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FEBRUARY 2014 • VOL 27, NO 2 •



Achieving Reliability Excellence This end-user account from Qatar highlights the well-defined steps that a natural-gas producer took to reach its goals. Albert Sijm, CMRP and Manish Shah, CMRP RasGas Company Limited

DEPARTMENTS 6 Forward Observations


Pervasive Sensing Saves Money and Trouble Anywhere and everywhere in plants, today’s wireless sensors supply information you could only dream of in the past. Jane Alexander, Deputy Editor

8 Uptime 12 For On The Floor 14 News 32 Lubrication Checkup 42 Products 44 Marketplace


45 Index

Protecting Plant Assets With Industrial Safety Networks How much do you know about the revolutionary technologies that safeguard your plant’s assets and processes? Jane Alexander, Deputy Editor

46 Motor Decisions Matter 47 My Take 48 Manufacturing Connection



Selecting the Correct Bearing Seal Choose wisely when it comes to bearing protection. This advice from EASA can simplify your decision-making on external seals. Thomas Bishop, P.E. Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA)



What’s in a Lubricant: Characteristics of Grease There’s more to selecting the right grease than you might have thought. Ken Bannister, Contributing Editor





February 2014 • Volume 27, No. 2 ARTHUR L. RICE


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Maintenance Technology® (ISSN 0899-5729) is published monthly by Applied Technology Publications, Inc., 1300 S. Grove Avenue, Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010. Periodicals postage paid at Barrington, Illinois and additional offices. Arthur L. Rice, III, President. Circulation records are maintained at Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Maintenance Technology® copyright 2014 by Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Annual subscription rates for nonqualified people: North America, $140; all others, $280 (air). No subscription agency is authorized by us to solicit or take orders for subscriptions. Postmaster: Please send address changes to Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Please indicate position, title, company name, company address. For other circulation information call (630) 739-0900. Canadian Publications agreement No. 40886011. Canada Post returns: IMEX, Station A, P.O. Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5, or email: cpcreturns@ Submissions Policy: Maintenance Technology® gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc. permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. “Maintenance Technology®” is a registered trademark of Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Printed in U.S.A.




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There Is a Third Dimension Rick Carter Executive Editor


V viewers prepared for the unexpected when Rod Serling announced “there is a fifth dimension” in the old Twilight Zone series. Now, thanks to the rapidly growing world of 3D printing, this same sense of wonder applies to our good old third dimension. Yes, 3D printing—a process whereby a machine literally builds a threedimensional object layer by layer right before your eyes—has entered the mainstream. Some say it may change the way manufacturers operate, too. 3D printing is the name for an updated, simplified version of rapid prototyping, a process created in the 1980s to make solid, three-dimensional plastic parts for design and engineering purposes. Many of today’s 3D printers are affordable and designed for simple projects. The concept involves an additive process that melts or softens material such as plastic, wire, powder and plaster, among others, then “inkjets” them in layers, guided by a CAD program.

Experts already believe that 3D printing has the potential to unseat China as the world’s leading supplier of many low-cost, easy-to-make goods. It is considered highly efficient because, instead of whittling a large amount of raw material to a lesser amount, creating waste, it manufactures by building materials up precisely, potentially wasting nothing. It can also be fast. These are key draws for manufacturers looking to produce low numbers of solid parts. The bigger picture for 3D printing, however, is its ability to make virtually anything that can currently be molded in plastic. For example, even multi-part items (such as working firearms) can be made to exacting specifications and assembled after printout. 6 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE

At last month’s Consumer Electronic Show (CES), some 30 companies exhibited 3D printers. According to the Associated Press (AP), the annual Las Vegas mega-event had to turn away several other 3D makers who also wanted space on the show floor. Among the attractions were one company’s machines that 3D-print chocolate confections in eye-catching, geometric shapes. An online video shows a BBC reporter trying one, with satisfaction, after getting over his surprise that such a feat was possible. While top-of-the-line industrial 3D printers are still known to command six-figure prices, the AP reported that many models displayed at CES were priced less than $5000. And at least one company said it planned to release a 3D printer this year for a rock-bottom $499. Low prices like this mean 3D-printer manufacturers are aiming straight for consumers. Right now, in fact, you can order a plug-and-play 3D printer at Staples online for about $1300. The price (which is bound to drop) includes 25 CAD designs for softball-sized plastic toys the unit can print in various colors. While this unit may seem more novelty than necessity, some think consumers and others will embrace options like it that allow them to affordably create custom versions of hundreds of simple products such as smartphone cases, toys, souvenirs, decorative items, confections—you name it—with a 3D printer, raw materials and a simple CAD program. Even if consumers don’t rush to put 3D printers in their homes, experts already believe this technology has the potential to unseat China as the world’s leading supplier of many low-cost, easy-tomake goods. Wise manufacturers will look into 3D and learn how it might impact their own operations, from both inside and out. Its potential to universalize production of items that once depended on traditional manufacturing treatment is too important to ignore. This may open new markets for some and even be a godsend for areas like maintenance when teams need to fashion parts for older equipment or in emergencies. It’s been said that if it can be drawn, it can be made on a 3D printer. Rod Serling would approve. MT&AP



Replacing the Maintenance Apprenticeship Training Model Bob Williamson Contributing Editor


e’ve recently realized that our current apprenticeship model for training and developing maintenance technicians is obsolete. Very few, if any, people are interested. Those who sign up rarely stick with it for very long. Those who have completed the training often lack the equipment specific maintenance knowledge for our equipment. And, if that’s not enough to discourage us, the training takes three to four years to complete. Are we missing something? Apprenticeship training programs for maintenance have been dwindling for decades in this country— most recently for the reasons cited here. What makes this decline of apprenticeship-type training even more disconcerting is the general lack of FORMAL training and developmental activities in many smallto mid-sized companies. From what I’ve seen over the past few decades, I am convinced that traditional apprenticeship training for maintenance technicians (mechanics, electricians or whatever the job titles are) have seen better days and are not likely to return. The good news however, is that there are better, more effective approaches to training and developing maintenance technicians for today and into the future. In the first installment of a new quarterly column, Michael Callanan, Executive Director of the National Joint Apprenticeship & Training Committee for the Electrical Industry, discussed a real-world example that’s already in the works (see “The Changing Face of Apprenticeship,” pg. 45, MT&AP, January 2014).

The problem with maintenance training Industrial maintenance has transformed significantly over the past 30 years due primarily to technology improvements, new equipment, processintegration and cost reductions. Yet, the general perceptions of maintenance training approaches have remained much the same: less-than-formal, on-the-job training (OJT) or trade- and craftapprenticeship training. Three major problems have affected this training: 1. The gross shortage of public-school industrialbased shop classes has led to at least two generations of young people not being exposed to the basic tools of a trade and working with one’s hands.


2. Traditional apprenticeship training, popular in the 20th century, is largely an obsolete format for today’s industrial maintenance skills development. 3. Technology in today’s equipment-intensive industries has evolved faster than the skills and knowledge acquired through informal OJT to properly maintain it. These three problems have also led to the decline of industrial-maintenance job entrants for the past two generations—a decline accelerated by educational systems sending the message that “there’s no future in hands-on industrial work and that a college degree is far more valuable.” Couple that message with student-health-and-well-being concerns and educational-system cost-cutting and it’s no wonder that high-risk, high-cost shop classes have disappeared from our public schools. For many businesses, there has been a security blanket of sorts that has eased the worry and allowed them to get by without addressing the maintenance training issues head on: Older, highly skilled or experienced maintenance people are still on the job in a no-growth economy. That moth-eaten security blanket, however, will soon be ineffective. Eventually, older maintenance workers will age out and leave. The economy is picking up in several sectors, and offshored jobs are returning home. Increasing numbers of highly skilled industrial-maintenance technicians will be needed to care for new and improved manufacturing and utility processes.

Advanced-technology concerns Interestingly, during the aforementioned securityblanket period, businesses not only began exploring new “labor-saving” technologies, they began deploying them on a large scale. In some cases, though, the assumption of “labor saving” has been extended to an oversimplification of maintenance requirements for the newly deployed technologies. Consequently, maintenance-skills development and maintenance resources have often been ignored and reduced. For the sake of discussion let’s lump these “labor saving” technologies into a single industrial concept called “automation.”



Automation is often designed to 1) reduce labor content and 2) increase productivity and reliability. This reduces the cost per unit produced or the operating cost per occupied square foot. However, automation is yet another layer of controls, systems and components applied to a basic process. Consider for example the automation in primary metals (a rolling mill); in manufacturing (welding robots); or in consumer products (packaging lines). The basic equipment remains the same for the most part. Then, the “automation” technologies are integrated with the basic equipment, sometimes linking previously separate machines into a single process to improve flow or eliminate material handling. The motors, bearings, seals, shafts, chains, belts, lubrication, nuts and bolts fundamentally remain the same. These machines still require the same level and types of maintenance as in their “pre-automation” state. But now, an additional level of maintenance is required—maintenance of the automation system —which centers on troubleshooting and solving complex problems. Automation doesn’t necessarily simplify maintenance requirements of the automated equipment, but it can complicate the maintenance-work processes. Thus, equipment-specific education and training has become more important than ever—critically important. Troubleshooting a new technology requires a complete understanding of what it is supposed to do, how it operates and how it interfaces with the basic equipment it is automating. While working with a major U.S. automaker to set up skills-training programs in the mid-1980s, I heard the CEO exclaim (and I paraphrase): “After investing billions in new technology and robots in our plants and forgetting about the people and maintenance, all this new technology has done is allowed us to make scrap faster.”

Maintenance training has hit a wall Traditional apprenticeship training developed “craft or trade” skills and knowledge. Maintenance apprenticeship training programs have traditionally focused on basic maintenance-related education coupled with specific tools and techniques of the trade. Most training was accomplished through classroom sessions coupled with a rather informal OJT led by a senior, experienced person proficient in the craft or trade—a journeyman per se. In the past, the typical goal of an apprenticeshiptraining program was to prepare apprentices to the point that they could successfully complete any


task assigned to journeymen in the craft or trade. Having become well grounded in basic and advanced methods, the newly trained individuals would be expected to continue learning and growing in their profession. No doubt they would go on to develop the skills and knowledge to maintain, repair and figure out almost anything that came to their attention. This approach worked—that is until machinery became unique, highly integrated and highly automated. Today’s manufacturing and utility technologies require a more skilled, scientific, analytical approach to the jobs associated with them. We also know that by standardizing work methods, human variation will be minimized, leading to consistent and reli-

Attracting, training, developing and retaining competent maintenance technicians is one of our biggest opportunities to remain competitive. able results. This “standardized work” approach not only succeeds in production jobs, it is the answer to success in maintenance-related job roles in modern industrial facilities. In other words “procedure-based maintenance” should be a requirement in today’s equipment-intensive businesses.

Training needs a vigorous renewal Attracting, training, developing, qualifying and retaining competent maintenance technicians is one of the biggest opportunities for equipment-intensive businesses to remain competitive. Maintenance training must be renewed with great vigor. To take advantage of such an opportunity, overall approaches prior to, during and after training must be different from those taken in the past. Developing maintenance technicians of the future for technology-based, equipment-intensive businesses demands a radically different approach—one that is faster and more dependable. There are three major categories in this developmental approach: 1. Formal Education: Career education; Basic reading, writing, math, science



2. Formal Training: General knowledge and skills of the job, equipment and task specific methods 3. Formal Qualification: Performance demonstration to verify skills and knowledge Formal Education is essential in that it should build the foundation for success in industrial-maintenance careers. It also must include “career education” that helps students understand their career options and make decisions on what paths they want to pursue. Career education is essential whether a student desires a “college education” or a “technical education” path. The career choices should guide the education choices along a career development path. Formal Education should then be aligned with the career development path toward career options and goals the student wants

to pursue. The formal education requirements of reading, writing, math and science will vary depending on the career emphasis: mechanical, electrical, electronic, engineering, scientific or academic. Formal Training stresses the “tools of the trade,” including general knowledge, applied skills and knowledge, and proficiency building in equipment-specific tasks and methods. The goal is “procedurebased” maintenance training and jobperformance. Formal training based on these maintenance procedures requires structured on-job training and coaching by a proficient peer or trainer with some classes and guided self-study. Formal Qualification is the capstone to the education and training process. On-job performance demonstration (or qualification) methods are used to allow the trainee to demonstrate their skills and knowledge competency to perform specific

job tasks. Prescriptive improvements are recommended where the trainee shows weaknesses. The ultimate goal here is to develop equipment, job and task-specific “qualified” maintenance technicians. Replacing the maintenance-trade and craft-apprenticeship training model with a new, improved—more efficient and effective—education, training and qualification process makes sense in our changing industrial landscape plagued by skills shortages. Let us know about your renewed approaches to maintenance training. MT&AP

Robert Williamson, CMRP, CPMM and member of the Institute of Asset Management, is in his fourth decade of focusing on the “people side” of world-class maintenance and reliability in plants and facilities across North America. Email:


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An outlet for the views of today’s capacity assurance professionals Rick Carter Executive Editor

Wishes for 2014: Better Strategies and More Training, Please


n deference to the recent holiday season, I prepared only one end-of-year question for our Maintenance Technology Reader Panelists: What’s on your wish list for 2014? I was looking for input on what they hope to achieve or obtain that will help them do a better job and their company or organization to prosper. Anything related to the maintenance profession was allowed, which I thought likely to produce at least a few requests for new equipment and improved technology, perhaps, or maybe better benefits. Not so. As you’ll see, the responses uniformly reflect a need for better job basics: improved maintenance strategies, more training and greater professionalism, among others. OK, someone did wish that he would not have to work so many hours in 2014. But otherwise, the group offers a focused, sober reflection on the many challenges today’s maintenance professionals still face.

Q: What’s on your wish list for 2014? “My main wish would be that our company finally comes up with a robust PM program. When I was put on as a PM leader a few years ago, I went through our PMs and revised the task sheets, which led to a 65% improvement in production and an 80% improvement in uptime. The machines were in such bad shape we were doing partial overhauls. This year, our schedules increased and we are now paying a price with poor output and production numbers because we did not continue the PM program. We are now just doing inspections with little corrective work allowed due to production demands. “Also, we are again having a problem finding qualified skilled trades people, and with demand for our parts increasing, we are seeing more machinery coming into the plants so we need more people to work on them. Our leadership team has put together a plan that provides training for new people and a refresher for others. I again plan to press management to improve our training and preventive maintenance programs. Our [union] contract is up in 2015 so I’m sure our team will be looking for suggestions for upcoming negotiations.” …PM Leader, Midwest


“On my dream list would be a way to develop a better team attitude! My company has tried and started many campaigns to obtain this, but with limited success. Here’s a quote that has stuck in my head for years: ‘What makes a man stay when common sense tells him to run? What makes him stand with his fellows, when staying means death and running could mean life?’ I know that dedication is a powerful force and that if we could use the answers to these questions, we would have success. We must remember that free will is mandatory, and that a slave-labor [approach] does not work. An organization must earn and keep earning this dedication if it is truly to work. The never-ending battle to get workers to communicate and try to function as a team, to dissolve the silos and stop the blame game, is worth fighting. We should consider the concept of a dedicated workforce that functions with only the most basic oversight. Knowledge, skill and dedication: What an unbeatable team!” … Maintenance Coordinator, Mid-Atlantic “In the last few years, our company has invested in several predictive maintenance technologies, including infrared, vibration, ultrasonic, optical and laser alignment. We have also stepped up our oil-analysis program. I am very pleased with the company’s willingness to make these investments and enjoy learning new ways to evaluate our machines, which have saved labor time and increased productivity. However, staffing has remained the same, and it is difficult to do your best when new responsibilities are added to existing ones. Therefore, my goal for 2014 is to dedicate more time to training and education for these new PM tools. I will still have our routine tasks to complete, but my hope is that as I improve my skills at predicting problems, many of our visual inspections and time-based work can be reduced even more. The ultimate goal is that the labor hours spent by our small staff bear more fruit and are not used to do things simply because that’s how they have always been done.” … Senior Maintenance Mechanic, South



‘My number-one and only goal for 2014 is to get as many leaders as possible to have a long-term vision for their plant’s equipment reliability.’ “My basic goals for 2014 are: • Develop and complete the approval process for a minimum of five new educational programs for maintenance personnel. Reason: State-of-theart technologies are moving very fast and the maintenance staffs need to keep up their skills. • Implement a program to encourage major local companies to become involved in the training and educational programs for maintenance technicians. Reason: [My state] is not the best for putting money into the education system. The industrial markets are short of skilled labor, and manufacturers need to become involved. • Improve my ability to communicate in Spanish. Reason: 38% of [my state’s] workforce speaks Spanish. This group is an excellent source of maintenance technicians, but they have to be trained. Even many of the new code books are in Spanish.” • Contact many of our nation’s college to obtain information on new training techniques, grants, lab setups and textbooks. Reason: To develop and implement a business plan that will expand our training capabilities. … Senior Maintenance Engineer, West “Professionalism in every corner of maintenance! Many in the maintenance profession have the books, may have even read them and can recite all the well-intended best practices, yet they do not practice them. Mediocrity reigns. I believe that the trend toward operational excellence will shake their carpets and make them aware that professionalism is demanded of all of us. It will open the door for autonomous manufacturing and autonomous management, and turn autonomous maintenance into a reality everywhere. The processes must become totally transparent so everyone can see the abnormalities, and be educated and empowered to intervene without having to ask for permission from a supervisor or manager. But management must drive this. I have long felt that wherever there is a problem, management is at the


root. Managers generate policies and preserve the old ones as well. Policies rarely take into account the needs, working situations and characteristics of the population they govern. So maintenance management requires a revolution in thinking and acting. That is my objective.” … Consultant, Upper Midwest “My number-one and only goal for 2014 is to get as many leaders as possible to have a long-term vision for their plants’ equipment reliability. This past year, I visited several of our company’s plants, and every Maintenance Manager I spoke with was concerned only with what was happening at the moment (Reactive). Not one had a plan to become more proactive in the future. So I am determined to change the mindset of as many leaders as I can this year so they understand and believe the benefits of planned and scheduled maintenance. After they become true believers, I then hope to help them develop a plan to move toward maintenance excellence. That will be a hard sell, and if I can accomplish that, I think I will have achieved something for the year.” … Production Support Manager, Midwest

About the MT Reader Panel The Maintenance Technology Reader Panel includes approximately 100 working industrial maintenance practitioners and consultants who have volunteered to answer bi-monthly questions prepared by our editorial staff. Panelist identities are not revealed, and their responses are not necessarily projectable. The Panel welcomes new members: Add your comments and observations to this column by joining the Reader Panel at www. Click “Reader Panel” under “Info,” and follow instructions or email If accepted, you will automatically be entered into a drawing for a cash prize after one year of active participation.



Emerson Opens New Innovation Center in Texas Emerson Process Management rolled out the red carpet at the Grand Opening of the Emerson Innovation Center – Process Systems and Solutions, in Round Rock, TX, near Austin, on Jan. 30. Dignitaries at the event included Texas Governor Rick Perry and Dell CEO Michael Dell. The 282,000-square-foot, nearly $70 million facility is the global headquarters for Emerson’s automation-systems and projectservices business. It houses several worldclass disciplines under one roof, including: A technology and product-design and support center, providing engineering and development for the company’s DeltaV digital automation system and DeltaV SIS Safety System.

A world-class interoperability and testing lab in which Emerson tests both its own products as well as competitors’ to ensure safe, reliable and robust operation.

The first-ever Emerson Integrated Operations (iOps) Center where customers can explore new ways of managing remote operations and of enabling easier collaboration by experts located anywhere in the world.

The Life Sciences Industry Center that provides consulting, engineering and project management expertise to support pharmaceutical and biotechnology customers.

Emerson Process Management’s Human Centered Design Institute, a consulting and engineering practice that drives usability-based design into all products Emerson Process Management designs and manufactures.

Educational Services where more than 2,500 customer personnel gain product, technology, and operational skills on the latest technologies. The company’s Project Management Office (PMO) that aligns and inte-

grates the company’s best practices, processes, systems and metrics for global project execution. Its new Texas facility is the third global Innovation Center the company has opened. The Emerson Innovation Center in Marshalltown, IA, develops and tests flow-control applications and technologies, replicating real-world conditions no other test or R&D facility in the world can match. The company’s Innovation Center in Pune, India, focuses on worldclass software application development.

ExxonMobil Expands Singapore Chemical Production

Atlas Copco Completes Acquistion of Edwards Group

ExxonMobil recently reinforced its long-term supply commitment to the AsiaPacific market, from China to the Indian sub-continent and beyond, during an event celebrating the expansion of its Singapore chemical production facility. The project doubled the size of the company’s finished-product capacity in the country, making it the largest chemical expansion ever for ExxonMobil. This site, which employs 2000 people, now accounts for about one-quarter of the company’s global chemical capacity. Incorporating more than 40 new proprietary technologies, the complex is designed to be one of the company’s most energy-efficient and flexible sites. ExxonMobil has operated in Singapore for 120 years and is one of the country’s largest foreign manufacturing investors.

Atlas Copco has closed on the previously announced acquisition of the UK’s Edwards Group Ltd., a manufacturer of sophisticated vacuum products and abatement solutions that are being used within an increasingly diverse range of industrial applications. The acquired business is now part of Atlas Copco’s new Vacuum Solutions division in the Compressor Technique business area.



NEWS Spectro Licenses Lockheed Martin Fluid Technology Spectro, Inc. and Lockheed Martin Corp. have signed an exclusive licensing agreement for Lockheed Martin’s LaserNet Fines (LNF) fluid imaging and classification technology. The agreement will enable Spectro, a developer and manufacturer of analytical tools and software for fluid and machine condition monitoring, to enhance its present products and develop and manufacture new offerings based on the desktop, off-line version of LNF. Lockheed Martin retains all rights with respect to its LaserNet Fines-Online fluid imaging and classification technologies and will continue to grow this product line. LNF technology is currently a component of Spectro’s LNF Q200 analyzer, a desktop unit that provides particle size, count, and shape data as well as viscosity information.

Manufacturing Institute Honors ABB’s Stanislawczyk The Manufacturing Institute, an affiliate of the National Association of Manufacturers, has honored ABB’s Denise Stanislawczyk with its prestigious Women in Manufacturing STEP (Science, Technology, Engineering and Production) Award. She’s one of 160 women throughout the United States to be so honored in 2014. The STEP Awards recognize women who have demonstrated excellence and leadership in their careers and represent all levels of the manufacturing industry, from the factory floor to the executive suite. Stanislawczyk is Operations Manager of ABB’s Measurement Products factory in Warminster, PA. She’s held that position since 2006, having worked her way up to it from purchasing while also completing her undergraduate and graduate degrees at night school.

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NEWS Water Environment Federation Has New Executive Director Dr. Eileen O’Neill has been named Executive Director of the Water Environment Federation (WEF). She succeeds Jeff Eger, who resigned in July 2013. The Federation’s former Deputy Executive Director, she had been serving as Interim Executive Director since Eger’s departure. She previously was the organization’s Chief Technical Officer with responsibility for WEF’s technical, international and communications programs. Over the past several years, she’s been instrumental in creating national and international thought-leadership programming at WEFTEC, the largest annual water-quality conference and exhibition in the world. According to WEF President Sandra Ralston, Dr. O’Neill has consistently led the Federation’s operations to be more strategic and data-driven, aligning the organization with industry trends and changing needs of utilities and industry professionals.

Mitsubishi Electric Automation Launches e-F@ctory Alliance To help industrial end-users increase productivity and reduce total cost of ownership in their operations, Mitsubishi Electric Automation has introduced a new e-F@ctory Alliance Program. In addition to its own factory automation products and technologies, the company will now offer connections to complementary products from other sources that let customers boost productivity from the simple device level to the business system level. The new program reflects a third-party referencing arrangement with various hardware and software vendors that allows users to select the best solutions to their automation challenges. Third-party products will be thoroughly tested with Mitsubishi’s to ensure compatibility and ease of implementation. Complete documentation, including quick-start guides, sample programs and maintenance screens, when required, will be available for each solution, thus reducing the time necessary to implement and maintain them.

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A real-world measure of success...

Achieving Reliability Excellence This end-user account from Qatar highlights the well-defined steps that a natural-gas producer took over several years to reach its goals.

Albert Sijm, CMRP and Manish Shah, CMRP RasGas Company Limited


The State of Qatar is the world’s largest exporter of liquefied natural gas (LNG).

Total annual production from this Western Arabian country is 77 million tons per year, which is produced by RasGas Company Limited (RasGas) and its sister company Qatargas. RasGas serves customers in South Korea, India, Italy, Spain, Belgium, Taiwan and the United States. A joint venture between Qatar Petroleum and ExxonMobil, RasGas operates seven LNG trains and produces approximately 37 million tons of LNG annually. Although its main product is LNG, other products such as sales gas, helium, sulphur and condensate maximizes its revenues. Sales gas is also transported by pipeline and sold to state-owned utilities within Qatar. Most modern companies recognize the benefits of improved plant reliability and the elements needed to achieve it. These include risk-based equipment maintenance strategies and spare-parts optimization. RasGas is no exception. But timeand cost-related issues often foil company efforts to make these elements a permanent part of their culture. For such organizations, the question is not how to convince management of the importance of plant reliability, but how to get there. As RasGas and

others have learned, the answer includes the use of an integrated asset-management strategy. As its name implies, the key aspect of integrated asset management is to integrate all reliability elements, then formulate processes and procedures to keep maintenance strategies evergreen. This model helps keep an organization focused on the elements that are important to achieving high plant reliability. Based on RasGas’ experience, it can take several years before an integrated asset-management model is fully established and starts delivering results (see Fig. 1). Company size and number of personnel will impact this. Before a journey toward an integrated reliability strategy can begin, three main foundations must be in place: A correctly configured CMMS. It should include a structured functional location hierarchy, such as ISO14224 and consistent nomenclature. A risk-based maintenance strategy for all equipment. This can be simple or complex, but must be defined. Spare-parts availability. Spare parts must be on-site in the right quantity and quality, accompanied by the correct technical and purchase information.

Fig. 1. RasGas’ integrated assetmanagement model




Initial steps RasGas started with the following steps to establish its three foundations: Step 1: Asset verification and CMMS optimization. This step determines what equipment is in the field, what requires routine maintenance and ensures that future spares are configured in the CMMS. The ability to maintain equipment properly and ensure that the correct spares are in stock at the right levels depends on the completeness and accuracy of CMMS data. Too often this step is skipped because it is laborintensive. Companies go with what they receive from the initial project team and fail to review it thoroughly, usually due to resource restrictions. When RasGas began its initiative in 2007, more than 20 contractor personnel worked daily in the plant for three years. To this, the company added a team of multi-skilled technicians across all five disciplines and a plant operator. The team’s ability to obtain Permits to Work (PTW), find needed maintenance personnel, help prepare mandatory Job Safety Analyses (JSA) and lead the QA/ QC effort was critical to the success of this phase of the project. It resulted in the identification of approximately 90,000 new pieces of equipment for inclusion into the CMMS. This represented a 25% increase compared with the baseline CMMS database. In addition to field asset verification, the team reviewed bills of material (BOM) in SAP to ensure accuracy, completeness and that they were maintenance-centric. Any spare part not included in the existing BOM or in the material catalog was added. A team of 30 engineers reviewed almost 17,000 unique BOMs over a four-year period. This activity was performed off-site at the contractor’s home office. A surprisingly low number (approximately 250) of duplicate materials was identified during material cleansing. This confirms that the process for creating new materials was working well and no tightening of this process was required.

Required Success Factors for Reliability Excellence Management support—It is crucial to have a high-level sponsor who, throughout the journey, emphasizes the importance of reliability. Phasing of steps—At RasGas, the regular implementation of program elements enabled small celebrations each time minor milestones were achieved. This kept the team and stakeholders happy and enthusiastic. Leveraging work using a single platform—The switch to an assetmanagement system linked people, processes and assets. It created many synergies between the different reliability programs and enabled the team to leverage on existing work. Complete initiatives—If an initiative is considered important enough to begin, see it through to implementation. There were, however, a high number of items that required rearrangement into a standard format or the addition of missing information. Step 2: Develop risk-based maintenance strategies. With the completion of Step 1, all equipment is included in the equipment maintenance strategy project scope and a proper functional location hierarchy exists. The location hierarchy is needed to identify which equipment belongs to a system. This is an advantage when determining equipment criticality or implementing Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). An equipment maintenance strategy can be as simple as run-to-failure for some pieces of equipment. It can also be complex, comprising many degradation mechanisms and dozens of specialized maintenance tasks, executed by different people. After evaluating the merits of various methodologies, RasGas chose to


follow an FMEA (failure mode and effects analysis) approach, outlined as follows: 1. Define unit performance objectives and operating environment. 2. Identify tags, define primary function and determine criticality for each item of equipment. 3. Review maintenance history, regulatory requirements, applicable guidelines and standards such as ASME and API. 4. Identify failure modes, failure scenarios, consequences, probabilities and unmitigated risks. 5. Define cost-effective mitigation tasks resulting in mitigated risks. Step 2 was completed in 2010. It resulted in the linking of close to 200,000 pieces of equipment that had active maintenance plans to 1600 equipment strategies. Step 3: Ensure the right spare parts are physically available in the right quantity and quality to ensure safe, reliable plant operation through smooth maintenance execution. The objective is to determine minimum stock levels, reorder points and safety stock levels for all materials. At RasGas, of the original 110,000 items in its catalog, 68,000 were reviewed. A twopart strategy was devised: For materials with previous consumption, the traditional concept based on lead-time and consumption was used. For materials with no previous consumption record, a riskbased approach was used where minimum stock levels were determined, based on input from subject-matter experts. The review resulted in an increased reorder frequency for 3100 materials and a decreased reorder frequency for 26,000. Also, 40,000 materials were chosen for possible deletion from the system because they could not be linked to any equipment BOM and had no previous consumption. These were likely materials left over from the initial plant construction. FEBRUARY 2014


Fig. 2. The reliability optimization pyramid

Next steps

Because projects often get abandoned before implementation, it is crucial that resources are set aside for the project’s next steps and that thought is given to how to implement results. Tasks should be clearly defined and grouped so technicians know, for example, if a lube sample should be taken as part of an equipment work order or if it should be taken only when directed by a separate work order. The outcome of the three steps in the previous section must be converted into a standby plan for spared equipment (Step 4), a maintenance plan (Step 5), an operator and process surveillance plan (Step 6) and a spares-preservation plan for all critical parts that need to be preserved (Step 7). It took RasGas about five years to transform all equipment strategies into actionable maintenance plans in its CMMS. These days, RasGas is linking more than 12,000 planned preventive maintenance (PPM) activities to 6000 work orders each month. Each piece of equipment now receives required maintenance based on its criticality and function. Every task is for the purpose of risk-mitigation. Prior to the equipment strategy project, most equipment tasks were visual and not value-added. Also, all FEBRUARY 2014

operator, maintenance, safety and engineering tasks are now linked to failure modes. Each task is defined in detail for what is to be done, who needs to do it and what follow-up actions are needed. These details are included with the work order. Implementation of operator surveillance (Step 5) was managed as a separate project that took about 18 months. More than 30,000 unique operator surveillance tasks have been implemented, roughly 80% of which are based on tasks defined through the company’s reliability project. The final step to an integrated assetmanagement program is to integrate and improve the quality of the individual programs outlined in Steps 1 to 7. This is a continuous process that involves use of root cause failure analysis (RCFA), bad-actor elimination and volumetric downtime tracking (VDT). Keep in mind that reliability excellence requires more than a focus on leading or lagging indicators: The complete reliability pyramid (see Fig. 2) needs to be addressed. The reliability pyramid is similar to the safety pyramid, where undesirable outcomes (fatalities) are at the top and desirable actions are at the bottom. It must be made clear that MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 21


Train Trip Count

RasGas Reliability Quotes to Remember Next to Safety, Reliability is most important. All failures are preventable. A 1% increase in Reliability equals six extra LNG cargoes.

Fig. 3. RasGas added a “Train Trips” KPI as an additional check on overall reliability.

all programs are integrated, and that changes made to one will affect all.

Results Improvement in most high-level plantperformance indicators is usually the result of several activities in parallel. Such high-level KPIs are largely affected by the activities of an integrated asset-management strategy. At RasGas, two high-level KPIs were added to its list of normal KPIs (which include Reliability, Availability and Utilization). The first to be added was the count of Train Trips. This is a simple KPI, but a good indicator for Train Reliability. It excludes downtime, such as delays in start-ups, and therefore accurately reflects Reliability effectiveness. It’s important to note that results are sometimes delayed. Most reliability programs described here were implemented and became mature from 2007

through 2011. As Fig. 3 shows, however, improvement in the Train Trip KPI is visible only from 2010 onward. Unfortunately, management often expects shortterm results, and if they don’t appear when anticipated, projects are abandoned. Longterm management support is crucial. Another important KPI RasGas added is Maintenance Cost-Effectiveness. This is not the same as Maintenance Cost. Cost-effectiveness is related to the return of money spent on maintenance. Effective maintenance strategies do not necessarily promise to reduce the maintenance budget, but they can enhance costeffectiveness. As shown in Fig. 4, RasGas’ annualized maintenance cost had been increasing since 2006, primarily due to a company expansion (i.e., the facility had added larger, more complex equipment). Still, we wondered if the increased maintenance spend was providing value. Based

Fig. 4. The facility’s rising maintenance costs were due to added equipment and plant complexity.

on the annualized lost capacity due to maintenance, over several years, we could answer “yes.” The incentive for cutting just 1% of lost capacity was tantamount to reducing the cost of maintenance by 50%. In light of these numbers, RasGas now focuses on the cost-effectiveness of improvements—not just their cost.

Advice for others The path to an integrated asset-management strategy can be long. Time is a required investment, and success— initially—may appear to be far away. A series of well-planned steps, however, can put reliability excellence within reach and your company in a strong position for the future. MT&AP Albert Sijm is Head of Reliability Engineering at RasGas and has 17 years of experience in various disciplines within the oil and gas industry. He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering and is a member of the Society for Maintenance and Reliability Professionals (SMRP) and a Certified Maintenance & Reliability Professional (CMRP). Manish Shah, a Reliability Engineering Advisor at RasGas, has 23 years of experience in various areas of machinery and reliability management in the oil and gas sector. A Certified Reliability Engineer through the American Society for Quality, Shah is also a member of SMRP and a Certified Maintenance & Reliability Professional.



Pervasive Sensing Saves Money and Trouble

Jane Alexander Deputy Editor

Deployed anywhere and everywhere in a plant, today’s intelligent wireless technologies supply critical equipment and process information that end-users could only dream of in the past. Jane Alexander Deputy Editor

The more information you can have, the better? If you could see everything that’s going on in your facility and know the operating status of every piece of equipment, you could avoid countless problems. There would be far fewer surprises from unexpected failures and unplanned downtime. Plant asset performance would improve dramatically.


Alas, for end-users in the real world, several things have stood in the way of this “living the dream” scenario. First, how could a site capture so much data? Sensors would be needed everywhere: on rotating or reciprocating machinery (to monitor vibration); on pipes (to measure flow velocity); on vessels and other plant assets (to measure temperature); and in the surrounding environment (to detect leaks or fugitive emissions). Second, how many plants could afford this all-encompassing blanket of technology? While the price tag for such an extensive collection of required sensors might seem high, the added cost of wired systems to carry the data those devices generate back to where it’s needed would make the approach unfeasible for most. At least, it would in the past.

Measurements that used to be difficult and expensive to perform, and consequently would typically be done only when necessary, have become easy and inexpensive.

But things are changing. Pervasive sensing is becoming within reach at every site. The latest generation of intelligent wireless sensors includes products so economical and simple to install that they can be put to work all over an operation—in any area of the facility and on any part of its equipment systems or infrastructure. Once these smart devices are in place, their ability to supply a stream of crucial, real-time information can quickly pay for their widespread deployment. Given such benefits, how long will it be before the majority of sensors in a typical plant are wireless?

The future is now The term “pervasive sensing” isn’t new, nor has it been floated solely in an industrial context. David J. Nagel (currently a Research Professor at George Washington University) used the term as the title of a technical paper in 2000.[1] In it, he made a case for, among other things, the potential pervasive sensing had in monitoring weather, energy usage and equipment health in electrical-distribution networks and information systems, and in improving process control, transportation, security and medicine. 24 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE

Progress in pervasive sensing has been fueled by advancements in sensor design, coupled with legal requirements for additional monitoring. Consider the family car: Until the late 1980s in Europe and the 1990s in the United States, the only way to know the pressure in its tires was to manually check them with a gauge. If the tires were hot, the reading could be misleading. Going through this exercise on a weekly basis was so inconvenient that most people seldom, if ever, did it. In turn, fuel was wasted, tires wore prematurely and property and lives were lost when tires failed. Even those who checked their tire pressures regularly could not know about on-the-road tire-pressure problems until they occurred. In time, tire-pressure-monitoring systems appeared, first in luxury cars. Following passage of the TREAD (Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability and Documentation) Act in 2000, they were required for all cars manufactured after 2007. Since then, these systems have gone from merely sending low-tire warnings to providing automated warnings with diagnostics to supplying complete tire-health visibility. As the amount of technology in them has increased, the amount of human effort required has decreased—and both fuel economy and safety have improved. As explained by Peter Zornio, Chief Strategic Officer of Emerson Process Management, at the 2013 Emerson Global Users Exchange last fall, a similar evolution is taking place in industry, thanks to improvements in sensors and reductions in their cost. Measurements that used to be difficult and expensive to perform—and, consequently, were done only when necessary—have become easy and inexpensive. The benefits to an operation include lower operating costs, heightened process and site safety and enhanced reliability and energy efficiency.

Gathering what’s critical According to Zornio, the data from pervasive sensing, once subjected to strategic interpretation, can generate actionable information that can significantly improve operating efficiency, emissions levels and safety, and help prevent unplanned shutdowns (see Sidebar, page 26). Much of this improvement is due to the spread of wireless sensors. They can be installed wherever needed, and without wired infrastructure that could add hundreds or thousands of dollars to the cost of each device. Lots of these devices can be mounted without any process penetration, which saves time and money on installation (i.e., no drilling, tapping, welding or process shutdown required) and eases relocation of the units when circumstances dictate. Many require no commissioning and are maintenance-free—maintaining their FEBRUARY 2014


accuracy without periodic calibration and offering lifetime reliability. (Note: Some wireless sensors do require process penetration. While they’re not easily relocated, wireless connectivity reduces their installation cost below equivalent wired versions.) The first wireless sensors to become popular were vibration monitors for keeping tabs on rotating-equipment health. They can detect bearing wear, misalignment and chipped gear teeth. In pumps, they can spot cavitation, alignment issues and impeller or blade damage. By establishing baseline levels of vibration, facilities can keep track of equipment health and schedule maintenance before equipment failure causes a shutdown or worse. Other variables that can be measured wirelessly include temperature and flow (using clamp-on ultrasonic sensors), plus sensors to detect flames, smoke, airborne chemicals and acoustic emissions from leaks and valve openings. Wireless devices in use today monitor valve position, liquid hydrocarbon spills, use of safety showers and opening of safety valves. Consider the following applications. A major cost in many plants is created by leaking or otherwise defective steam traps, which waste enormous amounts of energy every year in the United States. According to the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), “in steam systems that have not been maintained for three to five years, between 15% to 30% of the installed steam traps may have failed.”[2] EERE estimates that an open steam trap with a 1/8-inch orifice on a 150 psig steam line will lose 75.8 pounds of steam per hour at an annual cost of $6640 (assuming steam costs $10 per thousand pounds). Multiply that by the number of leaking steam traps in a typical plant, and consider that a steam trap could leak for a year before it is spotted, and the cost becomes obvious. A wireless ultrasonic sensor can detect a leaking steam trap and report it to a monitoring system immediately; some of these detectors are FEBRUARY 2014

Many of these sensors can be mounted without any process penetration, which saves time and money and eases relocation, if needed.

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available with software like Armstrong’s SteamLogic that will provide real-time information on the condition of a monitored steam-trap population. Ultrasonic sensors detect the turbulent flow associated with leaking valves of all kinds: not only steam traps and pressurerelief valves, but also in shutoff, check, isolation and bypass valves. Leaking relief valves create several problems. They waste process materials and, depending on what is leaking, can increase VOC releases and create a personnel hazard or a fire or explosion hazard. Even a compressed air leak wastes money, and it’s not unusual to find plants with leaks that amount to 20% to 30% of compressor output, according to EERE.[3] Many valves are checked for condition based on a set schedule, for obvious reasons: Removing one to take it to the shop for examination involves process shutdown or disruption and considerable expense. Use of ultrasonic detectors can help organizations shift from preventive maintenance (or, worse, reactive maintenance) to predictive maintenance. As a valve begins to leak, it emits ultrasonic energy that can be detected immediately and, like vibration levels of rotating equipment, be compared with a baseline to allow proper maintenance scheduling. There are a number of ways to detect leaks of flammable or toxic gas. Probably the simplest is the same as that used

Improving Business-Critical Decisions Across an Enterprise For Emerson Process Management, pervasive sensing makes perfect sense: The ability to get more and deeper data, in ways they couldn’t before, about all aspects of their enterprises, expands end-users’ visibility into operating safely, reliably and profitably. To that end, as announced at last fall’s Emerson Exchange, the company is extending its focus beyond traditional process control and safety systems to address applications like site safety, security, reliability and energy efficiency in oil and gas, refining, chemical, power, mining and other industries, where installing additional sensors has traditionally been physically difficult, expensive or technically challenging. “Our customers are like anyone else,” notes Peter Zornio, Emerson’s Chief Strategic Officer. “They want actionable information that can make their lives safer, more predictable, while reducing costs, risk and time. This goes beyond the control room and optimizing process performance.” Pervasive sensing, he says, provides the clarity and certainty of conditions end-users need for making effective, business-critical decisions. Emerson estimates that over the next 10 years, the pervasive sensing market will more than double the existing $16 billion traditional measurement market. It’s already seeing customers move aggressively to leverage this approach and technologies. The experience of a large Eastern European oil-processing plant is telling: The site has been able to increase its total number of sensors by 60% using wireless devices, with 2000 devoted to personnel safety, 8000 to plant reliability and 2000 for energy cost reduction.

for steam or compressed air: a wireless ultrasonic or acoustic emission sensor. This type of device will react instantly to leaks at ranges of 10 meters—regardless of what is leaking—and is not affected by air currents near the sensor. The fact that an ultrasonic sensor will react to a leak of any kind can also be a drawback because it cannot iden-

Pervasive Sensing in Brief The process is built on a three-pillared foundation:

• Innovative sensors that are multivariable, non-intrusive and cover wide areas • Easily commissioned components that are wireless, self-powered and configuration-free • No-maintenance devices that are accurate, calibration-free and have lifetime reliability The extensive new data that comes out of this foundation is delivered to a Strategic Interpretation level, which sorts through it using sensor-awareness functions, new algorithms, industry knowledge and human expertise and, ultimately, presents the findings to users at the Actionable Information level.


tify what, precisely, is leaking. For that reason, it can be appropriate to back up ultrasonic detectors with one or more wireless fixed-point gas detectors. Battery-operated units that can be easily placed wherever needed are available.

Software makes it work Pervasive sensing generates copious amounts of data and requires appropriate software to make sense of it all. Software like SteamLogic, among others, is often available from the sensor manufacturer. These tools can usually be set up to communicate with OSIsoft’s PI system or other asset-management packages. MT&AP

Additional Reading 1. David J. Nagel, “Pervasive Sensing,” SPIE Proceedings Vol. 4126 (28 November 2000), pgs. 71-82. 2. Steam Tip Sheet #1 (January 2012). 3. Compressed Air Tip Sheet #3 (August 2004).


Protecting Plant Assets with Industrial Safety Networks Revolutionary technologies safeguard your plant assets and everything associated with their performance. How much do you know about them? Jane Alexander Deputy Editor


Most end-users would rather not deal with the costly damages to people, property and environment that can come from running equipment without reliable, integrated safety features. That said, what do you really know about the systems your operations count on to stop, shut off or shutdown machinery and/or processes in case of emergencies? If you’re not already familiar with them, the capabilities of today’s state-of-the-art industrial safety networks might surprise you. The good news for plant managers is that safety and productivity no longer need to be viewed as mutually exclusive: The pursuit of those goals has been linked not just by advancements in safety networks themselves, but in the protocols that enable them. Deployment of these cutting-edge technologies can provide significant benefits for an enterprise. Consider the following:

PROFIsafe Developed by PROFIBUS & PROFINET International (PI), IEC 61508-compliant PROFIsafe has become an international standard (IEC 61784-3-3). The technology is suited for use in all sectors of discrete manufacturing and process automation where, according to PI, independent of the communication method, it provides cost-effective and flexible functional safety. PROFIsafe covers the entire communication path—from the sensor over the network to the controller—and integrates safety and standard communication on one cable. PI uses the term “threefold quantum leap” in describing PROFIsafe’s introduction into plants: Moving from safety-related relay logic to safe programmable logic Moving from multi-wire to functional safe serial communication Moving from isolated to cooperating safety-related devices That leap has translated into returns that go well beyond reduced wiring and associated costs: A range of PROFIsafesupported products from different manufacturers enable easy, cost-effective system configuration. Training, documentation and maintenance are required for just one bus technology. Standard and safety-related applications can be programmed with a single tool and certified function blocks. The technology offers considerable flexibility in configurations, replacements of existing relay technology and installation retrofits. 28 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE

For an example of the PROFIsafe value proposition, PI North America’s Executive Director Michael J. Bryant points to the noteworthy and widely reported success of KUKA Flexible Production Systems, a producer of automated/ robotic production systems for car bodies and chassis. Several years ago, as it worked to become a Tier I supplier to Chrysler, KUKA needed to design a body shop based on the DBOOM (Design, Build, Own, Operate and Maintain) philosophy. Part of that project involved overcoming drawbacks in traditional automotive-market machine-safety systems, among them remote emergency-stop buttons and safety-gate switches, redundant relays and extensive, complicated, redundantly hard-wired circuitry. Knowing there had to be a better alternative, KUKA turned to a PROFIBUS-based processor that communicates to all field components, including safety devices, via an inexpensive two-wire cable. Leveraging this PROFIsafe-enabled technology, the company was able to combine machine safety and standard machine control on a single field bus—a move that reduced machine-safety components by 85%, while increasing machine safety.

CIP Safety Common Industrial Protocol (CIP) and its network adaptations EtherNet/IP, DeviceNet, CompoNet and ControlNet reflect the core technology and interest of the Open DeviceNet Vendors Association (ODVA). Since its founding in 1995, the association has released a number of network extensions that incorporate “future-proof ” CIP technology, including CIP Safety. The first CIP Safety protocol (for DeviceNet) was introduced in 2005. CIP Safety for EtherNet/IP was rolled out in 2006. (Developed by Rockwell Automation for use in manufacturing-related automation applications, EtherNet/IP had been launched in 2001.) CIP Safety lets safety devices coexist with standard control devices on the same CIP Network—with or without a Safety PLC. In this environment, safety sensors can operate alongside variable speed drives, safety controllers with standard PLCs and proximity switches. That means, regardless of what combination of devices is used, the integrity of the safety control loop can’t be affected by any of the standard control devices. By allowing a plant to automate safety through the same network it uses for standard control, CIP Safety provides a number of benefits. Certified for Safety Integrity Level (SIL) 3 according to IEC 61508, the end-to-end CIP Safety protocol makes end nodes responsible for ensuring safety (as opposed to bridges, routers or intermediate nodes). ODVA says this design “ensures that standard, easy-to-configure communication devices can be used in place of costly, maintenance-intensive safety-certified gateways, thus reducing installation, training, and maintenance time.” Scalable integration of multiple networksafety segments results in shorter loop closure times and tighter safety exclusion zones. FEBRUARY 2014


ODVA announced in late 2013 that future editions of the CIP Safety Specification would include services for safe motion applications. As a result, users will be able to deploy networked motion-control systems through EtherNet/IP and Sercos III in applications that require functions like safe torque-off and safety-limited positioning.

FOUNDATION SIF According to process-industry-focused Fieldbus Foundation, its open, nonproprietary FOUNDATION architecture provides a protocol for control and instrumentation systems in which each device has its own "intelligence" and communicates via an alldigital, serial, two-way system. Not only can this type of platform help end-users cut capital and operating costs, as demonstrated by FOUNDATION for Safety Instrumented Functions (FF-SIF), it’s also suited to advancing safety. Meeting the requirements of IEC 51508 up to, and including, SIL 3, FF-SIF offers advanced diagnostic capabilities in a reduced footprint, at a reduced installed cost—things that process-industry end-users have told the Fieldbus Foundation they need. Discussing those needs, Larry O’Brien, Marketing Director of the Fieldbus Foundation, explains most process safety systems fail because of the valve or device in the safety instrumented system. The value of digital process-safety networks, he says, is that they provide advanced diagnostics immediately.


Cutting-edge networks and the protocols that support them have linked in the pursuit of productivity and safety in today's plants. Their deployment can provide substantial benefits across an enterprise.

O’Brien also highlights the advantages of the reduced fieldbussystem footprint: “It takes up less room in the control house.“ This can be quite an issue, he says, for operations that need to modernize their safety systems—especially if they don’t have enough existing rack room to keep an old system running while a new one is being installed. FF-SIF technology has gone through substantial beta testing since its introduction several years ago—and is expected to show up in the marketplace soon. Its technical specifications now include support for FOUNDATION fieldbus H1 (31.25 bit/s)



dual-mode devices employing powerful field-diagnostics capabilities. Translation: Instrumentation manufacturers can bring new safety products to market without having to design two entirely different devices. Developers can implement H1 devices with SIF features activated or de-activated. More important, end-user operations will only need to stock one type of product for use as either a process device or a safety device. MT&AP

A Matter of Opinion: HART in Safety Networks? HART (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) Protocol is a global standard for bi-directional communication of digital information between intelligent field instruments and host systems via analog signals or wireless. A host can be any software application from a technician's handheld device or laptop, to a plant's process-control, asset-management, safety or other system, using any control platform. As the technology’s owner, standards-setting body and central authority, the HART Communication Foundation supports the protocol worldwide and ensures that both the original and WirelessHART versions of it remain open and free for use by the industry. According to the Foundation, most automation networks in operation around the world today are based on traditional 4-20mA analog wiring. Given that fact, it’s easy to see why the analog-based HART protocol has such a massive footprint in industry. Assessing its penetration in industrial safety networks is more complex. Chuck Micallef, the Foundation’s Director of Marketing, says its members report the majority of instrumentation shipped in the past 5-10 years as being HART-enabled. “We’ve also been told,” he says, “that the majority of safety systems sold over the past 5-10 years have offered HART capability and that many customers have selected it and are using it.” As for why all customers don’t opt to use HART diagnostics with their safety systems, Micallef suggests that host or control/safety systems might be the limiting factor (in light of the large installed populations of those systems that aren’t HART-enabled). Still, he notes, several suppliers offer alarm monitors and converters that allow leveraging of HART diagnostics while connected to a “non-smart” host. Micallef says the Foundation is in the early states of investigating how intelligent-device information delivered to a safety system through HART protocol can add more value to the Safety Application, device SIL rating or other certifications or validations. “It’s possible,” he concludes, “that the information from the smart instruments currently attached to a safety system can indeed help with the safety requirements.” If you have an opinion on the matter, email Micallef at: 30 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE

Safety-Network Resources PROFIBUS and PROFINET International (PI) is responsible for PROFIBUS and PROFINET, two important enabling technologies in automation. Its global network of more than 1400 member companies includes vendors, developers, system integrators and end-users with a common interest in promoting, supporting and using PROFIBUS and PROFINET. For more details, visit or (While you’re there, consider downloading the PROFINEWS App for iPhones, iPads and Android devices.) And if you enjoy learning about technologies via video presentations, check out the following: The Open DeviceNet Vendors Association (ODVA) is made up of members from the world’s automation companies. Its focus is on advancing open, interoperable information and communication technologies in industrial automation and contributing to sustainability and prosperity of the global community by transforming the model for information and communication technology in the industrial ecosystem. ODVA embraces adoption, wherever possible, of commercialoff-the-shelf (COTS) and standard, unmodified Internet and Ethernet technologies. According to the association, that’s a principle exemplified by EtherNet/IP. For more information, visit The Fieldbus Foundation is a global not-for-profit corporation supported by leading process end-users and automation companies. Within the Foundation, members work together to develop an automation infrastructure that provides process integrity, business intelligence and open scalable integration in a managed environment. According to the organization, its technology provides end-users with the "Freedom to Choose" best-in-class, interoperable control products from their suppliers of choice and the "Power to Integrate" control systems, subsystems and devices across the plant enterprise.” For more information, visit The HART Communication Foundation is the technology owner and standards-setting body for the HART Communication Protocol. Celebrating 20 years of serving the process industry and its 300+ member companies, the Foundation, instrumentation manufacturers and users around the globe continue to use this technology, making it the world’s most used field communication protocol in the industry. Membership is open to suppliers and users who are interested in the use of HART technology. For more information, visit FEBRUARY 2014

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We must have at least a dozen different grease guns in our maintenance department. Some deliver more lubricant than others, yet our PMs call for a fixed amount of shots. Is this a problem?

Diagnosis: There are no “standard” grease guns. While they may look similar, displacement and hydraulic pressure ratings vary from gun to gun. For example, a manufacturer may offer two lever-arm-actuated models: a low-pressure unit rated to deliver one fluid ounce of grease in seven strokes (shots) at a pressure of 1700 psi; and a similarlooking sister product rated to deliver one fluid ounce in 24 strokes at a staggering 15,000 psi! Note: Not all manufacturers state delivery or pressure on their guns or literature. You may need to ask for it. If a PM calls for four shots of grease, the amount delivered will vary depending on the gun and setup. Over-lubrication, a huge problem in manual greasing, is magnified when a PM task states “grease as necessary,” which gives no clear direction on what’s required. In addition to being overfilled, the bearings could lose their seals under the resulting internal hydraulic pressure and allow contamination into the bearing cavity.

Prescription: Ideally, a bearing cavity only needs filling to approximately 40% volume. If a singlepoint manual grease gun is your chosen delivery method, the following steps can help standardize your approach and reduce problems: 1. Implement a lubricating-grease consolidation program. 2. Collect and purge all grease guns in the plant and replace with a single design, preferably with a see-through barrel. 3. Perform a grease-gun displacement check by pumping 10 strokes or shots of grease into a large calibrated syringe, then read off the number of cubic centimeters or inches in volume and divide by 10 to get the actual volume displacement per shot or stroke. 4. Calculate bearing requirements and mark on a schematic attached to the machine or printed with the PM work order. 5. Optional: Color-tag individual grease points to denote grease type and mark the number of shots required per PM schedule. 6. Train grease-gun operators. Good Luck! MT&AP Dr. Lube, aka Contributing Editor Ken Bannister, is, among other things, a Lubrication Management Specialist and author of Lubrication for Industry and the Lubrication Section of the 28th Edition Machinery’s Handbook (both from Industrial Press). Email your lubrication checkup and training questions to: kbannister@engtechindustries. com; or telephone: (519) 469-9173.



Selecting the Correct Bearing Seal Choose wisely when it comes to the crucial components that protect your bearings. This expert advice will help simplify your applicationspecific decisions about external seal types. Thomas Bishop, P.E. Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA)

The primary functions of a bearing seal are to keep lubricant in the bearing and

degree, various types of bearing isolators that combine the functions of contact and non-contact seals in different ways. The labyrinth seal is a non-contacting type normally used with sleeve bearings.

bearing chamber contaminants out. Some seals are integral to the bearing; others aren’t. The focus here is on what to consider when selecting external bearing seals. Key factors in making the right choice for an application typically include: hether in an industrial


facility or a power Bearing type (rolling or sleeve) Lubricant (oil or grease) plant, many of today’sFig. 1. The contact-grease-seal arrangement on the left is better Seal friction and consequent heating for protecting against dust and liquids entering bearing chamber; challenges regardingthe arrangement on the right is better for retaining lubricant in the Shaft surface speed and finish Physical space available power-system protection are thebearing chamber. same. trying To select the appropriate seal Organizations for an application,are match the relevant factors from the above list with the characteristics of the mitigate rising costs and adapt following external seal types.

to Contact seals: A contact seal (Fig. 1) forms an effective sealed by applying continuous tointerface shrinking budgets in the pressure face to the surface with a resilient material. These seals make it difficult for fluids or of changing regulatory requirements aging infrastructures. solidsand particles to penetrate the sealed area, but direct contact with the shaft creates friction and heat that can degrade the seal Common types ofTh external is can seals result in less emphasis on maintenance and preventive and damage the shaft ’s surface finish. If a less effective sealing The types of seals most commonly used with rolling (ball and roller) services—which canand, compromise the reliability andan performance method is acceptable, alternative is a non-contact seal. bearings are contact or lip seals; non-contact seals; to a lesser FEBRUARY 2014



Non-contact seals: A non-contact seal (Fig. 2) produces much less friction (if any) and heating than a contact type. Unfortunately, non-contact seals also allow lubricant to leak out of the bearing chamber and liquid, and permit physically small contaminants to enter. Fig. 2. Example of a non-contact seal used for a ball bearing

Bearing isolator seals: Bearing isolators combine the characteristics of contact and non-contact seals in a single unit (Fig. 3), but use the contact features to “drive” part of the seal at the shaft’s rotating speed. Such seals afford more protection than individual contact or non-contact seals. They also can be used with either grease or oil lubrication, and with sleeve or rolling bearings. Although bearing isolators are more costly and require more physical space than contact or non-contact seals, they deliver more effective sealing.

Fig. 4. Contacting-type bearing isolator (courtesy of Isomag)

Labyrinth-design isolators: Another variation of the bearing isolator has a labyrinth design and an O-ring or other elastomer element that keeps the labyrinth channel closed when the shaft is stopped and expands by centrifugal force to open the channel when the shaft is rotating. This prevents vapor ingress while the machine is off and eliminates friction/heat when it’s running. Special long-relief isolators are used in sleeve-bearing applications to accommodate the bearing’s axial end float.

Fig. 3. Example of a combination contact and non-contact bearing isolator seal

Contacting isolators: The first bearing isolators were noncontact labyrinth seals that greatly reduced contamination ingress but didn’t stop moisture or other vapors. A newer version called a contacting isolator (Fig. 4) uses rare-earth magnets to apply tension to lapped contacting faces, just like a mechanical pump seal. Although contacting isolators stop all solid and vapor contamination, they have surface-speed limitations—a maximum of about a 4" (100 mm) shaft at 3600 rpm. 34 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE

Fig. 5. Example of a shaft-slinger seal that combines contact (1) and non-contact seal types

Shaft slingers. These seals combine elements of contact and non-contact seals (see Fig. 5 above). Shaft slingers make contact with the end bracket while the machine is idle and move away from it (by centrifugal force) when the shaft is rotating. FEBRUARY 2014


Fig. 6. Non-contact labyrinth seal examples arranged in order of sealing effectiveness. (Clearance [C] and length [L] values are the same for each example).

Labyrinth seals: Another commonly used non-contact seal is the labyrinth type (Fig. 6), which can be used with rolling or sleeve bearings, and with oil or grease lubrication. Suggested clearances for labyrinth seals with oil-lubricated sleeve bearings are provided in Table I.


Suggested diametral clearances for labyrinth seals with grease-lubricated rolling bearings are 4-8 mils per inch (0.040.08 mm/cm) for shaft diameters below 2� (50 mm), and 5-10 mils per inch (0.05- 0.10 mm/ cm) for shafts 2� (50 mm) and larger.



Table I. Labyrinth Seal Diametral Clearance Guide Shaft diameter* 3000 to 3600 rpm From Up to 3.000 3.500 4.000 4.500 5.000 5.500 6.000 6.500 7.000

3.500 4.000 4.500 5.000 5.500 6.000 6.500 7.000 7.500

Shaft diameter* 3000 to 3600 rpm From Up to 76 89 102 114 127 140 152 165 178

89 102 114 127 140 152 165 178 191

DIMENSIONS IN INCHES Shaft diameter* 1800 rpm or lower From Up to 0.009 3.000 3.500 0.010 3.500 4.000 0.012 4.000 4.500 0.014 4.500 5.000 0.015 5.000 5.500 0.017 5.500 6.000 0.018 6.000 6.500 0.020 6.500 7.000 0.021 7.000 7.500 DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETERS Shaft diameter* 1800 rpm or lower From Up to 0.230 0.255 0.305 0.355 0.380 0.430 0.455 0.510 0.535

76 89 102 114 127 140 152 165 178

89 102 114 127 140 152 165 178 191

0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.020 0.022 0.024 0.026 0.028

0.305 0.355 0.405 0.455 0.510 0.560 0.610 0.660 0.710

Speeds given are synchronous speeds corresponding to the applicable line frequency and winding poles. Dimensions shown in millimeters are rounded off. The table at left is to be used for horizontal machines with bronze/ brass labyrinth seals, absent specific clearance recommendations from the manufacturer. Galling materials, such as cast iron, may require greater clearance. Vertical machines may require less clearance. Labyrinth seal clearance must always be greater than the bearing clearance. A general rule of thumb suggests that labyrinth seal clearance should be 0.002” - 0.004” (.050 - .100 mm) greater than the sleeve bearing clearance. * The shaft diameter is the diameter at the seal fit; and “up to” means “up to but not including.” ** The diametral clearance is the clearance for the applicable range of shaft diameter. Reference: ANSI/EASA Standard AR100-2010: Recommended Practice for the Repair of Rotating Electrical Apparatus, Table 2-7.

Seal selection Contact seals or bearing isolators are good choices for most oil-lubricated bearings—with the major exception of sleeve bearings, for which labyrinth seals are commonly used. Noncontact seals aren’t acceptable in most oil-lubricated applications because they allow leakage. The options for grease-lubricated bearings run the gamut, from non-contact and contact seals to various kinds of bearing isolators and labyrinth seals. (Note that virtually all sleeve bearings are oil-lubricated, whereas most rolling element bearings are grease-lubricated.)

Shaft surface speed and finish Shaft surface speed is always a consideration for contact seals. If it’s excessive, overheating from friction will degrade the seal material and possibly damage the shaft surface. Table II provides limiting speeds for some common contact seal materials. Contact seal friction and wear are also affected by shaft’s surface finish. Suggested shaft surface finish tolerances are given in Table III. LM&T Thomas Bishop, P.E., is a Senior Technical Support Specialist at the Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), St. Louis, MO. EASA is an international trade association of more than 1900 firms in 62 countries that sell and service electrical, electronic and mechanical apparatus. Telephone: (314) 993-2220; email:; or visit 36 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE

Table II. Limiting Surface Contact Speeds for Seal Materials

Sealmaterial/type Felt Grease seal Oil seal,nitrile rubber

Limiting speedft/sec (m/ sec) 13 (4) 20 (6) 49 (15)

Oil seal,fluorinated rubber

105 (32)


130 (40)

Table III. Shaft Surface Finish Tolerances

Circumferential speedft/sec (m/sec) Surface roughness Up to and

Over 0 16.5 (5) 3 (10)

including 16.5 (5) 33 (10)

Ra μin (μm) 32 (0.8) 16 (0.4) 8 (0.2)


Domain of Knowledge Element #7

What’s in a Lubricant:

Characteristics of Grease There’s more to selecting the right grease than you might have thought. Ken Bannister Contributing Editor Whenever I deliver a Lubrication Fundamentals workshop, I ask attendees to close their eyes and “picture” a lubricant. Most have reported the simultaneous appearance of two distinct images during this exercise: one is a container of liquid oil, the other a grease gun. Many individuals are shocked to learn that grease is made of 80% to 95% base oil. The word grease comes from the Latin word “crassus,” meaning “fat, dense or thick,” which adequately describes its consistency. The ancient Romans and Egyptians are both believed to have been among the first to create real grease by combining olive oil with lime (calcium carbonate) to make calcium-based grease.

Editor’s Note: This article is part of an ongoing series related to knowledge required of individuals pursuing MLT/MLA certification through the International Council of Machinery Lubrication (ICML) and ISO LCAT certification. FEBRUARY 2014



Table I. Comparison of Grease to Oil


Oil Advantages

Stays where it is placed, easy to control Excellent sealing capability — can be used as part of a labyrinth seal to keep out moisture and dirt Can withstand heavy shock loads Requires less frequent applications than oil — better for remote locations and occasional-use bearings

The most effective lubricant Excellent cleaning and flushing capability, especially in recirculative systems Requires lower pump pressure and line size to move oil around in centralized systems Can be used in recirculative systems With correct application, no limit to machine speed Within centralized systems, generally more stable than grease

Disadvantages Has a lower operating temperature than oil, can “cook” and harden in bearing in higher-temperature applications Introduced contamination from poor manual greasing process will not settle out and can harm bearing Dependent on frictional heat to allow oil to wick into contact area — bearings run hotter than oil-only lubricated bearings Grease-lubricated bearings consume more energy to overcome grease fluid friction Requires greater pump pressure and line size to move grease around in centralized systems Total-loss-only lubrication Making grease is similar to making soap: Both products rely on a chemical reaction to take place between oil, fat or fatty acids (often present in the oil or added) and an alkali base material (referred to as the “thickener”) to form soap-like material. This reaction is known as “saponification.” Grease uses a variety of metal hydroxide alkaline to make and define the grease type. For example, aluminum hydroxide makes aluminum grease, lithium hydroxide makes lithium grease, and calcium hydroxide makes calcium grease. To give grease a wider temperature application range and enhanced properties, a second thickener known as a “complexing” agent is added to the mix. This agent is a salt, usually of the same metal hydroxide used to originally thicken the grease. If lithium is used as the alkaline agent, lithium salts are added to the mix to create lithium complex grease. When grease is applied, it is always the base oil that lubricates the bearing surfaces. The chemical soap fraction, which acts like a sponge to hold the oil, is by default designed to “wick” or release the oil into the bearing area when the bearing temperature rises. When the bearing ceases operation and/or the temperature cools, the grease will reverse its action and “wick” back the oil into suspension, thus acting as a semi-solid living reservoir for the oil. 38 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE

More difficult to control at bearing surface area Requires mechanical seals (e.g radial lip seal) to control leakage

Considering grease as a lubricant of choice Whenever rotating or interacting moving surfaces are encountered in a machine design, the designer must decide early on what lubricant is to be used. Grease’s unique capabilities give it advantages and disadvantages over just oil, as detailed in Table I, “Comparison of Grease to Oil.” Because oil is always the lubricating medium, all decision factors involved in choosing the right viscosity and additives for the application will still apply. Before using a specific grease, check with the grease vendor or manufacturer to ensure that the product’s oil viscosity is suitable for your application.

Grease characteristics Greases are classified and characterized in many ways. These characteristics are identifiers that allow us to evaluate the ability of a grease compared with others. They can be found on the lubricant specification sheet provide by the manufacturer. The most common characteristics are outlined here: NLGI Consistency Rating… Greases are manufactured in a variety of consistencies. These consistencies are distinguished into nine specific classifications FEBRUARY 2014


Table II. Grease Thickener Types

Grease Thickener(s)

Operating Temperature Range


-20 to 350 F

Lithium Complex

-50 to 375 F

Calcium (Lime)

-50 to 230 F

Calcium Complex

-20 to 350 F


0 to 250 F


Up to 380 F

Aluminum Complex

-50 to 350 F


-20 to 500 F

Note: Temperature ranges shown are approximate; always check the manufacturer's specification sheet for actual temperature range.

using the National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) numberrating system, from #000 (representing a grease with a very fluid appearance at room temperature), all the way up to a #6 (which appears block solid at room temperature). The most popular grease for use in grease guns is an NLGI #2 (which looks soft at room temperature). The recommended grease consistency for use in an automated centralized grease lubrication system is NLGI #1 or lower. NLGI consistency is determined in the laboratory using an ASTM (American Society of Testing Materials) D-217 cone penetration test. In this procedure, grease is placed in a cup and a cone is dropped from a specified height at a room temperature of 77 F and allowed to penetrate the grease for five seconds. The depth of penetration is then measured carefully in tenths of a millimeter and rated according to an NLGI classification chart that assigns a rating number to penetration depth ranges. For example, if the cone penetration is between 265 (26.5mm) and 295 (29.5mm), the grease is classified as a NLGI #2. (Note: If grease is classified with an EP letter rating prior to the NLGI number, e.g. EP2 grease, it signifies that the product is formulated with an Extreme Pressure additive such as Molybdenum Disulfide for use in low-speed, high-load applications.)

Pumpability… This denotes a grease’s ability to flow under pressure through a distribution system over a given temperature range.

Appearance… As seen in the NLGI rating system, grease is classified by its appearance at room temperature—which can range from very fluid to soft or smooth to block-like. Descriptions may vary slightly from manufacturer to manufacturer, such as “soft” versus “smooth.”

Shear Stability… As grease is “worked” or sheared in operating conditions, its consistency may change. Those with better shear stability (i.e., retain their consistency) are preferred. Greases that harden are known as “rheopectic;” those that soften are “thixotropic.” LM&T

Color… Manufacturers often color grease with dyes for identification purposes. Grease can be white, black, brown, green, blue or red. (White is typically reserved for food grade products.)

Ken Bannister is a certified Maintenance and Lubrication Management Consultant for ENGTECH Industries, Inc. He is the author of the Machinery’s Handbook Lubrication chapters, and the Lubrication for Industry textbook recognized as part of the ICML and ISO’s Domain of Knowledge. Bannister also conducts formal preparatory training for ICML MLT/MLA certifications and ISO LCAT certifications. For more training information, he can reached at (519) 469-9173; or by email at

Thickener… The thickener tells us what alkali base was used to manufacture the grease. Most popular thickeners are identified in Table II, “Grease Thickener Types.” FEBRUARY 2014

Slumpability… Sometimes called “feedability,” the “slumpablity” designation refers to a grease’s ability to relax in its reservoir under gravity and be fed into the pump. Dropping Point… The temperature at which grease is liquid or soft enough to drip is referred to as its “dropping point.” (Note: This is not the maximum operating temperature.) Operating Temperature… This term refers to the recommended optimum operating temperature range of a grease. Water Resistance or Washout… This characteristic reflects the ability of a grease to withstand the effects of water spray before its ability to lubricate and prevent rust formation is affected.



Seals with Durable Bearing Protection EagleBurgmann’s BP Seal provides maximum protection against contaminants while maintaining lubrication in the bearing. According to the company, the seal’s innovative design enables bearing protection that is more durable and reliable than competing products. The EagleBurgmann BP Seal features: Two Vertical Internal Chambers – Utilizes the laws of physics with the vertical alignment of the internal chambers to create an effective and efficient bearing protection device. Internal Static Elastomers – A true non-contacting device with two internal static elastomers, eliminating the potential of dynamic O-ring hang up. Contamination Exclusion  – With double exclusion chambers, the EagleBurgmann  BP  Seal can exclude higher volumes of contaminant, ensuring longer bearing life. Angled Oil Return – This feature offers enhanced return flow and higher volume capacity with no oil leakage. Angled Interface – While competing products offer a straight interface, the EagleBurgmann BP Seal features an angled interface, giving the contaminant direction and flow to expel more efficiently. Typical standard materials include stainless rotor, bronze stator and Viton® elastomers, with other material combinations available. EagleBurgmann Industries LP Houston, TX

Aqueous Parts Washer for Cleaning Oils, Greases

Royal Purple’s Ultra-Performance Grease (UPG) is a high-performance, multiservice, aluminum complex, synthetic grease that serves a wide range of general purpose requirements, including bearing packing and coupling lubrication. Created using a blend of synthetic base oils, plus Royal Purple’s proprietary additive package Synslide, UPG has extreme pressure capabilities and exhibits high water resistance to emulsion and washout. This same chemistry also means UPG is effective across a wide spectrum of operating temperatures. UPG can be pumped at low temperatures, is stable at high temperatures and has excellent oxidation resistance, significantly increasing bearing life, equipment reliability and efficiency.

The AVD 300 aqueous parts washer from MecWash Systems is intended for complex and intricate machined or stamped parts that require high standards of cleanliness, surface finish and drying. The self-contained cleaning system removes all types of contamination including soluble and mineral oils or greases, polishing compounds, lapping paste and NDT dye penetrants from sensitive alloys and other metals. The AVD can clean large components or dense baskets of small parts, with a compact design suited for smallvolume, high-precision machining cells.

Royal Purple, LLC Porter, TX

MecWash Systems, Ltd. Aurora, OH

High-Performance Grease for Oil Industry




Non-Silicone, Non-Hydrocarbon Lubricant Line Solid Technical Solutions’ Tec-Flon line of high-tech lubricant materials includes non-hydrocarbon, nonsilicone, fluorinated oils and greases designed for use with plastics, in paint shops where silicones are not permitted, or in vacuum environments. According to the company, the products remain effective when used for high-performance applications, even in high-temperature settings. Tec-Flon materials meet or exceed the performance requirements of General Motors, and are suited for use in electronics, optics, aerospace, cleanrooms and general assembly applications.

Oil-Skimmer Selection Guide Abanaki recently launched its new, interactive oil skimmer selection guide. The newly designed guide provides a quick and easy way to match the appropriate skimmer for a wide variety of applications. The grid layout can quickly determine the appropriate size, belt material and oil removal capacity, with quick links that connect to more detailed performance specifications. Belt skimmers are the most economical method for separating oil and water. However, not all applications are alike, so choosing the right oil skimmer and belt material is essential in order for successful oil removal. Although designs vary, all oil skimmers rely on specific gravity, surface tension and a moving medium to remove floating oil from a fluid’s surface. Oil skimmers are simple, dependable and effective tools for removing oil, grease and other hydrocarbons from water and coolants. Often, an oil skimmer by itself can achieve the desired level of water purity. In more demanding situations, oil skimming is a cost-effective means of removing most of the oil before using more complicated and costly treatments such as coalescers, membrane filters and chemical processes. To view the oil skimmer selection guide, visit Abanaki Corp. Chagrin Falls, OH FEBRUARY 2014

Solid Technical Solutions Shelby Township, MI

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Keeping oil clean – It’s your best insurance! 1

Clean incoming oil – because new is NOT clean oil


Keep oil clean – remove solids AND moisture

Keep your first fill from starting things off on a dirty foot. Our systems remove impurities in your new oil. These contaminants are the seeds of increased maintenance costs in the form of downtime, wear, and repair.

A Harvard Filtration system on your machinery will keep your investment clean and operating at its peak performance. In hydraulic systems, 70-80% of failures are due to contamination. The Harvard Constant Contamination Control® keeps moisture and contaminants from accumulating in your oil. This prevents premature wear, and reduces costs. Let us show you how one company reduced their maintenance costs by 40%. Call us today.

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Safety-System Software ACM Facility Safety has introduced the SafeGuard Profiler software for safety-system engineering and design. SafeGuard Profiler is a Safety Integrity Level (SIL) life-cycle tool that enables engineering failure analysis, SIL Determination, SIL Verification/Validation (SIL-V), SIL Optimization and related tasks. The software includes a LOPA (Layer of Protection Analysis) module and a SIL-V software module for designing and evaluating SIL-rated systems. When purchased together, the two modules work together to help improve and maintain process plant applications at all stages of development. ACM Facility Safety Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Locking Devices with Enhanced Connectivity

Analysis and Inspection Service for Overhead Cranes

Eaton’s Wiring Devices Business has redesigned its line of Arrow Hart industrial locking devices and straight blade plugs and connectors. The updated line of plugs and connectors now features an ergonomic grip and a universal cord clamping system that accommodates all cord sizes. To provide cord grip and secure connection for any cable size up to 1” (25mm), the redesigned plugs and connectors include custom, reversible inserts. These can be adjusted or removed based on incoming cable size, reducing connection gaps and maintaining a consistent appearance. These devices also feature a double dovetail design to keep the cord grip aligned with the center of the cord, reducing stress on the terminal connections.

Konecranes has introduced its Crane Geometric Survey, which evaluates the wheels and squareness of an overhead crane by measuring the dimensional tolerance of wheels, end trucks, girders and other critical components. The survey analyzes crane wheel and end truck alignment, crane girder camber and girder deflection at full capacity. The objective is to identify issues proactively, enabling a crane owner to determine the most effective strategies for any needed remediation. The service includes measurements for cross diagonal, horizontal and vertical wheel cambers, wheel-towheel sequences, horizontal wheel skew, and wheel-to-wheel span. In addition, Konecranes can include a visual inspection of the crane structure.

Eaton Corp. Peachtree City, GA

Konecranes Springfield, OH

Barcode-Reading Software Suite Cognex Corporation has introduced Cognex Tire Solutions, a suite of products designed to solve bar-code and low-contrast embossed character reading challenges for tire manufacturers. Cognex Tire Solutions integrate proprietary machine vision knowledge, identification expertise and high-performance barcode reading technology into pre-configured systems that meet the specific requirements of the tire industry. The combination of high-speed barcode reading and Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology, the suite is designed for reliable reading results. The suite also features 3D sensing that allows reading of embossed characters on dark, curved surfaces at one tire revolution per second, connectivity to factory networks and the ability to provide high contrast readout from lowcontrast sources. Cognex Corp. Natick, MA 42 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE



Pneumatic Cylinder CAD Models Sheffer Corporation has grown its portfolio of downloadable CAD models by expanding their online product catalog to include the company’s C20 Series cast-iron heavy-duty pneumatic cylinders. The CAD models will be available via a configurable interface designed by CADENAS PARTsolutions, and embedded in the Sheffer Corporation Website, The online CAD catalog offers data in more than 150 native, neutral and imaging formats. The native files include embedded part numbers and complete product meta-data, which ensures files carry critical product information through the BOM and to the purchasing department. Sheffer Corp. Cincinnati, OH



EXAIR’S Super Ion Air Knife® removes static electricity from webs, sheet stock and plastic surfaces where dust, tearing, jamming or hazardous shocks are a problem. The balanced laminar airflow of the Super Ion Air Knife effectively eliminates static at distances up to 20 feet away. Production speeds, product quality and surface cleanliness can improve dramatically. Other styles include Ion Air Cannon®, Ion Air Gun®, Ion Air Jet®, Ionizing Bars and Ionizing PointÔ. Applications include web cleaning, prepaint blowoff, bag opening and neutralizing plastic parts.

EXAIR Corporation

11510 Goldcoast Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45249-1621 Phone (800) 903-9247 Fax (513) 671-3363 E-mail: Internet:



Cloud Service for Managing Privileged User Activity

TURCK’s overmolded M40 Powerfast connectors are designed for demanding environments, and are factory-tested to ensure optimal performance in industrial automation applications. The products feature both power and signal capabilities in the same connector, and are capable of up to 35 amp loads. The line offers male or female, straight connectors, standard and custom lengths and pigtails or extensions. For a complete system, the line also provides mating receptacles, cordsets, splitters and a jumper plug. The connectors carry an IP67 rating for protection against dust and water ingress.

WidePoint has introduced a cloud service that combines privileged access management and a high-performance, network-attached hardware security module (HSM). The combination provides a control over access, monitors activity and records the activities of privileged users across hybrid cloud environments. This solution allows fast definition and enforces security policies for sensitive systems across traditional data centers, virtualized infrastructures, and public and private clouds with FIPS-compliant key management. As a managed service or turnkey operation, WidePoint’s PIVotal ID Privileged Management Portal (PMP) vaults and manages credentials, federates identities, and protects systems regardless of location.

TURCK Inc. Minneapolis, MN

WidePoint Corp. McLean, VA

Connectors for Harsh Environments

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FEBRUARY 2014 Volume 27, No. 2 •




Cascade Machinery Vibration Soluti ..................................................4 Dreisilker Electric Motors ..................................29 EagleBurgmann Emerson Process Exair Corporation ........................................43 Harvard Corporation ..........................................41 IRISS, ...............................................3 Kano Laboratories, Inc. Ludeca .............................................15,17 Meltric Corporation ..........................................................43 NSK Opto PROFIBUS PROFINET North America Royal Purple, .................................1 Scalewatcher SGS Herguth Laboratories, Inc. SPM Instrument, Inc. Strategic Work Systems, Test Products International (TPI) ...........................................43 Turbomachinery U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC. ......................................................11



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Motor Management Pays Off Ted Jones Principal Program Mgr. Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE)


o meet corporate sustainability goals and boost the bottom line, many managers are being asked to reduce operating costs through improved energy efficiency. Because they represent roughly 66% of the electricity used in a typical factory, electric motors and motor-driven equipment are a good place to start. Whether your operations are large or small, in a single location or over multiple sites, paying attention to motor efficiency and putting sound motor-management policies in place can pay off. Consider the following examples from two vastly different enterprises. Chemical giant BASF Corporation uses significant numbers of electric motors in its plants. Its global commitment to sustainability and continued success in energy management led to the establishment of policies for managing the purchase and repair of motors throughout more than 100 BASF production facilities in North America—and a goal to reduce motor operating costs by 3% to 5%. The company’s Motor Management Guideline supports management of its NEMA-frame motor population. BASF also developed a technical reference manual for use by its engineering staff, as well as a brochure communicating the company’s motormanagement message to all plant personnel.

Whether your operations are large or small, in a single location or over multiple sites, paying attention to motor efficiency and sound motormanagement policies can pay off. BASF’s Energy Optimization Manager Tom Theising, who spearheaded this effort in 1998, said it required cooperation from several sites and corporate engineering, purchasing and energy-management departments. Originally designed for the company’s North American plants, the Motor Management Guideline has since been included in BASF’s Global Handbook: Best Practices in Energy Efficiency. For maximum effectiveness in this type of multi-site program, Theising stressed, all production sites must agree with and implement it. (See his presentation to the MDM campaign at events/May12/MDMMay9Webcast.pdf.) 46 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & ASSET PERFORMANCE

Consolidated Container Co. LLC (Consolidated), a privately held business based in Minneapolis, MN, distributes, recycles and reconditions metal containers. Brothers Phillip and William Dworsky purchased the company in 2004 vowing to make “green” investments. Consolidated had 50 employees that year. It now has more than 100, with a division in Houston and a distribution office in Kansas City. The company was spending approximately $21,000 per month on electricity. To target the most attractive energy-efficiency projects, it enlisted support from its local utility, Xcel Energy, and a local consultant. After upgrading the plant’s lighting, the Dworskys replaced two motors: a 20 hp unit used to run a vacuum pump and a 40 hp unit for a machine used to clean steel drums (both more than 10 years old). Upgrading to NEMA Premium motors at cost of approximately $7500 (not including incentives from Xcel) resulted in total energy savings of 7840 kWh. Consolidated continues to monitor its older motors for opportunities to make them more energy efficient. According to the Dworsky brothers, the rebates from Xcel are a bonus. The real savings come with their monthly energy statements, which remind them of how the little things can add up. Consolidated also believes in continuous energy improvement. There’s a perpetual need, the Dworskys explained, “to consistently review what energy savings opportunities are available as we make investments in newer technologies.” (Find this MDM case study at www. If managing motors can pay off for BASF and Consolidated, isn’t it worth exploring in your organization? The Motor Decisions Matter program ( has a toolbox of tools and resources to help you get started, including a Motor Efficiency Guidebook, a Motor Planning Kit and a wealth of information on the success of others. Why wait? MT&AP The Motor Decisions Matter campaign (MDM) is managed by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE), a North American nonprofit organization that promotes energy-saving products, equipment and technologies. Email:; telephone: (617) 589-3949.



Energy-Efficiency Programs: One Size Doesn’t Fit All Jane Alexander Deputy Editor


f you work in a small or medium-sized manufacturing (SMM) operation in the United States, you have plenty of company: According to the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), about 90% of manufacturing establishments fall into that category. While these types of enterprises only account for roughly 50% of today’s industrial energy use, many of them could be missing out on a range of important energy-saving—make that “cost-saving”— opportunities. Do I have your attention? Most plant managers have heard, many times over, that manufacturing is responsible for approximately a third of the primary energy consumed in the U.S.— and they are no doubt well aware that their facilities are being constantly pushed by states and utilities to meet efficiency targets. Energy-efficiency-program providers, however, seem to have traditionally focused on helping large manufacturing enterprises (the 10% responsible for close to 50% of industrial energy consumption). All well and good, but that’s not the whole story.

While they use less energy than their larger counterparts, small and medium-sized operations are still good targets for energy-efficiency programs. Despite using less energy than their larger counterparts, small and medium-sized operations are also good candidates for energy-efficiency programs. As ACEEE explains, significant improvements can be harvested across the SMM landscape. “Not only do they pay higher prices for their energy and are less likely to have dedicated onsite energy managers, but smaller energy-savings projects tend to save a higher percentage of total consumption.” So what’s preventing the SMM segment from fully picking what could be a vast amount of remaining low-hanging fruit? ACEEE sums up the barriers that many small and medium-sized enterprises often face

as “a lack of staff resources, capital constraints and a dearth of expert information on energy efficiency opportunities.” Sound familiar? A recent ACEE report* entitled “One Small Step for Energy Efficiency: Targeting Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturers” discusses those barriers and the various ways energy-efficiency programs have typically attempted to serve the manufacturing sector, including energy audits, prescriptive and custom rebates/incentives and training and support to build in-house plant expertise, among others. But as noted by the report’s author, Daniel Trombley, Senior Industrial Analyst at ACEEE, even successful models can be improved upon. He acknowledges the fact that some program providers have changed their interactions with SMMs and developed new offerings or redesigned existing ones to overcome the barriers inherent to smaller operations. For example, with regard to boosting SMM enthusiasm for and participation in energy-efficiencyprogram efforts, the report points to the need to streamline processes and reduce transactions costs. To address those needs, several successful programs have taken what they’ve learned from working with large energy users and translated it for SMMs. One strategy involves a “cohort approach” that treats individual recruited SMM clients as a group, thus reducing the costs of training/educational events for all of them. Allowing program staff to address several SMMs at the same time can lead to peer networks for sharing best practices and benchmarking. Another attractive strategy for SMM clients involves sharing energy managers. Trombley cites the example of a manufacturer that was able to provide the equivalent of one full-time staffer to manage the energy use of six of its sites by hiring a consulting firm. There’s more to this ACEEE study than I can cover here. Whether yours is an SMM operation or a larger energy-using enterprise, I encourage you to go to the following link and read it for yourself. A one-size-fits-all approach doesn’t work with shoes: We shouldn’t expect it to work with energy-efficiency programs. MT&AP




Technology Matters For Asset Performance Gary Mintchell Executive Director


am passionate about technology. Have been most of my life. But I have enough practical experience to know the limits of applying technology in manufacturing. During a busy week from the end of January through the first of February, I had the opportunity to witness the opening of a technology center and then interview several people for podcasts. Safety is one of the pillars of good manufacturing, as well as good maintenance and reliability practice. When I interviewed Steve Ludwig, Rockwell Automation Safety Programs Manager, for a podcast just before writing this column, he mentioned that most safety incidents now seem to occur when the machine is down for maintenance. I started recording podcasts in 2006. If you’re not familiar with the genre, it’s a little like radio talk shows (only in my case, not about politics or sports). I listen to podcasts daily as learning tools. Tekzilla is a good one for technology geeks, and Revision 3 produces many more technology podcasts. For mine, sometimes it’s an audio essay, and sometimes it’s an interview. You can find me on iTunes, or go to Ludwig and Mark Eitzman, Safety Market Development Manager at Rockwell Automation, chatted with me about a tool they developed called the Safety Maturity Index (Gary on Manufacturing 138 podcast). They had identified three Cs about safety programs—Compliance, Culture, Capital— and developed a scale where companies could rate themselves. Then, the companies could upload the grading anonymously and compare to other companies. Rockwell is a technology company (Capital), but upon investigation discovered that developing good compliance procedures and building the right culture mattered as much as technology.

Technology matters Todd Gordon leads the computer/instrument team at the We Energy Corp. power-generation plant in Milwaukee. He discovered that the plant’s instruments were HART-enabled. HART is a digital protocol that rides along with the usual analog


signals on the same wire. The protocol includes information about the device status, as well as diagnostic information. Combined with FDT technology to display the information, Gordon discovered that the technology prevented numerous shutdowns. We recorded a podcast (No. 137) that also can be found at Embracing the appropriate use of technology will do more to elevate the professional status and effectiveness of maintenance and reliability teams than anything other than team-leadership skills. Gordon’s experience from actual practice provides additional credibility for this view. He cited one example of a new boiler that had start-up problems. Supplier engineers were stumped. He accessed the device network and looked into the status of the valve positioners in question. Turns out the valves were sticking. With both problem and solution at hand, the start-up proceeded rapidly. My last trip was to Austin, TX, to attend the Grand Opening of Emerson Process Management’s Innovation Center. The company’s Austin-based staff was moved to a larger campus in Round Rock—across the street from Dell Computers. Michael Dell himself spoke at the ceremony, along with Texas Governor Rick Perry. The $70 million investment includes a Customer Collaboration Center complete with a working Integrated Operations Center (iOps). This is a technology that enables collaboration among operations, maintenance, planning, engineering and others to solve problems. You still have time to expand your knowledge and contacts by attending MARTS ( Not just another maintenance and reliability conference, MARTS provides an educational and networking environment where the plantmanagement team learns skills for business success. I welcome ideas and feedback. You can send an email, message me on twitter @garymintchell, or message me on LinkedIn. MT&AP Gary Mintchell,, is Executive Director of Applied Technology Publications. He also writes at


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Maintenance Technology February 2014  

Maintenance Technology & Asset Performance February 2014 Magazine maintenance, innovation, automation, capacity assurance, reliability, ind...

Maintenance Technology February 2014  

Maintenance Technology & Asset Performance February 2014 Magazine maintenance, innovation, automation, capacity assurance, reliability, ind...