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SEPTEMBER 2011 • VOL 24, NO 9 •







Application Of Money Based Overall Equipment Effectiveness The case for translating inefficiencies into economic terms is an easy one to explain. ©DREEF — FOTOLIA.COM

Aitor Goti, Gorka Unzueta, Irati Salaberria and Iñaki Badiola Mondragon University (Spain)


Are You Wasting Money Fixing Compressed Air Leaks? If you think repairing leaks is the first step in controlling your air costs, think again. Ron Marshall, CET, CEM, and Bill Scales for The Compressed Air Challenge


Harnessing The Power Of Smarter Meters To Do Lots More With Less


Get The Most Out Of Hydraulic Equipment In Wide-Operating-Temperature Applications


Protecting Pipelines In Crisis

Here are some tips for what to do before and after the ‘unexpected’ occurs. Carlos Lorusso, Tyco Flow Control


Introducing Accountability Into A Maintenance Organization You can’t just assume when it comes to what’s being done. Raymond L. Atkins, Contributing Editor

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My Take

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Boiler House Rules


Technology Showcase


Solution Spotlight


Motor Decisions Matter




Information Highway




Supplier Index



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September 2011 • Volume 24, No. 9

International Maintenance Excellence Conference October 5 to 7


BILL KIESEL Executive Vice President/Publisher



The Experts are in Toronto this Fall


Executive Editor



The 2011 International Maintenance Excellence Conference IMEC October 5 to 7 in Toronto, Canada

Director of Creative Services

Expand your knowledge in unexpected ways by joining maintenance and asset-management professionals from around the world at the seventh-annual International Maintenance Excellence Conference. IMEC’s two days of keynote presentations and one day of in-depth workshops are presented with academic and industrial perspectives that deliver well-rounded interpretations of modern issues.

Editorial/Production Assistant

Hosted by Dr. Andrew Jardine of the University of Toronto’s Centre for Maintenance Optimization & Reliability Engineering and co-produced with Maintenance Technology magazine, IMEC 2011 takes place at the University’s convenient, full-service conference venue located in the heart of beautiful downtown Toronto.



Direct Mail 800-223-3423, ext. 110


Reprint Manager 866-879-9144, ext. 168

Editorial Office: 1300 South Grove Ave., Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 / FAX 847-304-8603 WWW.MT-ONLINE.COM

Subscriptions: FOR INQUIRIES OR CHANGES CONTACT JEFFREY HEINE, 630-739-0900 EXT. 204 / FAX 630-739-7967

Don’t miss this unique, multi-dimensional learning opportunity for maintenance professionals everywhere! Learn more about IMEC at or contact Bill Kiesel at / 847-382-8100, ext. 116

IMEC is organized by:

Maintenance Technology® (ISSN 0899-5729) is published monthly by Applied Technology Publications, Inc., 1300 S. Grove Avenue, Barrington, IL 60010. Periodicals postage paid at Barrington, Illinois and additional offices. Arthur L. Rice, III, President. Circulation records are maintained at Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Maintenance Technology® copyright 2011 by Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Annual subscription rates for nonqualified people: North America, $140; all others, $280 (air). No subscription agency is authorized by us to solicit or take orders for subscriptions. Postmaster: Please send address changes to Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Please indicate position, title, company name, company address. For other circulation information call (630) 739-0900. Canadian Publications agreement No. 40886011. Canada Post returns: IMEX, Station A, P.O. Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5, or email: cpcreturns@ Submissions Policy: Maintenance Technology® gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc. permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. “Maintenance Technology®” is a registered trademark of Applied Technology Publications, Inc.

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Jane Alexander, Editor-In-Chief

From Vision To ‘Touchdowns’


s anybody really listening up there? I’m talking about Washington, which keeps finding ways to ignore the haunting “jobs, jobs, jobs” refrain that millions of desperate Americans are tuned in to. (We should be ashamed that these numbers include countless returning military veterans who can’t find civilian work to support themselves and their families!) Despite gruesome unemployment stats reflecting immeasurable pain across the U.S., our wellpaid, well-insured politicians left us hanging in August. Rather than stay in D.C. and do their jobs— i.e., see to the needs of the nation, 24/7/365, if that’s what it takes—they chose to high-tail it out of town mid-month for more fund-raising and belly-aching. Can we expect anything different in September? I, too, am weary of “grown-ups” competing to see who can lift their legs the highest while a disheartened workforce twists in the wind. To paraphrase CBS’ Bob Schieffer in his closing Face The Nation commentary on September 4, “Were these people [our elected officials] ever on a team?” Thank goodness some outside Washington do know what teamwork is all about—and are using their know-how to help improve things for others. I recently met one of these fighting hearts at Chicago’s Soldier Field: the great Richard L. Dent, who spoke at an event hosted by eSightenergy ( Yes, THAT Richard Dent…the former Chicago Bears defensive end and Super Bowl XX MVP who has just been enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, Class of 2011. These days, Dent serves as CEO of RLD Resources (energy and telecommunications consulting). He also oversees the “Make A Dent Foundation,” which he established 14 years ago “to discover and advance innovative and effective ways of helping people help themselves and lead productive and prosperous lives.” One way it’s doing this is with the Great Lakes Center for Energy Smart Communities (GLC) that’s being set up in Park Forest, IL. As I understand it, the GLC will be the first organization of its kind to focus on developing and delivering comprehensive community-based practical energy-efficiency solutions, training and outreach by leveraging a broad range of new technologies. A project of the center’s core tenant is a case in point: The U.S. Department of Energy will be developing an advanced single-stage lithium bromide absorption chiller module utilizing low-temperature waste heat from natural gas engines. The desired outcome is efficient, secure combined power and cooling for distributed datacenters. (Private-sector partners in this demonstration project include GE, HP and Carrier, among others.) You’ll hear more from us in the future about the GLC. What’s important to this discussion is the fact that one of the center’s key goals involves providing vocational training and placement services related to energy-technology jobs—with an emphasis on returning veterans and secondary students. Given its focus on technical-skills training, certification and accreditation (including that around some very mission-critical equipment), the GLC seems to have compiled an effective playbook for battling two dilemmas: a lack of jobs and the still-growing skilled-trades crisis. I wonder how many similar efforts are going on elsewhere? If you know of any, do tell. In the meantime, congratulations to Richard Dent and his team for working to turn a winning vision into “touchdowns” for others!


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Bob Williamson, Contributing Editor

Should We Be Concerned? “We’re buying spare parts from a new supplier who has offered us an amazing discount. They appear to be genuine machine parts, but we’re not sure how that’s possible at these prices? Should we be concerned?” “Our new equipment has shown increasing failure rates of basic parts: roller chains, bearings and seals. We have not changed our maintenance practices one bit. But the failures have increased. Should we be concerned?” Absolutely, positively, without a doubt, 100% YES! You should be very concerned…and for good reason! Today’s global economy coupled with a lingering/ growing/lingering recession and the hunger for money has led to an explosion of scams and counterfeit, fake, pirated, bogus and sub-standard industrial parts. Manufacturers, trade associations, governmental units and law-enforcement agencies have been taking steps to stem the frightening flow of these products into the global and U.S. supply chains. In March 2008, Boeing engineers presented a technical paper entitled “The Counterfeit Parts & Materials Challenge” that stated: “Nearly anything can be counterfeited. Parts such as bolts, nuts, rivets and fluid fittings are all components that can easily be replicated and sold. But the list doesn’t end there. Electronic components, such as capacitors, resistors and integrated circuits, as well as materials like titanium and composite chemicals, are also commonly counterfeited. . . Counterfeit parts are usually half or less of the street price for genuine goods.” Analysts have estimated that counterfeiting costs U.S. companies over $250 billion annually ($600 billion worldwide). Over 750,000 jobs may be lost because of the fake, bogus, counterfeit and smuggled products entering our marketplace. And the problem is forecast to grow even larger. U.S. government takes action Counterfeit parts certainly cost American jobs— and could even cost American lives. For example: n The U. S. Department of Commerce has estimated that our automobile industry could employ 210,000 8|


new workers if the influx of counterfeit products could be eliminated. n In a January 2010 report, the Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security, Office of Technology Evaluation noted that troubling amounts of counterfeit electronics are already present within the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) supply chain. In June 2011, the National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center launched “Operation Chain Reaction,” a comprehensive initiative targeting counterfeit items entering the supply chains of DOD and other U.S. government agencies. “Counterfeit and pirated goods present a triple threat to America,” observed John Morton, the director of U.S. Immigration & Customs Enforcement (ICE). “They rob Americans of jobs and their innovative ideas; fuel organized crime; and create a serious public safety risk. Counterfeiting has evolved to such a great extent that intellectual property thieves will sell just about anything that will make them a buck, with no regard for integrity of the federal supply chain or the safety of our war fighters. Anytime you purchase a knock off or pirated product, it’s a virtual certainty the quality and reliability will be inferior to the genuine article.” (See Sidebar, pg. 9). China strikes again In case you didn’t know it, there’s a very healthy global underground market for industrial bearings, seals, roller chains, electronics parts, computer hardware and other assorted equipment parts. One of the most distressing problems is associated with bearings. These mission-critical items are an enormous business in China—netting nearly $4.3 billion in sales. Bearings are an essential component in almost any machine or appliance with moving parts. More and more consumer products, ranging from washing machines to cooling fans and from automobiles to motorcycles, are being manufactured in China. The explosive rise in sales of low-cost cars in China is creating a huge opportunity in bearings for both the OEM and the automotive after-market. All in all, the demand for bearings produced by local Chinese suppliers has skyrocketed. SEPTEMBER 2011


Buyers beware. Counterfeit parts are a big, ugly business. They cost American jobs and can even cost American lives. Although no specific type of bearing has been targeted by counterfeiters, according to Derwyn Roberts, the general manager of SKF’s Automotive Division in China, the automotive after-market is one area of growing concern: The bearings typically used in many automotive applications tend to be small. They require less technical capability to produce and therefore are among the easiest to copy. And while problems with counterfeits are not unheard of in the OEM market, the big rise in recent years of so-called “backstreet” after-market sales operations have helped the fakes to flourish. The increasing wave of fake after-market bearings in China has created a major headache for legitimate and respected international bearing makers who say that it’s often quite difficult to distinguish the fakes from the real thing. Counterfeiters are becoming real good at reproducing the original markings and packaging—in some instances they’re getting almost too good.

n Old bearings are cleaned, polished and supplied without the buyer being informed of how old they are.

How it works Illegal bearing manufacturers employ devious techniques to fool end-users and OEMs. Some of these include:

Bearing manufacturers unite in the fight

n New low-quality bearings are re-labeled with false brand markings and put into imitation packaging that appears identical to the real thing.

To raise awareness about counterfeiting, the WBA, formed in 2006, has launched a campaign to spread the word about potential safety hazards arising from counterfeit bearings. Consumers can learn more about the counterfeiting of bearings and what is being done to combat it at

n Bearings are remanufactured and then sold with no indication that they have been remanufactured.

n Genuine bearings are removed from their packaging and replaced with look-alike fakes. The originals are then sold new in plastic bags. Counterfeiters will make unmarked bearings by the thousands in a variety of popular sizes and then laser etch part numbers in the bearings that look just like OEM part numbers—sometimes even better. While the fake bearings may look exactly like the OEM’s in many ways, their service life will be very short. That’s because their tolerances, metallurgy, heat-treating and quality is NOT right. Buyers beware! Premature bearing failures don’t just damage equipment and processes, they can cause injury or death.

World Bearing Association (WBA)…

ANSI Speaks To The Counterfeiting Crisis To read more about those quality and reliability issues ICE Director Morton was referring to, you may want to check in with the American National Standards Institute ( The organization has published a free 29-page report: “Best Practices in the Fight against Global Counterfeiting: An Action Guide to Strengthen Cooperation and Collaboration across Industry Sectors and among Global Supply Chains.” This comprehensive document is the product of a 2010 ANSI conference and workshops on anti-counterfeiting. It includes insights from industry representatives and professionals from trade organizations and associations, academia, consumer groups, law enforcement and government agencies. For more info, enter 01 at




As maintenance and reliability professionals, we can help stop the flow of counterfeit parts into our supply chain. Be vigilant. Carefully inspect suspicious parts and packaging. Report any unusual findings to your suppliers. American Bearing Manufacturers Association (ABMA)… In July 2011, ABMA presented a webinar series on counterfeiting and the impact of counterfeit bearings on the global supply chain as part of the American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA). This outreach is part of comprehensive effort by ABMA to ensure the bearing supply chain is aware of the issues and activity around counterfeit bearings, leading to successful partnerships and enhanced enforcement. The Timken Company…

SKF Group… To further help customers avoid being duped, SKF offers a six-page tip sheet on how to detect fake bearings. It’s entitled “Where are your bearings coming from – Get the facts about the growing problem of counterfeiting.” Let’s end this ugly story Think about it: The making, selling, transporting and distribution of trademarked counterfeit goods is punishable under U.S. law with fines as high as $15 million and up to 20 years imprisonment. Counterfeit parts can cause severe injury and death. They can lead to job loss, legitimate profit loss, tax losses, increased lawsuits and everhigher product-liability insurance rates. Just as disgusting is the fact that they’re frequently produced under dirty, substandard conditions that pose great health and safety risks for the workers—which can include children. Proceeds from this type of counterfeiting can often be traced to drugs and arms trafficking, violent crime and smuggling operations. So, you tell me: Should we be concerned? Without any doubt, YES! As maintenance and reliability professionals, it’s our job to help stop the flow of counterfeit parts! Be vigilant. Carefully inspect suspicious components and packaging. Report any unusual findings to your suppliers. And don’t be afraid to just say “NO,” to anything that you know or sense to be or to involve fake parts, no matter how attractive the price may seem. MT For more info, enter 02 at

In a November 2010 news release on behalf of the WBA, Timken noted that in the previous two decades counterfeiting in general had grown by 10,000% globally. “While there has been much reporting about consumers being taken advantage of by counterfeits in music, film, home electronics and designer clothing, a far greater risk lies in industrial counterfeiting of items such as tires, seals and bearings. All these products are safety-critical and fake versions pose a real threat.” NSK Ltd… A December 2010 press release quoted NSK’s president and CEO Norio Otsuka: “Bearings support our daily life, although we cannot see them. If counterfeit bearings find their way into our customers’ products, it will not only afflict the product reliability, but it may also damage the safety of our customers’ products. In order to keep our commitment to our customers all over the world to guarantee their safety and security, NSK participates actively in the WBA campaign to stop product counterfeiting.” 10 |


References National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center: ANSI: World Bearing Association (WBA): American Bearing Manufacturers Association: WBA free Website banners: Anti-Counterfeiting Training: SKF: Timken: (“Launches Awareness Campaign Against Product Counterfeiting”) NSK: press101208.html SEPTEMBER 2011



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Ken Bannister, Contributing Editor

Outside The Box: Tuning Up Your Maintenance Management System Asked if you were happy with the current setup of your asset management software, what would you say? If you answered no—and that you would relish the chance to do it all over again— you would be one of many (i.e., countless) disenchanted CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System), AMS (Asset Management System) and EAM (Enterprise Asset Management) users out there. Even after 25 years of these systems being implemented and upgraded across industry, many of them still run only as a work-order system. They can’t—under their current setup—produce actual management information. Therein lies the quandary: ALL maintenance software packages employ the word “management” in their product descriptions. ALL are capable of becoming excellent management tools, providing they are deployed with that function in mind. This includes the system you’re using today! The most common complaint I receive about maintenance software is the inability to easily retrieve usable reports (even though a lot of resource time is spent diligently entering data from the work order into the system). Data only becomes information when it can be used to make a validated management decision. Once the system is set up to filter data into meaningful reports that can be trusted to make management decisions about planning, scheduling, performance, failure analysis, etc., can the system truly be a “management system.” Otherwise, it’s purely a work-order tool that collects what I characterize as MUD: “Meaningless Unrelated Data that only serves to chock up hard-drive space.” Once we understand the difference between a work-order system and a true management system, we’re ready to tune up our chosen software package and unleash its real horsepower. To do this, we must step “outside the box” and take an innovative approach to setting up the system.

12 |


An innovative approach to unleashing the power of your software When purchasing a vehicle, most people already understand how they want to use it and have developed basic expectation or deliverable standards for that use. Virtually every person who buys a car or truck will have his/her driver’s license and be able to demonstrate basic driving skills. Those wishing to step up their vehicle’s performance and tap into its true potential, however, will require additional tuning and operating skills, along with exact specification knowledge of what they expect from their new ride. Similarly, many industrial software users have already learned basic “driving” skills and would like their “vehicle” to perform better, but have yet to attain the knowledge to develop a new vehicle performance specification or tune the system. Again, like a car or truck, maintenance software has tuning potential built into its motor and can be rebuilt to a higher level of specification or upgraded to a different model should the original manufacturer or vendor no longer support the vehicle. Either way—setting up a new system or re-implementing an existing system to provide true management information—will require you to implement it backwards following seven simple steps: Step #1: Establishing the need (MOER®) In the last “Don’t Procrastinate…Innovate” installment, “The Three Orders Of Innovation” (pgs. 12-13, Maintenance Technology, July 2011), we reviewed, in the 1st Order, the concept of “establishing the need.” Performing an MOER (Maintenance Operation and Effectiveness Review) will deliver a quantified current state of maintenance and a defined future state of maintenance complete with a gap analysis and MAP (Management Action Plan) to close that gap utilizing your maintenance management system (MMS).



Once we understand the difference between a work-order system and a true maintenance management system, we’re ready to tune up our chosen software package and unleash its real horsepower. Step #2: Establishing workflow improvement The MOER will also review current workflow and map out the current “communication touch points” of document, data and knowledge transfer between the maintenance department and all of its partners. This mapping will identify duplication and redundancy of workflow so that new value-based flows can be established using the MMS as the main communication instrument. Step #3: Establishing goals and performance measurements Establishing departmental goals is usually based on performance and service level improvement requirements that are achievable, tangible and measurable. These goals are future requirements that must also be designed to match corporate goals—this will assist with any ROI-justification requirements later. Step #4: Establishing key performance indicators (KPIs) Performance indicators provide management with tangible information that defines and trends how assets, resources and work management are doing. These will allow analysis of the following: n Asset-performance analysis (availability, downtime, OEE [overall equipment effectiveness]) n Asset-failure analysis (reliability, MTBF [mean time between failure], failure type) n Workflow analysis (MTTR [mean time to repair])

Step #5: Building reports By now, we know what we need to measure to move the maintenance improvement program forward. At this point, we review the matching established KPI formulae to determine what reports the MMS must deliver immediately and configure the system to provide them as standard reports. Step #6: Building data tables and registers Here we’re building sort filters that add immediate value to the maintenance program—i.e., turning data into true management information. These data registers must conform to the report requirements established in Step #5 and are used in designing the work-order layout and minimum information requirements to close out the work order and ensure the right data is always collected for every job. Step #7: Building the asset structure The asset structure is the parent/child relationship setup that allows us to close the work order at the correct level and “roll up” costs to suit different management reporting needs, as well as act as a management information filter. Once you’ve made it through Steps #1-7, your MMS is ready to launch and populate with asset and work-plan information migrated over from the legacy system. The next installment of this column (coming in the November issue) will show why this is a crucial phase in successfully firing up your “tuned-up” system—and how innovative thinking can save huge amounts of time and effort and ensure the soundness of whatever MMS tool you’re using. MT

n Planning/scheduling analysis (variance, completion, effectiveness)

Ken Bannister is author of Lubrication for Industry and the Lubrication section of the 28th edition Machinery’s Handbook. He’s also a contributing editor for MT’s sister publication, Lubrication Management & Technology. Email:

n Inventory analysis (turnover, ABC, outages)

MOER® is a trademark of EngTech Industries Inc.

n Resource analysis (variance, completion)




An economic cut on a classic...

Application Of Money Based Overall Equipment Effectiveness ...Shedding light on a new metric

The case for translating inefficiencies into economic terms is an easy one to explain. Such a metric can be a powerful tool in helping organizations make better decisions on where to invest efforts and resources. Aitor Goti, Gorka Unzueta, Irati Salaberria and Iñaki Badiola Mondragon University (Spain)

14 |



eaders of this magazine are no doubt familiar with the concept of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). As first proposed by Nakajima in 1988, this metric sorts inefficiencies of equipment into productivity losses (Fig. 1). In his original methodology, Nakajima classified the inefficiencies into three main groups and six big losses:

■ Equipment failure/breakdown losses (a) and setup/adjustment time losses (b) are categorized as inefficiencies that reduce Availability. ■ Reduced speed losses (c) and idling and minor stop losses (d) are considered as wastes that reduce Performance Rate. ■ Quality losses (e) and reduced yield occurring during the early stages of a manufacturing process (f) are identified as wastes that reduce product Quality. SEPTEMBER 2011


Loading Time Availability Losses

Operating Time Performance Losses

Net Operating Time

Equipment failure/breakdown

Set up/adjustment

Reduced speed losses

Idling and minor stop losses

Fig. 1. Original OEE and the “six big losses” (adapted from Nakajima, 1988)


Availability = Operating Time / Loading Time Performance Rate = Net Operating Time / Operating Time Quality = Valuable Operating Time / Net Operating Time OEE = Availability X Performance Rate X Quality

Quality Losses

Reduced yield

Valuable Operating Time

Thus, OEE is traditionally measured in the following terms:

OEE = Availability x Performance Rate x Quality As shown in Fig. 1, OEE takes loading time as a measurement basis. This loading time—something that a productive plant is determined to achieve—can be defined as the total length of the shift after any deductions for planned downtime. Planned downtime can typically include the following activities: waiting due to completion of current orders; operator breaks; planned maintenance activities, equipment trials and process improvement activities; machine cleaning and general operator maintenance; and operator training. Once the loading time is calculated, operating time can be evaluated by excluding the time losses due to equipment failures (a) and setup and adjustment (b) from the loading time. The net operating time is determined by excluding the time losses owing to reduced speed (c) and idling and minor stoppages (d) from the operating time. Finally, valuable operating time is obtained by reducing the time losses due to defects in process (e) and reduced yield (f) from the net operating time. Limitations of OEE’s original methodology It is worth noting that OEE is not usually implemented as it was first defined. Accordingly, when used as classification criteria, the typical “six big losses” are transformed into the inefficiency types illustrated in Fig. 2. This example comes from Kide S. Coop. (“Kide”), a Spanish manufacturer of industrial cold rooms, doors and cooling equipment. The application involves a 12-meter press where panels used in a final product are injected. (Kide began calculating OEE of this process in January 2010. ) SEPTEMBER 2011

0% 2% 0% 5% 3% 19%

Quality Changeovers Reduced yield due to the initiation of production Complex assembly Breakdown


Influence of the surrounding elements Speed loss

Where in this case:

Changeovers and Breakdowns correspond to Unavailability losses; Complex assembly, Speed loss and Influence of the surrounding elements represent Reduced Production Speed; and finally, the term 'Quality' comprises Quality losses and Reduced yields due to the initiation of production. Fig. 2. OEE of the 12-meter press application at Kide S. Coop.

Although industry considers the original OEE calculation—defined and understood as a combination of Availability, Performance Rate and Quality offered by equipment—to be a key metric in the area of productivity growth, it comes with certain limitations: MT-ONLINE.COM | 15


Nakajima's original OEE methodology monitors equipment inefficiencies, but doesn't establish costs associated with them.

■ It does not consider time for preventive maintenance and scheduled downtime. ■ It focuses on a machine, but not on a system. ■ It does not express inefficiencies in economic terms. The evolution of OEE In light of inherent limitations to the original OEE approach, different versions of the methodology have been developed over time—each one adapted to a specific management requirement. Some evolutions have been oriented to measure equipment’s effectiveness based on whole calendar time. Others have sought to measure the overall effectiveness of a plant as opposed to that of its equipment. There also have been several proposed evolutions that quantify inefficiencies from an economic point of view. As the title of this article makes clear, the focus here is on an OEE evolution known as Money Based Overall Equipment Effectiveness (MBOEE). Although it was developed by Juric, Sánchez and Goti, in 2006 the concept was initially presented by Goti, Sánchez and Fernández Pérez in 2005. By the time the technical paper on which this magazine article is based was submitted, the referenced MBOEE metric had been implemented in three manufacturing operations. The remainder of this article discusses the results of its application, compared with the use of original OEE methodology (as proposed by Nakajima). Determining the true value of MBOEE OEE monitors inefficiencies, but how much do these inefficiencies cost? The MBOEE model establishes some ratios that answer this question. To do so, it reclassifies OEE’s six big losses into the following three types: 1. Losses related to stopped equipment. 2. Losses related to equipment operating slower than its nominal production speed. 3. Losses related to the manufacture of defective products. Table I reflects the relationship between OEE’s six big losses and MBOEE’s three loss types. Table I. Relationship Between OEE’s Inefficiency Types & Those of MBOEE

Equipment failure/breakdown losses Set up/adjustment time losses

Inefficiencies related to the shutdown of the equipment

Idling and minor stop losses Reduced speed losses

Inefficiencies related to the reduced ● production speed of the equipment

Quality losses Reduced yield

Inefficiencies related to quality losses

As illustrated in Fig. 3, the main costs for each inefficiency type associated with the studied equipment—i.e., unavailability, bad performance and non-quality costs and sales of poor-quality products—must all be considered in calculating this economic-based version of OEE. 16 |




Sales related to products elaborated in the analyzed equipment Non-Quality costs

Bad Performance costs

Unavailability costs

Unavailability costs % = Unavailability costs / Sales related to products elaborated in the analyzed equipment Bad Performance costs % = Bad Performance costs / Sales related to products elaborated in the analyzed equipment Non-Quality costs % = Non-Quality costs / Sales related to products elaborated in the analyzed equipment MBOEE = Unavailability costs % + Bad Performance costs % + Non-Quality costs % Fig. 3. MBOEE visualization and calculation

Thus, the MBOEE is defined as:

in two ways. On one hand, an inefficiency value reduction will be directly related to an inefficiency cost reduction. Conversely, an inefficiency value reduction will also improve the sales of the company (assuming that the market is not the bottleneck), because the efficiency improvement will be reflected in an availability increase.

This allows comparison of the cost of each group of inefficiencies with sales generated by each product type (or reference). The lower the MBOEE achieved, the better. It is also worth studying the effect of an inefficiency value improvement in the MBOEE—the ratio of which will be sensitive to every inefficiency value reduction (or increment)

Real-world application… As discussed, MBOEE was implemented as a way to manage inefficiencies in three companies. All part of the Mondragon Corporation ( business group, they include:


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MBOEE lets a manufacturer compare the cost of each group of inefficiencies with the sales generated by each product type.

1. A manufacturing facility that produces plastic components for the automotive industry. 2. Fagor Electrodomésticos S. Coop. that manufactures home appliances. 3. Kide S. Coop., the previously referenced manufacturer of industrial cold rooms, doors and cooling equipment. As in Fig. 2, the following figures come from Kide’s implementation. For comparison purposes, Kide chose to implement both OEE and MBOEE. Figures 4, 5 and 6 show the original OEE and the MBOEE evolution (also broken down into percentages of Unavailability, Bad Performance and Non-Quality costs). Availability, Performance and Quality % Evolution























Quality Performance Availability



Fig. 4. Original OEE applied to Kide’s 12-meter press application 4.00% 3.50% 3.00% 2.50% 2.00% 1.50% 1.00% 0.50% 0.00%

MBOEE 2.94%












Fig. 5. MBOEE applied to Kide’s 12-meter press application Sales % wasted due to each inefficiency group 4.00% 3.50% 3.00% 2.50% 2.00% 1.50% 1.00% 0.50% 0.00%

1.74% 1.17% 0.81% 1.16%


0.17% 0.50%

0.20% 0.39%

0.27% 0.42%







Non Quality


Bad Performance








Fig. 6. MBOEE of Kide’s 12-meter press application broken down into Unavailability, Bad Performance and Non-Quality costs

18 |




MBOEE has proven in real-world operations to be a simple, yet powerful tool for monitoring costs of inefficiencies and generating valuable prioritization insight. MBOEE, as shown in Figs. 4, 5 and 6, offers information about money the equipment is losing due to each inefficiency group. This information allows managers to focus on improvement initiatives related to the most expensive inefficiency types. Regarding the comparison between Nakajima’s OEE model and the economic version proposed in this article, the original OEE methodology identifies unavailability as the principal inefficiency group. MBOEE points to the quality-cost group as the most important—and goes beyond mere productivity considerations to support effective decisionmaking based on economic justification. Conclusions The evaluation of equipment effectiveness is one of the most interesting topics for plant managers in that it identifies the inefficiencies determining where to focus improvement actions. This effectiveness is typically measured by using Nakajima’s original OEE methodologies, which allows the combining of operation, maintenance and management of manufacturing equipment and resources. The OEE evolution presented in this article—that of Money Based Overall Equipment Effectiveness—has proven to be a straightforward way of gaining useful managementoriented plant information. Showing how much each type of equipment inefficiency costs, this means of comparative measurement offers a simple, yet powerful tool for monitoring the costs of inefficiencies and generating valuable prioritization insight. One last observation: The larger the company, the harder it is to obtain information. It has been much easier to manage data in Kide’s operations (a small production operation) than in the automotive-components manufacturing plant (a 700-employee facility) and the Fagor operations (with almost 4000 employees). MT Acknowledgement This research initiative was supported under the project "IMBOEE: Development and application of a Continuous Improvement program based on the Money Based Overall Equipment Effectiveness,” funded by the Department of Education of the Basque Government (UE09+/122 code). References 1. Dal, B., Tugwell, P., and Greatbanks, R., 2000, "Overall equipment effectiveness as a measure of operational SEPTEMBER 2011

improvement—A practical analysis," International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 20, no. 12, pgs. 1488-1502. 2. Goti, A., Sánchez, A., and Fernández Pérez, A. J., 2005, "Operators empowerment by using money based overall equipment effectiveness," IADAT Journal on Advanced Technology, vol. 2, no. 1, pgs. 209-210. 3. Jeong, K., and Phillips, D. T., 2001, "Operational efficiency and effectiveness measurement," International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 21, no. 11, pgs. 1404-1416. 4. Juric, Z., Sánchez, A., and Goti, A., 2006, "Money Based Overall Equipment Effectiveness: Inefficiencies translation into economic terms in a lean environment, "Special Report on Maintenance and Reliability," Hydrocarbon Processing, vol. 85, no. 5, pgs. 43-46. 5. Kenyon, G., Canel, C., and Neureuther, B. D., 2005, "The impact of lot-sizing on net profits and cycle times in the n-job, m-machine job shop with both discrete and batch processing," International Journal of Production Economics, vol. 97, no. 3, pgs. 263-278. 6. Kwon, O., and Lee, H., 2004, "Calculation methodology for contributive managerial effect by OEE as a result of TPM activities," Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 10, no. 4, pgs. 263-272. 7. Nakajima, S., 1988, Introduction to TPM, Productivity Press, Cambridge, MA. 8. Oechsner, R., Pfeffer, M., Pfitzner, L., Binder, H., Müller, E., and Vonderstrass, T., 2003, "From overall equipment efficiency (OEE) to overall Fab effectiveness (OFE)," Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol. 5, pgs. 333-339. 9. SEMI. SEMI E79-1106, Specification for definition and measurement of equipment productivity. 2006. Mountain View CA, Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International. At the time the technical paper on which this article is based was written, all four authors were researchers in the Mechanical and Manufacturing Department of Spain’s Mondragon University. Since that time, lead author Aitor Goti has left his position at the university to become operations manager of the Natra group (, a leader in the production and commercialization of cocoa derivatives and chocolates. For more information on the MBOEE methodology discussed in this article, email Dr. Goti at: MT-ONLINE.COM | 19


Are You Wasting Money Fixing Compressed Air Leaks? If you think finding and repairing leaks is the first step in controlling your compressed air costs, think again. Ron Marshall, CET, CEM, and Bill Scales for The Compressed Air Challenge


uch has been written about the significant cost of supplying air leaks—an inevitable part of any compressed air system. Most owners and operators are usually unaware that without a carefully designed and well-maintained compressor control strategy, a leak-repair program may not maximize their savings.

20 |




MYTH: Compressed air is free. FACT: Compressed air is usually your most expensive utility. It takes 8 hp of electricity to produce 1 hp worth of work with compressed air.

MYTH: Leaks don’t really amount to much. FACT: In many plants, compressed air leaks may represent the single largest consumption. Plants with no effective compressed air leak management program lose, on average, 30% to 50% of their compressed air production to leaks.

MYTH: The system may be leaking some air, but it doesn’t cost much. FACT: An air system with 200 hp of air compressor power typically has the equivalent of about 60 hp in leaks. At $.10 per kWh, this costs over $44,000/year in wasted electrical energy.

MYTH: Fixing leaks does not save money. FACT: Upper management doesn’t always recognize the true cost of not repairing air leaks. Knowing the high cost of compressed air, why wouldn’t every facility with a compressed air piping system implement continuous leak identification and repair program? Here’s one reason why…

A recent meeting was held with the CEO and CFO of a large multi-plant facility to discuss a continuing corporate compressed air support program. The CFO was adamant about not wanting to discuss a leak repair program. The reason for the CFO’s reluctance: 15 years before, he had come away from a workshop on the cost of compressed air, eager to support the repair of all air leaks in his plants. He hired an outside contractor who identified 3600 cfm of leaks in a 7500 cfm system—leaks with a value of 675 kW. At the power rate of $.085 kWh, this type of leakage represented a potential cost savings of $500,000/year or $40,000+ per month. In retrospect, the approximate $25,000 investment in the contractor’s fee and required repair work seemed quite reasonable. Yet, after all was said and done, the total reduction in the plants’ electric bill came to less than $500 per month. No wonder the CFO concluded that fixing leaks as a continuing program doesn’t pay off. Why this happens Equivalent flow and cost… By consulting the orifice chart in Table I—and knowing a compressed air system uses about 20 kW input per 100 cfm output—we can estimate that the annual cost of producing the equivalent of a ¼” leak, assuming 8760 operating hours per year, is $18,220 at an energy rate of 10 cents per kWh. SEPTEMBER 2011

Table I. Leak sizing from a standard orifice flow chart (Cv=1.0)

Estimating the Volume of Compressed Air per Leak 1/64”






70 psi







80 psi







90 psi







100 psi







125 psi







The assumption is often made that by reducing leak flow by the same 104 cfm, savings of over $18,000 can be achieved. This is rarely correct, and depends on how a compressed air system responds in relation to flow change. Leak estimation A good approximation of the level of leakage in a plant can be obtained by conducting special testing during a period of non-production in a plant. This type of testing was discussed in last month’s “Overcoming The Challenges” column (pg. 52, Maintenance Technology, August 2011). Instructions on performing these tests can be found in “Fact Sheet 7: Compressed Air Leaks,” available for download from the Library section at MT-ONLINE.COM | 21



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depend on how well your compressed air system turns down in response to the change in flow. Based on the test, the resulting answer in cfm will equal all the leaks and any processes that were left on. It’s important to deduct those processes that have to be left on, if the calculated flow is not to be included in your leak-reduction efforts. The remaining flow is a fair estimate of the total volume of wasted compressed air. This testing is sometimes supported by additional surveys using ultrasonic leak detection devices. A good test of the validity of this exercise is that any manually compiled leak list that totals more than the number from the previous testing would be suspect. After accurately identifying the magnitude of the total leaks in a plant, the next significant challenge is to value the potential effect of a leak project on the annual electric bill. To management, this is where “the rubber meets the road” (i.e., are compressed air leaks worthy fixing?). It’s important that any estimates done before the work is initiated be achievable and verifiable after the fact. To ensure this works out, we must investigate the compressor control method. T:9.5”

Poor turndown can steal savings The “turndown” capability of an air compressor—how effectively the power input turns down in response to lower flows—often depends on the type of compressors in a system and how they’re controlled. This simplified list reflects some common types and how they respond to reduced flows: ■ Rotary screw – Four different capacity controls with four different results depending on if the compressors are operating in inlet modulation, load/ unload, variable displacement capacity control or VSD modes. ■ Centrifugal – If in “blow-off,” fixing leaks just increases the blow-off to atmosphere. Input power and energy consumption stay the same. ■ Reciprocating compressor – The various load/unload control systems generally have good part-load energy performance, but these systems are becoming less common in larger sizes. Excellent energy reduction is achieved in small systems with start/stop control.

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As rotary screw compressors are the most common type, they are where the remainder of this article will focus. That said, the main reason leak-repair efforts This mechanical prepared by This mechanical should not be modified in any way don’t gain expected savings is written the direction poor capabilities of the more without prior fromturndown MRM Worldwide. MRMthe Worldwide common screw compressor control modes. Safety: 2.125" x 9.5" Client: Exxon Mobil Ad Number: EXOD0024R1 One method modulation Trim: common control Mech Release: 8/24/11 is Job Name: DTE 10 Excelmode, Strip Ad where the compressor’s Bleed: None Project Manager: Veloso 1-646-865-6212 pressure control partially closesRich a valve to choke off the inlet to control the output 4C Process rises.Production Contact: Herskovic flowColor: as pressure Control likeLinda this can1-646-865-6371 be compared, for illustration purposes, to driving a car the engine at full throttle and using the brakes to control the Publications: Variouswith Publications speed. Tables II and III show that a typical modulating screw compressor is fairly efficient at near full load, but at 50% load consumes 80% of its full-load power. In these compressors, a reduction in overall leak levels of 10% would result in a saving of less than 3%.

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Table II. Key Air System Characteristics — Current System* Type Capacity Control Total air available (acfm)

Table III. Compressor Use Profile — Current System

2-Step Throttled inlet Variable speed Variable displacement 40-second 40-second 40-second 40-second blow down blow down blow down blow down 1,000

(3 gal/cfm effective storage)




Avg. System Flow (acfm) at 85% load





Avg. System Pressure (psig)

















Electric Cost for Air/Unit of Flow ($/acfm/yr)





Electric Cost for Air/Unit of Pressure ($/psig/yr)







Input Electric Power (kW) Operating Hrs. of Air System (hrs/yr) Specific Power (acfm/kW)

Annual Electric Cost for Compressed Air

$149,533/yr $147,956/yr

Full Load Compressor Mfg/Model

Actual Elec Demand


Acfm %kW


Actual Air Flow




200 hp, SS, RS Lub. 2-step




133.8 50



200 hp, SS, RS Lub. Mod




140.8 50



200 hp, SS, RS Lub. VSD








200 hp, SS, RS Lub. VD







* Based on a blended electric rate of $0.10 kWh and 8760 hrs/yr

Another common mode is two-step control (a.k.a. load/ unload or online/offline). This type of control is like stop-andgo driving, but allowing the car engine to rev at full speed all the time. With minimal storage, two-step control also is fairly efficient at full load, but consumes about 76% of its full-load power at 50% load. Larger air receiver sizes can be installed, however, to capture additional savings. A third type, variable displacement mode, opens up ports in the compressor screw element and saves power in the top 50% of the control range. This system is not unlike a gas-saving 8/4 cylinder-unloading system in a modern automobile engine. Variable displacement mode is quite efficient at higher flows, but the compressor still consumes 69% of its power at 50% loading. A fourth method of compressor control, use of a variable speed drive (VSD), has the best turndown with good efficiency at higher load. At 50% loading, it consumes about 51% of its full load power. Continuing the analogy, the VSD mode is like an automobile in cruise control, with the motor speed adjusting to exactly match the power needed to maintain constant speed (pressure). This type of control has an almost direct savings relationship with leak reduction—with an almost 10% reduction achieved with a 10% leak reduction. At or near full load, however, the VSD control method will consume slightly more power than an equivalent fixed-speed compressor. These, of course, are simple examples. They’re based on the assumption that only one compressor is running in a system. Complex systems with multiple compressors can have efficiencies and turndowns much better or much worse than these examples illustrate. Automatic shutdown of unnecessary compressors is common with well-controlled systems, so, even if your compressors are running using an inefficient mode, the control system 24 |


might still be able to shed compressors for good savings gains. The results usually depend on the combination of compressor sizes, control types and what central control method is used to coordinate the operation of the complete system. The size of your savings How much you save in your leak-reduction efforts depends on how well your compressed air system turns down in response to the change in flow. Before you run out and adjust your compressors, though, you should be aware that gaining this increased efficiency is not as simple as just changing the operating mode. Proper system design is required to ensure this new operating mode does not adversely affect your compressors or interrupt production activities. Fortunately, most newer air compressors running in inefficient operating modes have the ability to run in more efficient modes with better turndown efficiencies—i.e., in the load/ unload or start/stop modes, or even variable speed drive (VSD) mode, if the unit is so equipped. With the help of a qualified air-system expert and some affordable modifications to your system, it’s possible to optimize your existing system for better leak-reduction savings. MT Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank Hank Van Ormer, of Air Power USA, Inc., a Compressed Air Challenge Level II instructor, for his assistance in the preparation of this article. Material from Van Ormer’s presentation at the 2009 Association of Energy Engineers World Energy Engineering Congress entitled “Compressed Air Leaks – Fact vs. Myth” provided much of the basis for this article and is used here with his permission. SEPTEMBER 2011


Ron Marshall, CET, CEM, is industrial systems officer with Manitoba Hydro’s Customer Engineering Services (Winnipeg, MB). Bill Scales is CEO of Scales Industrial Technologies, Inc. (Carle Place, NY). Both are active members of the Compressed Air Challenge® (CAC). A partner organization of USDOE’s Industrial Technology Program, the CAC is a voluntary collaboration of North American industrial users, manufacturers, distributors (and their associations), consultants, state research and development agencies, energy-efficiency organizations and utilities working together to provide resources that educate industry on optimizing compressed air systems. The CAC has trained over 13,000 compressed air users since 1999. To learn how you can get involved in this important initiative, email:

Most newer air compressors running in inefficient operating modes have the ability to run in more efficient modes with better turndown efficiencies.

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New EPA Regs May Impact You! By Cleaver-Brooks


hen looking at the key DRIVERS in today’s boiler industry, we find four: energy conservation, emission reduction, reliability and safety. Although these are of equal importance for a well-run boiler operation, the emissions factor is often overlooked because it is primarily driven by government mandate—tying into the often-amended Clean Air Act of 1963 (“the Act”). Keeping abreast of the Act’s amendments is critical, and any sound training program will have emissions as part of the curriculum (i.e., imparting the ongoing essentials needed for determining if the [dynamic] changes may affect your operation). Such is the case with what occurred recently (Area Source Rule, March 21, 2011). In this change, the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) called for owners of all fuel-fired boilers of various sizes to take specific steps to assure higher air-quality standards. This new rule divides subject equipment into fuel categories (Oil/Biomass, Natural Gas and Coal) and boiler horsepower above or below approximately 300. Operators of such boilers are required to submit an “Initial Notification of Applicability” to the EPA by September 17, 2011. Then, depending on fuel type and horsepower, the operator may be required to take certain steps to run its referenced boilers without violation. Some of these requirements include: ■ For oil burning in excess of 48 hours per year, the burner must be tuned annually, the fuel has to be metered and a one-time energy assessment needs to be performed. ■ For natural gas-fired boilers, the fuel has to be metered. ■ For coal-fired boilers, the fuel has to be metered and must meet maximum requirements for mercury (Hg), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate. As noted in previous installments of this column, “knowledge is power.” Ongoing boiler training is an excellent way to assure that all boiler-operating personnel are properly informed about the essentials of keeping their equipment safe, reliable, energy-efficient and compliant with clean-air regulations. It’s all about staying ahead of the curve—when you are, all drivers are aligned. That translates into boilers that run safely, reliably, efficiently and in compliance with environmental regulations. This not only makes good operational sense, it makes good economic “cents!” MT

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Fig. 1. You control how the meter holds readings using this blue button, trigger or auto. The meter logs the last 10 held readings.

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adapter U1177A. A 10-meter range gives you flexibility in situating your PC. The hopping frequency mode of the Bluetooth protocol helps make a robust connection and assures reliable results. For slowly changing signals, the PC combination provides easy choices for your time management and multi-tasking. Return On Investment Agilent’s new generation of meters overcomes many of the inconveniences inherent to maintenance activities. With these meters, maintenance can be far more efficient and productive. To learn how, visit find/AgilentU1230. MT Agilent Technologies, Inc. Santa Clara, CA For more info, enter 260 at


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Get More From Hydraulic Systems In Wide-Operating-Temperature Applications Problem As you probably have noticed, today’s hydraulic systems are much smaller, run at more extreme temperatures and work harder than ever before. On top of those challenges, many hydraulic systems have to operate through a wide temperature range. Finding the right hydraulic fluid can make a big difference in ensuring peak performance throughout extreme temperatures and conditions as well as helping to reduce downtime and extend drain intervals. Fortunately, just like our hydraulic systems, the hydraulic fluids we use in them have come a long way in terms of performance. Knowing what to look for is key to getting the right fluid for your system needs. A number of important factors come into play when choosing the right hydraulic fluid. Of course, you want to make sure the fluid you choose meets OEM specifications and adheres to best practices. You also want to ensure you have a strict maintenance and service protocol to keep your equipment running at its best. Solution The importance of a high viscosity index… One important characteristic to look for in a hydraulic fluid is the Viscosity Index (VI)—an important indicator of the oil’s ability to resist changes in viscosity due to temperature variations. The higher the VI, the less the oil’s viscosity will be affected by temperature changes. For hydraulic equipment that is subject to a wide range of operating temperatures, high-VI fluids are essential to reduce internal pump leakage, eliminate sluggish operation and increase overall operating efficiency. ■ At low temperatures At extreme cold temperatures, you want your hydraulic fluid to have excellent fluidity, which relates to the right viscosity based on temperature. This allows the oil to flow more readily. If the oil is too thick at cold temperatures, it simply won’t flow properly and startup may take longer.

■ At high temperatures High-VI fluids maintain viscosity at high temperature better than monograde fluids of the same KV40C. A premiumperformance, high-VI hydraulic fluid can provide extra protection during periods of extreme high temperatures, which can help minimize wear on equipment and bring greater peace of mind when equipment is running under heavy loads and high pressures. A typical hydraulic pump can convert up to 20% of its horsepower into heat, so most fluids may run at elevated temperatures which also present challenges to hydraulic fluids. At extreme high temperatures, you don’t want your hydraulic fluid to become too thin. You need the optimal viscosity—meaning the ideal viscosity for the operating temperature—to optimize efficiency of the hydraulic pump. Return on Investment HYDREX keeps your operation running smoothly. It lasts up to three times (3X) longer and offers up to two times (2X) better wear protection than the leading hydraulic oil brand. HYDREX also resists oxidative breakdown—which prevents harmful sludge buildup. So, when you use the right fluids in conjunction with your preventive maintenance program, protecting your investment isn’t as daunting as you may think. Petro-Canada Lubricants Inc. Mississauga, ON, Canada For more info, enter 261 at

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Protecting Pipelines In Crisis As many pipeline operators have unfortunately discovered, the ‘unexpected’ often happens. The following recommendations can help provide some of that peace of mind this industry has been seeking. Carlos Lorusso Tyco Flow Control

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n 2008, an explosion damaged a natural gas pipeline in South America. This particular pipeline is vital to Brazil’s economy, delivering an average of 31 million cubic meters each day. When the explosion occurred, everything from the safety of the workers to the surrounding environment was at great risk. Had the fire from the explosion spread, it would have continued for several pipeline segments. Repairs would have ranged from hundreds of thousands to millions of U.S. dollars, potentially driving up the cost of natural gas and leaving millions of people without power. Fortunately, a number of safety systems, including line-break detection systems and automated valve controls designed for a “fail to close” condition, did exactly what they were installed to do: isolate the damage to a single section and prevent fire from spreading through the pipeline (see Sidebar, pg. 35).

Challenges to pipelines today In today’s world, pipelines can be vulnerable to countless threats—i.e., natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or fires, harsh environmental factors, excavations, vandalism, even terrorist attacks. The fact that oil and gas providers are producing from increasingly remote locations often necessitates longer pipelines to link producing regions with consuming regions. These remote locations and miles of pipeline exacerbate vulnerability. The potential for problems highlights the critical need for certified safety equipment on pipelines. Strategically placed, carefully maintained and continually monitored, safety systems protect people, infrastructure and the environment while safeguarding the resource supply. Over the years, the industry has investigated and developed a series of standards such as the DIN 19250 (AK-classes), IEC 61508 and the ISA-S84, which are all aimed at increasing safety and thereby improving the reliability of production facilities. These standards, however, were established primarily for electric and electronic devices like pressure transmitters, rather than valves. This is an oversight by the industry, since valves, actuators and/or solenoids can be more susceptible to failure than electric and electronic devices. Should a valve fail during an emergency, it could contribute to damage instead of preventing it. The pipeline example mentioned in the opening of this article— by no means an isolated incident—illustrates the essential need for valves to operate without fail in a crisis situation. Indeed, ensuring that valves are reliable and working properly is one of the easiest ways to contain damage from the surrounding communities and environment. Valves that SEPTEMBER 2011

are part of the safety system, and are non-active components, can remain in the open position for two years or more without movement until needed. When an emergency happens and these valves are called into service, it is essential that they operate immediately and open or close as designed. Preventing future damage: safety products No matter what the incident is that puts a pipeline at risk, there are precautions sites can take to help ensure that when a disruptive event occurs, the situation is contained and controlled. Safety products and solutions are readily available to help pipeline operators prepare for and mitigate the effects of crisis or emergency situations. For example, Tyco Flow Control has launched a Safety Integrity Level (SIL)-capable top-entry ball valve that can be provided with a detailed certification package. This unique valve maintains sealing integrity even under extremely harsh conditions. Combining in-line maintenance capabilities with robust construction, it tolerates high-bending moments like those that can occur in earthquakes and blasts. An SIL-capable high-pressure direct gas actuator, with reduced size and visibility, is also available. Featuring a compact control system and manual hydraulic emergency operation, it's suitable for sour gas service and doesn't need a pressure reducer. As a further precaution, many operators also use pneumatic and electronic linebreak controls at most valve sites on larger pipelines. These products can ensure isolation valves close in the event of a large leak or break in the pipeline, which in turn, can limit any loss of gas from small sections between valve sites. MT-ONLINE.COM | 33


Today's pipelines can be vulnerable to countless threats that are only exacerbated by increasingly remote and longer installations. Preventing future damage: mitigating the risk of attacks In addition to using SIL-certified products, companies can help protect their sites by identifying the most vulnerable points along a pipeline. Specific solutions and steps to improve security against all types of safety threats include: Securing power supplies that extend to the control devices and actuators… It’s recommended that companies use anti-climbing towers, forced inclinations and protection grids for solar panels to reduce visibility. Moreover, fuel cells that are either hidden or located underground have an added level of protection and reliable power supply. Implementing fireproof and bulletproof enclosures and blast-resistant shelters… These enclosures and shelters can protect actuator controls and fittings from fires, explosions and other attacks to the controls’ LCD display and push buttons. Look for enclosures that have been designed and built to allow easy maintenance without compromising fireproofing capabilities. Creating barrier layers… Barrier layers in the form of visual and physical barriers, as

34 |


well as bunkers, make accessing a pipeline difficult, which can help ward off access or attack from unauthorized approach. Conducting ongoing tests of emergency operations… Ongoing testing via Partial Stroke Test (PST) devices and diagnostics can improve the safety integrity level of pipelines by providing early detection of potential problems that could lead to failure. Such problems include the sticking of a disc or seat, sticking of stem/gland packing, jamming or damage of the actuator and clogging and damage of the pneumatic control system. The PST offers many benefits, including extending the intervals for a full stroke test and preventing fluid from sticking to both the valve and actuator. Enhancing capabilities of local control systems… To take protection one step further, it’s recommended that pipeline operators use expanded local control panels that can offer acoustic monitoring, “drop” level leakage detection surveillance and intrusion alarms and seismic sensors and controls. Ensuring communication redundancy… Using redundant communications tools, including OF links and wireless tools such as radio, satellites or GPRS can add an additional level of security to the site.


Plan wisely for the unexpected While it may not be possible to prevent every potential threat, a strategy consisting of multiple protection layers— coupled with highly reliable equipment and sensible precautions—can significantly reduce the consequences from an event. Such a strategy minimizes the likelihood of pipeline failure and the resulting disastrous impact on life, nature and economy. MT Carlos Lorusso is manager, Oil & Gas for Tyco Flow Control, based in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Prior to assuming this position in 2010, he had most recently served as industry manager for the company’s Americas Oil & Gas Marketing operations. Email:

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Finding Peace of Mind As customers expand to more remote locations, they face a new set of challenges, both operational and technical. Offering one of the broadest ranges of flow-control and pressure-management products available from industry-leading brands, including Anderson Greenwood, Clarkson and Biffi, Tyco Flow Control meets customers’ needs. Its experts have designed safety devices to withstand the unexpected and operate as required no matter where they’re located, when they’re needed most to help operations run reliably, efficiently and with less downtime. Many operators turn to Tyco for end-to-end solutions and deep industry experience to ensure they are using the right product for the right application, to protect equipment and assets. For more info, enter 05 at


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TECHNOLOGY SHOWCASE Looking at trends in products and services in the area of...

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...What’s up?


undamental to all but the most rudimentary manufacturing endeavor, the electrical systems category includes everything that keeps modern plants running: electrical power and distribution systems; electrical control and protection; motors; generation and conversion; wiring and accessories; and enclosures, in addition to numerous sub-categories.* And with all eyes on sustainability today, the use of these systems in manufacturing has never been under more scrutiny. Electricity usage trends underscore the need to use less of it for reasons that include cost reduction, environmental protection and the assurance of reliable power in years to come. According to energy solutions provider ABB, industrial electricity consumption now accounts for about a fourth of all electricity produced worldwide, with percentages climbing everywhere. The largest increases have taken place in emerging Asian countries, especially China, where the share of electricity in industrial energy consumption doubled (from 10% to 20%) between 1990 and 2009. A quick route to reduced electrical consumption in manufacturing is to use energyefficient motors (see “Technology Showcase,” pg. 34, Maintenance Technology, July 2011). The federal government addresses motor efficiency with the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) that became effective last December. Among other provisions, EISA boosts efficiency requirements for all general-purpose, three-phase AC industrial motors from 1 to 500 hp manufactured after December 19, 2010, and intended for sale in the U.S. For manufacturers looking to replace older, less-efficient motors, EISA makes it easy to find models guaranteed to use less electricity. Electrical-system automation, particularly systems that power HVAC, lighting and other facility services, is another sustainable trend within the category. Holistic solutions that track input from hundreds of electrical uses and control them based on human need, biometric conditions and energy consumption lead the trend. In production, automated systems that monitor and adjust power for optimal use are gaining acceptance as a way to improve efficiency, particularly in areas with less-reliable grids. Manufacturing’s demand for ever larger amounts of electricity has also enhanced the focus on electrical safety, notably with regard to the growing instances of arc flash. A dangerous byproduct of high-voltage systems (above 120V) when an abnormally large “fault current” flows through a circuit, arc flash is an unexpected and often deadly burst of electricity. Concern about arc flash has led to passage of at least four industry standards designed to reduce its occurrence. It has also created widespread industry emphasis on training to help workers understand arc flash and how to protect themselves from it. Various products—warning labels, fuses, personal protective equipment and enclosures with multiple openings, among others—have been introduced or modified to help workers avoid arc-flash danger. Nonetheless, arc flash is expected to remain an ongoing safety challenge for high-voltage users in manufacturing, even as systems become more efficient and more intelligently controlled. MT Rick Carter, Executive Editor

*Definition determined by Maintenance Technology editorial staff. 36 |


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Maintenance Accountability Way

How To Introduce Accountability Into A Maintenance Organization You can’t just assume when it comes to what’s being done and how correctly. Raymond L. Atkins Contributing Editor



ccountability has become a popular topic in this country, due mainly to recent examples of what can happen without it. From Wall Street to Main Street and at all levels in between, the need for oversight has made itself very apparent.




Where there are written standards, there’s a need for those in authority to be sure that those standards are met. Where there are rules, there’s an obligation by management to see that they are followed each and every time. Where there are established procedures, there’s the necessity to install an oversight protocol that will monitor the process to ensure the correct methodology is being employed each and every time. And where there are none of these? It’s the responsibility of good managers to put oversight systems in place. Managers who don’t have such systems and just assume that everything is going according to plan could be in for some very unpleasant surprises. Bluntly put, when it comes to industrial maintenance, if you didn’t see it happen with your own eyes, there’s a possibility that it happened incorrectly—or didn’t happen at all. Keep this simple, yet very important, fact in mind: Some component of human error is involved in most process failures. (When the mill falls silent, you don’t want to find yourself the last one standing.)

non-threatening terms. It lets your personnel know that you are asking them to stand behind their work; that you are holding them to the same high standard to which all professionals should be held; and that there will be consequences if they fail to meet this standard of performance.

Positive trumps negative One of the big problems with introducing “accountability” into any maintenance organization is that, for many years, organizations have equated the term with blame. I have conducted maintenance meetings where, at the first mention of the “a” word, the technicians crossed their arms, slumped in their chairs and began intently examining the wall over my shoulder. The general feeling at those times seemed to be that “The Man” (that would be me) was about to stick it to them once again. To be sure, there’s some merit to assessing blame when procedures are blatantly circumvented, when safety rules are irresponsibly broken or when the work is outright shoddy. But if you want to see your maintenance reality shift from an us/them mentality toward a true team-oriented organization, the less negativity you associate with the concept of accountability, the better. As with anything new in an organization, acquainting your maintenance department with the importance of positive accountability should be done at a measured pace— that’s one step at a time. If you’ve been lax in the accountability department, it would be a poor idea to begin your new regimen by firing the next technician who does something wrong. That would definitely set the wrong tone and would virtually guarantee that your new accountability initiative would fail. It’s much better to discuss the changing paradigm with the organization in positive terms. Perhaps the best avenue would be to begin with a definition, like the following, that sums things up nicely: “To be accountable is to be responsible to someone for some action.” This is an excellent definition in that it explains the idea of accountability in simple,

At the same time, your team should be made aware that the underlying reason for accountability in maintenance is “process improvement”—not punishment. If we can rule out what didn’t go wrong in a given process failure, we’ll have a much better chance of determining what really happened and why.


One big problem in introducing ‘accountability’ is that the term often has been associated with ‘blame.’ Team members could get the impression someone is about to ‘stick it to them’ again.

Build on the concept Once you have introduced the concept of accountability to your maintenance staff, the next step is to review and edit your PM, Lube and PdM procedures so that they have a component of accountability built into them. To begin this process, you’ll want to be sure each procedure has a place on the work order—printed or electronic—where the technician can sign off that the work has been performed according to the specified procedure and up to the required standard. This is a critical step. Your maintenance professionals must sign their work. You can’t have accountability without it. A technician’s signature on the work order is your assurance that the work was done as specified. At this point, we should talk about the specificity of your written work processes. The reason for this is that you cannot hold your technicians to a rigorous standard of performance if they—or you—don’t know what that “standard” is. Additionally, even if your maintenance professionals do know the standard, you can’t hold them accountable if there’s no documentation indicating that your expectations were communicated to them. In other words, if you intend to hold a maintenance employee accountable for his/her work, you must be able to prove that he/she knew what you wanted. This is why it is critical for your written procedures to be specific. MT-ONLINE.COM | 39

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A work order that states “lubricate machine A” is next to useless: It conveys little information. If the machine is not lubed properly, it will be difficult to hold any employee accountable with this work order, even if a technician had signed it. If one or several lube points were missed and a machinery failure resulted, an employee could rightfully point out he/she hadn’t been properly prepared for the job, the instructions were unclear and, anyway, he/she didn’t know there was a grease fitting behind that steel plate. The correct way to document this procedure is by specifying where the lube points are, what type of grease is needed and how much lubricant is required. Safety requirements should be noted and cleanup and housekeeping issues addressed. When you have a specific job plan, you have a document that an employee can be held to. Proper oversight Once your written procedures—including planned corrective work and emergency work orders—are able to convey the proper information to your maintenance professionals, the oversight portion of the equation begins. Probably the best (and most common) method of oversight is to have the maintenance supervisor or lead man spot-check portions of each job that’s being conducted during a maintenance cycle. (Although this type of oversight also could be performed by a senior employee, union restraints might keep such a method from working in some settings.) Regardless of who performs the actual inspection, this is the same approach taken by the Internal Revenue Service each year after tax season has passed: It doesn’t audit every income tax return—just a high enough percentage to convince most taxpayers that it would be a bad idea to claim a pet as a dependent. The same methodology holds true during your maintenance cycle.

Acquainting your maintenance Maintenance Accountability Way

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be done at a measured pace. That’s one step at a time. By checking a lube point here and a torque spec there, a weld penetration this time and a bearing clearance the next, your line supervisors can subtly communicate to the crew that all work is subject to random inspection, that all work is important and, thus, it would be to the technicians’ benefit to be sure that all work is performed to company specification. Periodically, a job should be inspected in its entirety. These jobs should be selected for inspection at a random interval to be determined by management. The codicil here is that each technician on the crew should undergo a complete inspection of a job at least once during an inspection cycle. If you have 20 technicians on a crew and the inspection interval is one per week, each of your maintenance professionals knows there is a 100% likelihood that SEPTEMBER 2011


sometime during the next 20 weeks, their work will be looked at in its entirety—from lockout to cleanup. A note of caution is in order at this point: You must be certain that your random inspection selections are just that. If employee A is always inspected during the ninth week of the cycle, it won’t take long for him/her to pick up on the pattern. In turn, A will develop the tendency to do a better job in the ninth week. I’m not implying he/she would be dishonest to do so. It’s just human nature to do a better job if you are being watched. But we don’t want to see the caliber of A’s work when he/she knows we’ll be looking. What we want is to see the quality of the work the rest of the time. So watch for any scheduling patterns that may be developing and try to avoid them. Furthermore, if appropriate personnel are available to do it, this complete job-performance evaluation should be conducted by someone other than the employee’s usual supervisor. That way, if re-work is called for, there will be less potential of straining an existing work relationship. Once all of these checks and balances are in place, you will be in the position to apply the concept of accountability to your next process failure. Yes, you’ll still have process failures—although the longer you practice accountability, the less likely these will become over time, and the ones you do suffer will be less severe. But when the machines stop running, you will still need to try to determine what happened. The difference this time will be that in place of the usual teeth-gnashing and finger-pointing, you’ll have facts and objectivity on your side. If the work order on a failed machine says the bearing was greased but the component is found to be dry, that is a fact. In such a case, there’s a chance the technician signed off on SEPTEMBER 2011

Remember that the underlying reason for having accountability in maintenance is process improvement, not punishment.

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work that he/she did not carry out. Whatever management decides to do at this point, it will be in a stronger position with the documentation than without it. On the other hand, if the work order on the failed machine indicates the bearing was greased and it has indeed been lubed, that, too, is a fact. Thus, the assumption must be made that the work was performed according to spec— so something must be wrong with the specification. Perhaps the wrong type of grease was used or the bearing was under-rated for the application. Maybe too much grease was called for in the work order. Whatever the problem turns out to be, it will be easier to solve if you can rule out employee error. Accountability is about failure analysis and subsequent failure prevention. It’s about solving problems. It’s about keeping the machines running and the orders filled. And it’s about time you applied it to your processes. MT Ray Atkins is a retired maintenance professional (and award-winning author), based in Rome, GA. He spent his last five years in industry as a maintenance supervisor with Temple-Inland. Web:; e-mail:


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ccording to Ingersoll Rand, its Vortex VT22 turbine grinder incorporates a 3 hp turbine motor that makes it the most powerful 5” air angle grinder in the market. That high-powered motor allows the unit to maintain the optimal disc speed longer than other models, translating to shorter job times and longer disc life. Wheel changeovers can be done in seconds using a thumb-operated spindle lock that also controls a 10-position safety guard. This recently introduced product boasts a number of additional features, including a spindle offset of only .89”, which allows a depth cut of up to 1.6”; an ergonomically designed pivoting vibration-reduced side handle (attachable for either right- or left-handed users) for decreased operator fatigue; and a sealed angle head for optimal gear life and performance. The VT22 is also the only grinder in its class to offer an optional top handle for use in applications where lateral space is limited. Ingersoll Rand Davidson, NC


Eaton Corp. Eden Prairie, MN


ccording to Eaton, its new DS7 soft starters provide smooth acceleration and deceleration of the load, minimizing shock to mechanical components, extending life of the system, increasing reliability, reducing downtime and lowering costs. Designed for pump, fan and conveyor applications, as well as for the water/wastewater and HVAC industries, they reduce the demands on motors during startup, thereby decreasing energy requirements. The manufacturer also notes that in light of their small size and integrated bypass relay capabilities, these products can provide the benefits of soft starting without necessitating a change in enclosure sizes or additional assemblies. The DS7 is available for current ranges from 16 to 32 amps. With an asymmetric delay angle control, these UL-approved components help make torque behavior similar to a three-phase starter. They can take 24 volts (V) of direct or alternating current, or 110V/230V of alternating control voltage.

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ccording to Endress+Hauser, its new Promass E 200 Coriolis flowmeter is the first ever to incorporate true two-wire 4-20 mA HART technology. It offers a full 16 mA measurement span without the need for excess adapters, power supplies or barriers. Stable under changing process conditions and highly immune to external disturbances like pipeline vibration, its advanced design simplifies integration into existing control systems and lets the unit be used with DCS, PAS, PLC and other remotely operated systems. In many cases, the Promass E 200 can just be “dropped in” to replace an existing device. With its two-wire technology, this product can be used in intrinsically safe applications for Class 1 Division 1 locations. It’s been submitted for a SIL-2 rating for critical applications and complies with NE43 (NAMUR) safety standards, including operating down to 3.6 mA in a fail-safe condition. Self-monitoring and error diagnostics are standard features designed in strict accordance with NE107 (NAMUR) specs.

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IT TAKES ONE TO KNOW ONE... There’s more than just bragging rights at stake...


Presented By Applied Technology Publications

As the Grand Prize Winner, you could win an expense-paid trip to MARTS 2012 and more, including special prizes from the Innovators of Inpro/Seal, Royal Purple and Scalewatcher! More About Our Monthly Winner For August... Tom Frail, a Level III Thermographer with Con Edison of New York, has been performing infrared inspections for over 20 years. A monthly winner in the category of innovative processes and procedures, he also worked with a third-party resource. A member of Con Edison’s Power Quality Group, Tom has become the “go-to guy” regarding infrared (IR). Unlike other utilities, his company has many departments/groups that perform IR inspections, each reporting in different ways. Furthermore, there’s typically been no sharing of information among these groups. Tom knew there had to be a better way. It was at an IR-INFO conference that he saw the solution for creating a Web-based IR reporting system. He realized that Logos Computer Solutions’ InspecTrend software tool could bring together the disparate departments in Con Edison that use infrared technology. All reports would look the same, and there would be a single database for inspections. This would allow benchmarking and baseline trending, as well establishing of alarm-limit thresholds should inspected equipment show signs of change. Data could be easily and instantly shared across the company. As a result of Tom’s continuous lobbying, Con Edison’s R&D Group recognized the benefits that the utility could reap using the Logos product, and the purchase go-ahead was recently given. The next step for Tom and the Power Quality Group is to develop an Infrared Web page, much like their Power Quality page on Con Edison’s intranet. Congratulations to Tom and everyone involved in this project!

Don’t Procrastinate... Innovate! Important Update...

Unfortunately, new entries didn’t arrive in time for us to announce a September winner. This contest runs through December 31, 2011. Don’t wait until the last minute to enter. The sooner you do, the better your chance of being named one of 3 remaining monthly winners. All entries have a shot at the Grand Prize and three Category* Awards. Enter now. For complete details and submission forms, go to *Categories include innovative devices, gizmos and gadgets; innovative processes and procedures; and innovative use of outside resources.

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The Innovators Of

Are Proud To Sponsor The Maintenance & Reliability Innovator Of The Year Award

Inpro/Seal Rock Island, IL Inventor of the original Bearing Isolator, Inpro/Seal has been delivering innovative sealing solutions and superior customer service for more than 30 years. Now part of Waukesha Bearings and Dover Corp., Inpro/Seal is stronger and more innovative than ever and continues to invest in technology and product development. This brand built its reputation on the outstanding performance of the original Bearing Isolator, which increases the reliability of rotating equipment and provides cost savings by improving mean-time-betweenrepair (MTBR). Plus, Inpro/Seal offers same- or next-day shipments, even on new designs. But Bearing Isolators were just the start. In response to customer needs, Inpro/Seal now offers the Air Mizer® for sealing a variety of product-handling equipment; the Current Diverter Ring™ (CDR®), which protects motor bearings and coupled equipment by diverting damaging electrical currents to ground; and the Motor Grounding Seal (MGS®) that combines CDR technology with the complete protection of a Bearing Isolator to safeguard bearings from electrical currents and contamination.

The innovators of INPRO/SEAL will provide individual iPads and cases to the Grand Prize winner and 3 Innovation Category winners. *Categories include innovative devices, gizmos and gadgets; innovative processes and procedures; and innovative use of outside resources. For more info, enter 09 at


...AN INNOVATOR, THAT IS! The Innovators Of

The Innovators Of

Are Proud To Sponsor The Maintenance & Reliability Innovator Of The Year Award

Are Proud To Sponsor The Maintenance & Reliability Innovator Of The Year Award

Royal Purple Porter, TX

Scalewatcher North America, Inc. Oxford, PA

Lubricant performance can vary greatly between competing mineral-based and synthetic products. According to the innovators of Royal Purple, since quality differences can significantly impact the cost of operating and maintaining equipment, your lube purchases can’t be effectively managed as a commodity: Lubricant excellence is paramount. The company notes that benefits attainable across a broad population of rotating equipment from upgrading to Royal Purple lubricants include, among other things, energy savings greater than 3%, and a reduction in the need for equipment repair by at least 30%. Although Royal Purple products may cost more per gallon, an operation’s annual cost for lubricants changes little, due to greatly extended drain intervals and the elimination of oil changes associated with equipment repairs. Initiatives to reduce maintenance and improve equipment reliability often are time- and people-intensive. Royal Purple offers substantial improvements and savings simply through replacement of a product you already buy and use. It doesn’t get any easier than this.

Scalewatcher™ is a no-maintenance environmentally friendly descaler that does not change water composition. Scales and stains disappear gradually and completely, without further action required, guaranteed. The Scalewatcher products work by way of magnetic and electric fields and a continuously changing frequency. The process forces dissolved minerals such as calcium and magnesium to crystallize before mineral ions (the cause of hard scale) can settle on surfaces. This stops or reduces new buildup of hard scale, and because the water is better able to dissolve minerals, existing hard-scale layers are softened and eventually disappear. The Scalewatcher technology has been used by more than 250,000 satisfied customers worldwide. These products prevent corrosion in pipework; prevent settlement of zebra mussels in plants using sea or river water for cooling; reduce bacterial counts in cooling systems; reduce water and energy bills; extend the life of water-using equipment (especially boilers); can be installed without plant shutdown; are maintenance-free; and last 20+ years.

The innovators of ROYAL PURPLE will provide individual cases of Royal Purple products to the Grand Prize winner and 3 Innovation Category winners.

The innovators of SCALEWATCHER will provide individual water treatment units to the Grand Prize winner and 3 Innovation Category winners.

*Categories include innovative devices, gizmos and gadgets; innovative processes and procedures; and innovative use of outside resources.

*Categories include innovative devices, gizmos and gadgets; innovative processes and procedures; and innovative use of outside resources.

For more info, enter 10 at

For more info, enter 11 at



SOLUTION SPOTLIGHT Catch impending failure in hi-def…

Improved Low-RPM Rolling Element Bearing Analysis See what you might be missing long before ‘too late.’

Inner raceway damage on low-RPM bearings can take a process down.

Time signal from a 10 RPM bearing showing “inner raceway” failure (4 months pre-warning)

SPM®HD Overall Trend Graph before and after bearing replacement


olling element bearings (also known as anti-friction bearings) are found throughout industry. Due to their construction, metal fatigue eventually causes every one of these bearings to deteriorate and fail, taking critical equipment and processes down with them. For many decades, companies have used vibration analysis to monitor equipment condition. While a successful Condition Monitoring program can aspire to predict and therefore prevent all “unplanned” failures, in light of their very low energy content, low-RPM applications (i.e., under 50 RPM) have traditionally been some of the most difficult to monitor. An answer to this dilemma has been the “Shock Pulse Method.” Developed and patented in 1969, this technique has been widely used to successfully monitor rolling element bearing condition ever since. And, just as technology has advanced, so has the Shock Pulse Method. Most recently, SPM Instrument has released SPM®HD (SPM High Definition). Particularly well suited for low-RPM

46 |


applications, this new technology can be utilized on rolling element bearings throughout the range of 1-20,000 RPM. According to SPM, with damage indications and pre-warning times up to 16 months in advance of failures, the product is providing neverbefore-seen detail in the time signal and FFT. In many cases, low-RPM bearings are typically very large—or of a specialty type where replacement bearings can be many months out from delivery. In those cases, long pre-warning times are especially important. Improvements to the Shock Pulse Transducer, advanced algorithms to filter out irrelevant signals and advanced sampling times, including better data acquisition, provide sharp time signals and crisp, detailed spectrums. SPM®HD is currently available from SPM Instrument in the Intellinova line of continuous monitoring products. MT SPM Instrument, Inc. Eugene, OR For more info, enter 30 at SEPTEMBER 2011


Redesigned Annunciator Output Cards Extend Lifespan Of Pump Alarm System ‘Out with the old and in with the new’ is one of the keys to keeping clean water flowing to 25 million Californians.

The original annunciator cards were designed and supplied in the 1960s by a now-defunct company. Technology has certainly changed in the decades since.


t’s the type of problem no operation can afford when missioncritical equipment is involved: The California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) was experiencing a high failure rate in the alarm system used in pump stations that store and distribute water to over 25 million Californians. By modernizing the circuitry and components of the annunciator output cards and delivering a compatible finished product, Washington-based custom electronics design and manufacturing firm Stilwell Baker, Inc. (SBI), has helped CDWR significantly prolong the useful life of its all-important alarm equipment. The system that monitors the California pumps was originally designed in the 1960s. The annunciator output cards were last manufactured—but not improved—more than 10 years ago by a now-defunct company. That meant there was no support when the aging electronic components in these cards overheated and caused system failures. Documentation, if any, was minimal. According to John King, electrical planner for CDWR, “Not many companies were willing to take this project. They wouldn’t take on the challenge.” Stepping up to the plate After investigating the problem, SBI recommended redesigning the cards with low-power, up-to-date circuitry and components to eliminate the failure mechanisms in the original design. Prototypes worked well in the lab, yet the initial field trials revealed technical issues in some of the pump stations. That issue was addressed through systemlevel modeling simulation and testing, followed by onsite testing and circuit modifications. “With limited documentation available, going onsite was critical,” noted Darrel Baker, SBI’s president and CEO. “The SEPTEMBER 2011

According to SBI, the new annunciator cards are fully documented, supportable and reliable. Unlike the old cards, they feature shortcircuit and over-current protection, which means even under a short in the system, the alarm circuit won’t be damaged.

alarm systems were built in different years with different parts, so onsite measurements were key to proving the solution.” The end result was a fully documented, supportable and reliable design that eliminated the high-temperature components, reduced overall power dissipation by 24% and decreased hot-spot temperatures by 140 F (60 C). The new design also increased fault tolerance in the output drive stage and now includes short-circuit and over-current protection—so even under a direct short in the system, the alarm circuit would not be damaged. SBI also precisely replicated the original 1960s electrical connector system. The new cards connect directly into the existing alarm system with 100% compatibility of existing systems in the field. Since Stilwell Baker supports and provides replacement parts, CDWR can rest assured that the alarm system will remain operational for many years to come. MT Stilwell Baker, Inc. Vancouver, WA For more info, enter 31 at MT-ONLINE.COM | 47


Your Just Desserts: A Piece Of The Savings Pie


ccording to the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), industry consumes 20% of our country’s electricity—at over $30 billion a year. Within this national bottom line, USDOE estimates $3 billion could be saved annually through improvements to motor-driven systems.[1] Have you taken steps to capture a piece of these savings from your systems? Here are some suggestions for carving out a big slice of the pie: If you haven’t already done so, start with the basics. Identify opportunities to replace older, lowefficiency motors with higher-efficiency replacements, such as NEMA Premium® or greater. When considering these upgrades, remember that while a specific motor is now (or always has been) driving a particular process in your plant, it might not be the best size for the application (and could be consuming more energy than necessary). Ensuring the right size motor, in addition to selecting the most appropriate nameplate efficiency, is an important first “cut.” Just as there is more than one ingredient in your motor-systems pie, savings can be found through more than just improvements to motors within the system. There often are opportunities to capture large savings by ensuring that you have all of the right equipment to achieve your application objectives and that all the equipment works together efficiently. For example, as discussed in previous installments of this column, some applications— i.e., those that don’t need to operate constantly at full speed or those powering centrifugal equipment like pumps and fans—can obtain significant savings through a retrofit with an adjustable speed drive (ASD), also known as a variable frequency drive (VFD) or variable speed drive (VSD). Sweet! Engineers at Boeing’s Renton manufacturing facility realized energy savings by first focusing on their motors and then expanding to consider the full motor-driven system. Their first step was to create an extensive motor inventory of all active

48 || 36


and spare motors. The next step was to consider the objectives that each system was designed to achieve. For example, the facility had recently reduced its airflow requirements, which led to the operation of many unneeded—and inefficient —fans. As a result of its motor inventory and system assessment, the Renton facility was able to identify opportunities for motor upgrades, ASD retrofits and decommissioning of systems that were no longer necessary, all of which led to an especially sweet slice of savings: 136,984 kWh or $16,578 annually.[2] More information to support assessing and finding efficiency in motor-driven systems is available on the Motor Decisions MatterSM (MDM) Website at Among other things, you’ll find the MDM Motor Planning Kit that outlines simple steps in developing an effective motor management program. The VFD section of the Helpful Resources page includes details on identifying the conditions when these drives are appropriate. A visit to the MDM Website is a great way to get started on serving up your just desserts: That’s a sizeable helping of available motor-systems energy savings! MT 1. USDOE, 2008. ( industry/bestpractices/pdfs/motor.pdf) 2. Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, 2004. ( boeing.pdf) For more info, enter 12 at

The Motor Decisions Matter (MDM) campaign is managed by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE), a North American nonprofit organization that promotes energysaving products, equipment and technologies. For further information, contact MDM staff at or (617) 589-3949.



Portable Data-Acquisition System


stro-Med’s Dash® MX portable data-acquisition system is a full-featured, high-speed, multi-channel product designed for capturing high-frequency data and transient signals and long-term trending. The standard unit records up to eight channels of isolated voltage inputs to an internal 320-gigabyte hard drive at sample rates up to 200 KHz per channel. It includes support for IRIG time codes A, B and E and features a 12” touch-screen display.

Astro-Med, Inc. West Warwick, RI For more info, enter 32 at

Environmentally Friendly Pre-Lubricated Couplings


he Baldor•Dodge pre-lubricated GRID-LIGN coupling provides a maintenance-free, lubed-for-life design. Interchangeable with existing grids, hubs and covers and easy to install, it eliminates downtime associated with improper lubrication. The environmentally friendly product features high-performance synthetic oil impregnated into a polymer shell that encapsulates the grid element. This polymer acts as an oil reservoir that helps prevent possible contamination during installation and eliminates the mess associated with greasing a traditional grid design.

Baldor Electric Co. A member of the ABB Group Fort Smith, AR

For more info, enter 33 at For more info, enter 82 at SEPTEMBER 2011



Replacement Hydraulic Valve Blocks


IRTEK offers preassembled hydraulic valve blocks with quick-disconnect couplings and a pressure-relief valve. These units come in 1/2”, 5/8” and 3/4” sizes, are easy to install and replace and allow users to safely deal with hydraulic pressure before connecting or disconnecting attachments. Standard ISO flat-face quick-disconnect couplings make these valve blocks compatible with most types of attachments. PIRTEK USA Rockledge, FL For more info, enter 34 at

Contain And Clean Up Spills


raphic Products has released its first catalog of spill-containment and cleanup products. According to the manufacturer, this 10-page SpillArrest catalog fully complements the company’s line of safefacility signs, labels and printers that help keep workplaces cleaner, safer and more productive. Items include those for spill removal (pads, rugs and mats, pillows, loose sorbents); isolation (berms, booms, containment pools, pallets, workstations, socks); oil, universal and HazMat spill kits; and diverters/drain guards. Items are color-coded to help users identify appropriate products for various spills. Graphic Products Portland, OR

For more info, enter 83 at


For more info, enter 35 at SEPTEMBER 2011


Push-Through Slurry Valve For Harsh Applications


TT’s Fabri-Valve® 33 PTA is a push-through slurry design built to withstand harsh applications in the mining industry. Its proprietary sleeve technology and wide body maximize valve life, while elastomeric seats provide abrasion resistance and chemical compatibility. The seats form a pressure boundary, which allow for gate maintenance and actuation under pressure, minimizing downtime.

ITT Corp. White Plains, NY For more info, enter 36 at

Four-Bolt Flange Mounting Blocks


BPBLD Series standard duty four-bolt flange mount block products from Quality Bearings and Components have a polyester housing, a removable acetal bearing insert and 316 stainless-steel balls. They’re designed to fit shafts ranging from 1/2” to 1 1/4” in diameter. The manufacturer also offers plastic two-bolt flange mounting blocks with insert ball bearings..

Quality Bearings Components Garden City Park, NY For more info, enter 37 at

PIP IS SIMPLE. Let PIP’s harmonized engineering Practices simplify your next project. For more info, enter 84 at


For more info, enter 85 at



CO2 Laser-Markable Aluminum

Energy-Monitoring Circuit Breakers

uraBlack™ is a CO2 lasermarkable aluminum that meets the requirements of MIL-STD-810G for resistance to abrasion, temperature, weather, salt-spray and fluid exposure. The product produces a durable, high-resolution white-metallic image on a matte black background when marked with any CO2 laser. The product’s two-part thermoset coating bonded to either 0.005”- or 0.020”-thick aluminum allows attachment to curved or flat surfaces with adhesive, rivets or screws.

chneider Electric’s PowerPact™ with Micrologic™ Molded Case Circuit Breakers are designed to strengthen energy-management and control capabilities in an electrical distribution system. Available across the company’s entire circuit breaker product line, from 15A to 3000A, they allow managers to access energy-load profiles at every point in a system. Built-in indicators provide a quick view of protection status, contact-wear status and tripping status.

Horizons Imaging Systems Group Cleveland, OH

Schneider Electric Palatine, IL


For more info, enter 38 at


For more info, enter 39 at

Customized, Targeted Lists For Your Marketing Needs

ATP List Services Ellen Sandkam 1300 S. Grove Ave., Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 x110 / 800-223-3423 x110 / For more info, enter 86 at


For more info, enter 87 at SEPTEMBER 2011


Click Into The Big Picture Of Equipment Conditions


quipment Reliability Systems’ Proactive Maintenance Toolbox software lets users document and store all of their equipment information, including details on machinery health and condition-monitoring procedures and analyses, in one place and then share it with others. Designed with ease-of-use in mind, this interface requires almost no learning curve and lead time to operate. Data in the software is accessed by simply clicking on a piece of equipment. Equipment Reliability Systems, LLC Eau Claire, WI

For more info, enter 40 at

Robust Plug & Receptacle Line


eltric’s DSDC Series of plugs and receptacles provides safer and more robust connections for DC applications up to 200 amps at 250 VDC, up to 100 amps at 600 VDC or up to 30 amps at 750 VDC. The line offers a dead-front safety shutter that prevents user access to live parts, and a padlockable pawl for easy locking in connected or disconnected modes. Solid silver-nickel contact surfaces provide maximum performance and durability while spring-loaded, butt-style contacts ensure optimal contact force. Meltric Corp. Franklin, WI For more info, enter 41 at

7-Step Best Practice Lubrication Program Professional Self-Directed Implementation ToolKit

Tap into your Liquid Gold for less than $20 per day!* Whether you’re looking to increase asset utilization and maintainability, reduce contamination, downtime, energy consumption and/or your carbon footprint, or simply cut your maintenance and operating costs, you’re ready for a 7-Step Best Practice lubrication program! For more information on this “expert in a box” approach to successful lubrication programs, contact ENGTECH Industries at 519.469.9173 or email * Amortized over one year

For more info, enter 88 at



INFORMATION HIGHWAY For rate information on advertising in the Information Highway Section Contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 / E-mail: Web Spotlight: EMERSON


The ability to identify, verify and locate every voltage source from the outside of electrical panels greatly reduces electrical risks. That’s why we’ve incorporated two of our most popular products - ChekVolt® and VoltageVision® - into one unique, exclusive product called The Combo Unit.. For more info, enter 90 at

Emerson Process Management is the knowledge leader in control valves and instruments— Fisher® brand products have remained the process control industry leader for more than 130 years. Emerson delivers time-tested and innovative solutions designed to help customers increase process availability and reduce plant maintenance cost. This is enabled by world class products from generalservice offerings to specialized solutions. Emerson’s process experience and worldwide research, engineering, manufacturing, and service operations serve the process industries worldwide. For more info, enter 89 at

U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC is excited to announce the integration of KabelSchlepp America into its operations as part of the Tsubakimoto Chain Company’s global acquisition of the German-based Cable & Hose Carrier manufacturer. KabelSchlepp America will now operate as a division of U.S. Tsubaki and will expand Tsubaki’s presence in the U.S. market by adding cable & hose carrier systems to its already extensive product lineup.

For more info, enter 91 at


ATP List Services Specializing In

Machinery Health Personnel PM & PdM Field Service • Mgt • Sales • Hrly Nationwide • Confidential • All Fees Company Paid

OFF Button Provides push button circuit disconnections Arc Flash Chambers Prevent Exposure to Arc Flash Safety Shutter Simplifies NFPA 70E compliance

TOLL FREE 877-386-1091


In order for us to send


we are required by the US Post Office to have a completed and signed renewal form once a year.

You may renew online at 54 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY

Customized, Targeted Lists For Your Marketing Needs

Minimum need for PPE when connecting and disconnecting electrical equipment. • 800.433.7642

Contact: Ellen Sandkam 847-382-8100 x110 800-223-3423 x110 1300 S. Grove Ave., Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010

For rate information on advertising in the Classified Section Contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 e-mail:






SEPTEMBER 2011 Volume 24, No. 9 •


RS #


Agilent Technologies .......................... 260,280........28,29 ATP ......................................... 86 ......................52 ChemShow .................................. 92 ................... IBC CleaverBrooks ............. 72 ......................26 CyberMetrics .............................. 61 ....................IFC Des-Case 62 ........................ 1 Emerson Process ............................ 66 ........................ 7 Emerson Process ............. 89 ......................54 Engtech Industries Inc. ...................... 88 ......................53 Exair Corporation 65 ........................ 5 FLIR Commercial Systems, 71 ......................25 ............... 68 ......................17 73 ......................35 ............................... 75 ......................36 Grace Engineered Products. 90 ......................54 Innovator of the Year ..........................................44,45 Inpro/ 93 .....................BC IMEC ................................................. 64 ........................ 4 Littelfuse .......... 67 ......................11 Ludeca .......................................... 79 ......................40 Miller-Stephenson Chemical Co. ..................... 76 ......................37 Mincom, Inc. ...................................... 74 ......................36 Mobil Industrial 69,70 ............22,23 NEC Avio Infrared Technologies/SOLTEC ......................... 82,83 ............49,50 OilMiser ....................................... 84 ......................51 Petro Canada - Suncor ......................... 261,281........30,31 Process Industry .................................................. 85 ......................51 Schneider Electric 63 ........................ 2 SKF USA, 80 ......................41 .............................................. 78 ......................37 Strategic Work Systems, .................................. 87 ......................52 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC 81 ......................43 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC ..........................91 ................... 54

Access and enter the reader service number of the product in which you are interested, or you can search even deeper and link directly to the advertiser’s Website. Submissions Policy: M T gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. Reproduction of Materials: Materials produced by Maintenance Technology may not be reproduced in any form for any purpose without permission. For Reprints: Contact the publisher, Bill Kiesel - (847) 382-8100 ext. 116.









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FX 847-304-8603



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AL, DC, DE, FL, GA, MD, MS, NC, Business NJ, PA, SC, VA, Staff WV 1750 Holmes Drive WYMORE WestTERRI Chester, PA 19382 Director of Creative Services/Production 610-793-3093; Fax 610-793-3094 JIM HANLEY ELLEN SANDKAM Direct Mail

CT, ME, MA, NH, NY, RI, VT, ON, QC P.O. Box 1059 SalesMA Staff Osterville, 02655 508-428-3331; Fax 508-428-2545 AL, AR, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, LA, VINCENT LeGENDRE MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, OK, SC, SD, TX, WI, Ontario Canada 1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100; Fax 847-304-8603 BILL KIESEL IL, IN, IA, MI, MN, NE, ND, SD, WI bkiesel@ atpnetwork 1300 South Grove Avenue,.com Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 KY, OH, TN 847-382-8100 847-304-8603 135 N. x108; RockyFax River Road TOM MADDING Berea, OH 44017 440-463-0907; Fax 440-891-1254 JOHN DAVIS NM,NM, OK,NV, TX OR, AK,AR, AZ,KS, CA,LA, CO,MO, ID, MT, UT, WA,WY, British Canada 5930 Royal Lane,Columbia Suite E #201 1300 South Grove Dallas, TXAvenue, 75230 Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 972-816-6745; 847-382-8100;Fax Fax972-767-4442 847-304-8603 GERRY MAYER TOM MADDING CT, DC, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT, WV, Quebec Canada, AZ, CA, CO,Age, ID, MT, OR,Street UT, WA, Space 225NV, Fuller WY, AB, BC,MA MB,02446 SK Brookline, 617-232-2000; 617-232-2951 3605 N. Fax Tuscany VINCE CAVASENO Mesa, AZ 85207 480-396-9585 JERRY PRESTON Classified Advertising/Electronic Sales: South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100; Fax 847-304-8603 TRACY RYLE CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 3605 N. Tuscany Mesa, AZ 85207 480-396-9585 JERRY PRESTON



VIEWPOINT Tim Miller, Technical Services Director Asset Management Division, CyberMetrics Corp.

Your CMMS/EAM: A Shift To The Cloud


anaging a facility’s assets can be complex. At the heart of your maintenance operations, you likely run specialized maintenance management software such as a CMMS (Computer Maintenance Management System) or EAM (Enterprise Asset Management software). Today, these legacy programs are proven, invaluable tools for managing a tight ship of daily maintenance activities. Recent technology leaps within CMMS/EAM have shifted these legacy programs into the Cloud Computing space—something that should come as welcome news within facilities management. Shifting to the Cloud means that the CMMS/EAM you count on becomes markedly more valuable. Think of Cloud Computing as an application being run over the Internet via a simple Web browser, Web book or smart pad—and you may already have been using it. (Have a Hotmail account, a Facebook page or do your banking online? These are all examples of Cloud Computing). Using CMMS/EAM in the Cloud eliminates the costs associated with purchasing expensive software and hardware. Waiting long periods of time for IT to schedule deployment and relying on IT staff to manage a large database and IT infrastructure are things of the past. Cloud Computing provides the rich maintenance-centric software functionality while eliminating the heavy and expensive IT distractions of legacy software solutions. Typically, Cloud CMMS/EAM offerings will run month-to-month—which makes them cash-flow friendly and lowers the overall cost of ownership. Remember that IT infrastructure and potentially nasty details of deployment are being moved to the Cloud and, thus, are being managed by the CMMS/EAM-development company. This shift allows maintenance workers to focus on delivering a well-managed facility instead of trying to avoid technology hurdles and speed bumps. Leaders in Cloud CMMS/EAM ensure that transactions are secure by encrypting all data transactions across the Internet. This is achieved using Secured Sockets Layer protocol (SSL) and other encryption technology (the same technology used by online

credit-card companies, banks and even the military). Large, modern enterprise datacenters with specific security standards, ensured by third-party audits such as SAS 70®, hold your data, so data maintenance, data recovery and disaster recovery are guaranteed processes that protect your investment. Maintenance management via a Web application requires both modes of security to ensure end-to-end integrity and offer a solid alternative to legacy CMMS/EAM.

Shifting to the Cloud means that the CMMS/EAM you count on becomes markedly more valuable. In the Cloud model, an extremely large volume of maintenance data is stored in a datacenter that is designed to be agile, increasing storage on demand, enhancing configurations and allowing for upgrading or customizing—typically within minutes, not weeks. Collaboration and the flexibility to scale up and down quickly, all within a robustly secure environment, is a hugely compelling factor in considering the Cloud model. As a maintenance manager, you should find the elimination of concern and costs associated with technical details a welcome change. You can rest easy knowing your data is safe within an SAS 70 datacenter. Budget-friendly payment options avoid capital expenditure and simply don’t add up to enterpriselevel spends. Moreover, as your needs change, it won’t be necessary to pull in local IT staff. The Cloud solution provider handles all configuration, updates and upgrades, essentially becoming your IT team. MT To contact Tim Miller directly, telephone: (800) 776-3090; or email:

The opinions expressed in this Viewpoint section are those of the author, and don’t necessarily reflect those of the staff and management of MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY magazine.



Processing Solutions that Fit Conference Partner:

November 1-3, 2011

AlChE Media Partner:

Javits Convention Center • New York City

See It in Action in the Exhibit Hall:

Learn About It in the Classroom:

Over 300 Exhibitors…and counting Process Control & Automation Center Presentations in the New Product Technology Theater

The AIChE Northeast Regional Conference at the CHEM SHOW Special Track: Nanotechnology Workshops and Conference

Don’t Miss the #1 Process Equipment & Technology Event FREE Advance Registration: Endorsed by:

Produced and managed by:

For more info, enter 92 at

The Original Bearing isOlaTOr sTrOnger Than ever

As part of Waukesha Bearings and Dover Corporation, Inpro/Seal is stronger than ever…with the horsepower to deliver our high-performing solutions and superior customer service around the globe. Industry-leading bearing protection, unmatched experience and same-day shipments – only with Inpro/Seal. So don’t lay awake at night…trust Inpro/Seal to design and deliver your custom-engineered bearing isolator, right when you need it; our installed base of over 4,000,000 speaks for itself.

Trust Inpro/Seal, the clear leader in bearing isolators. For more info, enter 93 at

Maintenance Technology September 2011  
Maintenance Technology September 2011