer a de-motivator The new job classifications, training and compensation at the XYZ Manufacturing Co. reflected the top priority needs of the plant. Pay was no longer a de-motivator for top-skilled maintenance employees. Maintenance-job roles and performance requirements were stratified. While everyone had the opportunity to participate at the higher skill levels, many opted for improving their skills and knowledge with regard to their current job roles. Those who had reading,
writing or math deficiencies for their job roles received individual tutoring and participated in skills-improvement programs. Within a few months of completing the first wave of training and qualification, a major, chronic problem area in the plant stopped having problems. Machine performance improved and breakdowns rarely occurred. Engaged with their new work, XYZ’s former not-so-happy campers were celebrating—along with the labor union and plant management.
As aging Baby Boomers exit the workforce and younger workers try to fill their shoes, it may be time to rethink your own hourly maintenance compensation system. MT&AP
Robert Williamson, CMRP, CPMM and member of the Institute of Asset Management, is in his fourth decade of focusing on the “people side” of world-class maintenance and reliability in plants and facilities across North America. Email: RobertMW2@cs.com.
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Minute Maintenance, Part 2 Ken Bannister Contributing Editor
et’s recap from Part 1 (pgs. 12-13, MT&AP, Jan. 2014): Minute Maintenance is the pursuit and implementation of innovative proactive maintenance methods, processes, techniques and tools designed to reduce or eliminate non-value-added (waste) maintenance activity to produce an efficient, effective maintenance result measured in minutes, using a lesser skill-set requirement than that needed to perform a repair. Major interventions (i.e., overhauls and repairs) require time and high skill levels, and almost always result in major asset dependability (reliability, availability and maintainability) and production-downtime losses. Minimizing loss (waste) is achieved by understanding and identifying failure onset in a timely manner through the recognition of an asset’s current condition compared to its optimum condition so that only minor intervention is required to assure asset dependability with little or no downtime loss. As an asset progresses through its life cycle, it can be subjected to many external influences that can cause and/or accelerate component failures. These influences include temperature (heat, cold), vibration, contamination (water, dirt), neglect and abuse—all of which conspire to produce premature wear and a corresponding requirement for major maintenance. Recognizing and managing these influences can significantly increase an asset’s reliability and service life.
Recognizing and managing external influences can significantly increase an asset’s service life. Machine designers are aware they have little control over the external influences or “ambient condition factors” to which their equipment will be subjected. To compensate, they design equipment with consumable devices intended to act as part
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of the machine system and, more importantly, as a “tell-tale fusible link” to protect major components and systems. We know these “devices” as lubricants, filters, belts, couplings, fuses, adjustment/ calibration mechanisms, and others. Intended as the “weakest link” in the design, they’re simple to assess and correct and, as such, must figure in our proactive minute-maintenance approach. In turn, we can build a simple and effective preventive maintenancecheck program around the referenced consumable devices and external influences. Consider the following V-belt example.
A motorized, belt-driven fan unit V-belt drive systems transmit power at a defined number of revolutions per minute (RPM) from a motor-driven “drive” sheave pulley to one or more “driven” sheave pulleys attached to, in this case, a fan shaft. A V-belt is designed to “wedge” itself into the v-shaped sheave groove and ride with full belt-side contact at the top of the groove, leaving a substantial gap between the bottom of the belt and the groove valley. Worn or non-matched belts that ride lower in the groove (known as differential driving) can eventually bottom out and polish the groove valley and should be replaced quickly. To transmit power efficiently, one of the sheaves employs an adjuster mechanism to allow the belt(s) to be tensioned to a point that under load will “slip” between 1% to 3% and permit intentional creep and release from the wedged position in the groove as the pulley turns. If tension is below 1% (too tight), the belt won’t release correctly and, consequently, generate frictional heat; if over 3% (too loose), the belt will slip too much and start to “dance,” creating rubbing friction in the sheave, raising the temperature and causing premature wear of both belt and sheave. Checking for slip is simply a matter of using a handheld strobe light to check and calculate the RPM speed difference between the driver and driven pulley. For example, if a 1750-RPM motor is used with 1:1 ratio sheaves, the driven pulley should be running between 1700 and 1730 RPM when tensioned correctly. If not, it’s in a no-go state
requiring immediate attention. A correctly tensioned belt running on an unworn, correctly aligned sheave pulley is designed to return an operational efficiency close to 97%. Most V-belts are manufactured from an elastomer that encases longitudinal rows of polyester or Kevlar internal-tension members. During power transfer, belts are subjected to fatigue-causing stresses that eventually lead the belt-tension members to fail. But, provided the belts operate at a temperature less than 120 F and are installed correctly, they can be expected to deliver 15,000 hours or more of belt-life. High operating loads with large fans and motors require multiple belts to transmit power with minimum energy losses. These belts must be matched if they are to be tensioned successfully. Matched belts are often purchased in sets of two, four, six, etc., that are manufactured from the same batch of rubber. If a system is designed for six belts and only five are used, it will be under a high operating load and surpass the belt-load design factor—leading to overheating, inefficiency and premature failure. Belts should be visually inspected regularly to ensure all are in place and that they are matched. Misalignment, in both offset and angular form, is a major problem with belt-driven systems. It causes a belt’s tension members to flex sideward and vibrate, creating additional stress. When a misaligned belt enters into the sheave groove, it “rubs” the sheave wall, raising the belt temperature through frictional heat that results in rapid wear of both belt and sheave. Precision alignment of driver/driven systems using laser or reverse-dial methods is a must to reduce heat, wear and energy loss. Sheave wear is easily checked using a $10 sheave profile gage. The “tooth” profile is placed in the sheave groove and a flashlight is shone from behind. If more than 1/32” of light (wear) is evident, a no-go state exists, requiring replacement of the sheaves and belts. Once the motor and fan are aligned and all fasteners torqued correctly, the driven system will run quietly with virtually no vibration present in the motor. When this is achieved, the motor fastener bolts and frame tension adjuster nuts can be line-painted in position, with a check line across the fastener onto the fastener plate. If the fastener becomes loose and slackens off, the painted lines will not align. This will indicate a no-go state and quickly allow the problem to be noticed and arrested.
Taking this approach and building a first-alert PM based on the equipment’s weakest link helps us compile a checklist like the one shown below, that will identify, in minutes, a no-go state (exception-based maintenance) requiring a skilled intervention.
Minute Maintenance: Belt-Drive Assembly Checklist Check the check box against the task only when a no-go exception is found. Using a strobe light, check that driven pulley speed is between 1700 and 1730 RPM. Using an IR thermometer or camera, check that each belt temperature is < 120 F. Check that all motor painted fastener alignment check lines are aligned. Check that there are no dancing or heavily vibrating belt(s). Check that all belts are matched for size and batch numbered. Check that all belts sit in a similar position, flush with the outside sheave diameter. Check for smell of burning rubber. Check for visible signs of abraded rubber around the sheave pulley. When machine is not running, open machineguard inspection window and check all sheave grooves using a groove-profile gage and flashlight for <1/32” wear (LOCKOUT required). Performed on equipment that is running (with exception of the last task), this simple-objective checklist can be completed in less than 10 minutes, by a minimally trained non- or semi-skilled individual. Any no-go finding is to be immediately acted upon by skilled personnel. Good luck! MT&AP email@example.com
MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 13
Survey Finds Growing Awareness of Counterfeit Electrical Parts Research by Eaton and IEC Validates Importance of Educational Campaigns Power management company Eaton and the Independent Electrical Contractors (IEC) association have released findings of a joint survey that validate the effectiveness of educational programs about the dangers of counterfeit electrical products. The Eaton/IEC research found that IEC members understand the potential safety dangers of counterfeit products, the sophistication of counterfeiters and how to avoid counterfeit products by purchasing directly from the manufacturer’s authorized distributors or resellers. Survey responses, however, also revealed the
need for more best-practice sharing and methods to thwart counterfeiting. “Electrical contractors recognize the prevalence and dangers of counterfeits,” said Tom Grace, Brand Protection Manager, Eaton’s Electrical Sector Americas. “Now we need to up our game and provide contractors with easier ways to report counterfeit products and build collaboration among manufacturers, industry organizations and government.” The complete results of the Eaton/ IEC survey are available at eaton.com/ counterfeit.
Emerson to Support Operator Training for BP’s Quad 204 North Sea FPSO Replacement Project
Energy-Management Functions Expand CC-Link IE
Emerson Process Management has been awarded a $7 million contract to provide its DeltaV Operator Training Solution (OTS) for BP’s Quad 204 North Sea FPSO (floating production and storage offloading) replacement project. The goal is to help BP personnel achieve safe, efficient operations and take full advantage of the integrated control and safety system (ICSS) that Emerson is providing under a separate contract. The scope of the OTS contract calls for Emerson to install a fully operational training replica of the Quad 204 Project at BP’s regional production center in Aberdeen, Scotland, with the longer-term aim of relocating it to the BP Upstream Learning Center at Sunbury, UK. The OTS will include a virtualized DeltaV digital automation system for process control and DeltaV SIS™ for process and emergency shutdown and for fire and gas detection. High-fidelity modeling of the topsides process and of an Olga subsea process will be provided by engineering contractor KBR and integrated into the virtual ICSS using SEEDS (Standard Entities for the Engineering of Dynamic Simulators) to ensure consistent implementation.
The CC-Link Partner Association (CLPA), an international group that promotes the development of CC-Link open-network technologies, has announced the availability CC-Link IE Energy, a new combined energy- and productionmanagement control system. CC-Link IE Energy was formed by adding energy-management functions to CC-Link IE, a gigabit Industrial Ethernet open-network technology that handles both control and information data at high speed to integrate factory and process automation. CC-Link IE Energy allows real-time monitoring of energy consumption by individual machines or processes over the same networks that production facilities use for general control purposes. “We previously added motion and safety control capabilities to the network,” said Robert Miller, Director, CC-Link Partner Association Americas. “Now by adding energy-management functions, CC-Link IE Energy is fulfilling its promise to be a single, high-performance, open-Ethernet technology that offers the automation features required by today’s applications.” CLPA has 2000 member companies around the world, and has certified more than 1200 products from 250 manufacturers. For more information, visit cclinkamerica.org.
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NEWS Whitmore Acquires Fluid Defense Systems The Whitmore Manufacturing Co., Rockwall, TX, has acquired Fluid Defense Systems, a manufacturer of integrated lubricant storage and handling solutions since 2001. Its OilSafe system provides a customizable fluid-identification environment designed to improve lubricant cleanliness and avoid cross-contamination. “We now offer a more compelling product line that provides us with a great platform to build on organically,” said Scott Dunbar, Vice President of Filtration and Protective Coatings at Whitmore. Whitmore makes the Air Sentry product line, and has produced lubricants and other products for a wide range of industries since 1893.
PTDA Establishes Wendy B. McDonald Award To honor the memory of an industry pioneer, the Power Transmission Distributors Association (PTDA) has established the Wendy B. McDonald Award. Known as “Mrs. Mac,” McDonald, served for more than 60 years as a leader in her Canada-based, family-owned company, BC Bearings Engineers Limited, an international distributorship that was eventually acquired by Motion Industries. A trailblazing woman business owner, McDonald left many legacies. According to PTDA, her charm and grace were legendary, as were her philanthropy and commitment to “give back to the industry and the communities that led to her success.” When merited, the Wendy B. McDonald Award will be presented annually during the PTDA Industry Summit. Nominations for this year’s honor will be accepted through May 31, 2014, and judged based on the following: Nominees must be female and employed by a PTDA member company in any capacity. There are no criteria with respect to title, position in company or years of experience. Nominees must exemplify leadership and integrity in all business relationships. Although all nominees are considered, those employed by Canadian companies or distributors receive extra consideration. For more information, visit ptda.org. MARCH 2014
Xylem Taps Patrick K. Decker as New President and Chief Executive Officer Water technology giant Xylem, Inc., has appointed Patrick K. Decker as its President and Chief Executive Officer. Decker comes to Xylem from global industrial services provider Harsco Corp., where he was President and CEO. Prior to joining Harsco, Decker served in a number of leadership roles with Tyco Flow Control, including President. He succeeds Steven R. Loranger, who remains on the Xylem Board. (Editor’s Note: Loranger was Chairman, Patrick K. Decker, President and CEO of President and Chief ITT Corp. when it spun Executive Officer, off its water businesses Xylem, Inc. as Xylem in October 2011. He assumed the role of transitional CEO last September, following the departure of former Xylem CEO Gretchen McClain, who stepped down to pursue other interests. Xylem’s businesses currently include Flygt, Bell & Gosset, Goulds Water Technology, Godwin, AC Fire Pump and McDonnell & Miller, among others.)
Baldor Adds New Motor Ratings Baldor Electric Company has added 28 ratings to its portfolio of Baldor-Reliance® Super-E motors with internal AEGIS Bearing Protection Ring. The new ratings consist of 1 to 40 HP, Open Drip Proof motors, 200 volt and 575 volt, as well as 5 to 15 HP Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled designs for 200 volt. With these additions, the company now offers 152 ratings from stock that meet the demand for inverter-driven motors with factory-installed shaftgrounding devices. This type of internally mounted design minimizes the effects of shaft currents that can be present in adjustable-speed applications. MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 15
NEWS ABB Invests in 3D Development of Next-Generation Industrial Motor Components ABB has invested in Massachusetts-based Persimmon Technologies to help develop 3D deposition technology for motor-component manufacturing. Since its launch in 2011, Persimmon has focused on development of disruptive hybrid-field motor technology, a 3D process aimed at increasing power density, eliminating manufacturing steps and reducing component costs. The company’s first prototype motor concept increases the stator effective area and produces a higher output unit with comparable size and material cost. The ABB funding, made through its venture-capital unit, ABB Technology Ventures (ATV), is expected to help Persimmon expand both its existing vacuum-robotics product portfolio and invest further in hybrid-field technology. ABB’s participation will also codify joint development of many new Persimmon products. Since 2010, ATV has deployed over $160 million into a range of sectors, including cyber security, robotics, smart grid, renewable power generation and data-center efficiency.
REVOLUTIONARY VIBRATION AND BEARING ANALYSIS
ISA Offers Process-Automation ‘Boot Camp’ A new course from the International Society of Automation (ISA) called “Process-Automation Boot Camp for Non-Maintenance Personnel” (PABC)” is offered for plant personnel who need greater knowledge of process measurement and control fundamentals. Designed to meet a growing demand for more instruction in the basics of process automation, the first installment of this “boot camp” course will be held at ISA’s Research Triangle, NC-based headquarters during the week of March 31. A second session is scheduled for August 18-22, 2014, in Research Triangle. The PABC course is aimed at: Operations personnel not responsible for maintenance, but who require a general knowledge of process-automation equipment
Leonova Diamond is the latest proof of our commitment to developing first class condition monitoring products for more profitable maintenance. Use SPM HD for accurate rolling element bearing analysis. Reduce data collection time with tri-axial vibration measurements. Add balancing, laser alignment, orbit analysis and much more, all in a rugged and lightweight instrument. Ex version available. Experienced Manufacturers Reps Wanted, Please call 1-800-505-5636 Tel. 1-800-505-5636 leonovabys pm.com spminstrument.com
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
Automation engineers who need a basic understanding of process- automation equipment, signal transmissions and process measurements Process-control engineers who need to understand the operation of equipment in the process-control loop Process-control salespeople who need to learn more about the applications of process instrumentation Managers who oversee operations or maintenance personnel and need an overview of the technology these personnel maintain For details, visit isa.org. MARCH 2014
NEWS Group Seeks Ergonomics-Program Benchmarking Participants Humantech, a Michigan-based ergonomics-consulting group, seeks participants for its fifth benchmarking study on effective methods for managing ergonomic conditions in the workplace. The study will focus on the resources sites invest in and the results they achieve, such as injury reduction, productivity and quality improvements. The goal of the study is to quantify the return on investments made to improve workplace ergonomic conditions. The group seeks participants with “established programs focused on manufacturing and production tasks,” according to Humantech Vice President Walt Rostykus. Participants will be able to compare their programs with those in other industries, but will be identified by their industry type and size only. Thirty-five companies will be selected, all of which will receive a copy of the summary report on completion. For information, email firstname.lastname@example.org by March 31, 2014. To view summaries of previous Humantech studies, visit www.humantech.com/resources/articles.
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Association Partnership Aims to Empower Tech-Savvy Women WITI (Women in Technology International), a trade association committed to using technology to advance women worldwide, has partnered with The Advisory Council International (TAC-Int), a not-for-profit career-management firm. The purpose is to generate revenue for WITI and increase membership, as well as leverage TAC-Int’s consulting, research and organizational-development services. Under the new alliance, WITI members will receive preferential pricing on all TAC-Int services, the proceeds of which will be donated back to WITI to help fund the association’s growth and outreach efforts.
GE Power Conversion Launches e-Commerce App GE’s Power Conversion business (GE) has launched a new e-commerce app called the “Motors and Generators Store.” It allows customers in the U.S. and Mexico to access pricing and availability; straight-quoting on motors and generators; quoting on behalf of OEM and distributor customers; online storage of quotes and ordertracking; and a support library of product literature and maintenance manuals. Information available from the app includes base ratings, performance data, speed/ torque curves, line drawings and wiring diagrams. MARCH 2014
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MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 17
NEWS Siemens West Chicago Plant Hosts Record Crowd at “Introduce a Girl to Engineering” Event More than 150 girls, grades five through 12, and their parents attended the 10th annual “Introduce a Girl to Engineering” event hosted by the Siemens West Chicago manufacturing facility, Friday, March 7. For more on the evening’s exciting activities, turn to Jane Alexander’s “My Take” column on pg. 47.
Bentley Systems Launches Tool to Facilitate Work-Packaging Construction Practices According to Bentley Systems, its ProjectWise Construction Work Package Server is the only commercially available, offthe-shelf offering that lets constructors implement the emerging best practice of work packaging. This new paradigm
in construction is being advocated by leading industry organizations, including the Construction Industry Institute, following research showing that such methodologies can increase safety and lower total install cost. These standard
practices have been shown to improve construction outcomes and are expected to become the preferred way to build large projects, such as energy and processmanufacturing facilities. For more information, visit www.bentley.com.
FS-Elliott Ships First Centrifugal Compressor Manufactured in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia FS-Elliott reports that FS-Elliott Saudi Arabia Ltd. set an industry milestone with its Dec. 2013 shipment to Saudi Airlines of the first centrifugal compressor manufactured in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a package of three FS-Elliott Polaris units. The first API-style engineered units made in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are scheduled to ship within the next few months to Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) affiliates Al Bayroni and Ar Razi. FS-Elliott Saudi Arabia Ltd. began in April 2010 as a joint venture between FS-Elliott Co., LLC, and GAS Arabian Services Co., Ltd. The goal was to provide locally packaged, reliable, energy-efficient air solutions to customers in the Middle East. In the past fours years, it has provided local support to over 250 operating installations.
Ted Masters, HART Communication Foundation President and CEO (third from right), presents the 2013 HART Plant of the Year Award to The Dow Chemical Company – Deer Park Acrylates Trip Reduction and Site Leadership teams.
Dow Deer Park Receives 2013 HART Plant of the Year Award The HART® Communication Foundation recently announced that The Dow Chemical Company specialty chemicals plant in Deer Park, TX, is the recipient of the 2013 HART Plant of the Year Award. This annual award showcases end-users that have demonstrated ingenuity in the application of HART Communication for real-time operational improvements. Previous HART Plant of the Year award recipients include Monsanto (USA); Shell (Canada); MOL (Hungary); Mitsubishi Chemical (Japan); PVSDA (Venezuela); Statoil (Norway); Sasol Solvents (South Africa); BP (USA); Clariant (Germany); and DuPont (USA).
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
Is It Just Reliability?
Our Hands-On Electrical Maintenance Training Not Only Increases Production, It Keeps Your Technicians Safe.
By Richard E. Wood, AVO Training Institute, Senior Consultant For more than a decade reliability has become the buzzword in maintenance and engineering. It refers to a program, that when effectively put into action, reduces downtime and increases production. This is accomplished through Preventative Maintenance (PM), Predictive Maintenance (PdM), and Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (FMEA). Although these programs can be very effective when properly administered, there is another area that should not be overlooked. The resource that is often ignored is the training of maintenance technicians and engineers. Many times, this asset is ignored by rationalizing that it is too expensive and that time is lost while employees are attending training sessions. Like any upgrade in a process there is an initial cost. The question is does the initial cost result in increased production and revenue? Manufacturers have realized an increase in production that is directly related to effective training. A good training program enables the technician to quickly identify the failure and return the equipment to the process. Conservatively, production times can easily exceed an increase of ten percent with quality training. Do the math and it quickly becomes apparent that training costs are a small investment when compared to continual production increases. These increases are realized not once, but every day of every year. That is the kind of edge that keeps corporations competitive and increases the profit margin. Costs can also be managed more effectively; for example, a reduction in workforce can also be realized through training. Increased MARCH 2014
work being accomplished in a shorter time can be achieved with a smaller maintenance group. You may ask, “Where does safety come into the picture? How does reliability and training contribute to safety of the maintenance and production personnel?”. A safe environment can be accomplished through the combined effects of reliability and training. Reliability allows for scheduled downtime and planned maintenance, resulting in fewer breakdowns and rushed repairs. Training prepares the technician with the knowledge to troubleshoot and repair the equipment safely, quickly and effectively. Safety plays an important role when unplanned downtime occurs. When equipment is down the temptation to hurry and take shortcuts is overwhelming. A maintenance technician or production operator can be seriously injured because of the increased pressure to get the equipment back online. Accidents can be a large part of lost production, but most importantly a lifechanging event for someone and his or her family. The safety of all employees has been, and should always be, the first priority. Training employees with the necessary skills to work safely will always equate to a substantial return on the investment.
Offering over 52 training courses including: u Relay Maintenance u Substation Maintenance u Motors & Controls u PLC Maintenance u Battery Maintenance u Transformer Maintenance
Richard has over 37 years in the Electrical Manufacturing and Construction Industry with an extensive background in electrical safety. His course instruction includes National Electrical Code (NEC®), Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), Basic Electricity, and Control Circuitry.
www.avotraining.com/mt Let us bring the training to your location and save up to 30%. Call 877-714-9787 today for a quote. MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 19
For Top Performance,
Know Your Critical Equipment
Real-world benefits go well beyond easier decision-making. Jane Alexander Deputy Editor
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
Foreward It’s not possible or necessary for all equipment in a plant to receive equal attention. The key is to focus on the most critical assets—whatever that means to an operation. Applying the principles of asset criticality can facilitate your decision-making and generate a number of other valuable benefits in the process. Your site’s critical-equipment determinations should be based on business goals and objectives, says manufacturing consultant and MT&AP Contributing Editor Bob Williamson. Identify your most critical assets and rank them on a scale based on risk (probability and consequences) or other impact they might have on business goals and values. In this process, you’ll also identify your least critical assets and those somewhere in the middle. “Focused improvement on the most critical few that you ultimately move into a ‘maintenance fast lane’ will lead to enhanced performance,” says Williamson, “and possibly free up reactive maintenance resources to perform more planned/preventive maintenance work.” Modern asset-management methods call for proper attention to be paid to equipment systems throughout their
life cycles: from design and procurement through installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance to renewal and/or decommissioning. This is not something a site can just add to its wish list and forget: The new International Asset Management Standard (ISO-55000, issued in January 2014) requires asset risks to be identified and appropriate risk-management practices put in place. It’s important to remember that “critical equipment” not only includes production-related processes, utilities, facilities equipment and the automated systems that run them, but also health, safety and environmental-related equipment. Often, your most critical assets may also be the most at risk if they fail to perform reliably. The following story by PotashCorp’s Matthew Fenwick makes a good case for how establishment of sound criticality determinations can set the stage for a variety of payoffs. In this first-person account, Fenwick discusses improvements in alert-monitoring-device strategies that, among other things, allow his team to save time and better manage an increasing workload.
PotashCorp of Saskatchewan operations, in Penobsquis, New Brunswick, Canada
MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 21
DEFINING CRITICAL EQUIPMENT
With improved maintenance, PotashCorp NB is prepared for growth.
Matthew Fenwick, instrumentation technician with PotashCorp in New Brunswick, tells the following story about how they dug deeply to improve efficiency. Our nine-person instrumentation team at PotashCorp’s New Brunswick (NB) division had responsibility for managing 2000 input/output (I/O) points in 2012. Knowing a 4400 I/O point expansion would come online in 2013, we had to find ways to save time and manage the workload. We needed to prioritize the right devices and alerts, reduce time spent on troubleshooting and increase technician efficiency.
Identifying the right devices We first tackled the Alert Monitor function in our asset-management system, Emerson’s AMS Device Manager. With hundreds of alerts coming in, we needed to know which ones were most important for our business. We started by rating plant areas based on criteria such as safety considerations, regulatory compliance, product quality, process throughput and operational cost. Next, we prioritized the loops and devices according to how critical the asset is and how often it fails. The resulting maintenance priority index gave us insight into which areas to target for process changes and which alerts should be configured and channeled to the maintenance-planning department. We’ve established a weekly checkpoint to monitor and process these alerts as part of a proactive maintenance approach. At a glance, technicians can view the Alert Monitor on any engineering station in our plant. They can identify the potential bad actors, do further investigation and make modifications to correct the deficiencies before they become failures.
Reducing troubleshooting The next step was to dig deeper into the way we applied the principles of asset
criticality to our daily work. Specifically, we needed to improve our valve signature management, which was historically our biggest and most expensive area of failure. Emerson’s AMS ValveLink performance My wake-up call was a 3:00 a.m. emerdiagnostic sweep. This gives us a snapshot gency for an issue with a major control of the integrity of the valve components valve, resulting in the loss of six hours using five online tests: Supply Pressure of prime production. Our maintenance Diagnostic, Relay Adjustment Diagnostic, superintendent asked why we had not I/P & Relay Integrity Diagnostic, Travel identified the problem earlier. I told him, Deviation Diagnostic and Air Mass Flow “You can’t predict what you don’t scan.” Diagnostic. We now have the information In other words, if we’re not monitoring a to know when we need a full off-line diagdevice, we can’t predict when it will fail. The experience led us to reexamine nostic test. our asset criticality sheet and to recognize By using this methodology, we have a that we were not adequately accounting handle on our signatures and can decrease for the way our harsh environment was the negative effects that cause reduced impacting valves. Potash mines are tonnages and production losses. We have basically salt mines. Combined with the experienced less downtime due to valve plant’s eastern seaboard location, there failures. We are still in the preliminary is potential for valves to be destroyed by stages of full valve maintenance reliability, humidity and salt from the outside and but we anticipate significant benefits. slurries from the inside. Today, rather than relying on reacInformation at our fingertips tive maintenance strategies, we’re using Besides focusing on prioritization, planpredictive diagnostics to plan our work. ning and proactive maintenance, we found To account for environmental impact, we ways to get more out of our technology. adjusted our valve criticality to ensure we For example, when I joined the company were looking at the valves that are most in 2010, AMS Suite software was only vulnerable. We calculated a Valve Mainused as a storage facility for configurations tenance Action Plan (VMAP), establishing rules to dictate how frequently we perform signatures. For example, if the VMAP is greater than 400, we perform signatures every three months. If the VMAP is 300-400, we perform them every six months. We also make use of the VMAP information Potash flotation cells at the New Brunswick site to set a schedule for
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
DEFINING CRITICAL EQUIPMENT
Matthew Fenwick, Instrumentation Technician, PotashCorp NB
and device checks during start-ups. After I spent time exploring the tool in depth, I saw the potential to use it as a way to instantly bring information to technicians. We created an embedded program in the AMS Device Manager—using a Microsoft Access Database run by Visual Basic—to provide access to all our maintenance documentation with the click of a mouse (no more searching in the maintenance shop or control room for the book with loop configuration diagrams). Similar to a personalized search engine, we have all needed documentation in an organized, easy-to-find format that we call the Instrumentation Information Web. In 2012, we captured the impact of the Instrumentation Information Web through a pilot project. Our instrumentation planner estimated the team would spend 807 hours working on proactive maintenance tasks based on work orders. However, with the implementation of the Instrumentation Information Web, the department spent only 376 hours on proactive tasks, a savings of more than 50% over the course of the pilot. We have also seen substantial savings in commissioning and alerts. We devised a manual for alarm configuration and installed it on a Wireless Mobile Worker application. This has saved thousands of hours in commissioning time.
Realizing the potential The secret to realizing the full potential of our technology lies in our corporation’s Champion Concept. Almost three years ago, Bob Emery, Instrument Supervisor, PotashCorp NB, developed the vision for MARCH 2014
specialization. He saw that with the number of technologies PotashCorp was implementing, there wouldn’t be enough time to train all technicians in all technologies. He also recognized the frustration he was seeing on his team, so he began developing champions for each technology. Specialization brings other benefits for PotashCorp NB. The champion model increased our ability to respond more quickly and solve problems in-house. For example, the event logger was frequently overloaded because we had difficulty understanding how alerts propagated through integrated DeltaV, AMS Device Manager and ValveLink applications. Our in-house technology champions and others performed testing and gained a thorough understanding of how alerts are processed. Working together, we created a guideline for configuring alerts in DeltaV. The approach allowed us to prevent nuisance alerts and filter by transmitter or card-level. This led to better alarm-management and reduced the burden on the event logger. In addition to the benefits obtained by the company, we benefit professionally. Although initially the change was difficult, specialization allows us the time to hone our craft, develop deeper knowledge and engage our creativity. We invested the time upfront to make significant changes in our maintenance practices. What we gained is confidence that we are monitoring the right assets, solving problems more quickly and giving our technicians what they need to do their jobs well. Our practice will continue to evolve, but now we’re ready for the plant growth that lies ahead. Matthew Fenwick is an Instrumentation Technician for PotashCorp of Saskatchewan, in Penobsquis New Brunswick, Canada. A graduate of the Industrial Control Technology program, he has worked in mining and pulp and paper industries for the past 10 years. For more information on his success story, email Matthew.Fenwick@potashcorp.com.
Some caveats With the ISO-5500 Asset Management Standard, it’s more important than ever for operations to accurately define and document their critical equipment assets. A roadblock for facilities that haven’t yet completed this “must do”—or started on it—may be one of direction: What approach works best? While you can find plenty of tools, checklists and helpful advice on making critical-equipment determinations, keep in mind that they don’t reflect universal solutions. What’s appropriate for one type of operation may not be for another. There are several factors for a site to consider before adopting a specific strategy, including its industry sector and any standards related to the assets used in it. Do your research. An additional caveat comes from Doc Palmer, author of McGraw-Hill’s Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Handbook. While he applauds the use of criticality rankings in developing maintenance strategies, he cautions operations to not let those rankings complicate the reporting and addressing of the work itself. According to Palmer, personnel writing work requests need a simple way to communicate urgency based on time. “If we’re not careful,” he says, “injecting the criticality ranking into some calculated equation could hinder the ease of this important communication.” (Palmer’s article “Simplify Your Priority System,” from the May 2010 issue of this magazine, discusses various priority systems.) MT&AP For more information on principles of asset criticality, refer to Bob Williamson’s Jan. 2013 Uptime column, “Equipment Criticality: Life in the Fast Lane,” or email RobertMW2@cs.com. For more information on how the application of asset-criticality principles meshes with successful maintenance planning and scheduling, please visit www.palmer planning.com, or email docpalmer@ palmerplanning.com.
MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 23
Program success now and later...
Sustaining Operator-Driven Reliability
Jane Alexander, Deputy Editor
Research shows that ODR success can be elusive. Here’s how to make it work. It seemed like a good idea. Everybody appeared to buy in. Big investments in time, resources and technologies were made; considerable thought, communication and hard work were applied. Finally, everything came together: Your site implemented Operator-Driven Reliability (ODR). Congratulations! But how is it working for you now? ODR (the formalized involvement of operators in a facility’s asset-reliability efforts) isn’t new. Typical operator activities can range from collecting electronic data on vibration, temperature and the like, and noting abnormal equipment conditions; to performing routine replacements of gauges and other devices and helping technicians verify shutdown procedures; to assisting with equipment testing. Operators do NOT conduct data analysis within the scope of ODR. While this brief description of what ODR is and isn’t might seem straightforward, some plants have found the process to be more challenging than they expected. According to experts, one of the biggest challenges organizations face is how to sustain an ODR program. Research conducted by bearing-maker SKF—an ODR pioneer, having helped implement and sustain it in hundreds of operations around the world—has uncovered several reasons why (see Chart). They include: inadequate preparation prior to implementation; a change in or lack of management; changing corporate initiatives; technology barriers; even sabotage. But these roadblocks can be overcome. “Sustaining ODR doesn’t have to be a struggle,” says Dave Staples, SKF Global Services Manager for Traditional Energy. As with any other important enterprise initiative, a key to achieving success in ODR is to approach it as a process, not as a project. “Projects have ends,” explains Staples. “Processes live, grow and improve.” In Staples’ experience, rigorous, informed upfront planning is necessary for ODR success. His recommendations include: Clearly define and communicate goals and objectives. Because operational needs and goals differ, it’s important to align ODR with corporate business goals. Also, ODR goals and objectives must incorporate current reliability strategies, practices and philosophies. MARCH 2014
MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 25
25% 20% 15% 10%
No KPIs in place Inadequate preparation prior to implementation Change in/lack of management (support accountability) No process of continuous improvement Change in corporate initiatives Training Technology barriers
Union grievances Sabotage
Typical Obstacles to Sustained ODR (source SKF)
Ensure cross-discipline support. Staples reminds plants that to have an impact on asset and process reliability and performance, an ODR program needs support not just from Maintenance and Operations, but from the Engineering and Reliability organizations as well. Obtain commitment from the plant floor to the executive suite. Management provides credibility for ODR and ensures funding and resource allocation. It also confirms ODR as a company priority. “It’s critical to identify ODR supporters and potential non-supporters early on,” says Staples, “and know where to look for improvement opportunities.” Because ODR is a process that operators will own, they should be involved in and committed to it from the start, even if they’re unionized. Identify a sponsor or champion from within the operations team whom all operators respect.
Plan for resistance to change and how to deal with it. Pushback on ODR can come from many sources, requiring several different management responses. According to Staples, responses can include reward and recognition for workers who are doing the right things; following compliance measurements and using the findings to drive corrections; supporting operator findings by correcting abnormal conditions quickly; and engraining the ODR process and findings into daily operations by hosting weekly status and planning meetings. Embed decision support. Embedding knowledge allows operators to make better decisions without requiring basic guidance from the plant’s skilled workforce. For example, Staples says that with an automated fault-diagnosis process and the use of decision trees and Boolean logic, operators can be directed to collect additional information leading to the root cause of a problem.
ODR Supports Business Excellence Operator-Driven Reliability complements Business-Excellence (BE) programs in several key ways: Empowerment is reinforced because operators have ownership for their equipment’s reliability. With this responsibility comes the ability for operators to initiate decisions for actions based on abnormal conditions they uncover. Standardized work is managed through technology. The idea of BE programs is for all operators in a facility to work according to defined principles. Operator ODR rounds are detailed in the inspection technologies they use (i.e., what machines to inspect and how; what abnormal conditions look like; and what to do next). And as operator informa
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
tion progresses from paper to digital form, it is shared faster, allowing for quicker corrective actions. Whether a site is implementing a new program or assessing a current one, the ODR process forces an environment of continuous improvement, driving inefficiencies and waste out of the system and putting the focus on high-value activities, a BE fundamental. Teamwork is promoted by both BE and ODR. When ODR is appropriately planned, implemented and managed, equipment reliability becomes an enterprise-wide endeavor. Working as a team, people throughout the organization— regardless of department, title or specific responsibilities— can truly impact reliability improvements. MARCH 2014
Develop and track appropriate key performance indicators (KPIs). Organizations often overlook important metrics associated with ODR, either by putting them off until after implementation or not tracking them at all. Without KPI’s, says Staples, “The ability to justify, learn, improve and optimize is lost.” He recommends that KPIs be established as early as possible in the implementation process to allow benchmarking of current status and measuring of improvements. “Make them readily available to those responsible for ODR at the site,” he says, “so they can track the results of their efforts or the need for corrective actions.” Because KPIs will drive the direction of ODR efforts, it’s imperative to review them regularly and confirm that they continue to help achieve the company’s strategic goals.
One of the most important things a site can do around ODR is
Staples also encourages sites to:
The Two Levels of Operator Feedback The type of feedback an operator receives and how it is delivered will impact his/her response. There are two levels of operator feedback, each designed to elicit a specific response: The first level explains the need for an inspection process relative to possible present conditions, causes, related problems and consequences. The second level uses documentation, graphics and photos to drive immediate action. These elements should be available via on-board memory or through the Wi-Fi capabilities of mobile devices. Be creative in your approach to feedback. The goal is to simplify operator input and minimize the typing of inspection results.
to manage expectations from the outset. Have a program life-cycle cost plan. Mobile technology changes quickly. Plan to replace hardware at the end of each cycle. Staples says that although
there will be incremental changes to technology throughout every life cycle, they’ll generally be software-related. Annual maintenance agreements guarantee sites that they will always have the latest version of software and access to new features during a life cycle.
Automate ODR with technology, but keep technology transparent. Provide effective levels of operator feedback (see Sidebar). Standardize all best practices and share them. Plan for ODR expansion and how to pay for it. Maintain a detailed, living training plan. One of Staples’ most valuable pieces of advice regarding ODR is to manage people's expectations about it from the outset. Keep in mind that ODR is not intended to be a complete maintenance solution. While operators “inspect,” for example, they cannot be expected to “analyze.” As Staples wrote previously in this publication (Feb. 2007), “ODR is best considered a complementary practice, and is almost always part of a strategically applied maintenance plan to achieve asset reliability and availability aligned with a company’s business objectives.” This approach has weathered well over the years, and it will work for your ODR program, too. MT&AP
Reward, Incentivize, Recognize Deal with Pushback, Change the Culture Rewards and Incentives are integral parts of most culture-changing programs, including ODR, because they reinforce acceptable behavior. Examples include cash, trips and gift certificates; Operator of the Week/Month programs; and tie-ins to existing company initiatives, such as profit-sharing. Once a desired behavior becomes a required behavior, use of rewards and incentives can be minimized or eliminated. Recognition Programs are the basis for quantifying return on investment. They document the value proposition that ODR delivers to the business. MARCH 2014
In contrast to rewards and incentives, recognition programs must remain in place. Keeping them fresh means keeping them visible—on posters, in newsletters, through tradtional news outlets and via social media— and posting KPIs. Operator-Certification Programs can also be used to transition away from rewards to recognition. Additional certifications can validate operator rank or wages. Certification programs can be qualitative or quantitative forms of recognition. Quantitative programs, though, must have real dollars tied to them and should be tracked closely. MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 27
Technology Drives Public-Transit Efficiencies Neil Roberts Yarra Trams
An Australian tram operation uses a centralized data system to improve maintenance and performance. Public transportation systems depend on a complex combination of equipment to function, from wheels and axles to power lines and tracks. The infrastructure that makes a transportation system run must be efficiently maintained to prevent service delays and ensure that passengers arrive at their destinations safely and on time.
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
What if trams and trains could tell operators that a wheel needed to be fixed before it broke, or that a particular route was delayed because of bad weather? Advances in technology are unlocking this type of insight into the health and efficiency of public transit systems, enabling operators to improve maintenance efficiency, reduce downtime and better meet passenger demands. MARCH 2014
Yarra Tramsâ€™ next-generation E-Class tram began service in Melbourne, Australia, in November 2013.
As the Director of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) for KDR Victoria, operator of the Yarra Trams system in Melbourne, Australia, my job is not just about making sure that our servers run well and our email functions properly. My team and I implement technology to enhance the passenger experience and operational effectiveness of the largest operating tram network in the world. Thanks to technology, our trams can now alert a maintenance team when and where a repair needs to be made, or tell passengers via the free MARCH 2014
tramTRACKER smartphone application when the next tram will arrive at their stop. Our iconic tram system has been in operation for over 100 years. Today, it encompasses more than 91,000 pieces of equipment, including 250 kilometers of double tracks, eight different classes of tram, 500 kilometers of power lines, wheels, axles, bogies and much more. Maintaining this infrastructure is a complicated web of overlapping schedules, necessary repairs and the very different upkeep concerns of new and old equipment. MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 29
The main operations center of Melbourne’s Yarra Trams relies on smarter technology to enhance the passenger experience and operational effectiveness of the largest operating tram network in the world.
Service disruptions can be caused by anything from equipment failures, to bad weather, to heavy vehicle and pedestrian traffic. Our safe, efficient transport of nearly 200 million passengers annually calls for a rapid response to such disruptions, along with effective preventive and predictive asset-management practices and frequent customer communications.
Details in the data To keep everything running smoothly, we’ve implemented a technology system that incorporates data, smarter infrastructure software and analytics and both mobile and cloud computing. This system turns 91,000 different pieces of equipment—from trams to power lines and tracks—into 91,000 living, talking data points, some with data-transmitting sensors. The data, which is not only collected through sensors but also via employee and passenger reports, unlocks the visibility of vital signs to help us understand the health and efficiency of our network. Data collected about tram service and functions is hosted on one centralized system—IBM’s Maximo—and is accessible by certain employees to encourage cross-organization collaboration. Using IBM Smarter Infrastructure software, different functions can analyze the data to garner information about improving response to maintenance issues, preventing service delays and re-routing trams. Insight gathered from the software is also used to send work-order alerts to maintenance teams.
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
Maintenance workers remotely access work orders and receive up-to-date asset information on mobile tablets, helping to improve repair management and respond quicker to potential disruptions. After a work order is completed, maintenance crews use the tablets to log how much time was spent on a repair and details about any follow-up that may be necessary. Repair logs are then used to identify trends and triggers that cause delays that can be avoided with predictive maintenance. Trends or patterns in tram and infrastructure repair history are identified through data analysis and used as a guide for scheduling predictive maintenance, which minimizes service downtime by enabling maintenance teams to fix equipment before it breaks.
Responding to an out-of-shape wheel: An automated wheelmeasurement machine detects a tram wheel that may have become out of shape after wearing over time on tram tracks. Information about the impending repair need is used to alert maintenance crews, who complete the work and can record all details on a mobile tablet. The repair log is compared to previous wheel repair logs and used to schedule preventative maintenance. Keeping trams running rain or shine: Melbourne has an annual rainfall of more than 24 inches, and it is common for some streets and tracks to flood when it rains. Collected data has indicated problem-prone areas, enabling maintenance crews to take precautions to prevent flooded tracks. Additionally, if tracks do flood, response crews are quickly alerted via mobile devices, making a quick response possible before service is delayed. MARCH 2014
Embedded in the tracks, smart sensors like these provide a range of critical operational data, including information on needed tram maintenance.
Allocating equipment to accommodate heavy passenger traffic for special events: When events like the Australian Open tennis tournament are held, we allocate trams to specific areas where heavy passenger traffic is expected. Passengers are alerted about service changes via tramTRACKER. Deploying the technology system has been a gradual, ongoing process that has involved retrofitting older trams, equipment and
power substations with sensors, as well as building and installing new equipment, such as our E-Class tram. The E-Class trams are equipped with Wi-Fi to enable information about tram health and efficiency to be downloaded when a tram returns to the depot. The next-generation E-Class tram began carrying passengers in November 2013. The new technology system has also allowed our entire organization to transition from a paper-based asset-management system to IBM Smarter Infrastructure software. The enterprise-wide initiative has enabled us to consistently exceed our key performance measurements around tram service and punctuality. In October 2013, service delivery was 99.11% and tram punctuality 82.70% (against targets of 98% and 77% respectively). That was a great result given that 80% of the network shares road space with motor vehicles. The future of public transportation is wide open with opportunities to apply technology in innovative ways to improve efficiency and reliability, in turn boosting passenger usage and stakeholder confidence. The way Yarra Trams uses sensors, data, analytics, cloud and mobile technology today is just the foundation. We look forward to evolving our transit system to benefit from what technology makes possible. MT&AP
MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 31
Fighting Clogs Efficiently at a Wisconsin Wastewater Station The growing popularity of single-use towels, baby wipes and other non-woven ‘convenience’ products has become a maintenance nightmare for water-treatment operations. It should scare any operation that requires clean water. 32 |
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
The scenic community of Waupaca, WI, is spiritually connected to clean water.
The Flygt N pump is lowered into the wetwell at the Crystal River Lift Station.
Not only is its name a translation of a Native American term meaning “clear water,” its wastewater facility is known as the Crystal River Lift Station. So community leaders were well aware of the irony when this facility became notorious for its three pumps becoming clogged with debris after their installation in October 2002. The 360-GPM Crystal River Lift Station is among the largest of Waupaca’s 12 sewagepumping stations. It serves more than 10,000 residents and 3600 connections whose wastewater flows to a 1.5 MGD regional treatment plant operated by Waupaca’s utility. After undergoing treatment, the effluent discharges into the Waupaca River. It was not uncommon, however, for the Crystal River Lift Station’s wet-well to accumulate a thick mat of disposable cleaning heads, various types of wipes, towels, grease and even a band of underwear elastic. The array of crud originated from the county jail, nursing home, middle school, elementary school, hospital and other connections upline from the station. “We experienced clogs as often as three times per day,” says Jeff Dyer, wastewater team leader. “The old pumps cavitated badly and weren’t reliable. They simply weren’t engineered to operate efficiently in that environment.” Waupaca’s utility faced a growing problem for the wastewater treatment industry: the increased incidence of ragging due largely to wet-impregnated and dry-electrostatic wipes popular for household cleaning and personal hygiene use. Unlike traditional woven material, these often porous sheets and cleaning heads are manufactured from polymer fibers or film. Manufacturers market many as single-use “disposable” products, which the general public often mistakes for “flushable.” When state lawmakers considered a ban on this new generation of products, trade organizations reacted. A 2008 report by the U.S.-based Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry, INDA, called attention to how wipes that pass through residential sewers should flow equally through the wastewater collection lines and be compatible with accepted wastewater treatment plant operations. INDA and its European counterpart ENDA have since drafted guidelines that define what constitutes a “flushable” consumer product. The National Sanitary Foundation sponsors an independent validation service to test and certify a consumer product’s flushability. Although convenient tissue-like wipes rarely block residential sewer lines, they can strangle traditional lift-station pumps as their residual material entangles pump impellers and impedes or clogs intakes. Federal legislation that reduced the flush volume for residential plumbing fixtures to 1.6 gallons has only aggravated the problem for utilities. Many operators foresee the problem becoming as potentially serious as when disposable diapers first reached the market decades ago. Diapers, however, were large enough to block residential lines before they reached the street, which created work for many plumbers at homeowner expense. Consumer news reports and word of mouth eventually led the general public to recognize the difference between a disposable and flushable diaper.
Convenience products, inconvenient clogging At the Crystal River Lift Station, the fibrous waste from these products caused recurring overloads that clogged the recessed impellers of the facility’s former 10-HP pumps. Each clog required that a team from the four-man Wastewater Group within Waupaca’s Public Works Department be dispatched to clear the pumps. Blockages in the 26-ft.-deep wet-wells presented an inherently unhealthy environment, further complicated by seasonal weather challenges. The station’s repeated blockages and call-outs created schedule intrusions and added expense. The cost for a two-man crew sent to clear the pumps, for example, doubled to more than $31 per man-hour, including benefits. Typically, more than one hour was required to restore the pumps to operation. And if proactive monthly cleanouts exceeded MARCH 2014
MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 33
Preparing to install the N pump, workers attach an adaptor for use with an existing rail-type mounting system.
the capability of the City’s Vactor truck, an outside contractor was called in with a more powerful unit that cost up to $1500 per cleaning. When the utility’s aging pumps eventually needed overhaul or replacement, the Wastewater Department favored the latter. Several types of pumps were under consideration when a territory manager for Xylem, the manufacturer of Flygt brand pumps, responded to the utility’s inquiry. The discussion about the recurring clogging eventually focused on a Flygt N pump as a promising solution. (Editor’s Note: N-pump technology has since been incorporated into Flygt’s line of Experior products.)
To demonstrate the reliability of N-pump technology, Waupaca’s Public Works Department was offered a “try and buy” opportunity in 2008: A 10-HP unit would be installed and operated on a 60-day trial basis. If it ever clogged, the pump would be removed, without debate, at no cost. Installation was simplified with the use of the existing pump’s rail-type mounting system. The swap met expectations by performing flawlessly during the trial. In fact, the trial pump was set to operate in permanent lead-pump mode instead of the normal one-third operating sequence. Since the pump was always operating, the trial period subjected it to a continuous 180-day operating test. During
The lift station used to experience costly clogging as often as three times a day. 34 |
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
The old pumps weren’t engineered to operate efficiently in today’s high-debris-laden environments. They cavitated badly and were unreliable.
Designed with Debris-Laden Flows in Mind The Flygt N pump was specifically designed to handle the growing challenges of today’s higher debris-laden wastewater flows. Its improved efficiency derived largely from a self-cleaning, semi-open, backswept impeller with a horizontally positioned vane. The design contributed to energy savings by eliminating the drag imposed on earlier pumps from debris build-up on recessed impellers. The N pump’s hydraulic design eased the passage of solids while self-cleaning the impeller vane leading
edges with each revolution. By eliminating impeller fouling, the pump prevents the steady build-up of fibrous material that can otherwise impose drag and compromise operating efficiency and energy use. The Water Environment Federation (WEF) recognized the pump's engineering features with the Collection System Innovative Technology Award for 2011. N pump technology and its adaptive functionality have since been combined in what the manufacturer now designates as its Experior line.
the test, the existing companion pumps continued to clog. This led the utility to procure a second N pump in 2009, and a third in 2012. The three 10-HP N-3127 pumps now operate in continuous sequence, with run times averaging 1.4 hours each during 11 cycles on a typical day. “The reliability of the replacement pumps has been excellent,” reports Dyer, who adds that the facility’s “day-and-night emergency call-outs in all types of weather are no longer a factor.” MT&AP
MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 35
Increasing Electrical Safety in a Brewery An upgraded design for plugs and receptacles reduces shock potential in wet environments. Jane Alexander, Deputy Editor
Opening a successful craft brewery was the dream of a lifetime for Mike Stevens and Dave Engbers, who started Founders Brewing Co. in Grand Rapids, MI, in 1997. After some initial challenges, the partners succeeded at brewing a flavorful brand of complex ales with broad market and critical acceptance. Founders’ products are now available in 25 states.
To accommodate growth, the brewery recently needed to expand operations and increase the size of its production staff. Part of that effort involved enhancing worker safety. Despite the company’s excellent safety record, a brewery’s normally wet environment poses an ongoing safety issue with regard to electrical shock, particularly when workers connect and disconnect mobile pump carts. To address this issue, the company contacted local distributor J.P.Motors & Drives, Inc., who recommended Meltric Decontactor Series switch-rated safety plugs as a convenient and cost-effective means for improving brewery safety. While pumps, motors and conveyors are among the primary sources of accidents at breweries and other manufacturing operations, the danger level at breweries can be high due to a concentration of factors such as hot liquids, pressurized systems, confined spaces, caustic chemicals and electrical shock. According to OSHA, electrical-shock accidents at breweries have occurred while technicians work on energized equipment like power panels and motor controls. To combat this risk, Founders installed Meltric’s plugs and receptacles on mobile pump carts, keg washers, motors and other portable equipment. According to Director of Brewery Operations Alec Mull, the plugs “help prevent electrical safety accidents before they happen.” Many breweries use pin-andsleeve, twist-lock or bladed-style electrical plugs to connect equipment to electrical power—all of which can be dangerous for personnel working in a wet environment. That’s not the case with Meltric’s connector technology.
Alec Mull says Meltric's technology (inset) makes the brewery's pursuit of safety and productivity easier. MARCH 2014
MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 37
It takes only about 15 milliseconds to break contact with these plugs. “Safety is a keyword at Founders,” says Mull. “We’re in a wet environment all day, and we don’t want to put our staff at risk. Meltric’s plugs were the most cost-effective and the safest product we could secure.” He adds that because the brewery does not always have an electrician on site, the plugs are convenient. Making and breaking connections with the Meltric plugs, for example, is easy. The work is done by an
Because making and breaking connections with Decontactor plugs is a Risk Category “0” operation, PPE is not needed.
“We sell Meltric products to businesses that use portable equipment,” says David Patchak, a representative at J.P. Motors & Drives, Inc. “And we tell them that if an outside contractor on their site attempted to disconnect an energized pin and sleeve plug, it would be an OSHA violation that the site, not the contractor, would be liable for should an accident occur.” Patchak believes Meltric eliminates this problem with the safety features it incorporates into its products (see Sidebar). 38 |
Their modular design and flexible mounting accessories allow Decontactors to be used in a variety of configurations, including, in-line, cord-drop or wall-mounted.
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
Worker Safety & Switch-Rated Functionality Meltric’s Decontactor switch-rated technology combines the safety and functionality of a disconnect switch with the convenience of a plug and receptacle. These features make Meltric plugs well suited for breaking electrical connections on the portable equipment that’s typically found in breweries. Safety is increased due to a design that causes load making and breaking to occur in an enclosed arc chamber shrouded by a safety shutter so users are isolated from live parts. The plug cannot be physically removed from its receptacle until the load is safely disconnected.
To obtain the functionality Meltric Decontactor of a disconnect switch within a plugs and receptacles plug, Decontactors are built with are Type 4X, providing spring-loaded, butt-style contacts watertight connections similar to those used on contac- for washing down tors and switchgear. Using end- production equipment. to-end contact mating instead of sliding contacts provides a solid connection, and the spring loading Decontactors feature spring-loaded, buttproduces optimal contact pressure, style contacts similar to which ensures that the integrity of those used in contacthe electrical connection is consistors and switchgear. tently maintained over thousands of operations. Decontactor plugs are fitted with silver-nickel the destructive effects of corrosion and typically contacts instead of softer brass contacts. A brass have a long life span of reliable use. Meltric Decontactors are UL/CSA rated for contact generally has poor contact resistance, “motor circuit” and “branch” circuit-disconnect resulting in a tendency to arc, which causes pitting, switching. They are an approved NEC/CSA “line of oxidization and shorter life. Silver-nickel contacts sight” disconnect switch. offer increased resistance to contact pitting, inhibit integral spring-loaded mechanism instead of the user’s physical motion (which is what typical pin-and sleeve or twist-type plugs require). In the Meltric product, the circuit is opened by depressing the pawl, which releases the energy in the spring-loaded operating mechanism, instantaneously breaking the circuit and ejecting the plug to the OFF position. MARCH 2014
The time needed to break contact is about 15 milliseconds, and the quick-break mechanism is automatically reloaded when the plug is re-inserted. “Meltric connectors make the pursuit of both safety and efficiency much easier,” says Mull. “These are simple and safe devices.” MT&AP MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 39
High-Performance Static Mixer The Kenics KMX-V Static Mixer from Chemineer generates superior mixing per unit length that is especially effective for laminar flow and high/low viscosity ratio applications, according to the company. The KMX-V utilizes cross-stream mixing and flow splitting to achieve rapid laminar blending. Each element is approximately one pipe diameter in length and consists of multiple intersecting blades that generate fluid layers as the mixture flows downstream. Key design features include high mixing performance per unit length, enhanced injectors, proprietary V-shaped blades and the ability to achieve high volumetric flow ratios between primary streams and additives. Chemineer, Inc. Dayton, OH
Synthetic-Rubber V-Belts With High Heat Resistance Emerson Power Transmission’s Browning has introduced a range of raw-edge V-belts made from EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer), a synthetic rubber formulated for strength and heat resistance. The belts have a temperature rating of -60 to 250 F and are available in such commonly used v-belt cross sections as AX, BX, CX, 3VX, 5VX and 8VX Gripnotch. The EPDM-formulated belt rating is 110 degrees higher than industry-standard polychloroprene belts, making them suited for rooftop blower units, commercial kitchen or industrial process exhaust systems. The company notes that v-belts may reach 110-115 F while simply running in the sheaves at 72 F ambient temperature. When heat is concentrated under a solid metal guard and the ambient temperature rises, the 140 F limit for common polychloroprene belts is reached quickly. EPDM belts meet RMA (Rubber Manufacturers Association) standards for tolerances off the shelf and are static dissipating as well as oil- and heat-resistant. Emerson Power Transmission Florence, KY
High-Performance Parallel Shaft Gearmotors Bodine Electric Company has expanded its FX parallel shaft gearmotor line to include 42R6-FX AC models. These offer a new, high-power 3-wire reversible 42R frame 115VAC/60Hz AC induction motor. The gearmotors feature Bodine’s redesigned and updated FX gearhead that provides up to 350 lb-in. (40 Nm) continuous torque. New synthetic lubricant allows the FX gearhead to operate at a wider temperature range than previous offerings while improving overall gearhead performance. Hardened helical steel gears and new needle bearings provide more torque and add to product life. The 42R6-FX gearmotor is suited for fixed-speed applications such as medical equipment, packaging machines, conveyor systems, printing equipment and factory automation. Bodine Electric Co. Northfield, IL
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
Touch-Screen Controller for Dust-Collection Equipment The Farr Gold Series touch-screen controller from Camfil Air Pollution Control (APC) provides full monitoring and control of an industrial dust collector and associated equipment. The controller’s touch screen interface allows ready access to all functions and has the capability to work in multiple languages. A built-in differential pressure sensor monitors the primary filter pressure drop, while four analog inputs can be used to monitor the secondary filter and other devices. Six digital inputs are also included to monitor hopper level, smoke detection, remote cleaning and other functions. Camfil Air Pollution Control Jonesboro, AR MARCH 2014
EXAIR’s Chip Trapper™ offers a fast, easy way to clean chips, swarf and shavings out of used coolants and other liquids. The Chip Trapper vacuums the coolant or liquid that is filled with debris and traps all the solids in a reusable filter bag. Only the liquid pumps back out. Coolant that used to last only 6 weeks can now last 6 months or more!
11510 Goldcoast Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45249-1621 Phone (800) 903-9247 Fax (513) 671-3363 E-mail: email@example.com Internet: www.exair.com/48/1171.htm
MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 41
Line of Smart Programmable Locks Highfield Manufacturing Company has extended its e-lectroloc smart, pro-grammable locking system line to include padlocks, puck locks and T-handle core locks. Access locks are controlled by the e-lectroloc system’s smart key. When the key connects with the lock—accomplished without key insertion or rotation—it identifies access privileges and activates patented technology to open the lock. Users can set operating times and disable the key if it’s lost or stolen. The smart key gives users a stored 1000-event audit trail that documents when a lock is opened, by whom and when, including unauthorized attempts. Highfield Manufacturing Co. Bridgeport, CT
UV-Detecting Camera Line Ofil has launched its DayCor® UVollé-C line of compact daytime corona cameras that enable detection of UV energy in full daylight. The product series is light and small, with a wide, high-resolution LCD. The series’ batteries last more than four continuous working hours. The display shows corona signals and their emitting sources along with indication of the corona severity. Built into each camera is an LED flashlight. The C series has 2 models: UVollé-SC and UVollé-VC. UVollé-SC is a still camera, while the UVollé-VC captures video. Accessories include a close-up lens, a wide angle lens, corona base reporting software, GPS and temperature and humidity meter. Ofil Ltd. Nes Ziona, Israel
PSU with EN54-5 Compliance, 10.25A Capability
Easy-To-Read Earth Ground Testers Fluke’s 1623-2 and 1625-2 Earth Ground Testers offer features and accessories that speed verification of a reliable connection to earth for grounded electrical systems. The testers perform all four types of earth ground measurements: 3and 4-pole fall-of-potential, 4-pole soil resistivity, selective testing, and stakeless testing. The testers feature USB connectivity for data transfer with time stamp, and fast downloading of measurements, eliminating the need for manual data transfer. Large displays are designed for readability in any environment and indicate battery condition. New accessories include heavy-duty stakes that can be hammered into hard ground, colorcoded wires to reduce errors, and a carrying case. Fluke Corp. Everett, WA
Kentec’s KD25800 series Global Loss Prevention Certification Board (LPCB)-approved PSU is a lightweight, robust, fully enclosed unit with a 10.25A load capability for powering fire alarm controls and indicating panels. Designed to meet the needs of all fire alarm systems, the unit features universal mains voltage input and intelligent, two-stage, temperature compensated battery charging for optimized battery service life and performance. Low-battery shut-off prevents deep discharge and damage to expensive battery packs, and battery circuit impedance monitoring ensures that specified voltage is supplied. Kentec Electronics Ltd. Dartford, UK
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
Process Control Software With Revamped Interface Invensys will release its SimSci APC 2014 advanced process control software this spring. The new version has been designed to shorten plant testing and commissioning schedules, as well as improve plant operations and personnel performance. APC 2014 modernizes the graphical user interface while retaining the calculation engine from the company’s Connoisseur APC offering. Director, a new feature, allows control engineers to build custom calculations or add custom supporting controller functions. The new release is designed to provide a natural workflow that includes full support for model case file development. In addition, it features a connection wizard for integration with any distributed control system and programmable logic controller, including the company’s Foxboro I/A Series DCS and its new Foxboro Evo process automation system. Invensys Ltd. Houston, TX
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MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 43
Web-based Mobile Operator Interface System
Suction Diffuser Offers Higher Flow Rates
Opto 22’s groov version 2.1 is an update to its groov Web-based mobile operator interface system for building and using operator interfaces on smartphones, tablets and other mobile devices. The new version includes faster tag handling with OPC-UA servers, and improved data exchange with mobile devices for faster response times and lower mobile network costs. A major improvement is a real-time OPC tag browsing function, allowing an OPC-UA server interface to offer choices from potentially tens of thousands of tags. The new version also offers fast data flow and compression. The system provides the means to develop monitoring and control interfaces on mobile devices for a wide range of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and programmable automation controllers (PACs).
Suction Diffuser Flex technology from Metraflex is engineered into diffusers that feature a specially designed set of stationary vanes placed upstream of an elbow. The Suction Diffuser Flex imparts a slight rotational motion to moving fluids, which counteracts elbow-induced motion. The result is that the fluid negotiates the turn uniformly and exits with a flat velocity profile. Flow-through systems incorporating the Flex technology experience higher flow rates and dramatically lower pressure drops compared to conventional suction diffuser solutions. The Metraflex Co. Chicago, IL
Opto 22 Temecula, CA
Leak-Detection Controller with Audible and Visual Alarms
Contactors with Built-In Safety Features
The SeaHawk LD310 from RLE Technologies is a single-zone leakdetection controller that monitors up to 300 feet (91 meters) of sensing cable. Replacing the SeaHawk LD300, the new controller features a visual alarm as well as enhanced electronics designed for reliability. It is compatible with all of RLE’s leakdetection sensing cables, as well as SD-Z and SD-Z1 spot detectors. The LD310 has an audible alarm, three-color LED visual alarm and two Form C leak and fault relay outputs. It also has adjustable sensitivity thresholds and returns quickly to normal after alarm situations are handled.
MS-T Series contactors and motor control products from Mitsubishi Electric Automation are suited for panel designers and endusers who are downsizing their panels. The line ranges from 10 to 32 amps. Upgrades to the MS-T Series over its predecessor include a standard terminal cover; expansion of coil ratings; “finger-safe” and “back of the handsafe” design that prevents contact with live terminals; and streamlined terminals that enable fast wiring. The contactors meet IEC, JIS, CE, TUV, CCC, UL and cUL standards. Thermoplastic components in the MS-T series control products carry material identification for recycling, and all Mitsubishi Electric motor control products comply with RoHS regulations.
RLE Technologies Fort Collins, CO
Mitsubishi Electric Automation, Inc. Vernon Hills, IL
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
Ad Index ADVERTISER
MARCH 2014 Volume 27, No. 3 •
AVO Training Institute ......................................www.avotraining.com/mt ...................................19 Baldor ...................................................................www.baldor.com...................................................1 BinMaster.............................................................www.binmaster.com ............................................41 Cascade Machinery Vibration Solutions........www.cascademvs.com .........................................4 Dreisilker Electric Motors Inc...........................www.motorsaferepairs.com/mt .........................4 EASA.....................................................................www.easa.com .......................................................IBC Exair Corporation ..............................................www.exair.com/48/423.htm ...............................5 Exair Corporation ..............................................www.exair.com/48/1171.htm .............................41 Inpro/Seal, LLC C/O Waukesha Bearing........www.inpro-seal.com/mt......................................35 Meltric Corporation ..........................................www.meltric.com .................................................41 Opto 22.................................................................op22.co/groov-trial...............................................IFC PdMA Corporation ...........................................www.pdma.com....................................................31 PROFIBUS PROFINET North America .......www.us.profinet.com...........................................7 Royal Purple, Inc.................................................www.royalpurpleindustrial.com ........................3 Scalewatcher ........................................................www.scalewatcher.com ........................................17 SKF USA Condition Monitoring - For ..........www.bakerinst.com..............................................10 SPM Instrument, Inc. ........................................www.leonovabyspm.com....................................16 Test Products International (TPI) ...................www.testproductsintl.com ..................................41 Turbomachinery Lab.........................................pumpturbo.tamu.edu..........................................11 Yaskawa.................................................................www.yaskawa.com................................................BC
TECHNOLOGY ASSET PERFORMANCE
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OVERCOMING YOUR CHALLENGES
Power: Your Compressor‘s Gas-Mileage Rating Ron Marshall CET, CEM for the Compressed Air Challenge (CAC)
hen fuel prices rise, we seem to put more thought into the types of personal vehicles we purchase—specifically with regard to their future operating costs. The automotive industry has helped consumers make good buying decisions by developing a standard way to display fuel economy in miles per gallon (or liters per 100 km). A similar means of comparing air compressor and dryer efficiency was developed by the Compressed Air and Gas Institute (CAGI, www.cagi.org). CAGI’s standard way to rate the efficiency of rotary screw compressors is based on the ISO 1217, Displacement Compressors—Acceptance Tests Standard. CAGI test results are available to all manufacturers, whether or not they are CAGI members, for rotary compressors from 25-200 HP, and stand-alone refrigerated compressed air dryers from 200-1000 SCFM. The program third-party-verifies the information that participating manufacturers publish on the standard CAGI Data Sheets, which are then published on the participants’ Websites and in their product literature. The data sheets define operational and performance information used during the specification and application decision-making process.
CAGI (the Compressed Air and Gas Institute) offers a standardized means for comparing efficiences of different air compressors and dryers in the marketplace.
The test results show equipment ratings for specific power, capacity at full operating pressure, pressure at which the test was conducted, full-load package kW, and kW at zero flow. Like a gas-mileage rating of an automobile, the specific power number is related to the efficiency of the tested compressor. The specific power rating shows the amount of power (kilowatts) consumed by the compressor for every 100 cubic feet of compressed air produced by
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
the unit. The test results are published in a standard format and can be used by a compressed air equipment purchaser to compare compressors and air dryers for efficient operation and to assess how well their compressed air equipment is running. For example, one fully loaded 100 HP unit may be rated at 424 acfm at 25 kW per 100 cfm at 125 psi, compared to another compressor that might put out 430 acfm while consuming power at a rate of 22 kW per 100 at 125 psi. If you know this compressor will be running a certain number of hours per year fully loaded, you can easily calculate the difference in annual electrical power consumption. Comparison of variable-speed-drive (VSD) compressors also has been standardized. However, instead of limiting the compressor rating to full-load and no-load, the manufacturer is required to show the rated flow-versus-power numbers through the full compressor operating range. This information is also displayed as a curve that can be used to calculate the power consumption at partial loading conditions. These numbers can come in handy when auditing compressed air systems. Consider the following: If you know your compressors are rated at 20 kW/100 cfm but are actually consuming 35 kW/100 cfm, you can assume something may be wrong with compressor control and take corrective actions. More information on compressor ratings can be found at compressedairchallenge.org and in CAC’s Best Practices for Compressed Air Systems Manual. Be sure to check the Website’s calendar for upcoming training opportunities. MT&AP firstname.lastname@example.org The Compressed Air Challenge® is a partner of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Industrial Technology programs. To learn more about its many offerings, log on to www.compressedairchallenge.org, or email: email@example.com.
Introducing Girls to Engineering Jane Alexander Deputy Editor
y ongoing passion for helping grow the highly skilled, technical workforce that industry needs now and in the future is stronger than ever. Thus, the invitation to spend several hours the evening of Friday, March 7, at the Siemens West Chicago manufacturing plant was something I couldn’t resist. The occasion was the facility’s 2014 “Introduce a Girl to Engineering” event. I jumped on the opportunity to attend— as did 150 girls, grades five through 12, and their parents and/or chaperones. It’s good that we did. Overwhelming interest in the program, fueled by word-of-mouth, social media and outreach to schools and Girl Scout groups, meant that some hopeful attendees had to be put on a waiting list. Girls and adults who were able to register had plenty in store for them—including a very up-close and personal look at the West Chicago facility during a production shift. The plant was an ideal venue for showcasing engineering in action. Opened in 1969, it supports Siemens’ Industry Automation Division by manufacturing motor control centers, switchboards, enclosed controls and definite-purpose contactors. Plant Manager Juan Carlos Rivero and his team were gracious, knowledgeable and efficient hosts. After all, this wasn’t the first such event at the site: It was the 10th.
Out of just over 2 million employed engineers today, only 200,000 are women. Jayne Beck, Manager of Motor Control Center and Switchboard Order Engineering at Siemens Industry, directed the evening’s activities. She introduced the program at the West Chicago plant in 2005. Only 15 girls attended that year. How times— and girls’ interests and self-confidence levels—seem to have changed! All eyes were glued on Beck as she welcomed this year’s record turnout. Opening with a discussion
of what engineers do and where they do it (i.e., just about everything and everywhere), she pointed to various rewards associated with engineering careers—including, as she put it, “getting paid to play.” She also cited some disturbing statistics, among them the fact that out of just over 2 million employed engineers today, only 200,000 are women. “Why,” Beck asked the room full of girls, “are we letting the boys have the good jobs?” Turning to look at all the bright, eager faces around me, I could see that she was well on her way to making the “sale.” The next couple of hours closed the deal! Breaking into small groups, attendees embarked on the factory tour—from engineering design to production, packaging, even shipping operations. Nobody in our group lagged or strayed—I bet it was the same for the others. There was too much to see, hear and interact with, including a demonstration by a team from FIRST (For Inspiration And Recognition Of Science And Technology) of the robot it had built for the FIRST Robotic Competition (FRC) program. (Siemens, by the way, is an active supporter of FIRST and FRC, and helps mentor teams around the country.) Later, the small groups reconvened and competed in their own hands-on “engineering” challenges. In the end, whether their spaghetti-marshmallow-and-duct-tape towers stood tall, their tinfoil boats stayed afloat, their Snap Circuits glowed or their paper airplanes flew, every girl at the Siemens West Chicago event went home a winner. Each carried with her a clear vision of how she, as an engineer, could change the world. According to Beck, encouraging girls to choose engineering career paths is important, not just for them and their families, but for others, Siemens included. “Having women in the engineering field,” she explained, “brings a diversity of experience and thinking to our plant. Diversity means that people have different ways of approaching things, and this brings a lot of value to the company.” Well said, Jayne, and well done, Siemens West Chicago. MT&AP
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THE MANUFACTURING CONNECTION
Reliability and Asset Performance For Profit Gary Mintchell Executive Director
he one point you will hear from me as I set the direction of Maintenance Technology & Asset Performance magazine is that everything we work on—whether through division management, plant management, reliability, engineering, maintenance or operations—adds to the economic value of our company. What we do has strategic value. Let’s act that way. Surveying the information that has been provided in this space over the past decade or so, I notice a recent trend to include more than traditional maintenance product information by adding emphasis on reliability. This is a good thing. Let’s consider the real challenge we have. It is not just fixing things. It is not even simply reliability, which can also be viewed as just fixing things. The real problem is optimum throughput of product over time. We call that asset performance. There are many tools at our disposal to help us in our quest for optimum asset performance. Most now derive from digital and computational technologies. Certainly, today’s professionals must be thoroughly proficient with digital networking and all the diagnostics that are available. Controllers and field devices are now information servers. Using all this information becomes crucial. The tools for digesting, analyzing and presenting it may seem to be the same you have used for years. These tools, however, have also changed over time so that if you are not using the latest versions, you could be missing out. Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS), Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) and Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES)/Manufacturing Operations Management (MOM) applications have existed for years, but their powers have grown significantly. Better check yours. MESA International is an association for companies and individuals who develop and use MES solutions. Its long-running “Metrics That Matter” surveys have consistently shown that these software tools can help improve performance. This year, LNR Research conducted and analyzed the survey in collaboration with MESA. A recent blog
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE
post, http://blog.lnsresearch.com/blog/bid/194495/ How-Do-You-Compare-Annual-ManufacturingPerformance-Improvements, discusses preliminary results of the survey. Two of the results concern maintenance specifically: Average Annual Performance Improvement of Maintenance was 14.9%. Average Annual Performance Improvement of Compliance was 18.5%. The top metrics for maintenance include: Percentage Planned vs. Emergency Maintenance Work Orders and Downtime in Proportion to Operating Time. According to MESA, survey results indicate that “leading companies, especially those in asset-intensive industries, have learned that by focusing on improving maintenance metrics they can prevent expensive downtime and keep operations running at peak efficiency and safety. Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) software applications in combination with real-time condition monitoring information coming from MOM and Industrial Automation applications are enabling companies to operate in a more predictable fashion instead of a reactive/disruptive fashion.” Top metrics in the compliance category include: Reportable Health and Safety Incidents; Reportable Environmental Incidents; and Number of NonCompliance Events per Year. “It’s hard to argue that health, safety and environmental issues shouldn’t be at the top of everyone’s list for vigilance and ongoing improvement,” MESA concludes. “These types of improvements require ongoing cultural awareness, supported by constant visibility and actions to improve these critical business and social metrics.” What would you like to see in Maintenance Technology & Asset Performance in print and online? Let me know what you would like to know. I welcome ideas and feedback. You can send an email, “DM” me on twitter @garymintchell, message me on LinkedIn, or check out the Maintenance Technology group on LinkedIn and send a note there. MT&AP Gary Mintchell, firstname.lastname@example.org, is Executive Director of Applied Technology Publications. He also writes at www.themanufacturingconnection.com.
Hynes Convention Center • Boston, Massachusetts
Early Bird Sessions on Saturday, June 28
June 29 - July 1
Featuring Exceptional Education Take advantage of a variety of valuable sessions, including these: n EASA Service Center Accreditation Program
n Troubleshooting AC Generators n Failure Analysis of Shafts and Fasteners n The Future of Induction Motors
n Mitigating Harmonics and Detrimental Waveforms Caused by VFDs
n Condition Assessment of Stator Windings in Medium-Voltage Global VPI Machines n Assessing Impeller Damage n Open Technical Forum n Plus many other valuable education sessions from expert speakers
Get an exhibition & conference schedule, exhibitor list and register at www.easa.com
We recently came across a two decades old photo of some young up and coming engineers that were part of our drive engineering team at the time. Guess what? All those people are still with us. In fact, they are among our company leaders today. Imagine. Twenty years of experience from each of them going to work for you every day. Incredible knowledge. Penetrating insights. Real results. Yaskawa puts all of that to work for you every day. Think of what you can do with a partner like that.
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Maintenance Technology & Asset Performance March 2014 Magazine maintenance, innovation, automation, capacity assurance, reliability, indust...