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Contents APRIL 2014 • VOL 27, NO 4 •



e Improv ility Reliab licy, h Po Throug les & Princip e Practic eering

bs Engin

P, Jaco

l, PE, CMR

ntha d A. Rose

Improve Reliability Through Policy, Principles & Practice Proper understanding and use of these key reliability-program components can ensure success. David A. Rosenthal, PE, CMRP, Jacobs Engineering Group




Where Looks Are Deceiving: The Counterfeit in Your Bin


Government agencies and suppliers wage an ongoing war against substandard, potentially deadly products marketed as the real deal.

6 Forward Observations

Jane Alexander, Deputy Editor

8 Uptime 12 For On The Floor


Protect Your Assets From Cyber Attack Cyber attacks hit the news over Christmas when Target revealed it was hacked. This could happen to manufacturing, too. Gary Mintchell, Executive Director

15 News 36 From Our Perspective 45 Lubrication Checkup 48 Products 54 Workforce Development


Phoenix Contact: Automation’s Sustainable Connection

Issues 55 My Take 56 Manufacturing Connection

Phoenix Contact is a home-grown leader in energy-management and sustainability. Rick Carter, Executive Editor

Industrial Lubrication Fundamentals: Lubricant Life-Cycle Management Give your equipment lubricants the respect they deserve. Keep them well-filtered and clean!


Ken Bannister, Contributing Editor

Advance Spill Preparation Makes Safety Sense Upfront planning for these events can also reduce downtime. Jane Alexander, Deputy Editor

High-Performance Lubricants Critical to Bridge Project When moving parts must function smoothly under heavy load, reliable lubrication is required. A new vertical-lift bridge in France is a case in point.



APRIL 2014

April 2014 • Volume 27, No. 4 ARTHUR L. RICE



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Maintenance Technology® (ISSN 0899-5729) is published monthly by Applied Technology Publications, Inc., 1300 S. Grove Avenue, Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010. Periodicals postage paid at Barrington, Illinois and additional offices. Arthur L. Rice, III, President. Circulation records are maintained at Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Maintenance Technology® copyright 2014 by Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Annual subscription rates for nonqualified people: North America, $140; all others, $280 (air). No subscription agency is authorized by us to solicit or take orders for subscriptions. Postmaster: Please send address changes to Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Please indicate position, title, company name, company address. For other circulation information call (630) 739-0900. Canadian Publications agreement No. 40886011. Canada Post returns: IMEX, Station A, P.O. Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5, or email: cpcreturns@ Submissions Policy: Maintenance Technology® gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc. permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. “Maintenance Technology®” is a registered trademark of Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Printed in U.S.A.



APRIL 2014


Developing an electrical safety program for your company’s needs...

Stay Safe & Compliant with the Best Hands-On Electrical Safety & Maintenance Training in the Industry.

where do you start? By Ron Spataro, AVO Training Institute, Director of Marketing Will your program be based on de-energized work only? Will a lockout/tag-out program be enforced? How will employees choose the right tools and PPE for the job? Who’s “Qualified” for electrical work and who’s not? What’s documented and where does it go? Your electrical safety program is required to identify the principles upon which it is based and the controls by which it is measured and monitored. NFPA 70E®, the “how to” guide for OSHA compliance, outlines the fundamentals of an electrical safety program. OSHA requires employers to implement an electrical safety program that addresses exposure to hazards that exist, or are likely to exist, in a specific workplace. This program has to be written, published and available to all employees who might be exposed to the hazards in order to meet these requirements. NFPA 70® Article 110.7 specifically addresses safety programs by stating, “The employer shall implement and document an overall electrical safety program that directs activity appropriate for the voltage, energy level, and circuit conditions.” APRIL 2014

All tasks in your facility that involve exposure to electrical hazards must have a specific procedure. Procedures need to be developed for not only accomplishing the task, but for accomplishing the task safely. The electrical safety program must have a procedure that can be used by employees to assess the hazards, and PPE risks associated with each task. Those procedures are to be developed with the core intent of keeping your people safe from the hazards of electricity. Electrical hazards cause hundreds of deaths and thousands of injuries in the workplace every year. While electrical hazards are not the leading cause of workplace injuries and accidents, they are disproportionately fatal, costly and on the rise. These injuries not only disrupt the lives of the workers and their families, but also impact the productivity of employers. The good news is that building a strong electrical safety program and enforcing a periodic auditing process can prevent most workplace electrical injuries. Remember to work safe, be safe and stay safe. Electricity does not discriminate and what you don’t know can hurt you.

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Happy Birthday, Dear Robot Rick Carter Executive Editor


attended a sort-of birthday party for robots last month in Detroit. Robotics leader ABB used its annual Technology Days event to remind attendees (mostly customers and integrators) that they’ve been making robots for 40 years. The company’s reference point was the dawn of the microcomputer-controlled electric industrial robot, their version of which first appeared in 1974. To be honest, the event was less party than information session about the company’s robot offerings and the ever-growing list of things they can do. But if nothing else, the birthday idea serves to remind anyone who may still perceive robots as somehow “new” that they’re way off about that. No one at the event felt that way, I’m sure, though there may be some who have yet to see that robotics and automation technology in general are at the heart of the United States’ ability to retain—and now strengthen—its position as the world’s leading manufacturing country.

Fully human-like robots on the plant floor are far away, but the capability is getting closer. One example on display — a prototype Dual Arm Concept robot— is designed for small-parts assembly. Many of you have robots in your own operation. So many tasks fall within their realm—lift, sort, move, measure, inspect, cut, weld, grind, install, paint—it’s impractical not to today, if the price tag can be justified. The experts are working on that, of course, as well as developing ways to integrate robotics further into manufacturing and other sectors. According to ABB, we may soon find robots in areas like medical diagnostics, product disassembly (for recycling) and



food processing, especially in the challenging environment of meat production. While industry is still a long way from seeing fully human-like robots on the plant floor, this capability is getting closer. One example—ABB’s new Dual Arm Concept robot—was on display in Detroit. Unveiled late last year (though still a prototype and not yet in production) the Dual Arm is designed for small-parts assembly, especially in electronics, an area that has so far relied mostly on large numbers of human hands. As the name implies, ABB’s unit has two human-like arms connected to a torso (though no head). The size of a child, it’s portable and designed for easy maneuverability around a plant where needed to “close the gap between manual assembly and a fully automatic assembly process,” according to product literature. ABB personnel stressed that the unit is designed to perform assembly tasks in tandem with humans, not independent of them. Similar new units from other makers (Seiko Epson, Yaskawa) suggest that this is a key new frontier for robotics, and will be of great interest to operations in both high- and low-cost countries. Interestingly, while ABB’s Dual Arm model was designed in Europe, the prototypes were built and are being tested in China, home of the world’s largest concentration of manual electronics assemblers. China will probably become a gold-level customer for the new unit as it continues to shift away from its manual-workforce model. According to the International Federation of Robotics, China is, in fact, the world’s fastest-growing market for robotics (based on 2012 figures). It’s no secret that China wants to be seen as an equal alongside first-world industrialized nations, and robotics will help make that happen. Having spent the best part of two days around the cream of today’s robots, I was impressed both by their capabilities and the maker’s emphasis on “flexibility”—a sure way to expand existing markets and open new ones. After lunching with an integrator, however, I was brought a little closer to earth when he told me he hadn’t seen much new at the event. Really! Had he seen the Dual Arm model? Well no, not yet. There were too many people around it. MT&AP

APRIL 2014


Maintenance & Reliability Tech-Education Building Blocks Bob Williamson Contributing Editor


f our equipment-intensive businesses are to compete in a global marketplace, it will be necessary to attract, educate and nurture Maintenance & Reliability (M&R) Technicians for the future. These are the technicians who will care for our transportation systems (truck and rail) as well as our utility systems (electrical, natural gas and telecommunications). These are the same technicians who will maintain our nation’s mining, oil- and gas-drilling, production equipment and pipelines. Add to this the countless distribution centers, hospitals, hotels, resorts, restaurants, educational institutions and other enterprises across the country that will require—and vigorously compete for—technicians to perform sophisticated maintenance and repair work, and the demand for M&R technicians becomes clear. These jobs cannot be exported! M&R Technicians are already in alarmingly short supply across North America, and the situation is getting worse. As past columns in this publication have regularly discussed, the problem isn’t just that young people have been discouraged from pursuing careers in M&R. Many schools have totally eliminated M&R-related education and training programs—along with the capabilities, equipment and internal support for them.

Redeveloping M&R education and training Community colleges, technical schools, high schools and middle schools must play a pivotal role in preparing students and adults for crucial M&R jobs and careers. College education—particularly one- and two-year certificate programs and twoyear associate of science degree programs—should be structured to meet the needs of businesses that need M&R Technicians and the youths and adults who want to pursue these types of careers. If I could design an educational model to attract, nurture and develop M&R Technicians for the future, it would look something like the vocational/technical educational programs that existed 30 to 40 years ago. But I would add relevant job content and educational links to jobs and careers, modern workplaces and technologically advanced equipment.



My suggested “10 Basic Building Blocks for Development of M&R Technicians” are as follows: #1: M&R Technician Jobs and Careers Maintenance and reliability may be the least understood of all business and industrial work processes. Many people today—students, faculty, career counselors, school boards and administrators, even adults looking for a career change—are unaware of the numerous and rewarding jobs and careers available in fields associated with maintenance and reliability. M&R Technician career ladders, from entry-level to senior technical and managerial levels, must be more clearly defined and communicated widely. M&R jobs that require one- and two-year-certificate education programs should be shown on career ladders along with those requiring two- and fouryear degrees and higher levels. Applicable professional certifications and licensing processes should also be introduced in technician career ladders. #2: Basic Tools of the Trade It’s essential to know the tools of the trade and how to use them. Many tools cut across several disciplines. Education that starts with basic hand and power tools, electrical test equipment and other essentials isn’t just useful for M&R careers, it’s invaluable around the home, farm and garage workshop. #3: How Stuff Works Today’s factories and facilities have an unlimited lineup of machinery, systems, sub-systems and processes. Knowing how this “stuff ” works is a requirement for any M&R career. Exploring the purposes, inner workings and terminology of hydraulics, pneumatics, electrical circuits, controls, electronics, instrumentation, mechanical drives, pumps and motors is a must. #4: Why Stuff Works It’s not enough to understand “how” stuff works. “Why” stuff works is equally important, and relates physical science and math to energy, electricity, sound, light, forces, acceleration, temperature, motion, mechanics and chemistry. Knowing why stuff works the way it does contributes to a solid

APRIL 2014


foundation for troubleshooting and correcting things that don’t work the way they are supposed to. #5: Electro-Mechanical Machinery Factories and facilities depend on many forms and generations of machinery. Knowing how machinery generates useful output from its power source to the inner workings is essential for M&R Technicians. Modern machinery is typically a hybrid of electrical, electronics and microprocessors that integrate with a variety of mechanical components and systems to produce something. Careers in M&R demand a comprehensive working knowledge of a wide variety of electro-mechanical machinery, new and old. Knowledge of and experience with safety and personal-protective-equipment (PPE) requirements should be incorporated with each and every machine from this point forward. #6: Electro-Mechanical Systems and Processes Systems and processes behave differently when electro-mechanical machinery is connected to form an assembly line, packaging line, manufacturing process, heating/ventilation/air conditioning (HVAC) system or the many other systems and processes found in plants today: They become interdependent. These machines must all work together to produce a useful output. If one fails, the entire system or process is affected. Knowledge of the various interconnections, communications, sensors and logic is essential to master the next educational component, “Figuring Things Out.” (Industrial “maintenance trainee” internships that begin at this point will incorporate critical real-world experiences. Going forward, teamwork and communications skills will be invaluable.) #7: Figuring Things Out Every M&R Technician regularly uses troubleshooting, problem-solving and root-cause-analysis skills. “Figuring Things Out” appears at this point because a system or process must be understood completely before problems can be identified and corrected. Reading and interpreting original equipment manufacturers (OEM) manuals, drawings, schematics and diagrams are also keys to figuring things out. Knowing how to diagnose and repair a wide variety of equipment (industrial and otherwise) is one of the most powerful ingredients of employment security, and something every M&R Technician should master.

APRIL 2014

#8: Making the Repair Some call it “fixing,” but that’s an oversimplification. Making the repair requires mastery of the seven educational building blocks above plus the “how to” requirements of specific equipment, processes and systems. Most OEMs provide step-by-step procedures, drawings and specifications that must be followed to safely make correct adjustments and repairs. Knowing how to put together all of the skills, knowledge conditions and job instructions to take efficient and effective action is a must for every M&R Technician. Working with others to make, document and learn from repairs enhances the ongoing learning process and improves productivity.

Renewed Maintenance & Reliability Technician education and training must begin now. #9: Preventing and Predicting Failures Fixing things that break should not be the primary job of M&R Technicians. Precision-maintenance methods should be deployed by M&R Technicians to optimize equipment life and eliminate failures. This includes preventive-maintenance (PM) programs developed and specified by OEMs and enhanced by business and industry M&R organizations. Analysis of failures often leads to revised PMs. Failures can also lead to condition monitoring and predictive-maintenance (PdM) procedures, depending on criticality of the equipment, process or system. M&R Technicians must know about proper precision-maintenance and reliability-improvement methods, as well as PM, condition monitoring and PdM methods. (Advanced tools that should be introduced at this point include laser alignment, oil analysis, vibration analysis, ultrasound inspection, infrared inspection, strobe tachometers, motor circuit analyzers and other diagnostic tools.) #10: Continuous Improvement Improving troublesome equipment to achieve higher levels of performance and reliability contributes to business success (in the form of lower operating costs and improved productivity, production and throughput of machinery, systems and processes). Continuous



make operations and maintenance work easier and how to improve reliability are mandatory learned abilities of every successful M&R Technician. Continuous improvement should also incorporate M&R Technician certifications

improvement is a higher-level skill that focuses on equipment, work processes and the people involved, while building on the previous nine educational building blocks. Knowing how to cost-effectively reduce or eliminate failures, how to

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such as the “Certified Maintenance & Reliability Technician” (CMRT) by the Society for Maintenance & Reliability Professionals (SMRP) and technology-specific certifications. Examples of technology-specific certifications include “Certified Infrared Thermographer” by Infraspection Institute; and multiple levels of “Vibration Analyst” by the Vibration Institute; “Certified Lubrication Specialist,” by the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE); and “Machinery Lubrication Technician,” by the International Council of Machinery Lubrication (ICML). These internationally recognized credentials are strong indicators of M&R Technicians’ professional-development interests and achievements.

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Now we can see more clearly. Difficulties in finding qualified M&R Technicians to fill job openings and replace retiring Baby Boomers have brought the picture of disastrous skills-shortages into sharp focus. Gaps in public education have helped increase the acuity. As a result, there are not now—nor will there be in the foreseeable future—enough M&R Technicians to go around. Those worth their salt will seek “great places” to work and learn. Renewed Maintenance & Reliability Technician education and training must begin now. Don’t wait for our schools and colleges to catch up. They may not be able to do so in our lifetime. We must take the lead in M&R education and work with our educational institutions to establish enduring programs. We must also continue to improve the performance and reliability of our equipment, systems and processes throughout their life cycles. Increasing the inherent reliability of equipment is part of the solution. MT&AP

Robert Williamson, CMRP, CPMM and member of the Institute of Asset Management, is in his fourth decade of focusing on the “people side” of world-class maintenance and reliability in plants and facilities across North America. Email: APRIL 2014

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Featuring Exceptional Education Take advantage of a variety of valuable sessions, including these: n EASA Service Center Accreditation Program

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An outlet for the views of today’s capacity assurance professionals Rick Carter Executive Editor

Counterfeit Parts: A Scourge Seen and Unseen


s sources in government, private industry and elsewhere report, the influx of counterfeit parts into manufacturing systems is a serious problem that appears to know no bounds. MT “Uptime” columnist Bob Williamson likens their non-stop arrival to a “tsunami,” the monetary impact of which is estimated to be in the multiple billions of dollars annually. The amount reflects not only the lost sales of parts the counterfeits copy, but the cost of malfunctions related to or caused by counterfeits and the cost of counterfeit-related events, such as product recalls and product replacement. Counterfeit hot spots are electrical, electronics, military applications, aerospace and automotive, but it’s widely believed they can pop up just about anywhere. Despite rigorous anti-counterfeit strategies proposed by some of the harder-hit industries, counterfeits remain difficult to spot. Their makers, in fact, excel at generating parts that are nearly indistinguishable from the real thing in every way except functionality. Most of our Reader Panelists say they know about the counterfeit problem, but have not seen any counterfeits themselves. To which an expert might respond, “How can you be sure?” At least one Panelist reports having faced fakes, so his perspective is placed first in the responses below. But we include perspectives from the others as well in this month’s review to help define a shape-shifting industrial scenario we can be reasonably sure is taking place but cannot always see.

“I have had no personal experience with counterfeiting of parts. But I have heard horror stories of companies that have had this problem, usually ending with devastating results.”

Q: What is your experience with counterfeit parts? If you have encountered them, what types of parts are/were they?

“We have not seen counterfeit parts come into our company. If they did no one has observed them.”

“Bearings, mechanical seals, various rigging hardware and at times even drive belts.” … Maintenance Coordinator, Mid-Atlantic “I am aware of the issues surrounding counterfeit parts although we have not been affected by them, other than getting notices from suppliers that know their products have been counterfeited.” … Maintenance & Facilities Team Coordinator, New England

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… Facility Transition Manager, South “I have no experience with counterfeit parts. I have heard that it is becoming a serious issue for some organizations. It could have severe implications for manufacturing, but the risks associated with safety would be my major concern.” … Reliability/Maintenance Engineer, South “As far as I know, we have not received any counterfeit parts at our facility.  However, we have noticed a lot of parts coming from China that are of noticeably lower quality than their American counterparts. They are marked with the country of origin, but it is irritating to have to work with sub-par components. I have been warned to look for fasteners that are marked with a higher grade than they really are, but I haven’t encountered them to date.” … Senior Maintenance Mechanic, South “You ask for input on counterfeit parts, but how do people know they are counterfeit? Look at the famous paintings that are considered genuine, but later discounted!” … Engineer, Northeast

… Corporate Production Support Manager, Midwest

Q: How has the frequency of your encounters with counterfeit parts changed in the past few years? “Not much. It has been spotty, but enough to be concerned.” … Maintenance Coordinator, Mid-Atlantic

Q: How dangerous is the presence of counterfeit parts in the manufacturing supply chain to you and your operation, and why?

APRIL 2014


“Very dangerous. The rigging hardware failed prematurely and could have caused damage to the equipment or an injury. The rigging hardware was sent out for analysis and found to be defective in its casting. The bearing failures were due to bad quality-control or bad housekeeping. All of these cost us unplanned downtime.” … Maintenance Coordinator, Mid-Atlantic “Counterfeit parts could be devastating to our organization. They are not made to any standard and could cause catastrophic equipment failures if installed.” … Corporate Production Support Manager, Midwest “Counterfeit parts could pose a hazard to [our customers] if they are not appropriate for use in drinking water. Further, with the new no-lead rule, counterfeit parts could put us in violation of federal laws if we were to install lead-containing parts into our system.” … Maintenance Engineer, West

Q: What do you know about the origin of counterfeit parts you have encountered? “All were made in China. Our procurement department now has instructions to not purchase any parts or material from China, whether or not it is original equipment.”

“If we suspect a part may not [meet our standards], we have on-site equipment that allows us to determine the make-up of the material.” … Maintenance Engineer, West “Our first line of defense to assure product authenticity is to implement a sophisticated product inspection program. In other words, did we get what we ordered?” … Senior Maintenance Engineer, West One Panelist, a consultant, relates an instance he suspects involved counterfeits. His client was a maker of high-quality injected-molded parts, the dies for which used a specific type of hex socket-cap screw. “The screws were to be replaced each time the die was taken off line for service or storage,” he says. “But when a newly hired purchasing agent decided to save costs by re-sourcing the fasteners, the lower-cost screws went in fine, but would not come out.” Efforts to remove them took significant time, resulting in a “catastrophic production loss,” he says. “Many orders were lost to another supplier. I cannot imagine how scary it is today with look-alike packages and products,” he adds. “It makes you long for the days of stock inspections on the receiving dock!”

… Maintenance Coordinator, Mid-Atlantic

Q: What has your company done to identify and eliminate counterfeit parts in your supply chain? How is this working? “Independent QC verification on all parts received to ensure fidelity; any discrepancies and the shipment is rejected. This seems to be working well. Once the vendors found out we were serious, they responded because they did not wish to lose the business.” … Maintenance Coordinator, Mid-Atlantic “We always make sure to buy from qualified vendors before we purchase anything. We have checks and balances from the maintenance groups if the vendor wants to change a part because of obsolescence or another reason. This seems to be working well.”

About the MT&AP Reader Panel The Maintenance Technology & Asset Performance Reader Panel includes approximately 100 working industrial maintenance practitioners and consultants who have volunteered to answer bi-monthly questions prepared by our editorial staff. Panelist identities are not revealed, and their responses are not necessarily projectable. The Panel welcomes new members: Add your comments and observations to this column by joining the Reader Panel at www. Click “Reader Panel” under “Info,” and follow instructions or email If accepted, you will automatically be entered into a drawing for a cash prize after one year of active participation.

… Corporate Production Support Manager, Midwest

APRIL 2014


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Keith Burbage, CSP Corporate Safety Director Luminant Generation Justin Moser Project / Generation Engineer Black Hills Corporation Neil Simpson Power Plant Roger Schaver Manager, Resource Management Power Generation We Energies Kathy McNeese, Ph.D., OHST Southwest Region Senior Safety Professional Exelon Corporation Jeffrey Riggleman Outage Manager NRG Energy Dickerson Power Plant

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APRIL 2014

NEWS Worldwide Manufacturing Demand to Drive Robust Industrial-Machinery Market Growth High demand for machines in manufacturing sectors, ranging from auto-making to packaging will push the industrial machinery market to new heights worldwide in the next five years, says consulting group IHS Technology. The Colorado-based firm says demand will also bring growth this year. These and other findings are available in its new Machinery Production Market Tracker report ( The report states that as worldwide economic conditions continue to improve, the demand for machines in sectors such as agriculture, packaging, materials handling and machine tools will push revenues to $1.6 trillion this year, up from $1.5 trillion in 2013. This represents an annual growth of 6.3%, more than twice the 2.9% increase seen in 2013. Strong

growth is forecast to continue for the next four years, with revenue in this sector rising to $2.0 trillion by 2018. During this period, the machinery market’s annual growth rate is expected to average between 5% and 6%. IHS Machinery Group analysts say this growth is driven by several factors. First, higher demand for cars worldwide is spurring the need to spend on tools and robotics in the automotive business, as well as in rubber and plastics. Meanwhile, an increase in the standard of living and growing spending on nutrition will benefit the food and packaging machinery sectors. Furthermore, rising spending on technology products will boost the demand for robotics, semiconductor equipment, mining, and oil and gas machinery.

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APRIL 2014



Grundfos Makes Management Appointments

Mads Nipper

ABB, Baldor Partner with Hydraulic Institute on Pump Training

Dieter Sauer

Grundfos has named Mads Nipper as its new CEO and Group President. According to Jens Moberg, Grundfos Group Chairman, Nipper was chosen because of his long and proven record of working in the global marketplace. He comes from LEGO, where he spent the last 23 years serving in a variety of roles, including, most recently, Executive Vice President. Prior to LEGO, Nipper held numerous directorships in other companies and organizations. He assumes his responsibilities with Grundfos on August 1. Grundfos has also appointed Dieter Sauer as President and General Manager of its Water Utility business, headquartered in Aurora, IL. In this position, Sauer will oversee and direct all operations in Grundfos’ Water Utility division, including its recently opened service center. Sauer brings more than 20 years of pump experience to his new position. He most recently served as President of Pulsafeeder, Inc.

The Hydraulic Institute has entered a Training Partner Agreement with ABB’s Drives and Controls Business unit and its ABB Group member Baldor Electric Company, a leading manufacturing of electric motors and drives in North America. The partners will broaden educational opportunities for pump endusers, distributors and consulting firms by developing training programs and sponsoring Webinars and e-learning courses focused on pump topics. The partners will also host expanded one-day Pump Systems Optimization courses focused on reducing energy costs, maintenance and downtime associated with pumping operations.  This course is recommended for engineers as well as maintenance, operations and sales personnel involved with pump systems.  The Hydraulic Institute develops industry standards and provides education and tools for the optimization of pumps and pumping systems. For more information, visit

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Names President and CEO for Americas Region David M. Walsh has been appointed President and Chief Executive Officer of Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (MHPSA). He now has responsibility for all aspects of the business in the Western Hemisphere, and will also be a Corporate Officer of MHPSA’s parent company, Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems, Ltd. (MHPS), in Japan. Walsh served as Senior Vice President of Sales & Marketing, Projects and Services with MHPSA prior to being named President and CEO. Launched Feb. 1, 2014, MHPS is a thermal power-generation systems company that combines the global fossil businesses of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. and Hitachi, Ltd. The new venture markets turbines and services to customers around the world.

ACEEE Seeks Champions of Energy Efficiency in Buildings The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) is now accepting nominations for its Champion of Energy Efficiency in Buildings Awards. The awards will be presented at ACEEE’s 2014 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings event scheduled to be held in Garden Grove, CA, Aug. 17-22. Winners will be selected based on demonstrated excellence in several categories Nominations are due June 6. To learn about judging criteria and past winners or to submit a nomination, visit

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APRIL 2014

NEWS Feedback Contributing Editor Bob Williamson received the following note from a concerned reader (name withheld) regarding his February “Uptime” column on apprenticeship training. Dear Mr. Williamson: I am a graduate of a four-year apprenticeship program (UAW/Ford), and have worked in the automation industry for over 40 years. The problem I have seen at many U.S companies that have (or had) an apprenticeship program is the same one that has plagued maintenance programs and doomed them to failure. This is the “Good Ol’ Boy Syndrome,” and I have seen it cause more failures in these areas than any other factor. I can’t tell you how many new/young people I have seen “run off ” because they weren’t “one of the guys.” Many had great skills and ideas for improvement, but if they didn’t conform and play the game, they were ostracized. This problem MUST be resolved for our industry to succeed in today’s global market. But I am not optimistic: Today’s management does not want to deal with “people” problems, which cannot be resolved by the use of automation.

Bob Williamson’s reply: Thank you for your comments. Based on some companies I have visited, you are spot on. Baby Boomers entering the trades through good apprenticeship programs received tremendous training, and many were able to conform to the “good-old-boy cliques.” But as new generations entered the workforce and apprenticeship training all but disappeared, the cliques prevailed. As maintenance people, we must embrace those who are new to the workforce, and find new ways to build their skills and knowledge. While “automation” is appealing to many engineers, it adds another layer of complexity to the roles and responsibilities of those who maintain it. To comment on editorial in MT&AP, write Jane Alexander at

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Proper understanding and use of these key reliability-program components can ensure success. Manufacturers deploy corporate reliability programs for many reasons. Not only do such programs encourage achievement of environmental, health and safety (EHS) targets, they drive gains in uptime and capacity. Importantly, they also enable the formation of a needed reliability culture that standardizes the response to maintenance and reliability issues. Successful deployment of a reliability-improvement initiative depends on corporate and business-unit leadership, followed by the appropriate program design. This means including program elements that are right for the operation, supporting the culture needed to focus on defect elimination, learning to proactively determine equipment condition and having company-wide buy-in. Success of a reliability initiative can also only be attained with strong support from senior leadership. This support must be more than “lip service,” and be evident in the candidates chosen to do the job, available funding, willingness to defend the program through its business units, and an ability to stick to the mission, even if initial results are disappointing. To help in these areas, a policy that defines what reliability means to the company should exist. Determination of progress in this direction may hinge on the tracking of only a few high-level lagging metrics like Asset Utilization and Maintenance Cost/ Replacement Asset Value (RAV). Reporting of these measures must be a part of the company culture, however, because they are a standard topic of discussion when senior or business management visits the site. To attain excellence at this level, networks of subject-matter experts are necessary. So while the values and policies of the reliability initiative are top-down driven, the technical support should be driven from the bottom-up.

Loose and tight

A reliability initiative need not have every phase outlined. This is where the concepts of a “loose” and “tight” construction enter. “Tight” refers to the non-negotiable values, policies and high-level principles of the reliability initiative. “Loose” refers to the way in which each site or department implements the principles, guided by the corporation.



Senior leadership determines what is “tight” through high-level guidance and metrics. Leaders should connect these goals and objectives of the company with the company’s needed response to maintenance and reliability practices. The “tight” classification implies that deviation from this guidance would not be in the best interest of its businesses, leadership and practitioners.

Values and policies belong to a company’s senior management.

The trick, of course, is constructing the guidance through values, policies and boundaries of how maintenance and reliability (M&R) practices are implemented. For instance, a company may choose to boost uptime from its current manufacturing network rather than incur the cost of expanding its footprint. The chosen uptime metrics and analysis procedures could be non-negotiable, or “tight.” But how a site meets the uptime challenge could be left to the plant, or “loose.” The power of this strategy is how it generates areas of M&R excellence. Practitioners can then develop the internal networks that are needed to share best practices and accelerate the timetable needed to meet their challenge. One caveat to the “loose” and “tight” approach occurs for enterprise infrastructure and business systems. By the nature of their inter-connectedness, a “tight” strategy should be maintained for the chosen functionality. The best example is SAP’s CMMS system. Because it interfaces with other corporate systems, its usage is a “tight” candidate. Software that is “loose” could be tools that support M&R practices, such as root-cause analysis, failure mode and effects analysis, and others.

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Reliablity policies The top two levels of a corporate reliability program—values and policies—belong to a company’s senior management. Values define the corporation through its vision and mission. They encompass the company’s cultural and ethical focus, EHS responsibilities and how the company serves its customers. Policies are the corporation’s guidelines, which generally do not include room for deviation. Most companies have policies for EHS as well as travel, accounting, human resources and others. Most do not, however, include a Reliability Policy in their mix. For any capital-intensive industry aimed at guiding the response to maintenance and reliability issues, a Reliability Policy should exist that connects expected behaviors with the business case for improving the reliability of the equipment assets and the manufacturing process. Adherence to the policy should carry the same weight as all other company policies. The Reliability Policy should provide clear line-of-site objectives from company values through to maintenance delivery. It connects and gives purpose to the execution of the asset-care plans for its equipment. The Policy standardizes the response for maintenance and reliability practices through guidelines for maintenance and reliability principles, criteria and work practices (setting minimum expectations), along with focus areas for improvement (such as equipment uptime). It should describe a measurement system that enables users to determine if progress is being made toward the time horizon established for reliability improvement. Here are two examples of how to word the beginning of a Reliability Policy: “Our manufacturing processes will operate without failure and will enable the extension of turnarounds to industry benchmarks.”


“We will strive to achieve equipment process performance and reliability that drives quality and on-time delivery that meets our customers’ needs and delivers value to all our stakeholders. Reliability will enable us to manage the risks from environmental, safety and health incidents to our employees and the communities in which we operate.” Why are Reliability Policies a rarity in manufacturing? The answer lies in a lack of understanding among senior management. Members of this group often achieve promotion without exposure to the benefits of improved equipment and process reliability. The ability to translate the impact of this information to the company’s bottom line requires someone who understands manufacturing, reliability best practices and whose business acumen is respected in the board room—a rare combination.

Principles and best practices The two levels below Policy are “Principles and Criteria,” followed by “Best Practices.” Principles are the highest level of guidance that can be offered regarding the minimum set of practices a site should be implementing. This can include basics such as defect-elimination, criticality, attached bill of materials for critical assets, specific use of certain CMMS functionality, and lubrication and greasing practices, to name a few. It’s important, however, to stop guidance at this level. Being overly prescriptive can be detrimental to sites developing “pockets of excellence” in their implementation. They need to figure out how to meet the guiding principles. Best Practices are the “property” of the manufacturing sites and their various networks. They can be organized along the same lines as the Principles by company focus areas, work processes or by accepted industry standards (such as SMRP’s Five Pillars: Business and Management, Manufacturing Process Reliability, Equipment Reliability, Organization & Leadership, APRIL 2014


Principles are the highest level of guidance that can be offered. and Work Management). They can detail how a practice will be executed, such as in the following example for critical equipment lists: 1. All equipment within the production facility, including rotating and fixed equipment, structures, systems and other components (electrical, mechanical, instrumentation), has been evaluated and processed through the critical equipment evaluation. 2. The critical equipment list is available and used in establishing priorities for preventive maintenance activities, condition monitoring activities and spare-parts inventory decisions. 3. The critical equipment list is used to prioritize maintenance tasks. 4. Failure of a piece of critical equipment triggers a detailed assessment of the failure, such as an RCA or RCM. The advantage to identifying Best Practices is that with consistency comes the ability to develop reliability skill levels, ease the transfer of personnel from one site to another, perform comparisons of performance across sites and accelerate the results needed to meet the business challenge stated through the Reliability Policy. This ultimately achieves higher uptime, higher productivity, lower operating costs and a more predictable supply-chain performance.

Implementation Implementation starts with the Board of Directors. Generally, a sponsor in the APRIL 2014

manufacturing organization understands and is willing to develop the business case and present it to the business leadership. This senior sponsor understands the impact a standardized response to maintenance and reliability can have on the company’s performance. Generally, he or she gets tasked with connecting the business performance imperatives to the outcomes of a Reliability initiative. In addition, the sponsor identifies candidates to lead the initiative and those in individual business units to carry out its implementation. Those who lead these types of initiatives should be expected to perform the following: Maintenance, Reliability and Site Manager duties, preferably with multisite experience Develop strategies to accelerate and improve current maintenance and reliability performance Deploy the appropriate metrics to measure performance Optimize CMMS utilization Drive the execution of asset-care strategies Integrate reliability into capital projects with engineering Define and roll out plan for assetreliability issues Recruit, hire and supervise reliability resources Support plant-reliability improvement efforts globally Improve the company’s competency in reliability for engineers, craft and operators Drive risk out of fixed equipment with risk-based methods

Once the leadership structure and responsibilities are established at senior levels in the company and in the business units, subject-matter experts should be identified for the various aspects of maintenance and reliability practices. This should include those with expertise in maintenance execution, planning and scheduling, reliability engineering, defect elimination and materials management (stores). Next, a small team including the executive sponsor should “craft” the Reliability Policy and the Principles and Best Practices to be followed. A review period for all stakeholders should be conducted and allowed to run its course to achieve understanding and buy-in.

Best Practices are the ‘property’ of sites and their various networks. Most important to the success of this effort is having the right metrics. The fewer metrics developed the better. Dashboards should be set up along with recording systems for a few lagging metrics. Lagging metrics are better recorded and reported at the business-leadership and corporate level to measure progress, while leading metrics are best for the smaller enterprises to decide and report at the manufacturing-site level. Reporting of lagging metrics should be less frequent (quarterly) than leading metrics (weekly) at the sites. Time-based expectations can easily derail a reliability-improvement initiative. To avoid derailment, set a two- to threeyear horizon to “move the needle” on expected outcomes.MT&AP David Rosenthal, P.E., leads Reliability Delivery and Asset Management for Jacobs Asset Management Services group in Houston, TX. Currently serving on SMRP’s Board of Advisors, and a former President of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Dave has been involved in Reliability and Maintenance for more than 30 years. MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 21

Where Looks Are Deceiving: The Counterfeit in Your Bin

Government agencies and suppliers wage an ongoing war against substandard, potentially deadly products marketed as the real deal.

Jane Alexander, Deputy Editor

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APRIL 2014


Questioned about their work-related experiences with the “seen and unseen scourge” of counterfeit products in this month’s “For on the Floor” column (pg. 12), most responding MT&AP Reader Panelists reported no exposure. The trouble with this response, of course, is that counterfeit detection is all about being able to distinguish between the real thing and a highly realistic fake. As our Panelists and others acknowledge, counterfeiters have become so skilled it’s difficult to know if you’ve seen their work or not. Counterfeits reflect an insidious, ever-growing, global enterprise. Encouraged by extraordinary profits, those who make counterfeits have managed to infiltrate almost every area of the supply chain with their products. These include a host of consumer goods in the fields of fashion, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, diet supplements, pet food, baby formula, automobile brake pads, small appliances and others, along with industrial items like electronic components, bearings, instrumentation, tools, valves, hoists and rigging, crane parts, fire extinguishers and flanges. And the list is probably much longer.

Who tracks counterfeits?

Ferreting out fake products is the responsibility of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Homeland Security Investigations (HIS). These are agencies within the Department of Homeland Security that are charged with the enforcement of intellectual property rights (IPRs). Protecting America from illicit trade in counterfeits and pirated goods is a daunting task. More than 11 million maritime containers arrive at U.S. seaports each year. Another 10 million come in by truck and three million by rail at other points of entry. Millions of dollars worth of cargo also enter the country by air and through postal and express packages.

According to a recent CBP/HIS report, the number of IPR seizures in fiscal year 2013 increased nearly 7% over the same period in 2012 (up from 22,848 to 24,361). During that period, tactical collaboration with the National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center led to 693 arrests, 411 indictments and 465 convictions for IPR crimes. In addition, 1413 domain names distributing counterfeit merchandise were seized; 35 exclusion-order enforcement actions were completed; and 20 shipments of circumvention devices were seized. Robust as the above numbers look, however, CBP acknowledges that they represent only a fraction of the counterfeits moving through the supply chain. And while the number of industrial products seized represents only a small percentage of all seizures (which are dominated by consumer goods, especially items like fake designer purses), the authorities admit they miss more than they catch across the board. Each group’s connection with counterfeits imparts a cost to users and the economy, the full impact of which can only be guessed at. Whatever they are—wherever they are—counterfeit industrial parts pose grave dangers for unsuspecting operations. These substandard products (and what endusers don’t not know about them) can do more than cause production shutdowns. They can kill.

Industrial hot spots

Two especially worrisome categories of industrial fakes are electrical components and related equipment (especially wiring, circuit breakers, fuses and tools) and bearing products (including seals and greases). Given the ubiquitous nature of these items in industry and their criticality with regard to safe, reliable operations, the fact that end-users can still be fooled by counterfeits in these areas only underscores the skill of today’s product replicators.

Industry-Specific Anti-Counterfeiting Resources The Anti-Counterfeit Product Initiative ( is a joint effort of two electrical-industry-association publications, ELECTRICAL CONTRACTOR and TED magazines. The goal is “to bring the serious consequences of counterfeiting to the attention of every player in the $130 billion electrical industry,” according to the Website. Among other things, the site is a go-to source for learning about and contacting government agencies and industry associations that are in the fight against counterfeits. These include the U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission, Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., the International Trade Commission of the U.S. Department of Commerce, the National Association of Electrical Distributors and others.

APRIL 2014

Stop Fake Bearings ( is a World Bearing Association (WBA) initiative supported by the American Bearing Manufacturers Association, the Federation of European Bearing Manufacturers’ Associations, and the Japan Bearing Industrial Association. Sponsors include bearing makers SKF, Schaeffler, NSK, FAG, Timken, Koyo and others. According to the WBA, members and sponsors work as a team to help raise awareness about counterfeiting and help buyers, end-users and distributors. Website visitors can access tools and informational resources, as well as subscribe to news about anti-counterfeiting activities around the world.



“It’s becoming increasingly more difficult to detect counterfeit electrical products in the field,” admits Tom Grace, Brand Protection Manager of Eaton’s Electrical Sector Americas. His advice for the best way to avoid them? “Purchase products directly from a manufacturer’s authorized distributors or resellers.” But addressing the larger problem of how to stem the tide of incoming counterfeit electrical parts, he says, is not so simple. “This requires industry organizations, manufacturers, customers and government bodies to work together to raise awareness and enact measures that will lead toward more effective detection of counterfeit products.” Grace points to its sponsorship of the Anti-Counterfeit Products Initiative as an example of the type of collaboration needed. Formed in 2009 by two electrical-industry publications (see Sidebar) and with support from other industry sponsors (Alcan Cable, Fluke, General Electric, Siemens and Square D), the campaign was intended to “make certain an anti-counterfeit message is disseminated to the broadest audience possible of professionals in the distribution, specification, purchasing and installation of electrical products,” according to its Website ( Grace says that thanks to this campaign and a new Eaton educational effort called “I Didn’t Know,” electrical-industry professionals “are becoming aware of the growing problem of counterfeit electrical products. But more education is required to help them identify and report fakes found in the field.” In the bearing market, counterfeit products are an issue for all branded manufacturers, says bearing maker SKF. They exist in all geographical markets and industrial segments, and for all bearing types and sizes. Moreover, they’re often sold to buyers for about the

Think You Can Spot a Counterfeit? Well, you probably can’t, says Craig Crosby, publisher of The Counterfeit Report (, an online resource that carries reviews and news updates mostly on counterfeit consumer products, but also on some for industry. Posted photos show real and counterfeit products side by side, which support Crosby’s claim that most are indistinguishable. He warns that counterfeit products are routinely found for sale on popular Websites like eBay and Amazo, where unsuspecting shoppers "looking for a bargain are handing over good money for bad products at prices near retail,” he says.

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In Simple Terms: The Problem with Counterfeits The World Bearing Association and its sponsors put the problem with counterfeits in simple terms for unsuspecting purchasers or bargain-hunting end-users: When you purchase a counterfeit, you don’t get what you paid for. Counterfeits can pose a danger to operations, finances and to human life. It can be hard to tell the difference between a genuine part and a counterfeit. Counterfeit parts are the result of illegal and unethical practices. To learn more about counterfeit bearings or obtain promotional material (posters and brochures) to inform others about the risks of using fake bearings, visit

same price as genuine products, thereby removing one of the more reliable ways—an unrealistically low price—to spot a possible counterfeit. With manufacturing operations around the globe, SKF has noticed a rise in the number of counterfeit bearings entering the United States. According to one project manager, fake bearings are now “basically arriving in brown boxes at your front door.” As in the electrical industry, SKF is but one of many bearing makers tackling the counterfeit problem. They’re joined by Timken, Schaeffler, NSK and other members of the American Bearing Manufacturers Association that have conducted seminars at various U.S. Custom locations across the United States to inform agency personnel about counterfeit bearings, their dangers and the red flags to look for with regard to seizing shipments. The stakes are high. In 2013 alone, U.S. Customs seized 55 shipments of counterfeit SKF bearings valued at about $3 million, says Timothy Gifford, Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of SKF USA, Inc. According to Gifford, when SKF identifies a seller of counterfeit bearings, the company launches an investigation that may result in civil litigation or, in rare cases, criminal prosecution. He says the company works closely with U.S. Customs and the National Cyber Forensic Training Alliance (NCFTA) on such incidents. With two embedded U.S. Customs officers and two FBI agents to help with counterfeit subject matters, NCFTA is “a very effective organization,” says Gifford, and a strong indicator of how important the problem has become. To learn more, visit MT&AP APRIL 2014



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Your Assets From Cyber Attack Gary Mintchell, Executive Director


Cyber attacks hit the news again over Christmas when Target revealed it was hacked. This could happen to manufacturing, too. Headlines about Stuxnet have receded into distant memory. Now, headlines focus on password and login theft and credit-card information downloading by hackers. This cannot be good, right? As a trend, no, but as a daily reminder of this issue, they can prevent management complacence about the impact of cyber intrusions into their control systems. The immediate problem may not be what you think. Most hackers probably are not trying to pollute the water supply or cause an explosion. However, plant management teams may not always appreciate that they sit on significant intellectual property (IP) that is housed within their control systems and historians. "Most people think the majority of hackers are out to disrupt or cause general mayhem on various systems, such as the traffic-sign hacking and similar incidents that can be seen on YouTube,” writes Jim Toepper, Product Marketing Manager at industrial Ethernet suppler Moxa, Inc., in his white paper, Industrial Networking Security Best Practices. “Although such incidents are a cause for concern, there is something much more valuable worth protecting on your industrial network: your IP." Bradford Hegrat, Director of Industrial Services for security consulting firm IOActive, agrees that stealing IP is a cyber-attack motivator. He offers an example of an operation that uses machinery from several suppliers. With access to this operation’s network and machinery, one such supplier might be able to “hack into a competitor’s machine and steal the intellectual property within it,” he says, if appropriate security measures are absent.

The keys to security “There are two keys to network security in industrial environments,” says Roman Arutyunov, Vice President of Product Development at ABB Tropos. “First, implement a multi-layer, defense-in-depth cybersecurity architecture. Second, extend that architecture to the edge of the network.”



Creating the proper defense requires understanding the cyber attacker. Not all cyber actors are the same for every vertical, nor do they share the same motivation. “Hacktivists,” as Hegrat calls them, have their own goals, which vary by focus and industry. Environmental activists, for example, typically pursue forestry and mining/metals industries. Though they have been more inclined to physical vandalism, they do include cyber attacks. Next higher up is cybercrime, which may or may not impact manufacturing. The big news here is usually about attackers who target the credit-card industry, but could also include manufacturers or

service industries. In the large Target theft, for example, entry was made through the control system of the HVAC contractor. Cyberterrorism, the next level, is more ideological. The goal is to affect through asymmetric violence the political stance of an organization or government. Cyberterrorists choose high-value targets, which are abundant in industrial companies. Any pasteurization process with chillers, for example, could be a target. Many are ammonia-based, and could cause accidents at great harm. Many of the explosions we hear about could have been accidents, but could also have been caused by someone.

The final tier is cyber warfare. Wikipedia defines this level as countries and sovereign states at war. This occurs when political problems escalate into kinetic warfare. To win, they must remove the ability or desire to fight. In digital space, Stuxnet may be at this level. This has not been officially attributed, but many analysts suggest it was an example of one government targeting another. This tier remains more theoretical, but could likely happen in the future.

Insider threats One of the biggest cyber threats is from insiders, says Hegrat. This occurs

The NIST Framework: A Common Language to Address Cyber Risk In February 2013, President Obama issued Executive Order 13636: Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity. The order calls for development of a voluntary, risk-based Cybersecurity Framework, a set of existing standards, guidelines and practices to help organizations manage cyber risks. The result—the Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity ( work/upload/cybersecurity-framework-021214.pdf)—was created through public/private collaboration, and provides a common language to address and manage cyber risk in a cost-effective way based on business needs, without placing additional regulatory requirements on businesses. Overseen by the Commerce Department's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Framework is designed to help the nation's financial, energy, healthcare and other critical systems protect their information and physical assets. It provides a structure that organizations, regulators and customers can use to create, guide, assess or improve comprehensive cybersecurity programs. "The Framework reflects the efforts of a broad range of industries that see the value of and need for improving cybersecurity and lowering risk," says Undersecretary of Commerce for Standards and Technology and NIST Director Patrick D. Gallagher. "It will help companies prove to themselves and their stakeholders that good cybersecurity is good business." Size of the organization, degree of cyber risk or cybersecurity sophistication do not matter, he

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says. “It can help determine any organization’s current level of cybersecurity, set goals for cybersecurity that are in sync with their business environment, and establish a plan for improving or maintaining their cybersecurity.” The Framework addresses three main elements: the core, tiers and profiles. The core presents five functions—identify, protect, detect, respond and recover—that, taken together, allow any organization to understand and shape its cybersecurity program. The tiers describe the degree to which an organization's cybersecurity risk management meets goals set out in the framework and "range from informal, reactive responses to agile and risk-informed,” says Gallagher. The profiles help organizations progress from a current level of cybersecurity sophistication to a target-improved state that meets business needs. “A key aspect of the Framework is that it is not intended to replace an organization’s existing business or cybersecurity risk-management process and cybersecurity program,” writes Ernie Hayden, a Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), on the Tofino Security blog (www. “Instead, the organization can use its current processes and leverage the Framework to identify areas to improve its cybersecurity risk management” or help them create one if no cybersecurity program is in place. Hayden offers three suggestions for action. “First, review the critical infrastructures [core, tiers, profiles] listed above. Does your company fall into any of those categories? If not,

APRIL 2014


“There are two keys to network security in industrial environments. First, implement a multi-layer, defense-in-depth cyber security architecture. Second, extend that architecture out to the edge of the network.”

is your company substantially reliant on any of those key infrastructures for your success and even existence? If the answer to either is YES, then read the draft Framework as it stands and figure out how you can apply it to your current cybersecurity risk management. “Second, acquaint your management and board members with the Framework. Give them a sense of how your company stands today relative to the Framework implementation tiers. Use this as a way to highlight your organization’s cybersecurity ‘maturity level.’ If you aren’t near the top, use it to highlight the resources you need to raise your game. “Third, take a hard look at the Framework and test-drive it as it stands. Then provide comments back to NIST.” Hayden adds that it’s important to recognize that the Framework “is not a ‘checklist’ or a ‘compliance’ item to be fulfilled. Nor is it a ‘how-to’ on building a security program (see ISA/ IEC-62443.02.01 for that). Instead, the Framework provides a set of performance objectives for your cybersecurity risk program to achieve against your prioritized list of key assets.” Patrick Coyle, a chemical-industry QA manager who writes the Chemical Facility Security News blog (, says the Framework’s biggest benefit is that it uses language most business executives understand. But there are shortcomings, he says, the first of which is that it is voluntary. The President does not have the legislative mandate to create a critical infrastructure cybersecurity program, so he does not have the authority to mandate that the Framework be implemented. A second drawback, according to Coyle, is that the Framework is a management document, not a technical

APRIL 2014

when an organization has granted authorized access to individuals who betray the trust. Insider threats happen more often than anyone can imagine, and are the most difficult type of threat to control. “We have lots of technology to throw into the mix” against insider threats, says Hegrat, “but the only defense is system design, backed by policies and procedures.” Insurance underwriters are not insuring certain critical infrastructure for cyber security in the UK [see NIST sidebar], he adds, because of the lack of criteria for implementing and enforcing policies and procedures.

document. Even the six standards listed among its Informative References are more cybersecurity management documents than detailed technical descriptions of how to implement the specific controls that will secure an organization’s cyber assets. This is also by design, as no single document could identify the technical details and be of useable size or remain up-to-date past the time it was drafted, much less published. The final problem with the Framework, says Coyle, is that it exists in an informational vacuum. There are no mechanisms in place for the sharing of operational information or intelligence information that would allow organizations to adapt to the changing cybersecurity environment. This is also due to the lack of congressionally provided authority to establish and maintain the information-sharing mechanisms that would make such an adaptation process viable. Hegrat’s advice is to view the Framework as a first step. “You can't get too prescriptive in any standard,” he says. “Sometimes the restrictive doesn't work for every sector. The key is for each sector to implement. It is not meant to be audited against initially. If secondary organizations decide to implement and audit, that would be OK.” In one last warning for industrial managers, Hegrat cites a BBC news article ( nology-26358042) reporting that power companies are being refused insurance cover for cyber attacks, because their defenses are perceived as weak. Hegrat notes that if the companies implemented the NIST Framework or one similar to it, they would have a defense against such denial.



“An industrial control-system cybersecurity program (such as one that IOActive provides) brings structure both technical and non-technical,” adds Hegrat. “It includes firewalls, anti-virus and other features. The policy and procedure side does its best to mirror technology by not allowing surfing the Web from HMI. On the flip side, there should be a technical control that blocks it. If you don't have both, what's to prevent a smart operator from saying, ‘No one said I couldn't run a cable to the other side of the plant so I could get Web access.’ We've seen tons of vulnerabilities on the Web, and if the operator just stumbles on one, it could give remote access to a hostile attacker.” Hegrat offers five cybersecurity tips: 1. Create a cybersecurity program. It puts a general plan in front of people about what they need to do. 2. Figure out what’s in your process system. Perform an asset inventory. Everything is coded and there for a purpose. It's shocking how little people know about what's in the process. Ensure the assessment considers every digital device.

3. Harden your inputs. When you know all the assets, address security problems with those devices. The best first thing is to turn on existing security, such as security within Microsoft Windows. 4. Audit the environment. Know what's there. Make sure documentation is updated. Know what the new things are. 5. Monitor your systems. Watch the packets flow into and out of the equipment.

Configuration management “Configuration management of industrial control systems is the last line of defense for control-system security,” says Rich Powell, Cyber Security Solutions Manger at PAS, Inc. “The proprietary nature of control-system devices and the critical issue of availability for a control system precludes the use of traditional cybersecurity tools within a control system. Companies are left with securing the perimeter of the control system and monitoring traffic to and from the control system. The flaw in this approach,” he says, “is that it does nothing to protect against a USB drive or laptop from bypassing the firewall and

ISA Certification The International Society of Automation (ISA) has developed a knowledge-based industrial cybersecurity certificate program—the ANSI/ISA99, Industrial Automation and Control Systems Security standards (known internationally as ISA99/IEC 62443)—through the work of its Committee on Security for Industrial Automation & Control Systems (ISA99). A new certificate program—the ISA99/IEC 62443 Cybersecurity Fundamentals Specialist Certificate—is designed to help professionals involved in IT and control systems security improve their understanding of ISA99/IEC 62443 principles and acquire a command of industrial cybersecurity terminology. The exam that leads to the above certification covers the following areas: Understanding the Current Industrial Security Environment How Cyber Attacks Happen Creating a Security Program Risk Analysis Addressing Risk with Security Policy, Organization and Awareness Addressing Risk with Selected Security Countermeasures Addressing Risk with Implementation Measures Monitoring and Improving the CSMS Designing/Validating Secure Systems

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connecting directly inside the controls network. There is no protection at this point to stop an attack.” Powell adds that monitoring the controls device configuration is made more difficult because each vendor provides its own configuration management tool.  “What’s needed is a way to bring all the configuration and change monitoring within a single application,” he says. “Cyber Integrity from PAS performs this essential task for over 50 different control system types from the various vendors in this space. Cyber Integrity performs inventory, configuration baselining, configuration change monitoring and change-workflow management.” The Cyber Integrity product has been designed to meet the security and compliance requirements for industrial control systems. Its workflows and reports meet the electric-industry NERC CIP version-5 requirements, and use a risk-based approach to handling changes and reporting to configuration. Configuration changes are reconciled to management of change cases.  “The change workflow depends on the risk level of the asset/configuration item being modified,” says Powell. “Higher risk changes require more verification before the change is implemented. Configuration changes not reconciled to a change case initiate response workflows that trigger a review of unauthorized changes.” All workflows, he adds, are built for security best practice, but are customer-customizable to ensure maximum accuracy. MT&AP APRIL 2014


Road TOSustainability Phoenix Contact’s main office at the Germany-based company’s U.S. headquarters campus in Harrisburg, PA.

Phoenix Contact: Automation’s Sustainable Connection Well-known for its connectors and thousands of other products that serve automated building and manufacturing systems, Phoenix Contact is also a home-grown leader in energy-management and sustainability. Rick Carter, Executive Editor “Our business is automation,” says Doug Ferguson, Vice President of Americas Operations Services at Phoenix Contact USA, Harrisburg, PA. “And as we continue to innovate, we get more into energymanagement. So if we want to convince customers to use our products for automation to be more efficient, what better way than to bring a customer in and show them where we use our own products in our own facility to be more efficient?” As Ferguson suggests, Phoenix Contact’s multipleISO-certified Harrisburg operation (9000, 14000, 18000 and working toward 50001) is, indeed, a showcase for the company’s products and energyefficient operations. The site is the Germany-based company’s U.S. headquarters—a 52-acre campus east of Pennsylvania’s state capital that includes offices, APRIL 2014

production and laboratory areas, a distribution center and 500 full-time employees. A stroll through the light-infused lobby of the site’s four-story office building highlights company achievements, from its product line and presence in nearly 50 countries to its focus on sustainability. There’s no missing the working electric-car charging station, for example, located behind the reception desk, at least not when a car is using it. Fitted with a U.S.-standard charger head co-designed by Phoenix Contact engineers, the unit is used to charge the company’s electric Smart car, which is driven right into the lobby through the building’s main automatic double doors. It arrives, charges and leaves in petroleum-free silence. It can also fill up at a solar-powered charging station in the company parking lot opposite the lobby. MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 31


Phoenix Contact takes pride in producing subtle “wow” factors like this that employees say demonstrate the company’s ability to stay competitive through attention to detail and quality, organic growth and “staying close to our customers.” The style is handed down from the company’s world headquarters in Blomberg, Germany. Founded in Essen, Germany, in 1923, privately held Phoenix Contact enjoys strong sales—an estimated $2.28 billion (€1.64 billion) in 2013—thanks to intense customer focus via a product line that serves the rapid-growth needs of modern automated systems, especially those designed to manage energy. It offers some 60,000 items across numerous categories, including connectors of many types, cable, PLCs, industrial computers, power-supply units, Ethernet networks, relay modules and others that process infrastructures require in manufacturing and facility management. Most of the company’s core connector products are manufactured on automated machines customdesigned and built by Phoenix Contact in Germany.

Self-powered sustainability The connection with eco-conscious Germany has helped Phoenix Contact’s Harrisburg operation become nearly a textbook example of sustainability in manufacturing. The site, which opened in 1984, has always focused on sustainability, says Ferguson, “but in the last three to five years we have seen a much bigger push behind it.” Sustainable strategies like recycling, re-use, energy management and others receive the same continuous-improvement focus as production. And like other companies that reap the rewards of sustainability, Phoenix Contact sees this focus as a logical way to strengthen its competitive stance. “We’re a manufacturing facility in central Pennsylvania,” says Ferguson, “so we’re starting the race from dead last when it comes to being able to compete in a global marketplace, let alone the U.S. One way we can do that is to have competitive infrastructure and overhead rates. That all goes into the cost of the products we manufacture here. And we’ve been working for a while to keep the campus as energy-efficient as we can.” The campus’ buildings—all adjoining thanks to a recently opened 39,000-sq.-ft. production area in the middle—include the office

Vice President & General Manager Dave Skelton charges Phoenix Contact’s electric Smart car in the company lobby.

tower, a 75,000-sq.-ft. distribution center and another 50,000-sq-ft. production/laboratory area that predates the expansion. Completion of the new area triggered a reinvigorated push toward energy efficiency that takes the facility close to energy independence. Because the addition “almost doubled our manufacturing footprint,” says Ferguson, the company decided to incorporate on-site power generation. “We looked at the Marcellus shale/natural-gas opportunities here as well as solar and determined there was a bigger bang for the buck with natural-gas microturbines.” At the end of February, the site was commissioning a 1mW, natural-gasfired microturbine system that will enable it to operate partially free of the grid. It went on line in March. The company will continue to use electricity from its local utility, says Ferguson, “but there will be times in the shoulder season when we’ll pretty much be able to sustain ourselves.” Not surprisingly, he adds, “80% of the controls to run the system are our own products.” Despite choosing natural gas first, the company did not rule out solar. A second generation project, for example, calls for a 200-kW solar application to be installed on the distribution center roof. Designed and ready to go, its approval will depend on another payback analysis for 2015, says Ferguson. It will also take the Harrisburg campus that much closer to grid freedom. All electricity gener-

Mechatronics Technician Jason Bollinger adjusts one of the Harrisburg plant’s custom-made connector-building machines. Reusable plastic totes have replaced much of the cardboard that once traveled to and from Phoenix Contact’s Harrisburg operation, says Environmental Corporate Specialist Jennifer Graham.

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APRIL 2014


ated by the panels would be used to power the Harrisburg campus, which would allow it to be grid-free about 65% of the time.

A culture of energy management Oversight of the company’s ISO-based energy-management systems and responsibility for managing waste streams falls to Jennifer Graham, Environmental Compliance Specialist. According to Graham, the company’s recycling programs cover all municipal waste—paper, plastic and glass—and various hazardous-material streams that include solder dross, electronic waste, scrap circuit boards and cable assemblies. Areas to deposit recycled material are numerous at the facility and plainly marked with color-coded bins. “Green is office paper, blue is single-stream plastic and black is for landfill trash,” says Graham, “which can be anything from food waste from our café to other waste produced on site that can’t be recycled.” Under a recently adapted zero-landfill initiative, the company hopes to phase out all “can’t be recycled” material by 2020. Ferguson points to encouraging progress in that direction from 2010 to 2013 when the company’s percentage of landfillbound trash dropped from 59% to 43%. “A lot of that was due to a re-education effort that began on Earth Day 2013,” he says, when the color-coding was updated, a lunch-and-learn on waste streams was held, and the company reviewed how material made its way into landfill trash. “We found that a lot of it still contained recyclable material,” some of which was easy to divert, like bathroom trash that was mostly paper. “Other material like cafeteria waste will be more difficult,” he says. “We’re looking at how we might compost that right here. Also, we know there are things we can recycle and get money back for rather than letting our recycling hauler take it away.” One is copper wire, which is now co-mingled with regular production scrap. “It’s still getting recycled,” adds Ferguson, “but if we do a better job, we can not only recycle it, but save some of the cost for us to process it.” APRIL 2014

Other keys to the company’s sustainable strategy include the energy-saving features of the facility itself as well as advanced approaches to product packaging. “Our new building is one of the few in the United States with triple-pane insulated glass,” says Ferguson. “In that building we also have fully automated blinds and daylight harvesting, which allows lighting to be higher or lower depending on amount of light coming through windows.” Other features in the new building include solar-powered flushless valves on all urinals and toilets (use of which is to be extended to the rest of the complex), and all A cart stocked with Phoenix Contact rail buildings on site use only energy-efficient LED, assemblies awaits shipment. The unique T5 and T8 bulbs. shipping solution eliminates all packaging Time- and energy-saving initiatives in the material, saving time and money for packaging area include use of recyclable air both, says Vice President of Americas pillows. “We just moved to these and away Operations Services Doug Ferguson. from the peanuts,” notes Ferguson, who says another big money-saver is their use of plastic totes. “All of our products that come in from Germany or China by sea container are packed in reusable plastic totes, and we use these for what we send back out. We’re also expanding use of the totes with some local suppliers.”



How Phoenix Contact Builds A Sustainable Workforce It’s a familiar refrain: “We need people in production and engineering,” says Dave Skelton, Vice President & General Manager of Development and Manufacturing for Phoenix Contact at the company’s U.S. headquarters in Harrisburg, PA. And like many U.S. manufacturing operations, Phoenix Contact has had difficulty filling both skill sets. The problem became particularly acute in production when more operators and technicians were needed during a 2011 expansion. After consulting with company headquarters in Germany, Skelton and his team decided an apprenticeship program could solve the problem. Particularly important, says Skelton, was the need for a program in mechatronics, the interdisciplinary field that combines mechanical and electrical engineering with computer science, which “is the hardest skill for us to find.” The absence of an existing mechatronics apprenticeship program in the U.S. meant the company would need to create its own. Tapping their experienced staff and local community-college partners (who provided input on “general-purpose courses like thermodynamics and [standard] 61131 PLC programming,” according to Skelton), a four-year program was designed that features approximately 8000 total training hours— 600 in the classroom, and the rest on the job at the Harrisburg facility. A full-time trainer was hired to help administer the apprenticeship program and assist with employee training in other areas like IPC (Institute of Printed Circuits) standards and safety.

To fill the apprenticeship classes, the company had to look no farther than its own operation. “We found a number of employees here who were interested and willing to make the commitment,” says Skelton. “The attraction is that while you’re in school, you’re still at work, which means you’re still being paid. What you learn in class you apply immediately on the job.” Another attraction was that upon completion of the course— now registered with both the federal and Pennsylvania-state governments—graduates would receive journeyman papers. The first group of five graduated in mid-February, says Skelton, who adds that he hopes to expand the program into other areas, including quality and maintenance. Spurring interest in engineering takes a longer view and has a longer history at Phoenix Contact. Centered on a paid internship program begun in 2006, the company’s quest for engineers is aided by its relationship with several local colleges and universities whose students participate year-round. “Last summer we had 22 interns in development manufacturing,” says Skelton, who calls the program a win for the company and interns because it involves “real work,” not tedium. Interns receive a well-rounded view of the company by starting in production assembly and moving through more complex operations the longer they’re aboard. “This way we learn about them and they learn about us,” says Skelton. “Right now we have about 10 who work here part-time, and when they near their final year, we can make them job

Phoenix Contact goes a step farther with a local lightingmanufacturer customer that buys large quantities of the company’s rail assemblies. “We once packaged everything for them using bubble-wrap and cardboard,” says Ferguson. “Then we developed a cart system where we slide the rail assemblies onto a [stainless steel] cart, roll it onto a delivery truck, drive it to their facility, drop it off and bring back the empty.” The customer rolls the stocked cart into its production area, slides the rail assemblies off where needed, and returns the empty cart to its shipping/receiving area for pickup and return to Phoenix Contact. “The customer loves this,” he says, “because they’re not opening

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offers. By then, everyone knows each other and we know there will be a fit. We do a lot of our recruiting that way, and we have no trouble filling our internships.” Other company-driven initiatives like its annual Engineering Week also help Phoenix Contact stay ahead on hiring. This event mainly “celebrates our engineers,” says Skelton, but also includes communityoutreach efforts to local public schools as well as universities. A highlight is the weeklong engineering-themed course created by Phoenix Contact engineers who teach it to a local middle-school class. The event also features a company-sponsored contest where middle- and high-school students are given Phoenix Contact controllers and connectors, and tasked with creating working machinery, winning examples of which are on display in the Harrisburg lobby. This effort has since been expanded to the college-level. These outreach programs “were not intended to bring more people into Phoenix Contact directly,” says Skelton, “but they have given us great awareness in the community and the fact that we have technical careers available. We are, however, seeing a lot more people who want to come work at our company. There’s an investment in each of these programs, but the rewards are great because the employees we get are committed, they’re knowledgeable and they’re good people. The cost of recruiting is expensive,” he adds, “so the bar to entry is not all that high for what we do when you consider the benefits.”

a box, taking out packaging material and having to throw all of that away or recycle it. It saves them many minutes of labor just getting to their product.” Clever solutions like this exemplify Phoenix Contact’s equally strong commitment to customer needs and sustainable solutions, says Ferguson. And it’s this approach, he believes, that will enable the company to realize its master plan in Harrisburg, which calls for further additions to production and office space. “We’re here for the long haul,” he notes. “And doing these types of things to remain competitive will get us there.” MT&AP APRIL 2014


Ol’ Dependable Ken Bannister Contributing Editor


f you, like me, are a viewer of the many wonderful public-broadcasting TV stations that are available, you may have come across a British Broadcasting Corporation program called Heartbeat. Set in the Yorkshire countryside of the 1960s, it depicts life in a small town from the local Bobbie’s (policeman’s) perspective. I love this program because it reflects the England of my youth—and I particularly enjoy recognizing the old cars, trucks and motorcycles from yesteryear. Yorkshire is where my father was born. Living in Lancashire, our family regularly traveled deep into the Yorkshire countryside with him, driving across the tiny roads of the Pennine hills (we called them mountains). What was then a four- to five-hour journey has been reduced to less than two hours by today’s super-slab motorway! Growing up, I knew we were lucky to own a car: a 1950s green Morris Minor, license plate #WJA 41. (Funny how you remember such things, isn’t it?) We used to call it “Ol’ Dependable.” It wasn’t a joke. Today, we think nothing of casually jumping into our cars or trucks and driving for hours to our chosen destinations. It wasn’t like that in the good old days!

Dependability is an old word not heard often enough today in industry. But ISO 55000 is about to change that. I vividly remember helping my Dad prepare “Ol’ Dependable” for our Pennine “mountain” adventures: We would change the engine oil; check the other fluids and top them off; check the fan- and generator-belt conditions and tension; pump up the tires; grease the steering and driveshaft bearing points; and check the brake linings. Then we would go for a spin. My father’s maintenance diligence, among other things, was the real reason that our car and he were both known as “Ol’ Dependable.”

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Dependability is a desirable quality in a person, organization, process or machine. Dependability conjures up thoughts of trust, reliability and always being there to do the right thing. It’s an old word, not heard often enough today. That will soon change. As readers of MT&AP may already know, in February of this year, the International Standards Organization (ISO) released its first-ever world standard for asset management and asset-management systems (maintenance): ISO 55000. This standard collectively refers to Availability, Reliability, Maintainability and Maintenance Support under the heading “Dependability.” The International Electrotechnical Vocabulary defines dependability as the “ability to perform as and when required.” Australia’s Asset Management Council expands on that definition by stating, “[dependability] is a descriptor for elements pertaining to reliability, maintainability and their myriad of sub-elements.” It’s only fitting, therefore, that a quality maintenance department should be viewed as “Ol’ Dependable.” Furthermore, any quality maintenance or asset-management departments that build their asset-management programs utilizing a “best-practice” approach laid out in the ISO 55000 or PAS 55 standards are better able to prove their dependability through their ability to more easily assess and measure their level of maintenance support. This is achieved through tracking performance indicators that roll up into the Dependability deliverable. The key indicators are: Availability, which looks at the total percentage of time the asset is in an operational state to perform when required by a user; Reliability, which measures performance security by calculating the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF)—the less failure, the longer the mean time, the more reliable the asset; Maintainability, which reflects the ease and speed at which maintenance responds to a service request, and how long it takes to restore the asset operation once a failure has occurred as measured by the Mean Time To Respond/Repair (MTTR) and the First Time Repair Quality (FTRQ). We should all be so fortunate to be known as “Ol’ Dependable” in one or more aspects of our lives. The same holds true, if not more so, for our equipment assets. Good Luck! MT&AP

APRIL 2014

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Domain of Knowledge Element #8

Industrial Lubrication Fundamentals:

Lubricant Life-Cycle Management

Give your equipment lubricants the respect they deserve. Keep them well-filtered and clean!

Ken Bannister Contributing Editor

What often comes to mind when I think of lubricants is comedian Rodney Dangerfield’s signature “No Respect” line: Lubricants rarely get the respect they deserve until they are recognized as an integral part of a machine’s design. Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) machine designers have long recognized and respected the value of choosing the correct lubricant for the job. They spend considerable time with lubricant-company engineers to choose the types of oils and greases that will adequately perform under given sets of ambient and machine conditions and allow equipment to function per design specifications.

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The machine designer also recognizes that a lubricant is a consumable weak link in the design and, as such, is subjected to many stresses, including temperature and contamination that can significantly degrade the product’s ability to protect a machine. To combat temperature excesses, a lubricant with a suitable viscosity and viscosity index (VI) is chosen. To ensure the lubricant has a chance of an extended life cycle, a good designer will incorporate a variety of contamination-control devices in the lubricationsystem design. Equally important in the lubricant life-cycle equation is the role of the equipment owner/operator, who also must recognize that an oil or grease is an integral part of the equipment design. Moreover, the owner/operator must be diligent in controlling contamination elements such as dirt and water around the machine—and care for the contamination-control devices that have been built into the machine. DELIVERY SIDE





Surface-type fluid filters: oil

The most common style of oil filter in use, surface filters come in many configurations. They are primarily designed to work in the direct-flow path of the lubricant and capture any dirt particles (contaminants) held in colloidal suspension as the lubricant flows through or across the filter media. This filter element is typically very porous, the purpose of which is to minimize any differential fluid pressure loss across the filter media. As a result, this style of filter exhibits low captureefficiency and dirt-holding capacity. In light of their moderate life expectancy, these filters must be inspected, cleaned or replaced on a regular basis. The actual design and capture capability of the filter will depend on its location within the lubrication system and the desired functional effect of the filter. For example, in a typical re-circulative hydraulic or lubrication system a pump suctions oil from a lubricant reservoir and pumps it under pressure to a moving device such as a valve, cylinder or bearing. Once the lubricant has performed its job, it is allowed to return, under gravity, to the reserGRAVITY RETURN LINE voir where it can cool and be cycled again. In a typical lubrication system (Fig. 1), we can generally expect to find six to seven of the following types of surface-filter designs, along with one depth filter.


Filter #1 is a suction filter positioned low in the reservoir and connected to the pump suction inlet via a suction tube. The filter media is typically wire-mesh gauze, paper or felt designed to capture and stop any large debris or metallic wear particles from entering the pump.



5 7 3






Fig. 1. A typical recirculative oil-filtration system will usually have six to seven of the surface-type filters (numbered 1-7 in this diagram) along with one depth-type filter.

Contamination-control devices The primary contamination-control device used in an oil lubrication system is a fluid filter, which can be one of two types: 1) a surface filter or, 2) a depth filter. For semi-fluid systems using grease as a lubricant, only surface-type filters (known as strainers and mechanical filters) are used. APRIL 2014

Filter #2 is a pressure filter positioned directly on the output-pressure delivery side of the pump—between the pump and the first moving device in the lubrication system. This filter is the primary systemprotection filter and uses pleated paper, cellulose or fine porous-metal media designed to withstand the pump system pressure and capture small-micron particulate that has managed to move through the suction filter and pump-gear set.

Filter #3 is positioned on the gravity-return piping side of the lubrication system, just before the reservoir lubricant return inlet. Known as a gravity-return filter, this component generally employs a low-pressure paper medium deigned to capture wear metal and debris washed from the moving parts of the machine by the lubricant. MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 39


Filter #4 is a more passive filter designed to attract and hold any ferritic debris and wear metals that might bypass the return filter or that could have been in the reservoir from the start. This filter is magnetic and often serves a second duty as a reservoir drain plug. Filter #5 is a large-pore metal-mesh strainer-sock positioned in the inlet mouth of the reservoir fill-port. This filter is designed to capture errant large particulate from making its way into the reservoir when filling is taking place or if the fill cap has been left off the reservoir. Filter #6 is a breather-filter designed to equalize pressure in the reservoir. In its simplest form, this component utilizes a wire-wool media to prevent any particulate of 40 microns and above in the air from entering the reservoir. In a more sophisticated design, breather-filters employ a desiccant-like silica-gel hydrophilic material that allows the reservoir to breathe while preventing outside airborne particulate 3 microns and above from entering the reservoir. These advanced designs are also able to wick and capture moisture from inside the reservoir and prevent outside moisture from entering. Once saturated, the gel turns from blue to pink, indicating visually that the material needs to be changed. Filter #7 is an optional filter found in larger systems. Employing a filter cart hooked up to the reservoir, it extracts oil from the reservoir using components similar to the previously described #2 pressure filter, or a thick felt-type sock in the form of a “bag” (i.e., a bag filter), to provide fine filtration of the lubricant. The clean lubricant is then returned to the reservoir for further use, thus extending the oil-change frequency.

Depth-type fluid filters: oil A depth filter differs from a surface filter in that it takes the lubricant through an indirect maze-like flow-path designed to capture and accommodate large amounts of dirt. These filters are highly efficient and capable of withstanding high differential pressure. If the surface filter were to use a single sheet of toilet paper as its media, the depth-filter equivalent would be the entire roll of toilet paper! Filter #8 is a depth filter that’s typically placed within a bypass circuit on the output-pressure-delivery side of the pump—before the pressure filter. The filter medium can be made from cellulose, fiberglass, felt or diatomaceous earth, designed to deep clean and polish the lubricant.

Grease filters Grease doesn’t typically flow the same way oil does, and it is pumped at higher pressures than oil. For these reasons, metal

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100,000 50,000












Fig. 2. Filter efficiency/Beta ratio is calculated as shown here.

Filter efficiency and Beta ratio Filter media is rated to capture particles down to a defined minimum micron size, and its efficiency is measured in how well it captures those particles. Under lab conditions, the volume of upstream particles (of a defined micron size) are counted before entering the filter and counted again after exiting the filter on the downstream side, the difference is calculated as a percentage to arrive at the filter efficiency. As shown in Fig. 2, a filter’s Beta ratio (or filtration ratio) is calculated using the ratio of upstream versus downstream particulates. For example, if 100,000 particles of the same micron size were flowed through a filter that only stopped half (or 50,000) particles, the efficiency would be 50% and the beta ratio would be 100,000/50,000, or 2. Similarly, if the filter was successful in stopping 99,000 of the 100,000, it would be 99% efficient and have a beta ratio of 100,000/1000, or 100. Therefore, a higher Beta ratio number equates to a more efficient and higher-quality filter medium. strainers or wedge-wire filters fitted to the pressure side of a pump delivery system are used to trap large debris that’s usually introduced into the system during filling. Although the mesh or wedge-wire (which resembles a tightly coiled spring) mechanically can trap contaminants down to 145 microns, it must be cleaned regularly. LM&T

Ken Bannister is a certified Maintenance and Lubrication Management Consultant for ENGTECH Industries, Inc. He is the author of the Machinery’s Handbook Lubrication chapters, and the Lubrication for Industry textbook, recognized as part of the ICML and ISO’s Domain of Knowledge. Bannister also conducts formal preparatory training for ICML MLT/MLA certifications and ISO LCAT certifications. For more training information, he can reached at (519) 469-9173 or by email at APRIL 2014

Advance Spill Preparation Makes Safety Sense Upfront planning for these events can also reduce downtime. Jane Alexander, Deputy Editor

An appropriate, timely response can help prevent a spill from spreading and creating a hazard. (Photo courtesy of New Pig Corp.)

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When a spill occurs in a facility, the time needed to find absorbents, vacuums and other tools to contain and clean it up can consume a sizable—and valuable—chunk of time, not to mention how the spill might impact production. Unchecked, a spill could also hit drains and other sensitive areas. While plant spills may seem rare, statistics from the U.S. government’s National Response Center show that more than 10,000 reportable spills occur in fixed facilities each year. This equates to more than one spill per hour. Just over half of these spills are caused by equipment failure; one in five is caused by operator error. Because spills can happen anytime and anywhere, upfront preparation to mitigate them can help ensure safety and minimize downtime. This requires having the right tools for the job, in the right location, and training responders to use them properly.

Defining small and large spills The Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) each require sites to be prepared for spills. Many of their regulations focus on contingency planning and preparation for “worst-case scenario” spills and catastrophic incidents. While preparing for such incidents is important, National Response Center data shows that the most common spill volume is less than 20 gallons. Thus, preparing for small spills is equally important. To do so, it’s important to define “small” and “large” spills, but there is no one-size-fits-all definition. For example, a 100-gallon spill of lubricating oil that’s confined in a storage area with no drains could be deemed “small,” whereas a oneounce spill of mercury would be “large.” It’s up to each facility to evaluate its particular hazards and set relevant parameters for responders. Other factors to consider include spill location, the employees’ level of knowledge, the availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) and other response tools. The EPA uses the following terms to describe spills: Incidental spill — One that does not pose a significant safety or health risk to responders, and is typically a small quantity. Emergency spill — One that is immediately dangerous to life and health (often designated as “IDLH”). Examples are spills triggered by explosions and fire, or those that exist in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. Spill plans that include preparations for any spill size will be better positioned to provide an effective response. Walking through your entire plant will help to identify leak- and spillprone areas (see Sidebar). This helps everyone know where to focus planning efforts and where response tools should be stored. APRIL 2014

Identify Your Site’s Leak- and Spill-Prone Areas Spills are most likely to occur where fluids are transferred, used and stored. Fluid-filled equipment is another frequent, but often overlooked, source of leaks and spills. To properly determine your site’s potential spill profile, check the following: Small leaks and drips from pumps, funnels, faucets and overfilled containers. These are common in both fluiddispensing and waste-collection areas. While these spills tend to be less than five gallons, being prepared for their quick cleanup can help keep a site safer. Left on a floor, even a small spill presents a slip-and-fall hazard. Busy loading docks. With materials constantly in motion in this area, spills are possible. A package might arrive that’s leaking or a forklift graze could damage a liquid-filled drum. Advanced spill preparation will minimize the amount of time a hectic dock area needs to be shut down to address a spill. Overspray, dip tanks and leaky production machinery. These factors can cause spills that get onto walkways and make floors slippery. Bulk storage tanks and pipelines that are not routinely maintained can also lead to leaks and spills in production areas.

Tools of the trade The variety of spill types and spill-response factors means that the tools used to deal with them can be equally varied. Just as mechanics may use several different tools to fix various problems, spill responders often need different tools to respond to spills. A common facility response tool is a kit that contains absorbent mats, socks, booms and pillows to quickly contain and soak up spills. Spill kits are ideal for incidental spills because they can be placed throughout the facility and sized to address anticipated spills in each area. The absorbents in spill kits can also help contain large or emergency spills until additional resources arrive. Non-absorbent spill-response dikes and drain covers augment spill kits and can be used to quickly contain or divert spills from sensitive areas such as drains or doorways. In some cases, it’s preferable to contain a spill so it can be vacuumed or pumped into a container for reuse or recycling. Vacuuming or pumping large spills can also help reduce spill-response costs by minimizing absorbent usage. When choosing a vacuum or pump, consider the properties of the liquids that may spill. Specialized vacuums and pumps are available for flammable, corrosive and other types of liquids. MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 43


Training Issues Anyone who will respond to emergency spills needs to be properly trained to meet the requirements of OSHA’s Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) Standard (29 CFR 1910.120.). Employees who will only respond to incidental spills must also be trained, but the training may be done in-house and may be part of hazard communication or other safety training. Training should occur regularly and involve use of each of the response tools available at the site. Local firefighters and county hazmat teams are often excellent resources to help with training and routine drills. Each employee should know his/her responsibility when a spill happens. Even if the employee is only expected to pull an alarm and evacuate, having this knowledge will help keep everyone safe.






Mark your calendar and join your colleagues in San Antonio for the 2014 Annual Training Conference. THE 2014 CONFERENCE WILL INCLUDE:

• Two pre-conference workshops • Three concurrent conference tracks, including sessions on: - Gearbox Monitoring & - Improving Reliability Analysis & Maintenance Costs - Thermal Vectors in through Training Generators - Problem Solving - Cooling Tower Standards - Modal Testing - And much more… - Basic Diagnostics - Reliability Engineering • Exhibit Hall with vendors who will provide you with the latest solutions to take your predictive maintenance program to the next level.

To help responders address spill sources, response kits can also be stocked with patch and repair tools, quick-setting epoxies and plugs. Other additions to consider include PPE, disposal bags and overpacks.

Placing spill-response equipment Store spill-response materials in locations where they would most likely be needed. This allows for quick responder access—a critical element in preventing a spill from spreading. Small plants may do well with one portable spill kit that can be quickly taken to any area of the facility. Larger sites will often need to establish several areas for spill-response equipment. To remember where spill kits and response items are stored, keep them in brightly colored containers. Use signs or paint to identify locations and remind all personnel where to find these crucial items when needed. MT&AP This article was prepared with information provided by New Pig Corp., Tipton, PA.


June 10-13, 2014 The Menger Hotel San Antonio, TX

• Academic Track with presentations from the next generation of professionals. • Networking opportunities to meet and collaborate with your colleagues. Additional information, registration and details for the 2014 Annual Training Conference are available at:

P: 630-654-2254 E:

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APRIL 2014

Lubrication Checkup Hydraulic Leaks By Dr. Lube, aka Ken Bannister Symptom:

After running a newly purchased hydraulic system for several weeks, we’ve noticed that two of the cylinder seals are leaking. How can this happen in brand-new equipment?

Diagnosis: You may have suffered “contamination effect.” Most hydraulic and lube-delivery systems incorporate tightly toleranced valves and pistons. Since these components are NOT dirt-tolerant, they can be easily damaged by solid particles. In your case, large solid particles (15 microns and above) have probably made their way through the system, scoring hydraulic valves and cylinder surfaces and causing an opening that allows lubricants to bypass the seal. In new systems, solid-particle ingression can be built-in or ingested. The “built-in” type refers to burrs, swarf, filings, dust, fibers and other types of particles left by the manufacturer in uncleaned reservoirs and lines. Once lubricant is added and new equipment starts up for the first time, debris cycles through the system and damage occurs—before any work is done. If, however, your unit was cleaned prior to startup, its leaks are probably associated with self-introduced “ingested” debris—i.e., raw material and airborne contaminants that can enter a reservoir if a breather or fill-cap is inadvertently left off, or through dirty lubricants and/or dirty transfer equipment.

Prescription: To correct your leaking system, use detection dye and black light to determine and mark the location of leaks. Then, evacuate the lubricant from the system and mechanically clean all lines and hoses with a projectile cleaning system (i.e., a pneumatic gun that shoots a cleaning wad through the open line or hose to clean sidewalls of all debris). The reservoir must then be thoroughly cleansed inside and out. Replace all pressure/return/bypass filters and clean or replace the suction filter. Assess spool valves and piston rods for score damage and the need to repair or replace them, and insert new seals. Make sure all hydraulic-lubricant-transfer equipment is cleaned prior to filling the reservoir with pre-filtered oil. Once the fill-cap and breather are checked in place, you’re ready to restart your system. If your system failure was caused by built-in debris, you may have a warranty claim: Be sure to discuss the issue with the manufacturer before performing any of the above work. Save damaged parts for training purposes! Regarding future purchases, ask to be present for any system cleaning and testing prior to startup. Good Luck! MT&AP Dr. Lube, aka Contributing Editor Ken Bannister, is, among other things, a Lubrication Management Specialist and author of Lubrication for Industry and the Lubrication Section of the 28th Edition Machinery’s Handbook (both from Industrial Press). Email your lubrication checkup and training questions to:; or telephone: (519) 469-9173. APRIL 2014


High-Performance Lubricants Critical to Bridge Project When moving parts must function smoothly under heavy load, reliable lubrication is required. A new vertical-lift bridge in France is a case in point.

The new Pont Jacques Chaban-Delmas bridge in Bordeaux, France, is Europe’s longest vertical-lift design. Its design and location presented unique lubrication challenges.

A concrete-and-steel vertical-lift bridge that opened last May in Bordeaux, France, presented several lubrication challenges due to its design and location. The new Pont Jacques Chaban-Delmas bridge is the longest vertical-lift bridge in Europe (1,421 feet long by 141 feet wide), and spans the city’s Garonne River, which links Bordeaux and the Atlantic Ocean. It provides two lanes for cars in each direction, as

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well as paths for pedestrians and bicycles on each side. Two additional middle lanes are reserved for public transportation. The bridge’s 384-foot long middle section can be lifted to allow large, seagoing vessels to enter Bordeaux. It takes 11 minutes to reach its lifting height of 174 feet, which occurs about 120 times per year. (See the bridge in action at

APRIL 2014


A special high-viscosity grease for rolling bearings that run slowly under heavy loads was recommended for the bearings of the cable drums and winches.

Because the historical center of Bordeaux is a world heritage site, the bridge had to satisfy not only technical requirements, but also had to fit in aesthetically to meet strict UNESCO criteria for new buildings in historical areas. The area’s strong winds and river currents presented another challenge. This unique project required collaboration among the construction firm, the engineering firm and lubrication expert Klüber Lubrication, based in Germany. Lubricating this extraordinary design with its many moving parts proved a demanding task.

Expert lubrication needed The Pont Jacques Chaban-Delmas bridge features four freestanding pylons that reach 253 feet from their bases. The pylons support the lifting middle section's full weight of approximately 2,750 tons. The bridge’s lifting mechanism works like a giant elevator. Its counterweights—four metal bars weighing a total of 2,694 tons—run up and down inside the pylons. They are connected to the middle section of the bridge by sets of cables that run via pulleys 13 feet in diameter, which are mounted at the top of the pylons. In the bases of the pylons, the cables are wound onto drums. The control center for operating the motors and winches is situated on shore. Following an analysis of the system, Klüber Lubrication recommended three specialty lubricants with the characteristics needed to satisfy the requirements of the numerous friction points involved. The bearings of the cable drums and winches required a grease with a high viscosity, above 1000 mm2/s. Klüberlub BE 41-1501, a special grease for rolling bearings that run slowly APRIL 2014

under heavy loads, was recommended. It is based on a highly viscous mineral oil (ISO VG 1500), lithium special soap and extremely effective EP/AW additives. To allow for insufficient lubricant supply and ensure emergency lubrication, it contains MoS2 and graphite as solid lubricants. Because the moving parts in the lifting mechanism are subject to extremely heavy loads, lubrication here had to be reliable and failure-proof. And with some friction points hard to access, relubrication intervals had to be as long as possible. Moreover, as Bordeaux is near the Atlantic Ocean, its air is rich in salt, which has a corroding effect and causes lubricants to deteriorate rapidly. Another requirement was to use only a small number of different lubricants to rule out product mix-up and make purchasing and storage less complex. Accordingly, Klüber tribologists recommended Klüberplex AG 11-462. This lubricant is specifically developed for marine applications and can cope with a salty atmosphere. It is a brushable, adhesive white operating and priming lubricant that contains an aluminium complex soap, mineral oil and white solid lubricant particles. Klüberplex AG 11-462 is resistant to high loads and offers very good corrosion protection when exposed to sea water. It also offers good adhesion and elevated wear protection at low temperatures due to specially selected solid lubricants and additives. Since the lubricant is white, the need for cleaning the area of application is reduced. Klüberplex AG 11-462 offers numerous uses, such as in gear rim and pinion drives, as well as in bearings. The couplings, joints, locking mechanisms and guideways of the lifting middle section are also lubricated with Klüberplex AG 11-462.

Synthetic gear oils for maximum reliability Klübersynth GH 6-320—a synthetic high-temperature gear oil based on polyglycol—was specified for use in the bridge’s gearboxes. It offers high resistance to scuffing and micropitting, as well as very good wear protection to prevent premature bearing failure. Thanks to the excellent aging and oxidation resistance of its synthetic base oil, Klübersynth GH 6-320 attains a much longer service life than mineral-oil-based lubricants, leading to longer service intervals. The optimized friction behavior of the polyglycol base oil reduces power loss and improves gear efficiency. Its excellent viscosity-temperature behavior also supports the formation of a sufficient lubricant film at a wide range of service temperatures. For more information about Klüber lubricants, please visit MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 47


Micro Drive Available in IP20 or IP66 Types ABB’s ACS250 micro drive family offers two degrees of environmental protection, a standard IP20 panel-mounted chassis and an IP66-type for more demanding environmental conditions such as wash-down applications that require on-machine mounting. With its feedthrough wiring, the IP20 chassis drive can replace motor starters to improve overall energy efficiency and reduce mechanical stresses. The drive’s compact size facilitates installation of multiple drives in one cabinet. The IP66/ NEMA 4X drive is designed with materials that meet stringent hygiene standards, preventing the drive from trapping bacteria, and enabling it to work in areas containing dust, moisture and/or chemicals.

Laser-based Measurement Sensor for Multiple Materials

ABB New Berlin, WI

Banner Engineering Corp. Minneapolis, MN

Reduce Maintenance Cost by up to 40%

Keeping oil clean – It’s your best insurance! 1

Clean incoming oil – because new is NOT clean oil


Keep oil clean – remove solids AND moisture

Keep your first fill from starting things off on a dirty foot. Our systems remove impurities in your new oil. These contaminants are the seeds of increased maintenance costs in the form of downtime, wear, and repair.

A Harvard Filtration system on your machinery will keep your investment clean and operating at its peak performance. In hydraulic systems, 70-80% of failures are due to contamination. The Harvard Constant Contamination Control® keeps moisture and contaminants from accumulating in your oil. This prevents premature wear, and reduces costs. Let us show you how one company reduced their maintenance costs by 40%. Call us today.

Banner Engineering’s LE550 laser-based measurement sensor provides high repeatability and accurate measurement for targets ranging from shiny metal to black rubber. The LE550 measures 100 mm to 1000 mm and is designed for diverse measurements, including roll diameter, loop control, thickness measurement and positioning. The unit’s display enables fast navigation of menus and settings. The visible red, Class 2 laser beam emits a small spot size. The LE550 is available with an optional metal, rotatable connector and multiple mounting bracket options, and is enclosed in a die-cast zinc housing with polycarbonate lens cover rated to IP67.

Typical new oil.

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Contaminated oil.

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Constant Contamination Control® can be applied to engines, transmissions, hydraulics, turbines, gear boxes, diesel fuels, heat transfer fluids, AND MORE!


Float Switches for Liquid-Level Monitoring The AutomationDirect ProSense line now includes low-cost, general-purpose float level switches for single point monitoring of liquid levels. The float switches are designed with powerful internal permanent magnets that actuate a hermetically sealed AC-DC reed switch as the float rises and lowers with liquid level. The float switches are available in various materials for compatibility with various liquids, a wide temperature range and varying system pressure requirements. Vertical and horizontal mounting styles with several mounting-thread variations are offered for ease of installation. AutomatonDirect Cumming, GA APRIL 2014


New Fluke Temperature Calibrators Designed for Pinpoint Tests, High Accuracy Fluke Corp. has introduced two single-function calibrators that, by simulating process temperature sensors, provide accurate temperature calibration. The new Fluke® 712B RTD and 714B Thermocouple Temperature Calibrators allow instrument, process, and plant maintenance technicians to test temperature instrumentation quickly. The Fluke 712B measures and simulates 13 different resistance temperature detector (RTD) types and resistance. The 714B measures and simulates 17 different thermocouple types as well as millivolts. Both verify process sensors by direct comparison of measured versus reported temperatures. The calibrators also measure 4 to 20 mA signals with 0.001 mA resolution while simultaneously sourcing a temperature signal. Both readings are displayed on the backlit display for easy transmitter calibration. They can correlate measured mA to programmed 0 and 100 percent temperature settings to verify the 0 and 100 percent readings in a temperature transmitter. They also feature linear ramp and 25 percent step auto-ramp based on 0 and 100 percent settings. Value readings are kept in memory to restart testing when the calibrator is turned on again. Both calibrators feature built-in magnetic hangers for easy mounting during measurement. More information: Fluke Corp. Everett, WA

Online Tool Customizes MIG Guns An online configurator from Bernard Welds offers customization of the company’s four semi-automatic MIG gun lines, the Bernard Q-Gun, S-Gun, T-Gun and TGX Semi-Automatic MIG Gun Series. Via the online tool, users can select their own wanted features or customize an industrial-duty MIG gun for a specific application. The configurator handles such specifications as amperage, cable length, handle style, trigger and neck type, contact tip and wire size. The configurator steps users through each choice of component from multiple options. Once configuration is complete, users receive a part number and detailed summary of their selection. They then can submit their gun for pricing, or save or print the part number to share with their distributor. Bernard Welds Beecher, IL APRIL 2014

“Visual systems, when applied to equipment, can reduce training time by 60 to 70% and eliminate errors.” —Robert Williamson, lean equipment specialist

Our Visual Supplies Can Improve Your Equipment’s Performance! Colored gauge marking labels Problem and Opportunity Tags in English or Spanish Red Move Tags Colored paint pens Colored grease fitting caps and lube point labels Vibration analysis pickup discs and labels Proven Tips for Equipment Troubleshooting handbook Lean Machines instructional book for applying visuals Temperature indicating strips and more

Visual systems supplies that deliver! To view and order from our complete line of Visual Systems Products, go to... To order by phone or fax, call (864)862-0446 Strategic Work Systems, Inc. PO Box 70 Columbus, NC 28722



Drill Rig Motor with Flexible Configurations Siemens Industry has launched the BAC1150, a drill rig motor for onshore drilling. The motor is designed for draw-works, mud pumps and rotary table applications. To increase temperature distribution and add durability, the BAC1150 draws cooling air from both ends of the motor. The motor features a stator bus ring system, modular frame design and bolt-on accessory options, all of which enable flexibility in configuration and field modification. The terminal box has connections on both ends of the motor, eliminating the need to reroute cables and remove end shields to adapt the connections to a given site. Modular frame design allows side blower mounting when space is constrained.  Siemens Industry, Inc. Alpharetta, GA

Product & Literature SHOWCASE For rate information on advertising in Showcase, contact Tim Steingraber at: Phone: (847) 382-8100 x112 E-mail:

MACHINING WITHOUT COOLANT The Cold Gun Aircoolant SystemTM increases tool life, tolerances and production rates by eliminating heat build-up. The quiet Cold Gun produces cold air at 20°F from compressed air to extend tool life, stop burning, and reduce wheel loading. No moving parts assures maintenance-free operation. The Cold Gun is ideal for dry machining or to replace messy mist systems. Applications include milling, tool and carbide grinding, drill sharpening, plastics machining.

EXAIR Corporation

11510 Goldcoast Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45249-1621 Phone (800) 903-9247 Fax (513) 671-3363 E-mail: Internet:

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APRIL 2014


HVAC Low-Voltage Inverter

Wireless Ethernet Radio Extends Connectivity

Fuji Electric Corp. of America has expanded its portfolio of low-voltage inverters with a new HVAC Drive, the Frenic-HVAC.  The drive features a smallfootprint design; real-time clock; embedded BACnet MS/TP, Metasys N2 and Modbus RTU; and all functionality required to operate fans and pumps in air-conditioning equipment independently.  FrenicHVAC  was designed for both UL Type 1 and Type 12 installation environments. The drive features an input interface that includes temperature sensors and controllers as well as a 4PID control function that monitors the external environments specific to airconditioning.

The SEL-3060A Ethernet Radio creates wireless WAN extension communication links from substations to recloser controls, voltage regulators, capacitor bank controls, meters, motorized switches and other substation and distribution equipment. The SEL-3060A transfers data at up to 1 Mbps with a 15-mile range and is suited for field enclosures with a broad operating temperature range of -40 to +85 C and its under-4-watt power consumption. Applications include electrical distribution automation, data acquisition, SCADA, surveillance video and IEC 61850 communications, including generic object-oriented substation event (GOOSE) messaging. The radio is certified to IEEE 1613, IEEE C37.90 and IEC 60255 standards.

Fuji Electric Corp. Edison, NJ

SEL/ Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. Pullman, WA

Product & Literature SHOWCASE For rate information on advertising in Showcase, contact Tim Steingraber at: Phone: (847) 382-8100 x112 E-mail:

APRIL 2014



Wide-Range Monitoring Thermometer The TKDT 10 condition-monitoring thermometer from SKF provides accurate direct contact heat measurement in a range from -328 to 2501 F. The thermometer is especially designed for operator-driven reliability (ODR) maintenance tasks on bearings, gearboxes and other critical machine components, where temperature measurement allows early identification of problems. The TKDT 10 can accommodate two SKF temperature probes, and can display two measurements simultaneously. The display can also show temperature differences between probes. While contact temperature devices are not typically supplied with a probe, the SKF TKDT 10 comes with the SKF TMDT 2-30 temperature probe.

All-in-One Kits For Pump and Compressor Maintenance Sundyne’s Reliability Assurance Kits are a customizable service program for the company’s pump and compressor products. Designed to deliver streamlined ordering and inventory management for replacement parts, the Reliability Assurance Kits contain everything necessary to keep Sundyne pumps and compressors running reliably and efficiently. Contained in a customized package matched to a Sundyne pump or compressor’s unique serial number, Sundyne Reliability Assurance Kits are a single source for all required parts, maintenance manuals and customized documentation — including curves and specifications. Sundyne Arvada, CO

SKF USA, Inc. Lansdale, PA

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APRIL 2014



APRIL 2014 Volume 27, No. 4 •



ALL-TEST Pro, American Technical Publishers, Inc. ..................................................50 AVO Training Institute ...................................5 Baldor Electric ............................................50 Control Devices ................................................33 Dreisilker Electric Motors .........................4 .......................................................11 Exair Corporation ...............................50 Harvard Corporation .................................48 IRISS, ......................................IFC Kano Laboratories, Inc. Lubriplate Lubricants Co. .............................................10 Ludeca ....................................15,17 Meltric Corporation .................................................51 Outage Management for Power Plants .............................................................................................14 Petro Canada Phoenix ..................................1 PROFIBUS PROFINET North America Royal Purple, ........................41 Strategic Work Systems, Test Products International (TPI) ..................................51 Turbomachinery U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC Vibration Institute



Submissions Policy: Maintenance Technology gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. Reproduction of Materials: Materials produced by Maintenance Technology may not be reproduced in any form for any purpose without permission. For Reprints: Contact the publisher, Glen Gudino (847) 382-8100 ext. 119.

APRIL 2014

TECHNOLOGY ASSET PERFORMANCE APRIL 2014 • Volume 27, No. 4 1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 PH 847-382-8100 FX 847-304-8603

INTEGRATED MEDIA SPECIALISTS AR, IA, IL, LA, MN, MO, OK, TX, WI, ON PHIL SARAN 1300 South Grove Avenue Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 Direct 708-557-1021 AL, CT, DE, FL, GA, IN, KY, ME, MA, MD, MI, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, RI, SC, TN, VA, VT, WV, QC JULIE OKON 11819 Eden Glen Drive Carmel, IN 46033 Office 317-564-8475 Cell 317-690-6757 AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, OR, WA, BC GLEN GUDINO 1300 South Grove Avenue Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 Direct 708-207-3895 ID, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, NV, SD, UT, WY, AB, MB, SK, MEX, INTERNATIONAL SALES, TIM STEINGRABER 1300 South Grove Avenue Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 x112 Fax 847-304-8603

MARKETPLACE and SHOWCASE ADVERTISING TIM STEINGRABER 1300 South Grove Avenue Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 x112 Fax 847-304-8603 MAINTENANCETECHNOLOGY.COM | 53


Apprenticeship’s Shining Moment? Michael I. Callanan Executive Director National Joint Apprenticeship & Training Committee for the Electrical Industry (NJATC)


ou had to listen carefully, but in the course of President Obama’s State of the Union Address he proclaimed, “So tonight, I’ve asked Vice President Biden to lead an across-the-board reform of America’s training programs to make sure they have one mission: Train Americans with the skills employers need, and match them to good jobs that need to be filled right now. That means more on-the-job training and more apprenticeships that set a young worker on an upward trajectory for life.” No matter your politics, most of us with responsibilities for training and workforce development would agree that we have failed to develop a comprehensive policy that enables us to meet the ever-changing needs of our industry and our customers! As I have written in the past, although the traditional apprenticeship model has served us well, today there are serious challenges that threaten its long-term stability and sustainability. The purpose of this article is to outline three important forces that threaten the apprenticeship model, and to advocate three immediate steps that can help ensure that the model remains an important part of U.S. workforcedevelopment strategy.

Politics aside, most of us can agree that the U.S. doesn’t have a comprehensive workforce-development policy.

First, there are significant economic forces that threaten the sustainability of the apprenticeship model. While the model’s goal to support an apprentice’s skill development serves the apprentice well, the employer must absorb the additional cost associated with the training. In today’s challenging business environment, employers are frequently unable to pass that cost on to their customers. The economic forces, in turn, fuel the second major force impacting apprenticeship programs: competition. Global competitiveness in the construc-

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tion and maintenance sectors have forced employers and owners to streamline their training and workforce-development programs. The result is fewer apprentices at a time when experienced workers are beginning to retire in droves. The third major force is the challenge of demographics. All sectors are competing for an increasingly smaller pool of available entrants into their industries. The total number of applicants has declined to levels that are approaching 50% of what we have seen in the past. In some parts of the country, our programs are facing a potential pool of applicants that are either inadequate or insufficient for the industry’s needs. There’s no simple fix to the problem. Dealing with all the challenges to the apprenticeship model will require action at a number of levels. To begin, we need to develop incentives for employers and program sponsors to create and offer apprenticeship opportunities for young men and women. Incentives can come in many forms, including tax credits and grants that reduce some of the financial burdens placed on employers and others who offer apprenticeship opportunities. Next, we need to continue to redefine and develop innovative approaches to apprenticeship. In my last column, I discussed how my organization is implementing state-of-the-art blended learning models to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of our electrical training programs. Finally, we need to capitalize on the recent spotlight that apprenticeship has received from President Obama and Secretary of Labor Thomas Perez. If this is our shining moment, we need to push hard and promote to employers and our elected officials how critical it is for them to find ways to revitalize and reinvigorate the apprenticeship model. MT&AP

NJATC ( is the training arm of the IBEW and NECA. It oversees 300 program sponsors and 40,000 apprentices in the electrical industry.

APRIL 2014


Problem-Solving in the Real World Jane Alexander Deputy Editor


ou go, Singapore and Korea! According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), recently released results of the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) creative problem-solving testing show your 15-year-olds outperformed those from 42 other countries and economies around the world. (2012 was the first year this assessment was part of the standard PISA testing that’s conducted every three years.) Students from Japan, Macao-China, Hong KongChina, Shanghai-China and Chinese Taipei (in that order) weren’t far behind in terms of top performance. As for those from Canada, Australia, Finland, England, Estonia, France, the Netherlands, Italy, the Czech Republic, Germany, the United States and Belgium (again, in that order), they scored above the OECD average. If you’re a parent or grandparent in the U.S.—or a manager desperate to fill critical, high-skilled jobs in your U.S. operations over the next few years—sit tight and remain calm. These scores may not carry as much weight in the real world as you might think.

How accurate can this ‘unreal’ PISA assessment be in projecting real-life success? Administered to 85,000 students, this first-ever PISA computer-based, interactive problem-solving assessment was designed to measure skills used to deal with everyday situations—like setting thermostats, programming personal electronics, planning quick routes to specified destinations, etc. As OECD’s Website explains, researchers wanted to determine how effective participants were at resolving problems “with no immediately obvious solutions,” thus demonstrating “their openness to novelty, their ability to tolerate uncertainty, and their capacity to reason in order to reach their goals.” (The 250-page report is available for download at The findings should be helpful for developers of educational curriculums—there’s certainly plenty

APRIL 2014

for them to consider. For example: Not all countries that did well in subjects like mathematics or science excelled at problem-solving. Conversely, 15-yearolds in the United Kingdom, the U.S. and Japan did better on problem-solving than in key school subjects. Also, gender gaps were small. On average, there are three top-performing boys for every two top-performing girls across all OECD countries. And while the impact of socio-economic status on problem-solving is significantly weaker than for mathematics, reading and science, disadvantaged students are twice as likely on average to score at the lowest level compared with their more advantaged peers. On the other hand, despite the noble goals of this particular assessment, I, as a mother, wonder how accurate it can be for projecting a student’s success in life. Teens who demonstrate poor problem-solving skills could become adults who struggle to find and keep meaningful jobs, but most of us know from experience it’s not a done deal—nor is the opposite. I tend to agree with Perry Tan Chik Choong, who argued in an April 9 opinion for Singapore’s Today Online Website ( that although high problem-solving scores may be commendable, they don’t always translate into job performance. Among other things, he pointed to the unreal (my term) nature of the 2012 PISA assessment. Here, students solved hypothetical problems alone, on computers—unencumbered by matters of real life that would require them to make sense of incomplete data and define problems, then collaborate and debate with others who have differing perspectives, cultures, styles and agendas. “The real world,” he wrote, “rarely requires IQ-smart people to decipher data and reports in silos, and solve pre-designed problems based purely on logic.” His cautionary note to parents of the world’s top 15-year-old problem-solvers should bring comfort to the parents, grandparents and future employers of those who didn’t perform as well. What’s your take on the issue? More important, what are you and/or your organization doing to help develop the problem-solving abilities and mindsets of tomorrow’s workforce? Let me know. MT&AP



Standards Lead to Better Manufacturing Gary Mintchell Executive Director


ary, what are you hearing about PackML?” asked a software integrator acquaintance who works in factory automation and MES (manufacturing execution systems). I told him I’m getting a lot of requests for information about it. PackML is a standard that defines the various “states” of a machine and provides a common vocabulary of terms. It was developed by the Organization for Machine Automation and Control (OMAC, Packaging Working Group, an organization composed of technology developers, machine builders and end-user companies. The name originally referred to packaging-line machinery, but is applicable to any discrete production line. OMAC based its state model (a term used to outline a process change) on the ISA88 standard (ISA88.05). The group itself has been quiet for the past few years, but according to my friend, companies are beginning to request it in the machines they procure. Manufacturers have favored development of PackML because it would make user interfaces and machine operations standard, which simplifies operator training and machine operations. Nestlé and P&G are two companies that pushed hard for the standard.

When machines are modeled, operations are modeled and data flows are defined, real-time data can flow from machines into MES applications. These provide the contextualized information required to adequately manage manufacturing. Thought models like PackML help both the companies who use the machines and the machine builders. By structuring the programming and design of the

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machine, machine builders can satisfy customers— perhaps with a unique capability—and reduce future design cost and time-to-market. Taking the thought process one step further, companies are beginning to look at their entire manufacturing enterprise by applying the ISA95 model (an international standard for integration of enterprise and control systems) to their operations. Once companies understand operations and data movements, they can apply technology solutions from MES suppliers. When machines are modeled, operations are modeled and data flows are defined, connections can be made to automatically move real-time data from the machine into MES applications. These applications provide the contextualized information required to adequately manage manufacturing. Machine builders who provide machines based on the state model that their customers understand and that provide pathways for information flow—such as built-in OPC servers—have a competitive advantage. Recent research from LNS Research ( in collaboration with MESA ( confirms that manufacturers who use these standards benefit from using the resulting information. Many of you who work in discrete industries troubleshoot machine systems to keep equipment running in its optimum state. If the machines are configured in a standard, systematic manner, you can understand the systems and get your work done more quickly and with less hassle. Believe me, I’ve been on a factory floor with the plant manager looking at a down machine and asking if I realized how much money was being lost for every minute the machine was off line. I was looking for any edge, which is what PackML provides. All such standards, in fact, aid interoperability of systems and data flow. And when you can get data flowing from machines and processes into your management systems—MES, CMMS and EAM— information about the state of the plant is at your fingertips. MT&AP Gary Mintchell,, is Executive Director of Applied Technology Publications and also blogs at

APRIL 2014


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Easy Call. Big Payoff.

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targeting inefficient motors and mechanical drives as well as identifying systems where adjustable speed drives could be added to save even more energy. This report will provide recommendations for immediate action along with long term strategies… all positively affecting your bottom line.

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If you’re ready to do something about your growing electricity consumption, email the Baldor IBE specialists at or call (864) 281-2100 to receive case studies with realworld savings. It’s an easy call with a big payoff.

©2012 Baldor Electric Company

Maintenance Technology April 2014  

Maintenance Technology & Asset Performance April 2014 Magazine maintenance, innovation, automation, capacity assurance, reliability, indust...

Maintenance Technology April 2014  

Maintenance Technology & Asset Performance April 2014 Magazine maintenance, innovation, automation, capacity assurance, reliability, indust...