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The world of synthetic lubricants just took three giant leaps forward. Challenging times and changing technology call for forward-thinking solutions. That’s why we’ve taken our proven Mobil SHC™ synthetic lubricants — the standard-setting oils and greases for more than 40 years — into the future, unleashing the next generation of productivity with three new advances. Each delivering overall balanced performance with substantial energy-efficiency benefits. Mobil SHC™ 600 Series — The enhanced formulation improves viscosity and low-temperature properties as it delivers outstanding performance across a wide range of circulating and gear applications. Mobil SHC™ Gear — This supreme gear oil was reengineered to deliver optimum equipment oil life in gearboxes, even under extreme conditions, with significant reduction in energy consumption. Mobil SHC™ Gear OH Series — Our customized formulation for the Off-Highway sector features dependable technology with excellent low-temperature performance. Discover the advanced technology of Mobil SHC. To see how four decades of synthetic innovation just jumped a generation ahead, visit

The energy efficiency design is a trademark of Exxon Mobil Corporation. Energy efficiency relates solely to the fluid performance when compared with conventional reference oils of the same viscosity grade in gear applications. The technology used allows up to 3.6% efficiency compared with the reference when tested in circulating and gear applications under controlled conditions. Efficiency improvements will vary based on operating conditions and applications. © 2013 Exxon Mobil Corporation. All trademarks used herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of Exxon Mobil Corporation or one of its subsidiaries.

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Easy Call. Big Payoff.

Save Energy. Save Money. Motor-driven equipment accounts for 63% of your plant’s electricity consumption every minute of every day. Your choices are to let your electricity bills continue to grow or call in Baldor’s Installed Base Evaluation Team to identify improvements you can start making today.

targeting inefficient motors and mechanical drives as well as identifying systems where adjustable speed drives could be added to save even more energy. This report will provide recommendations for immediate action along with long term strategies… all positively affecting your bottom line.

The Baldor IBE Team uses advanced data collection equipment and software to work with your plant maintenance personnel to take an accurate account of your motors, drives and mechanical power transmission products, both in operation and from spares inventory. The IBE Team will produce a comprehensive report and plan,

If you’re ready to do something about your growing electricity consumption, email the Baldor IBE specialists at or call (864) 281-2100 to receive case studies with realworld savings. It’s an easy call with a big payoff.


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Everything you need to know about saving money by identifying and measuring energy waste. Case studies, success stories, interactive illustrations, check lists, videos and more. Get started today and visit:

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SEPTEMBER 2013 • VOL 26, NO 9 •


Stopping Repeat Wind-Farm Generator Failures A cross-disciplinary team used probability and “R” correlations in its hunt for the actual problem and effective solutions.


Randall Noon, P.E.


Moisture Protection Of Electronics The importance of keeping electronic equipment dry would seem to be a no-brainer. That said, are your operations taking a best-practices approach to getting it done? Cody Hostick, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory




My Take



Stuff Happens

Fouled Heat Exchangers? Try Electronic Water Treatment



15 16

Motor Decisions Matter

18 46 49

Automation Insider






Information Highway




Supplier Index



Fouled heat exchangers are a chronic, costly energy-hog problem for industry. Available technology can change those dynamics.


Bringing Predictive Maintenance Home To Your Plant MT wanted to know more about a new service-program offering. Jane Alexander, Editor

Using Smartphone Technology To Extend Equipment Life North American Stainless is calling on QR codes to support its best-in-class maintenance practices. Don Stewart, North American Stainless


Don’t Procrastinate… Innovate! Technology Showcase Solution Spotlight

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Watch this space and for further details. You don’t want to miss MARTS 2014! SEPTEMBER 2013




September 2013 • Volume 26, No. 9 ARTHUR L. RICE

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Our Visual Supplies Can Improve Your Equipment’s Performance! Colored gauge marking labels Problem and Opportunity Tags in English or Spanish Red Move Tags Colored paint pens Colored grease fitting caps and lube point labels Vibration analysis pickup discs and labels Proven Tips for Equipment Troubleshooting handbook Lean Machines instructional book for applying visuals Temperature indicating strips and more

Visual systems supplies that deliver! To view and order from our complete line of Visual Systems Products, go to... To order by phone or fax, call (864)862-0446 Strategic Work Systems, Inc. PO Box 70 Columbus, NC 28722

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Direct Mail 800-223-3423, ext. 110


Reprint Manager 866-879-9144, ext. 168

Editorial Office: 1300 South Grove Ave., Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 / FAX 847-304-8603

Subscriptions: FOR INQUIRIES OR CHANGES CONTACT JEFFREY HEINE, 630-739-0900 EXT. 204 / FAX 630-739-7967

Maintenance Technology® (ISSN 0899-5729) is published monthly by Applied Technology Publications, Inc., 1300 S. Grove Avenue, Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010. Periodicals postage paid at Barrington, Illinois and additional offices. Arthur L. Rice, III, President. Circulation records are maintained at Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Maintenance Technology® copyright 2013 by Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Annual subscription rates for nonqualified people: North America, $140; all others, $280 (air). No subscription agency is authorized by us to solicit or take orders for subscriptions. Postmaster: Please send address changes to Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Please indicate position, title, company name, company address. For other circulation information call (630) 739-0900. Canadian Publications agreement No. 40886011. Canada Post returns: IMEX, Station A, P.O. Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5, or email: cpcreturns@ Submissions Policy: Maintenance Technology® gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc. permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. “Maintenance Technology®” is a registered trademark of Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Printed in U.S.A.


Save thousands of dollars by dramatically cutting energy costs! It’s a worldwide problem that can’t be fixed with a bandage, a piece of chewing gum, or duct tape. If you follow these easy steps, EXAIR can help you make your system energy efficient so your company pays the lowest price possible for compressed air.

Six Steps To Optimizing Your Compressed Air System


Measure the air consumption to find sources that use a lot of compressed air.


Find and fix the leaks in your compressed air system.


Upgrade your blowoff, cooling and drying operations using EXAIR engineered compressed air products.


Turn off the compressed air when it isn’t in use.


Use intermediate storage of compressed air near the point of use.


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t &BTZIPPLVQ7"$XJUIDPNQBDUFJHIU GVODUJPOUJNFS t 1IPUPFMFDUSJDTFOTPSXJUITUBOETXBUFSBOEEVTU An EXAIR 60 gallon Receiver Tank can be installed at the point of high demand so there is an additional supply of compressed air available for a short duration. Meets ASME pressure vessel code. t &MJNJOBUFTøVDUVBUJPOTJOQSFTTVSFBOEWPMVNF t 7FSUJDBM TQBDFTBWJOHEFTJHO EXAIR Pressure Regulators permit easy selection of an operating pressure that will allow the air product to work properly without using excessive amounts of compressed air. Reducing the air pressure from 100 PSIG to 80 PSIG reduces energy use by almost 20%. t .PEVMBSEFTJHOQSFTTVSFHBVHF t .BOZTJ[FTBWBJMBCMF


Jane Alexander, Editor-In-Chief

Strivers Wanted


lasses are back in session for children across the country. Wherever they are, I hope all those bright, shiny faces are paying attention, and not just in their crucial STEM-related courses (science, technology, engineering, math). Invaluable life skills can be gleaned from all areas of study. The trouble is, not all kids are capitalizing on the opportunities to do so. I’ve sat in on too many industry events over the past few years where folks decry the lack of math, reading, problem-solving, communication and just plain people skills among annual crops of newly minted high school grads. The situation has evidently been bad all over. As a MARTS attendee from the utilities sector noted during a pre-conference workshop last year, at his site, if a job candidate could not demonstrate a strong understanding of basic math in a simple, pre-qualifying test (a common occurrence), he/she wasn’t really a job candidate after all. In other words, there was no use trying to move such a person through the company’s HR jungle. And, according to this attendee, his organization was eager to fill critical positions. Regular MT readers know of our devotion to discussions of the skills crisis—and the need to capture the hearts and minds of tomorrow’s technical and highly skilled workers early, well before they dive into the job pool. For my own part, I often use this column to spotlight innovative efforts and initiatives aimed at doing just that (i.e., actor John Ratzenberger’s Nuts, Bolts and Thingamajigs Foundation; Dean Kamen’s FIRST competitions; Alabama Power’s iCan Girls in Engineering program that mentors young women toward technical careers, long before they enter college). Countless communities, companies, institutions and associations offer similar opportunities, either individually or in partnerships with like-minded entities. Here’s another one I recently came across: Year Up. Check it out. While not specifically focused on growing a skilled industrial workforce (and starting with older youth than the efforts mentioned above), Year Up appears to be building a successful track record. Sponsored by well-known names from the business, financial and technology sectors, its mission (according to is to close the “Opportunity Divide” by providing urban young adults with the skills, experience and support that empower them to reach their potential through professional careers and higher education. The program achieves its goals via a high-support, highexpectation model “that combines marketable job skills, stipends, internships and college credits.” Among the important values Year Up seeks to reinforce is “strive to learn.” That, to me, is key. No single approach will solve the massive workforce crisis we face. Helping our children appreciate the importance of striving to learn and pursuing excellence in all aspects of their lives, though, seems like a good area we all could focus on. Regardless of how busy our own lives are, let’s agree to never miss an opportunity to offer striving lessons. MT


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Companies Go Deep Into Minerals Compliance Most Are Using Multiple Departments to Ensure Full Accountability. . . A survey by the Manufacturers Alliance for Productivity and Innovation (MAPI) indicates companies are heavily engaged in conflict minerals compliance activities, dedicating an average of nearly 10 employees each to comply with the Securities and Exchange Commission regulation. Because of a congressional attempt to curtail human rights abuses in Africa through regulation of U.S. public companies, firms are now required to trace the use of conflict minerals (gold, tantalum, tin and tungsten) in their supply chains. Findings from the survey, “Corporate Conflict Minerals Compliance,” are based on responses from 103 MAPI-member companies, 95% of which reported having already taken at least one step toward compliance. Solid majorities say they have completed or are “in progress” on the major stages, such as identifying suppliers and products and establishing an inquiry process. Among other findings: ■ Eighty-three percent are using multi-function teams to organize their compli-

ance efforts. Relatively few companies (17%) have only a single leader heading up conflict minerals compliance. ■ Given the depth and breadth of the requirements and the fact that most

companies are fully intent on getting this right, very few (11%) expect to have fully completed their analyses and be able to file a complete and audited “Conflict Minerals Report” by the filing deadline of May 31, 2014. Sixty-three percent expect they’ll file as “undeterminable” about their mineral usage and origins during the grace period provided in the rule. According to Survey Coordinator Rae Ann S. Johnson, MAPI General Counsel and Vice President, “This is still uncharted territory for many manufacturers, who will have numerous questions and unknowns in this first year of reporting.” To learn more, visit:


Wes Pringle may be the newly named President of Fluke Corp., but he’s been a well-known face around the company for some time: He previously had been serving as President of Fluke Industrial (having come from Whirlpool). In his new role, Pringle is now responsible for all Fluke global businesses, including Calibration, Biomedical and Automation. He succeeds Barbara Hulit, who has taken on the role of Senior VP, Danaher Business System, for Fluke’s parent, Danaher Corp. (Editor’s Note: If you haven’t yet done so, you can read Wes Pringle’s response to our 2013 Executive Outlook questions at:




FS-Elliott Co. has supplied compressed-air systems to Penn State University, Pratt & Whitney and the U.S. Department of Energy – National Energy Technology Laboratory for a new Steady Thermal Aero Research Turbine (START) facility. The site will be testing a new generation of high-pressure turbine (HPT) systems to improve fuel efficiencies of jet aircraft and land-based power-generation turbines. FS-Elliott’s distributor CH Reed supplied the heat exchangers, a chiller, heaters, piping, valves, a closed-loop cooling system and startup/ commissioning services.

Emerson Network Power has announced the opening of an enhanced psychrometric witnesstest lab for customers that wish to confirm the performance of their new, larger-capacity cooling systems. Located at the company’s Columbus, OH, plant where psychrometric rooms for 30 kW and 100 kW cooling units are housed, this state-of-the-art CSA International-certified site can conduct performance and reliability testing at temperatures from -35 to 120 degrees F for a range of equipment, including 200 kW direct-expansion cooling units and 400 kW chilled-water units. SEPTEMBER 2013

STUFF HAPPENS NEWS Got items for Stuff Happens? Send your news to

N’ I T H FIG WORDS This month’s “words” are from Andy Bennett, Senior Vice President, Infrastructure, Schneider Electric. They are taken from his company’s official response to a recent government report highlighting the risks of not addressing grid resilience, and the fact that weatherrelated power outages cost the economy billions of dollars a year and disrupt the lives of millions.


“We applaud the Obama administration’s recent report on the ‘Economic Benefits of Increasing Electric Grid Resilience to Weather Outages.’ The report is an important call to action designed to spur momentum in modernizing our electric grid and raise awareness of the economic risks that come with not investing in revitalizing our grid… Collaboration across all levels of government and the private sector will be key to enabling the development of the Smart Grid and ultimately to creating a more sustainable, energy-efficient country…”



The Hydraulic Institute (HI) has released a one-of-a-kind guide exclusively for the application and operation of pumps in combinedcycle power plant service. Power Plant Pumps: Guidelines for Application & Operation to Maximize Uptime, Availability, & Reliability is the first installment of the institute’s new “Pump Application Guideline” series. According to HI, the information’s focus on proper pump selection and management is essential for minimizing energy consumption and increasing overall plant efficiency, reliability and profitability. The publication is written specifically for engineers, designers, trainers, maintenance personnel and plant operators. For more details or to order a copy, visit:



To read the full report, go to: Grid%20Resiliency%20Report_FINAL.pdf. To read Bennett’s full response, go to:

Inspiration For Those Battling The Enemies Of Reliability & Productivity Have you read, heard, seen, thought or written down something that falls into the realm of “fightin’ words” for the maintenance and reliability community? Send your favorites to We’ll be selecting one or two (maybe even three) to feature each month. Be sure to give full credit to the individual (dead, alive, real or fictional) that uttered or wrote the words, and why those words inspire you. Don’t forget to include your complete contact info. SEPTEMBER 2013

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NEWS STUFF HAPPENS Got items for Stuff Happens? Send your news to

MT’s Book Club

Recommended Reading For Maintenance & Reliability Pros Title: Reliability Centered Maintenance Implementation Made Simple Author: Neil Bloom Reviewed By: Bob Williamson, Contributing Editor

“To quote the author, this book truly takes a “no-nonsense approach” to RCM. Bloom demystifies the traditional commercial aviation “systems” view of the subject and focuses on industrial and utility facilities, components and instruments. His “consequences of failure analysis” (COFA) as an alternative to traditional “failure modes and effects analysis” (FMEA) accelerates and simplifies today’s RCM efforts. Many readers will recognize his “RCM made difficult” discussion. Overall a great read, with excellent examples and insight!” . . . BW

Have you read a book that could be of value to other readers of MT? Tell us why in 100 words or less. Visit for Book Club Rules and submission forms. Or, after reading those rules, send your reviews directly to

Showcasing In-Depth Technical Articles From Your Suppliers



TOPIC: When it comes to risk assessment, educating leadership on all available options is critical. The importance of identifying and analyzing electrical hazards in the workplace has long been recognized by a small segment of industry. The petrochemical industry and many government institutions have been performing research in this area for over 30 years. For the most part, however, the user level of the electrical industry has largely ignored the issue, essentially reacting to catastrophic accidents rather than proactively trying to predict and prevent them. The Arc-Flash incident that completely destroyed the front of an electrician’s shirt and severely burned him could have been prevented if management and the worker completely understood electrical-maintenance hazards. This White Paper provides an overview of the three principle types of electrical-maintenance hazards, along with a discussion of relevant standards and regulations. Download it at:

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42nd Turbomachinery 29th Pump SYMPOSIA


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Bob Williamson, Contributing Editor

Beware Of Those Simplified Metrics In our culture, there are certain images and symbols that need little explanation: They’re intuitive. This includes some used in the workplace. Have we become too dependent on them? Performance charts and graphs in today’s workplace often use RED and GREEN indicators for unacceptable and acceptable performance. Many bar charts, Pareto charts, line graphs and other performance or productivity reports incorporate the visual communication of RED as unacceptable (needing improvement) and GREEN as acceptable. These colors are universally intuitive in our culture. My advice: Beware of these simplified metrics! Percentage indicators are also a common progress- and performance-communication tool: Percent of downtime caused by “X,” overall equipment effectiveness percent, percent reliability or production efficiency percent of goal. Again: Beware of these simplified metrics! In last month’s Uptime column (pgs. 12-14, MT, August 2013), I discussed “Problem-Solving and Culture Change.” Understanding the change process and leading changes in the workplace were explored, along with the importance of answering the question “why change?” Unfortunately, RED-GREEN and PERCENTAGE indicators can lead to sluggish improvements and mask the path to problem-solving as we get to the fundamental question of “changing what?” on the plant floor. It’s not granular Let’s start with those RED-GREEN indicators. It’s not difficult to understand that any RED indicator is not a good sign. But key questions are not answered: Specifically, what to improve, why and how? RED on a bar chart or line graph basically says “you need to get better at doing whatever you are doing.” It can motivate a group of people to work faster and harder to meet the goals while causing other problems like defects or injuries—unintended consequences. If, for some reason, the indicators turn GREEN, the work group may be unaware of what specifically happened to improve their performance and think “we just got better.” RED and GREEN are what I call “macro indicators.” They’re not granular enough to point to the causes of poor performance or specific actions taken to improve performance. As “macro indicators,” RED-GREEN charts and numbers are great for front-office and plant-floor 12 |

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management. Alas, they’re pretty much useless for work groups that are responsible for making changes to improve the performance of their work processes or equipment. When the numbers or graphs and charts turn GREEN, the work group sees its performance as “acceptable.” But is “acceptable” really what the group and its equipment are capable of producing? Being GREEN does not necessarily lead to the team spirit or the efforts associated with continuous improvement. Acceptable performance, in the GREEN, is mostly interpreted as meeting the minimum requirements. An example: Visual production tracking charts were recently implemented on the plant floor. The day-shift production group struggled to meet its hour-by-hour goals, Monday through Thursday. Its charts were mostly in the RED. Maintenance responded to trouble calls daily. But on Friday, for some unknown reason, the group exceeded all of its hour-by-hour goals and the daily goal by 2:00 p.m. The group finally got in the GREEN and was praised for it. This trend went on for weeks. What, in this example, changed on Fridays? Did the work group do anything specific to improve its performance? Did maintenance fix a problem with the equipment? The answer: The work group worked faster as a team so people could finish their shifts and receive the week’s pay early. The maintenance calls during the week gave the production workers numerous additional breaks. It’s relative PERCENTAGES are not real: They are relative indicators. “Percent” means “per hundred.” Eighty-five percent could be written as 85%, or 85-percent, or 0.85 (85/100). But what does the percent really mean? Consider the following: n Eighty-five percent (85%) defect-free production also

indicates that 15% is defective. How many defective units were produced? n Eighty-five percent (85%) of the defects were caused by

equipment problems. The remaining 15% were caused by human error. What were the “equipment problems?” What were the “errors” (i.e., mistakes, sabotage)? SEPTEMBER 2013


n Eighty-five percent (85%) overall equipment effective-

ness (OEE) is the goal. 85% of what? What if we could get to 98%? n An 85% performance bonus was awarded to employees

this quarter. What does that mean in terms of dollars and cents? n Bobby received an 85% on a final exam. What does

that mean: pass/fail, an A, B or C grade? What questions were missed? We rarely use percentages in our daily lives without interpreting what the actual results mean. So why do we continue to use percentage indicators in ways that require translation on the plant floor rather than actual performance indicators to make improvements? Making improvements Plant-floor work groups typically include front-line supervisors/leaders and their production and/or maintenance crews. When making sustainable improvements, these groups should focus on actual units of measure—ie., time (seconds, minutes, hours), production parts, finished assemblies or volumes (CFM, GPM)—and the actual causes of poor performance. As noted last month, the nagging question among plant-floor work groups is “why change?” Let’s expand on that question with another example. Why change? The packaging line in this example was comprised of eight machines all inter-connected with conveyors. The RED-GREEN production downtime reports showed this line performance as all RED (55% OEE) for the period being measured. The message was “improve the packaging line performance up to the goal of 68% OEE (overall equipment effectiveness)!” The posted “Downtime Loss” bar charts for the packaging line showed the following: Line 22 Downtime Losses Percent of Downtime Reason Downtime Changeover 8% Machine A 6% Machine B 5% Machine C 5% Machine D 3% Machine E 3% Machine F 2% Machine G 1% Machine H 1%


What did the percentage-based “downtime loss” information tell us? Changeover is the biggest reason for downtime, and Machine A is number two. So what? Focusing on “changeover” improvement is admirable. But once the line is changed over, it still doesn’t run any better. Because the remaining downtime losses aren’t addressed, improving changeover times can actually lead to more scrap product per shift until the downtime/defect-causing machine problems are improved. Truly an unintended consequence. Let’s look at the “Downtime Loss” report from a realworld plant-floor perspective. Reflecting the same data in the previous chart, it’s expressed in units everybody can understand (production-time lost). It just wasn’t posted on the plant floor: Line 22 Downtime Losses Downtime Downtime Reason Minutes Changeover 17,500 Machine A 16,550 Machine B 12,772 Machine C 12,500 Machine D 9,958 Machine E 4,139 Machine F 948 Machine G 667 Machine H 487 Since Machine A is the most problematic (16,550 minutes of downtime loss), it’s the perfect place to begin improvement. Actual production loss at a line rate of 100 per minute equals 1,655,000 units NOT produced because of Machine A problems. When the data is drilled another layer deeper (by section), we can see the reasons for such high downtime. Again, this information was not posted on the plant floor: Line 22 Downtime Losses Downtime Downtime Section Minutes Machine A – Section 1 244 Machine A – Section 2 22 Machine A – Section 3 4,072 Machine A – Section 4 751 Machine A – Section 5 965 Machine A – Section 6 2,259 Machine A – Section 7 4,219 Machine A – Section 8 907 Machine A – Section 9 5 Machine A – Section 10 3,058 Machine A – Section 11 39 With this information the work groups can now see that Machine A Sections 7, 3 and 10 are the most problematic and to what degree. Given the new information, the group knows exactly where to begin focusing its problem-solving efforts—and how to measure the results of its improvement actions. | 13


Leading culture change Given detailed downtime loss information, plant leadership can focus its plant-floor work groups on an actual “business case for change.” Together they can all focus on fast and sustainable packaging-line improvements using the following: n Report actual production rates and requirements of the

Line (not RED-GREEN, percent). n Report the units NOT produced due to documented

equipment problems (1,134,900). n Report lost production impacts on customer shipments,

overtime and cost per unit. n Provide resources and empower the groups to identify

and eliminate problems.

n Learn from the problem-solving efforts to address

additional downtime losses. When plant-floor metrics and improvements are visible and linked to realistic indicators, they require little or no translation. RED-GREEN and PERCENTAGES, though, are open to interpretation—and require translations for real-world use. Don’t forget: What gets measured gets done. What gets rewarded gets done. Be sure to measure, report and reward the right stuff. MT Robert Williamson, CMRP, CPMM and member of the Institute of Asset Management, is in his fourth decade of focusing on the “people side” of world-class maintenance and reliability in plants and facilities across North America. Email:

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Forget Guesswork: Tracking Boosts Reliability


mproving your plant’s reliability is a gift that keeps on giving. In implementing effective motor management practices, you make your job as a maintenance professional easier by improving operating and production performance, lowering maintenance costs and reducing equipment downtime. The first step toward greater reliability is to conduct a plant-wide motor survey that records basic, but crucial, data about your motor fleet. It’s worth the time Although conducting a motor survey and implementing a tracking program may seem daunting, remember that it’s not necessary to survey every motor in the facility. If your site has many motors, it could make sense to start with equipment running the most critical applications, units with the longest run-times or highest failure rates, or simply the oldest ones. Maintaining a log of motor repairs through a tracking program can help flag opportunities to repair or replace motors before failure, during scheduled downtime. Some facilities have reported that it’s not unusual for a motor to be repaired and then installed in a different application in another part of the plant. Tracking programs record the unit’s history to help predict reliability or prevent misapplication. Your local motor-service expert can help you with a motor inventory. Free help is available There are also a number of motor tracking resources available that will not only make your life easier, but are free to download. One of the best-known tools is MotorMaster+ 4.0*, created by Washington State University through a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). This software is a comprehensive program that enables you to create a detailed motor database. You can use the database to make data-driven decisions for long-term savings. It also contains important manufacturer information for more than 20,000 motors.


What’s next? A motor survey and tracking program are the first steps in developing a motor management plan. Simply put, you can only manage a motor fleet if you know what’s in it and monitor changes over time. That’s where Motor Decisions MatterSM (MDM) can help.

Implementing a tracking program isn’t as daunting as it might seem. The MDM Motor Planning Kit, available as a free download at, explains the fundamentals of motor management and helps you get started. The MDM 1·2·3 Approach software tool includes a motor inventory sheet that runs simple calculations and provides motor reports and tags, using sample data from customer plants and facilities. Additionally, MDM has a comprehensive case-study library with numerous examples of how customers saved money and energy by implementing motor management strategies, beginning with a motor inventory. Start tracking today, and enjoy the long-term benefits of increased reliability. MT * MotorMaster+ 4.0 is available at https://www1. software_motormaster_intl.html For more info, enter 01 at

The Motor Decisions Matter (MDM) campaign is managed by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE), a North American nonprofit organization that promotes energysaving products, equipment and technologies. For further information, contact MDM staff at or (617) 589-3949.



Ken Bannister, Contributing Editor

Looking Into The Past For The Future “Al, bent over the wheel, kept shifting eyes from the road to the instrument panel, watching the ammeter needle, which jerked suspiciously, watching the oil gauge and the heat indicator. And his mind was cataloguing weak points about the car. He listened to the whine, which might be the rear end, dry; and he listened to tappets lifting and falling. He kept his hand on the gear lever, feeling the turning gears through it. Listen to the motor. Listen to the wheels. Listen with your ears and with your hands on the steering wheel; listen with the palm of your hand on the gearshift lever; listen with your feet on the floorboards. Listen to the pounding old jalopy with all your senses; for a change of tone, what a variation of rhythm might mean. That rattle—that’s tappets. Don’t hurt a bit. Tappets can rattle till Jesus comes again without no harm. But that thudding as the car moves along—can’t hear that—just kind of feel it. Maybe oil isn’t gettin’ someplace. Maybe a bearing’s startin’ to go... Al was one with his engine, every nerve listening for weaknesses, for the thumps or squeals, hums and chattering that indicate a change that may cause a breakdown.” . . .The Grapes of Wrath John Steinbeck, 1939 Primary-sense ‘first alert’ maintenance checks Peering into the looking glass of past maintenance practices, we are presented with often-forgotten useful methods and practices that can be resurrected and used in an innovative manner to augment and elevate our modern-day practices. That’s the focus of this month’s column. As noted, the italicized passages above are taken from Steinbeck’s Pulitzer Prize-winning classic, The Grapes of Wrath. They touch on the interactive relationship between Al Joad, a precocious 16-year-old who was trying to get his family from Oklahoma to California during the height of the Great Depression, and his vehicle: an old Hudson pickup truck.

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Like most real-life operators and maintainers of his day, Steinbeck’s Al was a great student of all things mechanical, who trusted his senses to detect early onset of failure. He had learned to listen and differentiate between normal and non-normal equipment states, a practice that’s been stifled over time in favor of a smorgasbord of modern technologies—should we choose to employ them. If, as Al did, you listen to a machine in your charge, you’ll hear it “talk” to you in many ways. You can detect its happiness—or pain— by way of your six primary senses. n Visual: Does it look different? We should consciously observe and note lube levels, leaks, line breaks, gauge readings, contaminative dirt and non-normal visual indications. n Auditory: Does it sound different? Consciously listen for non-normal bearing noises, knocks, line vibrations. n Kinesthetic: Does it feel different to the touch? Touch your machines to check for non-normal heat or vibration. n Gustatory: Does it taste different? Taste the air: If glycol is leaking, it will taste sweet like donuts;. if oil mist is set incorrectly, there will be a metallic taste. n Olfactory: Does it smell different? We can smell burnt oil on friction plates, leaking oil, overheated bearings and burnt electrical wiring. n Intuition: Does your instinct tell you something has changed? Often referred to as the “sixth sense,” intuition uses “gut feel” to determine when a situation does or does not instinctively feel right (frequently based on experience). Practiced sensory-input gatherers use intuition to focus all their sensory inputs and make effective decisions faster.



Reach out to maintenance and reliability old-timers. They’re often happy to discuss solutions they turned to back in the day. Performing the those six primary-sense questions prior to completing a PM job task can stimulate early-failure detection. If a maintainer is unable to perform regular maintenance visits to a piece of equipment, the next-best scenario is to interview the operator prior to performing any physical check or technological diagnosis of the equipment. Any non-normal answers to the questions allow the trade to quickly focus his/her troubleshooting efforts and rapidly diagnose problems well in advance of failure. Lubrication color codes and symbols I recently came across a technical article entitled “Color Codes,” published by the Scientific Lubrication Journal in January 1950. Its author is listed as a Mr. J. Harrision, who, at the time, was working as an engineer in the Department of Technical Information for the C.C. Wakefield Company in the UK (some readers may recognize this company as Castrol Oil). In his article, Harrison put forth a control-system methodology to ensure that “factory lubrication” could be carried out in a consistent manner, with scientific precision, by unskilled workers, using symbols to denote frequency of application, and colors to signify the lubricant type. He recommended using 1” geometric symbols painted on lubricant reservoirs, or at lubrication points, in which a circle designated the need for daily attention. A triangle would designate weekly attention. A square would designate monthly attention. For activities to be conducted on a quarterly basis (or over longer periods), the square was to again be used, but with a number painted inside it to highlight the number of interval months. To determine the correct lubricant to apply, each symbol was to be painted one of three primary colors: yellow, red or blue to correspond with an already-determined lubricant legend. If more than three lubricants were to be used, the same colors were used again, but with the addition of a bold black diagonal stripe across the symbol.


Harrison didn’t stop there. He further advocated the use of the colors on reservoirs and dedicated transfer equipment to diminish the chance of lubricant cross contamination. Today, as many readers are aware, there’s an array of color-coded tags and transfer equipment in the marketplace that can be employed by maintenance departments. These types of innovative solutions are relatively inexpensive to purchase and implement—and are very effective. For companies unable to stretch maintenance budgets in lean times for what they consider to be “non-essential” items, the Harrison article offers this suggestion: With just three or four cans of spray paint, some stencils and a little thought, a company could introduce a visual-management approach, thus setting in place the beginning of an overall lubrication-management program. Seek out and leverage effective resources Old journals, magazines (such as Popular Mechanics) and books are a treasure trove for any maintenance professional wishing to stimulate his/her innovative juices. They can be found in libraries, at flea markets or in the basement or garage of a retired or soon-to-retire colleague (who wants to find a new home for them). In searching for innovative approaches to maintenance, I learned—a long time ago—to invest time with the “old-timers.” For the price of a cup of coffee and a listening ear, many of them are more than happy to discuss their experiences, along with the methods, practices, tips and techniques they employed “back in the day.” Looking to the past is often just the spark we need to get started in the direction of future innovations. Good luck! MT Ken Bannister is author of Lubrication for Industry and the Lubrication section of the 28th edition Machinery’s Handbook. He’s also a Contributing Editor for Lubrication Management & Technology. Email:



Get More From Intelligent Field Devices Gary Mintchell, Editorial Director


his month’s column is the third installment in a series on how modern digital technologies help maintenance and reliability professionals and plant management improve performance. (The previous installments discussed HART Communication protocol and FDT.) Foundation Fieldbus was developed by the Fieldbus Foundation ( and contributing engineers from supplier and end-user companies. All devices connected to the network must contain the protocol and obey the electrical characteristics. The Foundation has developed compliance tests that suppliers must meet in order to market a Foundation device. This assures interoperability of devices from among many suppliers. The key component of Foundation Fieldbus for practitioners is diagnostics. With those diagnostics, you can know much more about the status of devices in your plant than you do now. This means you can begin to plan maintenance based on actual data and knowledge— and also plan what to change out in a turnaround rather than waste time and money replacing valves and other equipment that are still good. In the words of Endress+Hauser, a supplier of various process-automation components, “Foundation Fieldbus has a unique approach to management of device diagnostics. The publish/subscribe structure of Foundation Fieldbus means diagnostic information is available immediately to a wide range of workers in the plant. The challenge is to organize that data in a way that turns it into useful information for the right people at the right time. That’s why the Fieldbus Foundation created the Fieldbus Diagnostic Profile addition to our specification. This Profile incorporates the NAMUR NE 107 recommendations, which state the diagnostic data should be presented in a standard manner, with standard coloring and symbology.”

Changing minds and work practices According to Larry O’Brien, Marketing Director for the Foundation (and a former long-time analyst of the process industries for ARC Advisory group), “The original promise of having microprocessor-based devices was that they would transform the way we see the information related to these devices and the processes they control. Maintenance practices could be transformed so that devices with impending problems could be identified sooner. No longer would field technicians have to go to the device itself to get relevant information. The technology offers the promise of significantly lowering risk while lowering maintenance costs.” Still, many plants don’t “get it.” Consequently, technology that’s often already installed at a site doesn’t yield promised benefits. Recognizing this problem and the need to address it, Foundation members initiated a standards committee through the International Society of Automation: ISA108. As O’Brien put it, “This is not so much a technology issue as a people or work-process issue. Too many users are employing old maintenance work processes with new technology. It seems clear that the process industries would benefit from a standard set of work processes and best practices for intelligent device management. This would give end-users an effective blueprint for achieving the significant economic life-cycle benefits associated with intelligent devices.” From a personal perspective, I often saw this problem with automation I installed: People didn’t change to adopt the new technology and, thus, essentially wasted money. I hope this series has helped you see that technology exists to help you manage a plant more successfully—if only you will use it. MT Gary Mintchell,, is Executive Director and Editorial Director of Applied Technology Publications. He also writes at For more info, enter 07 at

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Stopping Repeat Wind-Farm Generator Failures A cross-disciplinary team used probability and “R” correlations in its hunt for the actual problem and effective solutions. Randall Noon, P.E.


Midwest wind farm operates 36 wind turbine generators, each rated for a maximum output of 1.65 megawatts. Ensuring that these units are available as needed is a major goal around this site. Alas, 21 generator failures over a seven-year period was no way to achieve that goal. The problem was the generator windings: They were shorting (as shown in Fig. 1). Since each generator was expected to last 20 to 25 years between re-winds, these failures significantly increased operating costs. To put an end to this ongoing problem, a cross-disciplinary team was assembled. This article details the team’s activities and success.


The roller bearings from several failed generators were disassembled and examined. The following was noted to be typical in all of them: â– There was an off-center wear path accentuated by heat

damage in the inner race, due to thrust loads (Fig. 3). â– A corresponding offset wear pattern with heat damage

also occurred in the outer race. The damage to the inner and outer races indicated a significant axial load had been applied to the rotor.

Fig. 1. This typically damaged wind-turbine generator shows a stator-winding short.

Lubricant and bearings To be clear, some investigative work had been done on the problem prior to assembling the cross-disciplinary team. Those investigations had noted that the generator bearing lubricant appeared burned or damaged, as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Offset wear path on the inner race.

The generator was equipped with single-race ball bearings at both the inboard and outboard ends of the rotor. A review of the vendor manual indicated that neither bearing had significant anti-thrust features. According to the manual, the OEM bearings have an L10 life of 9733 million revolutions or 135,180 operating hours. This equates to 15.6 years of continuous service. Since the wind turbine doesn't operate continuously, the bearings should last as long as the generator. The observed damage, however, indicated that bearing failure was imminent.

Fig. 2. Burned or damaged lubricant flows from a generator outboard bearing.

Due to concerns that the lubricant might have played a role in the failures, the type was changed and automatic lubricators were installed. Those changes had no effect in reducing failures. Further, samples of lubricant from a failed generator were sent to a testing laboratory for analysis. The laboratory found no evidence that the lubricant had failed or was inappropriate. SEPTEMBER 2013

Characterizing the failure When statistics concerning the failure were collected and categorized, two important clues popped out of the data. First, three different generator re-wind companies were involved: the OEM that supplied the generator, and two refurbishment companies that re-wound the generators. When the failed units were statistically correlated to the company that last performed the re-wind work, there was no connection. While an error in re-winding might be made by one company, the chances of three reputable suppliers all making the same mistake were improbable. Moreover, this improbability was compounded by the fact that the failed MT-ONLINE.COM | 21


generators had been re-wound by at least two of the three different companies, and all units had been successfully shoptested after refurbishment. Secondly, generators were originally installed in a particular tower. When a unit failed, it was replaced from inventory. The failed generator was then repaired and put back in inventory. If another generator failed, the one in inventory replaced the one that failed. Consequently, generators moved from tower to tower. When statistical correlations were made between failed generators and towers, however, it was found that there was a correlation of failures to towers, but there was no correlation to any particular generator. For example, 21 generator failures had occurred in 13 of the 36 towers—and two towers had four failures each, for a total of eight failures. Thus, 38% of the failures had occurred in just two towers. Two more towers had two failures each, for a total of four failures. This was 19% of the failures. Taken together, four towers were responsible for 57% of the failures. That is, just 11% of the population of towers correlated to 57% of the generator failures. This implicated that the cause was in the towers, not the generators. To eliminate the possibility that the failure was due to factors external to the wind farm, various checks of grid interface quality were done. No existing problems were found, such as harmonic distortions, spikes, grounding transients, etc. A check of historical grid records also found no suspect problems. Other correlation checks were made to see if the failures were related to the seasons, storms, calendar months, time in service, generator temperature, lightning strikes, etc. None were found. To verify or deny that the problems might be due to systemic design problems, the failure rate was compared to other installations with similar equipment configurations. The results of that survey are shown in Table I. They point to the fact that this particular wind farm was a significant outlier compared to the others. Table I. Survey of Similar Wind Farm Facilities Facility

# Turbines

Year Commissioned

Stator failures

Failure rate per year

A B C This one

121 41 63 36

2010 2008 2005 2005

0 0 8 21

0% 0% 2% 8.3%

Failure hypothesis At this point, it was hypothesized that the dielectric breakdown in the stator winding was caused by an electrical surge or series of surges. Because no such surge had come into the system from the grid, the surge originated within the generator control system itself. Notably, the electrical control system for each generator was housed in the tower and stayed with the tower. 22 |


When failures occurred, several control systems were observed to have burnt wiring associated with blown fuses. Anecdotal information from maintenance personnel indicated that in some cases, the contactor switches had failed. When failed contactors were found, they were replaced as needed, but no specific records were kept. Field inspections of existing equipment by the team found numerous individual generator-control systems with damaged capacitors in their capacitor banks. (Switched in and out of each generator’s control system by the contactor switch, capacitor banks control the generator’s power factor as wind speeds change.) There were five capacitor banks for each generator. Sufficient capacitance is provided so that the power factor of each generator is at least 95%. Of the 33 turbine generator capacitor banks checked, 52 of 165 individual banks—or 32%—had been damaged by high voltage, as evidenced by swelling at the cap end. The damaged capacitor banks were then correlated to generator failures, and the following was found (with “R” being the standard Pearson correlation factor): ■ Correlation of failed generators to damage in capacitor

bank 1: R = -0.2 ■ Correlation of failed generators to damage in capacitor

bank 2: R = -0.34 ■ Correlation of failed generators to damage in capacitor

bank 3: R = -0.42 ■ Correlation of failed generators to damage in capacitor

bank 4: R = +0.07 ■ Correlation of failed generators to damage in capacitor

bank 5: R = -0.33 The investigators used Table II to assess the significance of the “R” correlation factor. As this table shows, the correction between failure and capacitor banks 2, 3 and 4 was “medium.” The correlation between failure and capacitor bank 1 was “small,” and the correlation between failure and capacitor bank 4 was “none.” Table II. Significance of ‘R’ Factors Correlation



None Small Medium Strong

−0.09 to 0.0 −0.3 to −0.1 −0.5 to −0.3 −1.0 to −0.5

0.0 to 0.09 0.1 to 0.3 0.3 to 0.5 0.5 to 1.0

Since none of the correlations was in the “strong” category, capacitor bank damage was not the specific cause. However, the “medium” correlation of the 2, 3 and 4 banks to generator SEPTEMBER 2013


failures indicated that capacitor-bank damage was either a consequence of the cause—or a contributor to it. The bleed-off resistors for the capacitor banks in several control systems were examined. Bleed-off resistors discharge the capacitors when the contactor switch disconnects one bank and connects to another. In this particular design, once a capacitor bank has been disconnected, it has two minutes or less to fully discharge. The design of the system is such that the switching time between banks is not less than two minutes. Thus, the time constant developed in the bleed-off resistors and capacitor bank combination must be several times less than two minutes. The function of a transient suppression resistor is to reduce the magnitude of electrical surges that occur as a result of switching between capacitor banks. Failure of a transient suppression resistor allows voltage transients to enter the generator’s electrical control system without being reduced to tolerable levels. Each contactor switch has transient suppression resistors. In discussions with maintenance personnel, it was learned that when fuses were found damaged, the fuses were replaced but neither the transient suppression resistors nor the bleed-off resistors were checked for damage. Consequently, all the damaged bleed-off resistors and suppression resistors that were found in the control systems constituted the accumulated total of all damaged bleed-off and suppression resistors during the service life of the facility. With respect to the transient suppression resistors, several were found which had failed due to wire leads that had broken or separated such that the circuit was open. Being open totally negates the function of the transient suppression resistor. Operation of the turbine generator is not prevented by the failure of its transient suppression resistors: There’s no flag, panel indicator light or SCADA signal to indicate failed transient suppression resistors or failed bleed-off resistors. These components can fail while the turbine generator operates apparently normally. All circuit elements intended by design to protect the generators from high-amplitude transients produced when switching between capacitor banks, for various individual and combined reasons, appeared to be crippled (Figs. 4 and 5 reflect typical damages):

Fig. 4. A damaged (note discoloration) bleed-off resistor.

■ Some had open-circuited bleed-off resistors. ■ Some had open-circuited transient suppression resistors.

Fig. 5. Severe heat damage on the fuse-block center clips.

■ Some had open-circuited contacts in the suppression

resistor circuit. ■ Some had open-circuited fuses, heat-damaged fuse

blocks, heat-damaged wiring and heat-damaged clips. SEPTEMBER 2013



Table III. ‘R’ Factors for Sampled Turbine Units


Strong connections between contact failures and bleed-off resistor failures and between failed suppression resistors and bleed-off resistors pointed to a well-connected interplay among these components.

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Bleed Resistor Failures vs Generator Failures Contact Failures vs Bleed Resistor Failures Suppression Resistor Failures vs Generator Failures Suppression Resistor Failures vs Bleed Resistor Failures Contact Failures vs Generator Failures Contact Failure or Suppression Resistor Failure vs Generator Failure

Computed “R” Factor

Characterization of Relationship (from Table II)













To test the correlation between the findings listed at the bottom of page 23 and the generator failures, the Pierson “R” correlation factors in Table III were calculated. The “strong” connection between contact failures and bleed-off resistor failures and a similarly “strong” connection between suppression-resistor failures and bleed-off resistor failures shown in Table III indicated there was a well-connected interplay among these components. The “strong” connection between generator failure and the failure of either a contact or a suppression resistor was notable. Further, if it is assumed that the one generator with a damaged suppression resistor that had not failed was simply a generator that had yet to fail, the correlation would be R = +1.00 instead of +0.92.



General equation governing the current discharge of a capacitor across a resistor

I(t) = - I0 e-t/RC Where:

I(t) = the current being discharged at time “t� I0 = the maximum current held by the capacitor R = resistance in the capacitor circuit C = capacitance of the capacitor t = time

Subsequently, a high-potentiometer test was done on the un-failed generator unit. The hi-pot test indicated that the dielectric properties in the generator had significantly degraded and the unit would shortly fail. The assumption that the generator had simply not yet failed was affirmed. In short, the correlation was R = +1.00.


Explanation The 21 generators had failed when either the suppression resistors were open-circuited or the contacts were opencircuited. Thus, high-voltage transients created by switching among the capacitor banks were not controlled and damaged the generators.

The general equation that governs the current discharge of a capacitor across a resistor is given by the equation above. The factor “RC� is the time constant of the circuit and is a measure of how long it takes to discharge the capacitor. If “R� is infinite because the resistor in the circuit is open, the term “e-t/RC" degenerates to the value “1� and the capacitor basically discharges as instantaneously as physically possible. This, of course, negates the design purpose of the resistor to slow down the discharge and smooth out harmful transients. Similarly, a reduction of capacitance in the circuit, assuming “R� is unaffected, decreases the time constant of the circuit and the charge is not dissipated within the design requirements.





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Depending on the particular combination of damage to the bleed-off resistors, transient suppression resistors, contacts and capacitor bank in each unit, electrical transients of various amplitudes can be generated and transmitted directly to the generator. If the transient is sufficiently high and is sent enough times, a pinhole can be created in the winding dielectric, causing a short circuit. Once a short circuit forms, the generator’s performance degrades until general failure occurs. In shorting to the grounded casing, the generator rotor develops a thrust that damages the bearings as observed. Unfortunately, because damage to their circuit components didn't prevent the turbines from running, no operating effect was noticeable until failure occurred. Follow-up Based on these findings, a maintenance intervention program to regularly inspect and replace transient suppression components was initiated. Unexpected failures stopped, and the cross-disciplinary investigation team was disbanded. What started with questions about the generators' lubricants and bearings ended with sound conclusions regarding the actual problem: the units' circuit components. MT Randy Noon is a Root Cause Team Leader at Nebraska’s Cooper Nuclear Station. A noted author and frequent contributor to MT, he’s been investigating failures for more three decades. Email:

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Moisture Protection Of Electronics The importance of keeping electronic equipment dry would seem to be a no-brainer. That said, are your operations taking a best-practices approach to getting it done? Cody Hostick, PaciďŹ c Northwest National Laboratory*


oisture is a key contributor to a variety of electronicsystem failure modes. One particularly challenging aspect of such failures is their intermittent nature. As a result, troubleshooting can result in the removal of parts that subsequently retest as acceptable. This can generate great numbers of suspect parts and significantly increase the consumption rate of your spares.

*Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for the United States Department of Energy by Battelle, under contract DE-AC05-76RLO 1830. PNNL-SA94933.




Outdoors, or in wet indoor environments like wash-down areas, effective moisture protection of electronic systems begin with the design of the enclosures and penetrations, and end with the design and configuration of the components. This article focuses on several of these best practices. Assume your enclosure will leak Unless the application calls for a vented enclosure (e.g., for heat dissipation, battery off-gassing), a sealed enclosure represents the first line of defense against moisture. Unfortunately, even the best NEMA 4 electrical enclosure works great until poor installation practices or out-year modifications create poorly sealed penetrations (Fig. 1).

In terms of cable penetrations (versus conduit penetrations), directing water away from the electrical enclosure or housing through the use of drip loops (Fig. 3) is another best practice. The next step is to heat-shrink the connector fittings and alternate wrappings of electrical tape and butyl self-adhesive rubber tape to protect against moisture intrusion into the connector. Maintaining door seals is equally important. Door seals should be inspected to ensure panel doors are sealing properly by observing surface wear on the seals. Larger doors with few latches are particularly problematic as flexing of the door may prevent a uniform seal. And finally, seals should be inspected for pinching, tears and proper adhesion to original mating surfaces.

Fig. 3. Cable drip loop

Fig. 1. Water accumulation in a poorly sealed electrical enclosure

It’s best to assume that penetrations into any enclosure are going to leak (as shown by Fig. 2). Based on this assumption, top-mounted conduit penetrations where moisture can collect on horizontal surfaces should be avoided. Even if Myers hubs or sealing locknuts are being used for code compliance, enclosure penetrations should be made below energized parts, if at all possible.

Fig. 2. Poorly sealed conduit penetrations SEPTEMBER 2013

Assume all conduits contain moisture The next best practice for moisture protection of electronics assumes that even if the conduit penetrations are perfectly sealed, the conduits are still going to contain moisture. Underground conduit often is left unsealed during construction (allowing moisture accumulation), and conduit runs can potentially have multiple points where moisture can enter. Conduit with moisture can transfer water vapor into a sealed enclosure. Typically, when electronics are energized, heat is generated and the air inside the enclosure can hold even more moisture than ambient conditions, meaning water vapor is less of a problem. The problem occurs when the enclosure temperature drops (due to the equipment being de-energized, cooler nighttime temperatures, cooler weather conditions, etc.) and the temperature inside the enclosure drops below the dew point, resulting in condensation. Expanding polyurethane foam sealant (Fig. 4) provides an excellent method of sealing around conduit cabling: It’s been found to be superior to silicone, primarily because caulking guns used with silicone are difficult to insert far enough into the conduit to achieve an effective seal. An expanding foam nozzle attachment can be inserted further into the conduit to produce an effective seal around the cabling. MT-ONLINE.COM | 29

Despite your best efforts to seal doors, conduits and cabling, moist air will still find ways to infiltrate an electrical enclosure. When it does, you have to decide on one of several courses of action.

Fig. 4. Expanding foam sealing of conduit

Assume moisture will infiltrate an enclosure Despite the best efforts to seal doors, conduits and cabling, moist air will still infiltrate the electrical enclosure. At this point, one of several decisions must be made. Option 1: Do nothing… One option is to assume that the electronics can handle potential moisture, and do nothing. This decision is not as short-sighted as it initially sounds. If correct, no additional expenditures are required. If incorrect, data on the nature of moisture-induced problems will inform better decisions going forward. If the electronics cannot handle the actual moisture that infiltrates the enclosure, the specific problems will self-declare, which will assist with the decision to remove the moisture or to moisture-harden the electronics. Option 2: Remove moisture. . . A useful first step to remove enclosure moisture is to characterize the enclosure environment using a temperature/ humidity data logger (Fig. 5, page 32). These inexpensive, battery-powered devices (~$200) record relative humidity and temperature. They also indicate the dew-point conditions inside the enclosure (Fig. 6, page 32). Maintaining enclosure temperatures above dew-point temperatures is a requirement for condensation prevention. Pursuing this option can be accomplished in a number of ways, ranging from desiccant to thermoelectric dehumidifiers—the challenge is to select an option that is inexpensive to both implement and maintain. The water-absorption capability of desiccant is dependent on a variety of factors 30 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY

(e.g., desiccant type, humidity, temperature). For example, silica gel can absorb up to 40% of its weight in water. A 4’ x 6’ x 2’ electrical enclosure in a hot/humid environment would saturate 125 g of desiccant in about two air exchanges. Therefore, the resulting frequency of required desiccant change-outs (which affects maintenance costs) is largely driven by how well the enclosures are sealed. Unfortunately, when it comes to desiccant regimes, each act of opening an enclosure to inspect the desiccant serves as an air exchange. Dehumidifiers are relatively inexpensive, although finding convenient available power inside an enclosure may be problematic. The positive feature is that dehumidifiers eliminate the manual intervention associated with a desiccant regime. The negative feature of dehumidifiers is that they introduce one more piece of equipment that can ultimately fail. Another strategy is to minimize the potential for condensation through internal heaters (or light bulbs) to keep the internal enclosure temperature well above dew-point temperatures. The downside is that higher temperatures may be detrimental to some heat-sensitive electronic components, and the higher temperature actually allows the air to hold more moisture. Venting and fans can help avoid condensation in some situations—although the humidity still exists. One interesting product the makers of GORE-TEX® have produced involves screw-in vents that enable enclosures to breathe, while providing a barrier to moisture and contaminants. The theory behind this type of venting is that it reduces the stress on door seals when there are pressure differentials between the enclosure and the environment. By equalizing pressure, the possibility of moist air at higher pressure defeating your door seals is lessened. SEPTEMBER 2013

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Option 3: Moisture-harden the electronics . . . Moisture-hardening of electronics includes a variety of techniques. In terms of connectors, using waterproof connectors or hardening existing connectors and splices with heat-shrink tubing can be useful to minimize water intrusion and corrosion. Avoiding horizontal orientation of components like printed circuit boards inside the enclosure can minimize surfaces where condensation may collect for extended periods of time. Conformal coatings for lower-voltage printed circuit boards and the use of potting (see Fig. 7) of higher-voltage components greatly increase the moisture resistance of components. Potting costs vary according to the size of order, material selection and part geometry, but representative costs for very small orders (less than 10) typically fall in the range of $18 to $45 per part. An additional advantage of potting is the added protection from shock and vibration. Fig. 5. Temperature/humidity data logger

Fig. 6. Enclosure temperature/humidity/dew point






Moisture never sleeps. Protecting electronics calls for a multi-pronged strategy. Potted


Conclusion Moisture protection of electronics is best approached by pursuing practices that maximize moisture barriers during equipment installation, coupled with being prepared to mitigate failure through any one moisture-protection measure during operations. This strategy, along with tracking equipment-maintenance performance to understand how well moisture-protection measures are working, can lead to long-term minimization of electronics moisture-induced problems. MT Cody Hostick is a Project Manager at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (www., in Richland, WA. Telephone: (509) 375-4317; email:

Fig. 7. Use of potted electrical components for improved moisture protection

*Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for the United States Department of Energy by Battelle, under contract DE-AC05-76RLO 1830. PNNL-SA94933.


Reliable Test Fluorescent Lamps, Pins And Voltage With One Pocket-Sized Tool



mprobe® has introduced the LT-10 Lamp Tester, a lightweight, pocket-sized tool that takes the guesswork out of troubleshooting fluorescent fixtures. According to the company, the one-button device can verify in seconds whether fluorescent bulbs are operational prior to installation or removal, making it well-suited for facilities with large numbers of fixtures to maintain. Featuring a highly responsive 48” retractable and removable antenna, it extends the reach of technicians and reduces the amount of time they spend climbing up and down ladders. While the unit’s non-conductive antenna sleeve allows for safe testing, its 2” plate delivers better readings and is removable so personnel can troubleshoot bulbs through architectural grids. The LT-10 also features VolTect™ non-contact voltage detection to provide both visual and audible alerts to identify the source of voltage without the need for an extra tool. Amprobe Everett, WA For more info, enter 02 at



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Fouled Heat Exchangers? Try Electronic Water Treatment Problem When material deposits form on heat-transfer surfaces, fouling occurs. Common fouling mechanisms include particulates, crystals (usually calcium carbonate), biological organisms, chemical reactions and corrosion. Fouling significantly impacts the thermal and mechanical performance of heat exchangers by increasing overall thermal resistance and lowering the overall heat-transfer coefficient. It also impedes fluid flow, accelerates corrosion and reduces pressure across the heat exchanger. Fouling adds to energy costs because of the additional energy required to overcome its effects. Estimates place these fouling-related costs in the billions of dollars annually across industry. Additional costs are attributed to maintenance charges for the removal of fouling deposits. According to heat-exchanger manufacturers, 15% of all factory maintenance costs are related to heat-exchanger problems, and half of these problems are due to fouling. Factor in downtime caused by fouling and the effect of the problem is only too plain. Solution Cleaning fouled heat exchangers is the solution, and can be accomplished in several ways: mechanically, with brushes and scrapers; chemically, with solvents; with high-velocity water pressure; and with electronic water treatment. Of these, electronic water treatment (EWT) may be the most effective, according to numerous studies conducted around the world. Not only does this form of cleaning work with rust (corrosion) and scale, it works on biological fouling such as zebra mussels.

Electronic water treatment (EWT) is a non-invasive system that uses a solenoid coil or coils wrapped around the pipework to be treated. A signal generator that creates a continuously changing frequency supplies current to the coils. The pulsing current creates an induced electric field around the axis inside the pipe. In this arrangement, any charged particle or ion moving within the field experiences a so-called Lorentz force, which is generated by the interaction between charged particles and magnetic and electric fields. This alters the number, size and shape of the crystals (making them smaller and more round) which, in turn, will reduce adherence and buildup on the pipe wall. The crystals will be carried away with the water flow. As no new scale layers are formed, existing scale layers will be gradually removed by the sheer force of the water flow. To understand how electronic scale removal works, it is first important to understand the factors that cause scale. While scale can be a complex of many minerals, the most common in industrial processes is calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate can form spontaneously when aqueous solutions become supersaturated, which means that they contain higher concentrations of dissolved substance than their equilibrium concentration. Such solutions are unstable, and easily triggered into dropping back to saturation level, forcing the dissolved compound to separate from the solution and form scales. Other factors that contribute to scale formation include pH levels and temperature, where high levels of either promote scale formation, and fluid pressure, where low levels promote scale formation.

Return On Investment EWT is an effective, environmentally friendly, cost-efficient way of reducing heat-exchanger fouling and achieving the following benefits: ■ Lower water and energy bills ■ Extended piping and equipment life ■ Increased mean time before

equipment failure ■ Installation without plant shutdown ■ A 20-year-plus life span

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Sponsored Information


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SUPPLY CHAIN LINKS Regardless of size. . .

Bringing Predictive Maintenance Home To Your Plant

What options are available? We asked SKF’s Andy Hoy about his company’s new service-program offering. Andy Hoy of SKF USA

Jane Alexander, Editor

MT: While the potential benefits of predictive maintenance (PdM) programs for machinery have been widely recognized, some operations have yet to move in that direction. Why? HOY: A predictive maintenance strategy that lets operations identify and repair machinery problems before they escalate to full failure modes certainly can help any plant reduce the costs of maintenance, prevent breakdowns and unplanned downtime, increase machinery availability, improve productivity and limit production losses. But it’s true that despite the advantages, successful rollout and implementation of a predictive maintenance program sometimes can be thwarted by economics, logistics and/or a variety of other factors. In the case of smaller-scale operations, for example, the investment required for start-up equipment, training and initial support—not to mention the time and costs associated with ongoing analysis and reporting—may just be too much to carry. 38 |


MT: What options do such operations typically have? HOY: For one, a plant can create and run a predictive maintenance program on its own, but at what costs? Dedicated specialists must be hired, trained and retained; condition-monitoring equipment, including data collectors and related infrastructure, must be onboard; software and network systems to manage and analyze machine condition data must be installed; and maintenance resources must continually be enlisted to act on the generated data. All these elements may prove too daunting, especially for limited-scale manufacturers with an eye on the bottom line. In fact, based on historical data, costs for predictive maintenance programs can easily exceed $100,000 for start-up alone when run entirely in-house. Another conventional way to go is to outsource a predictive maintenance program, but this can be tricky, too. Machinery operations must be scheduled around a contractor’s visits; access must be provided to all critical plant machinery; escorts may be required; “call outs” will have to SEPTEMBER 2013


Small- to medium-sized operations often have been at a distinct disadvantage with regard to establishing and running effective predictive maintenance programs. be handled definitively in a timely manner; and confusion may develop regarding “ownership” responsibility of the particular maintenance effort. MT: Is there another way to go to circumvent these issues? HOY: Yes. We looked long and hard at the manufacturing landscape and confirmed that small- to mid-sized operations have been at a distinct disadvantage when it comes to establishing and running effective and affordable predictive maintenance programs. So we took steps to leverage our expertise and make it easier by developing and offering the SKF Machine Health Reporting Program (MHRP). This program is particularly appropriate for operations with the following needs/characteristics: established goals to reduce maintenance costs; production requirements that must be achieved; up to 500 critical and interdependent rotating production machines and equipment for which high repair or replacement costs can be expected. MT: How does the MHRP stand out from conventional predictive maintenance programs? HOY: The MHRP is very much about positively managing risk and involving a plant’s existing labor force in partnership with SKF. It's a vibration-based maintenance service program engaged through our authorized distribution network and designed to build on the strengths of each partner—i.e., SKF expertise in maintenance strategies and predictive maintenance and a distributor’s inherent knowledge about customer operations and on-site logistics. We contribute the enabling technologies and expertise to collect data about the health of machinery at a facility and deliver reliable analysis, reporting and remedial recommendations. Equipped with ample warning, operations can get ahead of the curve on problems and take proactive measures to prevent catastrophic machinery failure, which is what predictive maintenance programs are all about. MT: How does your program handle enabling hardware requirements? HOY: In a way, this program is structured similar to a cellphone subscription, where the operation signs up for the “service plan” and SKF provides state-of-the-art vibration data collectors as a part of the “contract” and instructs the operation’s front-line workers on their proper use. Since these data collectors represent big-ticket items, we’ve found that this hardware contribution helps break the financial ice. SEPTEMBER 2013

The hand-held SKF Microlog portable data collectors/ FFT analyzers can capture full-feature route and non-route dynamic (vibration) and static (process) measurements from many sources. And the technology can be applied to any rotating equipment, including motors, gearboxes, fans, compressors and conveyors, among others. Signals from connected sensors are digitally recorded and stored and then uploaded for post-processing purposes, including analysis and reporting. The result is that an operation learns what’s wrong with a machine, the extent of the problem and what to do about it. MT: How is data relayed and handled, and at what costs? HOY: Analysis and reporting of data typically would necessitate the purchase of expensive software, installing it on servers maintained by an IT support group and preserving data integrity. But the MHRP takes the ball and runs with it. All can now be performed remotely with this program by taking advantage of SKF “cloud-hosted” software infrastructure, supplied software and analysis/ reporting protocols. In a nutshell, machinery information and measurement data are uploaded to the “cloud” server via the Internet, where it is stored in SKF @ptitude Analyst Software available for viewing any time and anywhere from Internet access on the ground. Incoming data are reviewed continuously by SKF @aptitude Decision Support, which automatically compares the new data against known (and good) baseline measurements for possible deviations. The software flags problems and alerts a designated SKF engineer, who reviews the data and decides on the best course of remedial action(s). A report follows with recommendations. MT: If an operation signs up for the MHRP, what’s the timeline to get up and running? HOY: In the very first month, an operation supplies a list of critical machines for scrutiny. Then, SKF comes on site and instructs staff on predictive maintenance fundamentals, collects machine information and builds a measurement database. In the second, or “launch,” month, the Microlog data collectors are delivered, instruction is provided, communication software is installed, baseline data is collected and the first in a series of Machine Health Reports is published. Once up and running, the program subsequently collects data and delivers Machine Health Reports monthly with quarterly on-site analysis meetings and on-demand “spot” checks included. MT-ONLINE.COM | 39


MT: Any success stories so far? HOY: Absolutely. For example, a roofing-shingle manufacturer initially tried to implement a predictive maintenance program on its own, but found the process to be a rocky road: The operation’s busy in-house plant maintenance team couldn’t keep up with the program, inexperience with vibration analysis made it difficult to convert data into actions and frustration mounted. With machine reliability a top priority, the site turned to SKF’s MHRP. The experience and results were impressive. Previous failures of a mission-critical compressor had been costing more than $30,000 in repair parts alone—and unplanned production downtime was measured in days, not hours. With our MHRP in full swing, it was determined that a failing bearing was at fault. By proactively replacing that bearing, the plant saved tens of thousands of dollars in the direct cost of repair parts. All work was completed during a regu-

larly scheduled production stoppage with no additional interruptions experienced or necessary. Other machinery was probed, too, including a critical pump and mill transfer blower, whose Mean Time Between Failures were too early and too often. Within the first six months of the MHRP approach being implemented, the plant was able to get rid of more than 25 hours of unplanned downtime and gain tens of thousands of dollars that had previously added up in lost productivity and repairs. These cases demonstrate that the intrinsic MHRP partnership ultimately can position plant operations solidly on the road to realizing how a comprehensive predictive maintenance program can make the big difference, especially when supported by experts equipped with the knowledge to deliver sustainable success and savings. MT Andy Hoy is Director-North American Machine Health Reporting Program at SKF USA Inc. Email: For more info, enter 06 at

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For more info, enter 06 at SEPTEMBER 2013

Calling All Innovators! Don’t just leave it to ‘the other guy’ to show off his/her innovation. You Could Be Our Next Grand-Prize Winner! Enter Now.

Categories: Innovative Devices, Gizmos & Gadgets Innovative Processes & Procedures Innovative Use of Third-Party Resources Honoring the essence of innovation in maintenance and reliability, entries will be judged on the following elements:

Practicality. . . Can it be adopted across industry? Can it be easily replicated, manufactured or sold?

Simplicity. . . Is the ROI less than 3 months? Is the idea intuitive and easily understood?

Presented By

Applied Technology Publications

Deadline for Entries is Midnight, December 31, 2013. Our Grand-Prize Winner & Runners-Up Will Be Announced Early 2014.

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Impact. . . Reliability Ergonomics (operator, maintainer) Safety Energy reduction Environmental Maintainability (reduces maintenance)

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Using Smartphone Technology To Extend Equipment Life North American Stainless is calling on QR codes to support its best-in-class maintenance practices. Don Stewart North American Stainless


orth American Stainless (NAS), a member of the Acerinox Group, is the largest fully integrated stainless steel producer in the U.S. The Ghent, KY, mill (shown above) has expanded rapidly since its founding in 1990, but still operates very lean with only one manager of mechanical maintenance for the entire plant. Like most companies, NAS is particularly concerned with increasing the performance and furthering the reliability of its equipment. Paperbased processes, however, and a lack of adequate equipment history had been holding the Ghent mill back from best-in-class performance.

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Granted, having access to history doesn’t necessarily make repairs faster, but it would help us in finding the origins of problems. For example, if a particular pump or cylinder has repeated problems, we could use the history to help investigate and identify the root cause. Access to equipment history would likewise reduce the learning curve of our technicians and improve labor productivity, allowing for more effective, accurate, timely and cost-effective repairs. In 2008, NAS launched an initiative to invest in Webbased software and state-of-the-art technology to simplify the process of capturing and accessing equipment information, performing inspections and tracking repairs through completion. As a result, maintenance practices have become more predictive and effective than in the past, and equipment is operating more reliably. Turning opportunities into achievable goals Previously, repairs were tracked by maintenance personnel with file folders, who attached quotes and repair inspections when available to purchase orders. That was essentially the extent of the documentation—and it wasn’t always utilized documentation— properly. Many times, maintenance had paper files detailing properly past repairs, but when an item was again sent for service, that information wasn’t readily accessible for review. Sometimes, the equipment would go to repair shops that didn’t have records of previous work performed. Because of our reliance on paper work orders generated by our computerized maintenance management system (CMMS), inspections were also not ideal. Each inspection would include a combination of visual checks (e.g., is something good, bad or needing attention), as well as data-based observations (e.g., recording levels, pressures, set points, etc). Once completed, the paper work orders were given to a clerk who scanned them and sent them to the responsible maintenance personnel for review. It was up to that maintenance person to generate new work orders based on discoveries made during the inspection. Basically, for both repairs and inspections, NAS depended on the memory of whoever was in charge of the line—and if he/she moved to a different group, transferred to another plant or left the company, the history was lost. To resolve this challenge, we needed to digitize our equipment records and work history in a centralized knowledge base, which would simultaneously allow us to upgrade our maintenance work processes. System selection and deployment Following a careful search and evaluation of reliability information management systems, NAS chose Tango from 24/7 Systems to store and retain reliability data points like oil analysis, thermography, etc. Implemented in 2008, this SEPTEMBER 2013

system appeared to offer the best type of software and Web service for our needs: reporting, storage, tracking and filtering of equipment-condition assessments and predictive maintenance (PdM) inspections. It also was capable of maintaining years of equipment history. The Tango software provided reliability information management in two areas: ■ Integration, management and communication of equip-

ment condition information ■ Life-cycle tracking to gain equipment history, MTBF and

root cause of failure In 2011, NAS began incorporating smartphones and quick-response (QR) barcodes into our processes—which boosted the adoption and usage of the reliability information system’s repair-tracking capabilities. The Repair Tracker module provides a Web-based portal for plant personnel and repair shops to enter repair and failure details. Although this tracking functionality didn’t see much action in the beginning, the longer we used the reliability information management system, the clearer it became that the tracking feature was something we should leverage. As shown in the accompanying photo (and as most readers are no doubt aware), QR codes are the square, two-dimensional barcodes that have been fast replacing traditional UPC barcodes because of their readability and storage capacity. If you have the serial number, it’s easy to assign a QR code. Using a smartphone or similar Web-based device, a user can scan a QR code to access and enter equipment information, speeding the process and preventing data-entry errors.

QR code on equipment MT-ONLINE.COM | 43


NAS is now using QR codes to track equipment repairs and preventive maintenance activities, and as a means of quick access to data from the field. We began by tagging every pump from which we take vibration data on a monthly basis. The site has already tagged about 400 pumps and several hydraulic cylinders, rolls and gearboxes—and we’re in the process of expanding those numbers. As equipment is pulled from the line during shutdowns or otherwise, we tag it before it’s sent out for repair. Approximately 20 maintenance engineers throughout the plant have been trained on how to use the repair tracker function, including how to assign QR codes to items and how to send an item for repair from the mobile platform. In addition, at least 40 vendors are currently set up to use the software. All of the repair shops and vendors that we use when sending items like pumps, gearboxes, spindles, rolls, etc., out for repair have the ability to log in to the repair tracking system and add information. Modern technologies transform work processes Using QR codes and our reliability software to track repairs is easy. If the equipment you’re sending out for repair already has a QR code attached to it, you simply scan the code with a smartphone or Web-enabled tablet using one of the many free QR code readers available for all the major operating systems. Once the QR code has been scanned, the user will be directed to a link in Tango Mobile. One of the links available via this mobile Web page is a “Send for Repair” button. The user taps this option and then selects the name of the repair shop where the equipment is to be sent. We require a purchase order number to be associated with the repair and also the date the item is being sent. Once those three pieces of information are assigned and the item is submitted for repair, the system will automatically generate an email to notify the receiving department and appropriate purchasing and maintenance personnel. If the equipment does not already have a QR code attached to it, additional steps are required to assign a code before sending it out for repair—something that can be done in the field using a smartphone or tablet. 44 |


Repair shops and vendors can input information about the condition of an item as it is received, updates on the repair throughout the process and details on the repair after it has been completed. They also have the option to upload inspection reports, pictures and other relevant documents directly into the tracking software. All of this information can be quickly accessed by the NAS personnel responsible for sending out the referenced equipment for repair. Additionally, if repair shop personnel receive a piece of equipment without a QR code and think it needs to be tracked, they will either advise NAS to enter it in the software or do it themselves. Repair tracking results page One major benefit we’re seeing comes from the knowledge that’s permanently recorded by the tracking application. Using this software, all historical information is available online once it has been logged. You can see repair information, testing, pictures, etc., that were uploaded with the previous repairs. SEPTEMBER 2013


Current and future goals Like many other new procedures, it will take some time to achieve 100% adoption of the new processes. Some of our users have embraced the system to a greater degree than others. Although the benefits of using the reliability information management system are evident, it’s still a change from the way things have been done in the past. Meanwhile, the mill’s reliance on the system is increasing. Our current plans are to implement Tango’s Repair Tracker program for all major equipment that’s repaired. While we now primarily track mechanical assets, we see a huge opportunity to add motors that are sent out weekly to the system. Equipment travel email The reliability software isn’t integrated into our CMMS program at this time, but we plan to use the Mobile Rounds Logging feature of Tango in place of our current PdM inspections in certain areas. We feel that it will be faster and easier for technicians to complete inspections with this feature—because it will automate many of the inspection steps. They can pull up the equipment record using the QR code and the data that’s entered is immediately uploaded once the inspection is completed. Alarm levels on entered data will generate condition entries into the software. Users then have the ability to trend these parameters over time. NAS is also working toward moving from smartphones to tablets for rounds logging inspections and for tracking parts. As a whole, this strategic combination of software and smart technology has eliminated the paper trail and related risks that had previously bogged down the NAS maintenance department and revolutionized its current operations. As North American Stainless continues to find new ways to leverage this investment, we expect our maintenance performance and equipment reliability to continue to improve. MT And, you can track these repairs for recurring issues so that future upgrades can be planned. For example, if a pump from a specific system experienced bearing failures on multiple occasions due to a lack of lubrication, we might want to look into upgrading the bearings, the lubrication or both. The software puts this type of information on our screens in an easy-to-follow format. SEPTEMBER 2013

Don Stewart is a Predictive Maintenance Engineer at North American Stainless ( in Ghent, KY. An ISO Category III Certified Vibration Analyst, he’s been with the company since 2002. Email: dwstewart@ For more info, enter 03 at MT-ONLINE.COM | 45


Information Technology

Tips For Reducing Your Inventory Headache Jennifer Ohl, MBA, Midwest Software Specialists, Inc.


ntelligent inventory management plays a key role in a successful maintenance program. A smart inventory solution can significantly reduce costs and equipment downtime, prevent overstocking, cut the time spent searching for parts and improve inventory data. Though each industry and company’s needs and requirements vary, there are some general strategies that can help optimize your inventory investment. Spare parts typically make up 30% to 40% of the typical maintenance budget. The average inventory holding cost, (i.e., the cost to keep parts in the storeroom) ranges from 10% to 20% of the parts value [Ref. 1]. Included in the holding cost are insurance (typically 4%-6% of the parts value) and taxes (5% to 8% of the parts value). (For a small storeroom with $1M in inventory, those figures translate to $40,000 to $60,000 for taxes and $50,000 to $80,000 for insurance.) And these calculations don’t even begin to take into consideration the costs of equipment downtime, should it occur! Keys to keeping inventory expenses in line are management of part checkouts and prevention of over-ordering. . . The first step is to review inventory procedures. Checking out parts correctly is the place to start. Spare parts must be checked out in the computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) every time they’re used—and checked out according to company procedures. It’s best to link the checked-out part to a work order, which allows the part used for a specific job, along with associated labor charges, to be charged to the specific equipment listed on the work order. If a work order isn’t required, it’s best to check out parts directly to the equipment it is used on. Either way, a record of the person who most recently checked the part out is accessible. If a part shortage arises, that person could be contacted. Checking out parts properly will ensure that the equipment has the correct labor and material charges. This data is available for assessment of overall equipment maintenance cost and whether a replacement of the equipment is justified. Inventory quantities on hand will be more accurate, reducing the need for constant cycle counts. The second recommended step is to review how stock items with pre-determined re-order point and re-order quantity are handled. A reorder point is the inventory level when additional parts need to be ordered, and reorder quantity is the amount of parts to reorder. A reorder point and quantity should be set for stock items. Lead times should be taken into account when determining re-order point and 46 |


re-order quantity. If the re-order data has been agreed upon by maintenance, purchasing and stores staff, there is no need to get a written or electronic approval each time stock parts need to be re-ordered. The stores staff can run a re-order query for the stock items and have the system approve it automatically. If possible, purchase orders should be created automatically (from the re-order query) for these stock items needing replenishment. Requiring managers to approve these stock items is unnecessary and can result in delays in ordering, and potentially even equipment downtime. If a manager does not approve the re-order list promptly, typically none of the parts on the list will be ordered until all the signatures are obtained. Once procedures for checking out and re-ordering stock parts have been solidified, the third step of standardizing part names and cleansing part data can be started. Storerooms often have duplicate parts (the same part with different part numbers and descriptions). This can cause over-ordering, time lost, and frustration due to searching for a part that appears to have zero quantity, only to be found elsewhere, with a different part number and available for use. Data cleansing could be outsourced, but there are some disadvantages. The stores staff will have to spend significant time anyway providing or agreeing to part nomenclature, and once the contracted cleaning company has provided the “clean” data, the stores staff will be tasked with maintaining it. For storerooms with more than 7000 inventory items, this task may seem overwhelming. In this case, an outside company can help streamline the process (i.e., re-naming parts based on new naming conventions). There are different ways to name parts. One preferred method is to begin with the commodity group or type (for example: belt, bearing, valve, fitting, etc.), followed by information describing the part and a company-created number (not the vendor number). Using the vendor’s part number can be a problem if you switch vendors, and most CMMS systems have fields in which you can enter your primary and secondary vendor part numbers. Placing the maximum amount of data in the part description field (such as descriptive information about the part, manufacturer and primary vendor) will enable the maintenance staff to search only in one data field (this will be possible only if the part description field holds at least 40 characters). As shown in the screenshot at the top of page 47, data should also be entered in the field intended for it (i.e. manufacturer data should be listed in the manufacturer field). SEPTEMBER 2013


The process of standardizing inventory will help eliminate the duplicates that currently exist in the database, and prevent duplicates from occurring in the future. Only one or two people should be assigned the task of entering new parts/ modifying existing ones so that there aren’t several different methods of naming parts implemented at the same time. An inventory-standards dictionary should be created—and strictly adhered to. Once duplicates have been eliminated and part numbers have been standardized, the maintenance and stores staff still

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may have difficulty on occasion to find a needed part. Taking a digital photo of the part, and including the part identification number/name in the photo, and then attaching the photo to the part record can help identify the part. Often, maintenance personnel know what an item looks like, but not the exact part number. Maintaining photos of parts that also bear the numbers/names of such items is an effective way to help staff locate what they need. When new parts are added to the database, it’s beneficial to make the following key fields required: description, type, Continued on Page 48

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primary vendor, unit of measure and price. Typically the part number must be entered before any corresponding fields can be entered, so the part-number field will be required by design. Making these key fields required when the new part is entered prevents the stores staff from putting it off until “later” (which often can mean “never”). If the data is required when a new part is created—and the part can’t be checked out or received until that data is entered— the accuracy of your database will increase. Sometimes, stock-outs (parts not available upon request) may occur regardless of carefully following procedures. Keeping track of stock-outs, the part requested and the quantity short would help modify the inventory re-order points and quantities to a more optimal value. While newer CMMS programs include stock-out tracking functionality,

older programs may not. Stock-outs can be tracked in Microsoft Excel (as shown above) or another database program. Ideally, this type of function should be a feature of your CMMS. Keep in mind that blaming your stores staff when a stock-out occurs isn’t constructive. Doing so will result in the hiding of a problem instead of encouraging the stores staff to fix it. MT Reference [1] Slater, P., Smart Inventory Solutions, 2007, Industrial Press Jennifer Ohl is President of Midwest Software Specialists, Inc., an international maintenance and reliability consulting firm, based in Miami, FL. Telephone: (773) 844- 4831; email: For more info, enter 04 at

VSD Software For Pumping Systems


EG has released new Pump Genius Software for its CFW-11 variable speed drive. According to the manufacturer, this unique process-control package is capable of managing and monitoring up to six pumps in a coordinated system. It can operate motors from 5-150 hp in the 208 and 230/240 VAC range, and motors from 5 up to 600 HP in the 480 VAC range. Among the product’s key features is its ability to monitor the operating hours of all the pumps in a system, adding and subtracting units as demand changes, all without the need for setting a cycle timer, thus ensuring equal pump run times without supervision. Another key feature is the ability to have a floating master and slave rather than the traditional system of fixed master and slave pumps. Pump Genius automatically senses if the master is not responding due to sensor loss or other fault condition and assigns a unit pump to become the master, which allows for operational continuity at all times during the process. The transition between master drives is done in a totally bump-less manner without disturbing the process. The CFW-11 VSD with Pump Genius software also monitors and alarms system, motor and drive faults, which will alert the operator to a potential problem. Available in drives in various sizes from 2 to 600 hp, these drives incorporate a user-friendly graphic keypad HMI with large-character graphics and read-out.

WEG Electric Motors Corp. Atlanta, GA 48 |


For more info, enter 05 at SEPTEMBER 2013


Advanced Technology Solutions Improve Your Tool Control Special to MT


ools are lost, misplaced or just go missing. Many of the challenges facing today’s production facilities and remote job sites involve processes associated with monitoring, managing and maintaining tools and other necessary supplies. Whether work orders are scheduled or an emergency repair is required, maintenance professionals need the right product at the right time—regardless of the shift or time of day. Not having supplies readily available 24/7 creates barriers to production and a host of other challenges, including:

■ Wasted time to get supplies ■ Production downtime ■ Hoarding and theft ■ Inefficient replenishment processes ■ Safety risks in high-accountability environments

It starts with software The CribMaster Inventory Management system utilizes secure storage devices like drawer systems, cabinets, carousel and coil machines, portal systems and lockers powered by CribMaster software to accurately dispense product in one location at the point of use. These systems help streamline and improve a facility’s inventory, time management, personnel tracking and other key processes. According to the company, implementation of the system has proven to reduce inventory spending by 20-30% in the first year. The inventory-control software and storage devices coupled with other leading-edge technologies such as RFID and precise weight-sensing technology allow a non-intrusive, simplified solution for the maintenance professional to get the required inventory and go to work without ever having to track down a supervisor or wait on replenishment. It’s called passive issue: The authorized user simply scans his/ her badge, accesses the storage device and gets the required inventory while the system automatically gathers critical information to manage the inventory. The software provides numerous features enabling automated inventory distribution and real-time supply monitoring. Optimum inventory levels can be set so that the system sends an email notification to replenish an SEPTEMBER 2013

item before it gets critically low. This is especially beneficial for monitoring high-demand items and identifying idle items. In addition to the automated replenishment feature, the company notes that CribMaster systems aid in other aspects of indirect material management, including: ■ Repairs and servicing through a preventive maintenance

tracker ■ Budget monitoring with cost-accounting tools ■ Monitoring of calibration schedules ■ Increased user accountability

Complete tool control The system meets the demand for strict compliance of FOD (Foreign Object Debris) and FME (Foreign Material Exclusion) regulations in industries such as aircraft maintenance and nuclear-power gen by providing total visibility of these assets and helping maintain positive tool control. The system automatically monitors and records when RFID-enabled tools and equipment are taken from any secure storage device. As tools are carried throughout a facility, Last Point Read (LPR™) monitors can track them, creating a historical record of tool movement that can quickly narrow the search for missing items. RFID handheld scanners can be used to quickly zone in on the items’ locations, shortening retrieval time. With CribMaster’s line of PROTOid™, industrial-grade hand tools featuring RFID integrated in their ergonomic designs, even small tools like sockets are easy to track, allowing for greater control of assets with increased accountability. CribMaster™ Marietta, GA For more info, enter 30 at MT-ONLINE.COM | 49


Upgraded, Scalable SCADA Software


iemens Industry Sector’s Version 7.2 of its Simatic® WinCC SCADA program expands the software into a plant-wide information system that accommodates a system framework of up to 18 redundant servers. This upgrade also offers new Simatic Process Historian and Simatic Information Server options. Simatic Process Historian automatically acquires and archives data in real time from any number of lower-level WinCC systems for plant-wide analyses and reports, without interrupting production. Simatic Information Server creates reports and analyzes data with Web-based interfaces. Based on Microsoft Reporting Services, it allows users without programming experience to access data in WinCC, PCS 7 OS or Simatic Process Historian, and generates automatic cyclical and event-based interactive reports with Internet Explorer, Excel or Word and Adobe reader (PDF). WinCC 7.2 also supports the Unicode data format and lets users select the preferred language for local display or operator input over the Internet, regardless of the operating system’s language setting. Two-finger, multi-touch gesture controls simplify complex production control. Set-point inputs are offered, and two-handed operations are required to protect users from unintentional switching operations. Siemens Industry Sector Alpharetta, GA For more info, enter 31 at

Compact Uninterruptible Power Supplies Monitor Electric-Motor Heaters


he H-PD-2 Heater Power Detector from EDE Electric Motor Testing is an early-warning device of electric motor heater function, failure or misapplication. The detector is a DIN rail-mountable tool packaged in an ingress protection IP65 enclosure with a translucent cover for viewing of the LED status indication lights. Other features include a split-core CT for easy installation and 1x output for remote monitoring. EDE Electric Motor Testing Fort Collins, CO For more info, enter 32 at



olaHD’s SDU Series of DIN Rail Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) delivers power protection to sensitive electronics on the factory floor, including industrial computers, robotics, automation and process control equipment. A compact footprint and minimal weight (11 pounds) enables the SDU to be installed in a control panel or integrated into an enclosure or machine where there are space considerations. SolaHD offers two versions: a 120 V model that meets UL 1778 for Industrial Application Standards, and a CE-compliant 230 V model. SolaHD An Emerson Industrial Automation brand Rosemont, IL For more info, enter 33 at SEPTEMBER 2013


Ethernet Cable Tester


Machine-Safety Control Unit


DEAL’s IENet™ PRO Industrial Ethernet Cable Tester is optimized for LAN testing efficiency, allowing users to instantly verify the integrity of two-pair and four-pair industrial Ethernet cables. The tester can also assure proper terminations by detecting opens, shorts, miswires, reversals and split pairs in fractions of a second. The unit features integrated RJ-45 (UTP/STP) and shielded M12 coax interfaces, Profinet® formatted results and a single button push to select between voice, two- and four-pair data, or video.

apeswitch’s PCU programmable safety controller integrates machine safety, multiple safety product systems, programmable logic control functions and software. The controller unifies management of all safety products, such as safety switch mats, edges, bumpers, switches, non-contact interlocks, laser scanners, light curtains and more, into one system. Included software is capable of programmable logic control functions, and is downloadable from a PC to the safety controller via a USB connection.

IDEAL Industries, Inc. Sycamore, IL

Tapeswitch Corp. Farmingdale, NY

For more info, enter 34 at

For more info, enter 35 at

For more info, enter 81 at SEPTEMBER 2013



Energy-Efficient Centrifugal Compressors


he TT350 series from Danfoss offers oil-free, variable-speed, magnetic-bearing centrifugal compressors and is available for 380 volt 50Hz and 60Hz applications. The compressors provide high fulland part-load energy efficiency and utilize HFC-134a refrigerant. Incorporating intelligent controls, these lightweight, small-footprint, soft-starting products are characterized by low vibration and quiet operation. The TT350 380 volt compressors are only available as UL-certified models at this time. Danfoss Turbocor Compressors Inc. Tallahassee, FL For more info, enter 36 at

For more info, enter 82 at


Leonova Emerald ® is a portable instrument for condition monitoring. This rugged data collector offers advanced and cost-effective methods for shock pulse and vibration analysis. The SPM HD ® measuring technique enables detailed bearing analysis also at very low speeds. The instrument efficiently manages extensive measuring routes and large amounts of measurement data. Also available in Ex version. Contact us today for a complete condition monitoring package! Tel. 1-800-505-5636


CE-Compliant Coolant Cleaner


ndependent laboratory tests now certify that EXAIR’s Chip Trapper™ meets the standards required to attain the CE mark. Chip Trapper offers a fast, easy way to clean large coolant sumps, removing solids such as chips, swarf and shavings. The debrisfilled coolant or liquid is vacuumed into an included 55-gallon drum, trapping solids in a reusable filter bag. With a turn of the flow valve, clean liquid pumps back out. Exair Corp. Cincinnati, OH For more info, enter 37 at

ATP List Services Customized, Targeted Lists For Your Marketing Needs Contact: Ellen Sandkam 847-382-8100 x110 800-223-3423 x110 1300 S. Grove Ave., Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010 Formore more info, info, enter enter 83 For SEPTEMBER 2013


Ear-Type Hose-Clamping System

T n alternative to staple-lock couplings, Gates’ highpressure iLok coupling can be connected to longwall mining machinery in seconds and disconnected in under two minutes. According to the company, it can save 90 percent of the labor hours required to move equipment from one coal seam to another. Workers disconnect the couplings by cutting and removing the cable lock and turning the swivel nut by hand, instead of prying staples loose with crowbars or hammering equipment.

he Oetiker® hose clamping system from NewAge Industries is offered in stainless steel and zinc-plated carbon steel. These ear-type clamps breathe to adapt to expansion and contraction, yet remain secure and tamper-proof. The system’s lightweight, compact design makes the clamps suited to limited-space applications. One-ear, two-ear and one-ear stepless types are stocked, along with pincers for clamp installation.

Gates Corp. Denver, CO

NewAge Industries, Inc. Southampton, PA

Simplified Coal-Mine Coupling


For more info, enter 38 at

For more info, enter 39 at

“Industrial Lubrication Fundamentals” 3-Day, On Site, Certification Preparation Training Program

With over 70% of all mechanical failures attributed to ineffective lubrication practices, you will want to have professionally trained and certified lubrication personnel working on your reliability efforts!

Unlock the Secrets that let you Tap your True Maintenance Potential and Maximize Asset Reliability! World Class organizations know that increased asset reliability, utilization and maintainability, reduced operating costs, downtime, contamination, energy consumption and carbon footprint all commence with a best practice lubrication program! Course design is based on ISO 18436-4 and the ICML body of knowledge and exceeds minimum training requirements to write the ICML, MLT1, MLA1 and ISO LCAT1 International lubrication certification exams. Exams can be arranged to take place at your site immediately following the training. For more information on this unique training program developed and delivered by internationally accredited lubrication and maintenance expert Ken Bannister, author of the best selling book Lubrication for Industry endorsed by ISO and the ICML as part of their certification Domain of Knowledge Content. Contact ENGTECH Industries Inc at 519.469.9173 or email For more info, enter 84 at



INFORMATION HIGHWAY For rate information on advertising in the Information Highway Section Contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 / E-mail: Web Spotlight: Emerson

Process Management

Air Sentry® is a leading developer of contamination control products that keep particulate matter and excess moisture from the headspace inside gearboxes, drums, reservoirs, oil tanks, etc. that hold oils, greases, hydraulic fluids, and fuels. Air Sentry breathers and adapters ensure longer fluid life, better lubrication and lower maintenance costs. For more info, enter 86 at

Emerson Process Management announces the new CSI 2140 portable vibration analyzer. This analyzer simultaneously captures four channels of data plus phase for fast collection and easy implementation of machinery health testing onsite. With four channel monitoring, the CSI 2140 can be used for dual orbit sleeve bearing monitoring, 4-plane balancing, and advanced troubleshooting in the field. For more info, enter 85 at

Increase reliability while decreasing costs with Inpro/Seal application solutions. The inventor of the original bearing isolator, Inpro/Seal’s technologies increase the reliability of rotating equipment and provide real cost savings by improving MTBR. Our superior customer service and streamlined production processes allow for same-day shipments on most products, even new designs. For more info, enter 88 at



The ability to identify, verify and locate every voltage source from the outside of electrical panels greatly reduces electrical risks. That’s why we’ve incorporated two of our most popular products - ChekVolt® and VoltageVision® - into one unique, exclusive product called The Combo Unit.. For more info, enter 89 at

PIP is a consortium of process plant owners and engineering construction contractors harmonizing member’s internal standards for design, procurement, construction and maintenance into industry-wide Practices. PIP has published over 450 Practices. A current listing of published Practices is available on the PIP website at: For more info, enter 87 at

U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC is excited to announce the integration of KabelSchlepp America into its operations as part of the Tsubakimoto Chain Company’s global acquisition of the German-based Cable & Hose Carrier manufacturer. KabelSchlepp America will now operate as a division of U.S. Tsubaki and will expand Tsubaki’s presence in the U.S. market by adding cable & hose carrier systems to its already extensive product lineup. For more info, enter 90 at

For rate information on advertising in the Classified Section contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 / E-mail:

ATP List Services

In order for us to send

Customized, Targeted Lists For Your Marketing Needs

to you FREE,

we are required by the US Post Office to have a completed and signed renewal form once a year.

Contact: Ellen Sandkam 847-382-8100 x110 800-223-3423 x110


You may renew online at 54 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY 1300 S. Grove Ave., Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010




SEPTEMBER 2013 Volume 26, No. 9 •


SEPTEMBER 2013 • Volume 26, No. 9 RS #


Air Sentry ....................................................75,86 .......27,54 ATP Lists .......................................................83 .................52 AVO ...............................................93 .................10 Baldor Electric ........................................................62 ...................1 Bartlett Bearing Company, Inc. .........................................64 ...................4 Cascade Machinery Vibration ...............................................69 .................10 Emerson Process Management .................31 Emerson Process Management .................54 Engtech Industries ....................................84 .................53 Exair ...................5 Fluke ......................................63 ...................2 Fluke ...............................92 ................BC FS-Curtis Air .................25 General Electric Company - Energy .................19 Grace Engineered Products. Inc. ...................................67 ...................7 Grace Engineered Products. Inc. ......89 .................54 Innovator Of The Year .................41 Inpro/Seal, LLC C/O Waukesha Bearing, .................54 IRISS, ..............IBC Meltric Corporation .................47 Mobil Industrial ........................................61 .............. IFC Process Industry ...............................................................68,87 .........9,54 Scalewatcher .............................................260,261 ...36,37 SKF CMC-Fort Collins ...................................................71 .................14 SMRP .................40 SPM Instrument, Inc. ........................................82 .................52 Strategic Work Systems, Inc. ................................................65 ...................4 Test Products International (TPI),79 ............47 Tri Tool, ........................................................81 .................51 Turbomachinery ...........................................70 .................11 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC .................54

Access and enter the reader service number of the product in which you are interested, or you can search even deeper and link directly to the advertiser’s Website. Submissions Policy: Maintenance Technology gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. Reproduction of Materials: Materials produced by Maintenance Technology may not be reproduced in any form for any purpose without permission. For Reprints: Contact the publisher, Bill Kiesel (847) 382-8100 ext. 116.



1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 PH 847-382-8100 FX 847-304-8603

SALES STAFF OH, KY, TN 135 N. Rocky River Road Berea, OH 44017 440-463-0907; Fax 440-891-1254 JOHN DAVIS AL, DC, DE, FL, GA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, PA, SC, VA, WV 1750 Holmes Drive West Chester, PA 19382 610-793-3093; Fax 610-793-3094 JIM HANLEY IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, NE, ND, SD, WI 1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 x116; Fax 847-304-8603 BILL KIESEL CT, ME, MA, NH, NY, RI, VT, ON, QC P.O. Box 1059 Osterville, MA 02655 508-428-3331; Fax 508-428-2545 VINCENT LeGENDRE AR, KS, LA, MO, NM, OK, TX 5930 Royal Lane, Suite E #201 Dallas, TX 75230 972-816-3534; Fax 972-767-4442 GERRY MAYER AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY, AB, BC, MB, SK 6746 E. Tyndall Circle Mesa, AZ 85215 480-396-9585 JERRY PRESTON CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 6746 E. Tyndall Circle Mesa, AZ 85215 480-396-9585 JERRY PRESTON MT-ONLINE.COM | 55

viewpoint Art Eunson, Executive General Manager, GE’s Bently Nevada

The Next Global Revolution Has Begun


ith the economy recovering from various challenges, we at GE are focusing on the huge opportunity realized by the arrival of the Industrial Internet and the positive impact it will have on the industrial sector. The Industrial Internet is an open, global network that connects people, data and machines. It represents the next global revolution and it has already begun. Ninety percent of the data in the world today was created within the last two years. Industrial data is growing at a rate two times faster than any other segment of industry. The Industrial Internet will power the future by allowing us to make sense of this data and find meaning where it did not previously exist. This all starts with intelligent machines. These are machines embedded with advanced sensors, controls and software applications, which allow us to extract data. Through the use of advanced analytics (the combination of physics-based analytics, predictive algorithms, automation and deep domain expertise) we can understand the data and use it to support more intelligent, proactive decisions. This all culminates in saving money and increasing production. As an example, think about a situation where you have an offshore oil rig in a hostile environment. There is a need to understand the condition of rotating equipment to plan maintenance, increase availability and, most important, avoid catastrophe. Using advanced sensors and condition-monitoring software, you’re able to measure vibration, temperature, pressure, flow and more. The information can then be analyzed by a team of experts in remote monitoring centers located anywhere in the world. This is the Industrial Internet in action. From this single example, now consider that just a one percent reduction in capital expenditures within the Oil & Gas Industry can lead to an estimated $90 billion in savings over the next 15 years. There are similar scenarios in every other major industry. For instance, a similar one percent fuel savings in power generation could add more than $4 billion annually

to the global economy. We call this the “Power of One Percent.” And, it is really powerful to think these minor improvements in productivity could add an estimated $15 trillion to the global GDP by 2030.

The Industrial Internet will power the future by allowing us to make sense of data and find meaning where it did not previously exist. In order for the potential of the Industrial Internet to be maximized, there are some essential considerations. Foremost among them is the need for cyber security management. GE’s Bently Nevada business recently held a Customer Advisory Board, which brought together top industry professionals in an open forum discussion. Cyber security emerged as a prevailing theme. Thus, as the Industrial Internet grows, so will the need for defined security processes and controls that include vulnerability life-cycle management, end-point protection, intrusion detection/prevention systems, firewalls, logging visibility, network visibility and security training. Also paramount to the growth of the Industrial Internet is continued innovation and deployment. Deployment must be broad-based, involving not just the industrial world but also emerging markets. Emerging markets have become an increasingly important part of the global industrial system and will see the largest share of capital expenditure in the coming decades. At GE, we’re not focused on the past. We’re looking to the future: one where the Industrial Internet promises to bring meaningful economic growth. MT

The opinions expressed in this Viewpoint section are those of the author, and don’t necessarily reflect those of the staff and management of Maintenance Technology magazine.





First 50 MHz handheld Scope and 3000 count DMM






First 100 MHz handheld Scope and 3000 count DMM


500 MHz

First 200 MHz Color handheld oscilloscope

First 200 MHz isolated CAT III safety rated handheld oscilloscope

First 500 MHz, handheld oscilloscope

First 200 MHz, 2 or 4 Channel CAT IV safety rated handheld oscilloscope

After 20 years, Fluke ScopeMeter® industrial scopes still lead, now with 500 MHz bandwidth and 5 GS/s sampling speed. The Fluke 190 Series II extends your troubleshooting arsenal, showing you waveform shape, timing, distortion and disturbance in greater detail than ever before. Two- and four-channel models fit any application, measuring signals from 60 MHz to 500 MHz. ScopeMeter® test tools are number one in ruggedness: the only completely sealed, drip-proof, dust-proof IP-51 rated scopes.

Watch ScopeMeter 190-II Scenario Videos: ©2012 Fluke Corporation AD 4252291A_EN

For more info, enter 93 at For more info, enter 92 at

Maintenance Technology September 2013  
Maintenance Technology September 2013  

Your Source For CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS…Driving Plant Automation