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NOTHING GOOD HAPPENS AFTER MIDNIGHT

Nobody wants that middle-of-the-night-call telling you systems are down. Not you. Not us. And, certainly not the guy with the problem. That’s one of the reasons you should turn to Yaskawa for drives and motion control. Trust your operations to Yaskawa and the phone won’t ring at night. The boss won’t be in your office. And, maintenance won’t be breathing down your neck with another fire to put out. Trust Yaskawa and you’ll get a good night’s sleep. Rest easy tonight. Call Yaskawa today.

YA S K A W A A M E R I C A , I N C . DRIVES & MOTION DIVISION 1 - 8 0 0 - YA S K A W A YA S K A W A . C O M Follow us:

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©2013 Yaskawa America Inc.


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Full Service

Baldor’s service programs for large motors, generators and mechanical transmission components can reduce your risk of unexpected downtime while extending the useful life of your machines. Through our exclusive maintenance plans and ABB’s LEAP and MACHsense diagnostic and monitoring programs, Baldor services can help predict failures before they occur, putting an end to unexpected downtime emergencies. Call or log on for complete information on how to put our team at your service today. baldor.com

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Contents

YOUR SOURCE FOR CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS

MAY 2013 • VOL 26, NO 5 • www.MT-ONLINE.com

FEATURES 18

©SASHKIN — FOTOLIA.COM; ©MONEYMAKER11 — FOTOLIA.COM

CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS What’s At The End Of Your Rainbow? When the reality of CMMS implementation and use seems to fall short of your site’s “pot-of-gold” expectations, knowledge and experience can help bridge the gap. But where do you get it? John Reeve, Cohesive Information Solutions, Inc.

UTILITIES MANAGER 24

Big Money Talks William C. “Bill” Livoti

26

The Importance Of Best Efficiency Point (BEP) Are you so focused on the efficiency of your motors that you’ve lost sight of the equipment they’re driving? Take a step back: Understanding factors involved in pump performance, for example, is key to optimizing a fluid-handling process.

6

My Take

8

Stuff Happens Uptime

EXPERT Q&A

12 15 16

Sage Advice: Understanding RCM

33

Technology Showcase

36

Marketplace

38

Information Highway

38

Classified

39

Supplier Index

40

Viewpoint

Eugene Vogel, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA)

30

DEPARTMENTS

In written answers to questions posed during a 2012 Webinar sponsored by SMRP’s Pharma Special Interest Group (SIG), noted industry icon Anthony M. “Mac” Smith gets to do one of his favorite things: Expound on the benefits of Reliability Centered Maintenance. Special To MT

The Maintenance & Reliability Technology Summit is THE Capacity Assurance Conference

Motor Decisions Matter Don’t Procrastinate… Innovate!

Information-Packed Presentations & In-Depth Workshops Galore! ®

April 30-May 3, 2013 at the Hyatt Regency O’Hare in Rosemont, IL.

For More Information, Visit www.MARTSConference.com ASAP!

This year’s Maintenance and Reliability Technology Summit is in the books. To view all MARTS 2013 presentations, visit www.MARTSconference.com/archive. MAY 2013

MT-ONLINE.COM | 3


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We Stock Solutions Hybrid Ceramic Bearings Coated Bearings Insulator Sleeves AEGIS Grounding Rings Insulated Carrier

Your Source For CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS

May 2013 • Volume 26, No. 5 ARTHUR L. RICE President/CEO arice@atpnetwork.com

BILL KIESEL Executive Vice President/Publisher bkiesel@atpnetwork.com

JANE ALEXANDER

Editor-In-Chief jalexander@atpnetwork.com

RICK CARTER

Executive Editor rcarter@atpnetwork.com

ROBERT “BOB” WILLIAMSON KENNETH E. BANNISTER Contributing Editors

RANDY BUTTSTADT

Director of Creative Services rbuttstadt@atpnetwork.com

GREG PIETRAS

Editorial/Production Assistant gpietras@atpnetwork.com

ELLEN SANDKAM

Direct Mail 800-223-3423, ext. 110 esandkam@atplists.com

JILL KALETHA

Philadelphia, PA

Gastonia, NC

Pelham, AL

Hebron, KY

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“Visual systems, when applied to equipment, can reduce training time by 60 to 70% and eliminate errors.”

Reprint Manager 866-879-9144, ext. 168 jillk@fosterprinting.com

Editorial Office: 1300 South Grove Ave., Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 / FAX 847-304-8603 WWW.MT-ONLINE.COM

Subscriptions: FOR INQUIRIES OR CHANGES CONTACT JEFFREY HEINE, 630-739-0900 EXT. 204 / FAX 630-739-7967

—Robert Williamson, lean equipment specialist

Our Visual Supplies Can Improve Your Equipment’s Performance! Colored gauge marking labels Problem and Opportunity Tags in English or Spanish Red Move Tags Colored paint pens Colored grease fitting caps and lube point labels Vibration analysis pickup discs and labels Proven Tips for Equipment Troubleshooting handbook Lean Machines instructional book for applying visuals Temperature indicating strips and more

Visual systems supplies that deliver results...fast! To view and order from our complete line of Visual Systems Products, go to...

www.swspitcrew.com To order by phone or fax, call (864)862-0446 Strategic Work Systems, Inc. PO Box 70 Columbus, NC 28722

Maintenance Technology® (ISSN 0899-5729) is published monthly by Applied Technology Publications, Inc., 1300 S. Grove Avenue, Barrington, IL 60010. Periodicals postage paid at Barrington, Illinois and additional offices. Arthur L. Rice, III, President. Circulation records are maintained at Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Maintenance Technology® copyright 2013 by Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Annual subscription rates for nonqualified people: North America, $140; all others, $280 (air). No subscription agency is authorized by us to solicit or take orders for subscriptions. Postmaster: Please send address changes to Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Please indicate position, title, company name, company address. For other circulation information call (630) 739-0900. Canadian Publications agreement No. 40886011. Canada Post returns: IMEX, Station A, P.O. Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5, or email: cpcreturns@ wdsmail.com. Submissions Policy: Maintenance Technology® gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc. permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. “Maintenance Technology®” is a registered trademark of Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Printed in U.S.A.

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4|

MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY

MAY 2013


Tired of the same routine?

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Two-Way Drum Pump

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The compressed air powered Reversible Drum Vac™ will quickly fill or empty a 55 gallon drum in 90 seconds. Coolant sumps can be easily refilled, floor spills vacuumed or contaminated liquids transferred to filtration tanks in minutes.

Chip Vac™ is powered by compressed air and vacuums chips directly into a 5, 30, 55, or 110 gallon drum. It is easy to move from drum to drum to keep materials separate for recycling. Clean chips from floors, fixtures, work surfaces and machines.

The patented Chip Trapper™ offers a fast, easy way to clean chips, swarf and shavings out of used coolants and other liquids. The Chip Trapper vacuums in the coolant that is filled with debris, traps the solids in a reusable filter bag, and pumps out clean coolant.

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Heavy Duty Dry Vac™ attaches to an ordinary 30, 55, and 110 gallon open-top drum to turn it into a powerful, industrial duty vacuum cleaner. It has been engineered to vacuum more dry materials in less time than ordinary vacs. Ideal for abrasives.

• • • • •

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MY TAKE

Jane Alexander, Editor-In-Chief

Well, Duh?

W

ho among us hasn’t found a challenge-based reality television series to wrap our minds around for a while? There are so many to choose from. My favorites over the years have been Project Runway, Shark Tank and HGTV’s Design Star and All-American Handyman. That was until I heard about a new one (which, as I write this column, hasn’t aired its first episode). Based on what I’ve read and clips I’ve seen, Discovery Channel’s Big Brain Theory: Pure Genius could make a strong case for retaining that expensive cable subscription you’ve considered dropping. And for demanding (perish the thought) that your kids stay glued to the tube. According to promo material posted on www.discovery.com, the series works like this: Each week, contestants will be asked to solve a “seemingly impossible engineering challenge” using their own intellect—in just 30 minutes. Based on logic and design, judges will determine the best engineering concept and select two captains to lead teams in executing the project. The team that executes best will remain safe, but the losers will have to face the judges, who will send someone packing. Speaking of judges, the two on Big Brain Theory: Pure Genius do appear to have some street cred: Dr. Christine Gulbranson is a nanotechnologist and renewable energy innovator. Mark Fuller is the President and CEO of WET, a company behind what it says are “some of the world’s most innovative water-based designed environments and experiences, including the Fountains of Bellagio, in Las Vegas.” (Coincidentally, the winner of the first season’s competition will earn $50,000 and a one-year contract to work at WET.) By presenting a weekly snapshot of honest-to-goodness engineering in an exciting light and via a proven format, this Discovery series could do what we’ve been harping on for so long in our magazines: Capture the hearts and minds of the skilled workforce of tomorrow while they’re still young, and begin moving them in the direction of technical careers sooner than later. Not to minimize those awesome STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) educational initiatives we’ve been hearing about, but this, after all, IS TELEVISION. Despite our best intentions, most children today are never very far away from it and its impact. Taking the spotlight off shock-value, problem-generating series like Buckwild, Ridiculousness, etc., and shining it on positive problem-solving has to be a plus. I’m hoping the new show quickly gains traction with viewers and that droves of savvy advertisers will want to wrap their messages around it. Since commercial success will be crucial to its survival, I urge the producers to place more emphasis on engineering issues and less on the dynamics and intrigue running through the contestants’ living quarters. And, while it may be too late to weigh in on this, given the fact that the first season is probably “in the can,” I also vote for putting plenty of women on the competing teams. For now, though, let’s just rejoice that this type of show exists… and that others like it might be in the works. MT jalexander@atpnetwork.com

PS: On a related note, I recently listened in on a Siemens-sponsored Washington Post Live Webcast that brought government officials and leading executives together to discuss “America’s New Manufacturing.” It and a follow-up conference call with Siemens Industry Sector, North America CEO Helmuth Ludwig were some of the most thought-provoking events I’ve “attended” in a long time. For video highlights of the Webcast, go to: http://www.washingtonpost.com/postlive/conferences/manufacturing. 6|

maintenance technology

MAY 2013


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NEWS STUFF HAPPENS

ASHRAE LAUNCHES EXPANDED JOBS OPPORTUNITY BOARD Members of ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers) now have increased opportunities to find jobs through the association’s expanded jobs board. A recent expansion between ASHRAE and BirdDog (a supplier of cloud-based recruitment and applicant tracking technology), which have been working together since 2009 to provide job-board support at www.ASHRAEjobs.com, will make it easier for employers to fill built-environment technology positions, as well as provide ASHRAE members with an improved means of identifying and applying for jobs in their chosen fields. The expanded site specifically allows employers that are interested in hiring ASHRAE members to post their listings throughout the BirdDog family of job boards and ensures that all ASHRAE members will be able to see the job posting. “Our members are in high demand, and that’s good news,” explains Tim Wentz, Volunteer Chair of ASHRAE’s Publishing and Education Council, which oversees ASHRAEjobs.com. “Unfortunately, like so many industries, companies wanting to or already employing ASHRAE members report troubles finding the right candidate. The improved ASHRAE jobs site, along with its four years of history, gives us the foundation to expand our efforts and ensure the right talent is being matched up with right job.” According to ASHRAE, its members are the global leaders of building technology. To qualify as a full ASHRAE member, a minimum of 12 years of professional experience in the industry must be shown. The new jobs-board service launched April 15, 2013. Employers with questions about the expanded partnership should contact Bryan May of the BirdDog organization, at 515.473.9212.

! T I R O FO

G

The Smart Manufacturing Leadership Coalition (SMLC) has won a 2013 Clean Energy Manufacturing contract to develop the nation’s first open, smart-manufacturing technology platform for collaborative industrial networked information applications. Under SMLC’s leadership, this $10 million project will receive $7.8 million in funding from the U.S. Dept. of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy’s Advanced Manufacturing Office. Overall objectives of the initial project are to design and demonstrate a common platform that enables data modeling and simulation technologies to actively manage energy use in conjunction with plant production systems and show that real-time energy management can be a key driver in business decisions across many U.S. manufacturing operations. The SMLC is a non-profit organization comprised of manufacturing practitioner, supplier and technology companies (including Emerson, Rockwell Automation, Honeywell and Invensys, among others); manufacturing consortia; universities; Federal agency and government laboratories. It supports the manufacturing industry through the pursuit of a comprehensive technology that no one company can undertake.

CERTIFIED 8|

MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY

The International Facility Management Association (IFMA) celebrated Earth Day by announcing that as of April 2013, more than 300 facility managers around the globe had earned their Sustainability Facility Professional (SFP) certification. Since the SFP credential was first introduced in 2011, the rate of new facility managers earning it has quadrupled.

MAY 2013


STUFF HAPPENS NEWS

N’ I T H FIG WORDS Dave Alires, a Maintenance Manager with

the U.S. Postal Service Network Distribution Center in Denver, supplied the following quote. It’s one of many he’s posted near the time clock. He heard a minister use it:

!

“Vision without a process is a fantasy. If there is no plan or process to our vision, then it is only a dream.”

We thank you and the USPS so very much, Dave. Best wishes. . . Keep up the good fight.

Inspiration For Those Battling The Enemies Of Reliability & Productivity

Have you read, heard, seen, thought or written down something that falls into the realm of “fightin’ words” for the maintenance and reliability community?

Got items for Stuff Happens? Send your news to jalexander@atpnetwork.com

Air-pollution control specialist CECO Environmental Corp. has announced its plans to acquire Met-Pro Corp., the well-known provider of productrecovery, pollution-control, filtration and fluid-handling solutions, including Fibroc fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) pumps used in desalination. Management of both companies will remain in leadership positions with Jeff Lang serving as CEO, Ray De Hont as COO and Neal Murphy as CFO. The acquisition is subject to standard closing conditions, including stockholder approval.

BIZ BUZZ...

In conjunction with its recent 2013 Pump Appreciation Day festivities, ITT Goulds Pumps donated $25,000 to the International Emergency Cardiovascular Care Program supported by the American Heart Association and its global partners. Held on the second Tuesday of April each year, Pump Appreciation Day is marked by various distributor events and public recognition for winners of the Heart of Industry and Industry Pulse Awards.

Send your favorites to quotes@atpnetwork.com. We’ll be selecting one or two (maybe even three) to feature each month. Be sure to give full credit to the individual (dead, alive, real or fictional) that uttered or wrote the words, and why those words inspire you. Don’t forget to include your complete contact info.

BRIGHT SPOT Chicago-based Prime Advantage, a buying consortium for small and midsized manufacturers, has released findings from its fifth annual Group CFO Survey, revealing the top financial projections and concerns of its member companies’ CFOs in 2013. The respondents’ main focus in 2013 is on growth, with nearly all of them (96%) believing U.S. manufacturing will expand or stay the same this year. Other highlights: 72% rated their optimism about financial prospects as moderate to high, an increase of 10% over last year; 46% of these manufacturers have engaged with local educational providers to train workers (up 19% in 2012); and 49% say they plan to increase the number of employees in 2013 (up from 41% in 2012). For more info, enter 68 at www.MT-freeinfo.com For more info, enter 68 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

MAY 2013

MT-ONLINE.COM | 9


NEWS STUFF HAPPENS Got items for Stuff Happens? Send your news to jalexander@atpnetwork.com

MT’s Book Club

Recommended Reading For Maintenance & Reliability Pros Title: Business Fables and Foibles Title Author: Ron Moore Reviewed By: Bob Williamson, Contributing Editor

“This new book by a respected consultant and author features 35 fictitious and satirical short stories about maintenance & reliability and business conditions we may find ourselves reacting to (and embracing). While his book Making Common Sense Common Practice is a hard-hitting how-to reference, Ron uses a a lighthearted, story-telling style in this collection. My favorites include ‘TPM-Totally Painted Machines’ and ‘Reliability Centered Misery.’” . . . BW Have you read a book that could be of value to other readers of MT? Tell us why in 50 words or less. Visit www.mt-online.com/bookclub for Book Club Rules and submission forms. Or, after reading those rules, send your reviews directly to jalexander@atpnetwork.com.

Showcasing In-Depth Technical Articles From Your Suppliers

CORNER

WHITE PAPER

TOPIC: Checking voltage frequency ratio on variable speed drives with the new Fluke 2-channel ScopeMeter® 190 Series II portable oscilloscope The difference between an oscilloscope and a DMM (digital multimeter) can be summarily stated as “pictures vs. numbers.” A scope adds a wealth of information to the numeric readings of a multimeter. While displaying instantaneous numerical values of a wave, it also reveals the shape of the wave, including its amplitude (voltage) and frequency. With such visual information, a transient signal or other sources of disturbances that may pose major consequences to a system can be captured, displayed then measured and isolated. With their unique triggering and measuring functions, Fluke ScopeMeter 190 Series II portable oscilloscopes are ideal for analyzing the voltagefrequency ratio of pulse-width-modulated variable speed drives. Read more on this topic at www.mt-online.com/white-papers. For more info, enter 70 at www.MT-freeinfo.com For more info, enter 69 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

10 |

MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY

Sponsored Information MAY 2013


AUTOMATION INSIDER

Get the Most From Your Software Systems By Gary Mintchell

G

ermany’s Hannover Fair is billed as the world’s largest industrial trade show. That’s where I was last month— with just over 200,000 of my closest friends—browsing my share of more than 6000 exhibits. While capacity assurance may not have been explicitly referenced, readers of this magazine would probably recognize it as an overarching theme running through the products on display. Here are a couple of issues that caught my attention. How prepared are you? For example, how many of you and/or your teams get work orders from a CMMS package? Do you ever obtain enough information to get a head start on a problem before going out to investigate it? Have you ever been suspicious of an operator’s response to an alarm from the DCS? The answer to these types of dilemmas could be an MES application—which can provide a wealth of information about process status prior to personnel heading out to deal with a problem. This information often can precede a work order in the sense that crews are able to see problems trending and prepare in advance for corrective actions. Based on my past experience in engineering roles, I believe there’s great value in knowing up front what tools and spares to take along on a job (and perhaps cut out a second or third trip). At Hannover, I spent some time at the Forcam stand (www.forcam.com), where CEO Franz Gruber explained how MES working with CMMS can pay big dividends when it comes to getting processes back online quicker.

Are you going mobile? Speaking of getting information, how many of you are using smart phones and tablets in your facilities these days? I realize doing so can be difficult or prohibited in hazardous or classified areas, but there are many areas where it’s not. Using these

commercial technologies in personal life inevitably bleeds over into business life. (That’s how the first PCs invaded businesses in the 1980s.) Manufacturers are now even working on Class I Div. 2 tablets. What a fantastic way to research problems without the need to find a computer: Just pull out your portable device and access a few key pieces of diagnostic information. However, the word is that personnel in maintenance areas—from technicians to supervisors—seem to be lagging in adopting mobile technologies. A recent study by the enterprise asset management supplier IFS (www.ifsworld.com) found that 75% of users have little to no mobile access to their EAM or CMMS. Only 34% reported using a handheld mobile device to work in these systems. This is not to mention gleaning trending or component information from other software programs that could be accessed via a smart phone or tablet app. (I recently saw a demo of a soon-to-be-released app of this type that makes finding key information quick and easy. Stay tuned.) But the IFS findings point to a corporate IT obstacle, as well. “The study indicates that those who limit remote access to connection solutions like VPN tend to be less likely to report high levels of access and are less likely to be working in the software from a handheld device,” IFS North America Vice President for Energy and Asset Management Patrick Zirnhelt told me. Mobile devices are key to the next generation of productivity. We need to convince IT that opening up the system, most likely through implementing cloud technology, will pay dividends in productivity and profits. It’s time to plan your implementation and get moving. MT Gary Mintchell, gary@garymintchell.com, Co-founder and long-time Editor-in-Chief of Automation World magazine, now writes at www.garymintchellsfeedforward.com. For more info, enter 06 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

MAY 2013

MT-ONLINE.COM | 11


UPTIME

Bob Williamson, Contributing Editor

Putting The Pieces Together In Pursuit of 100% Reliability How close to 100% reliable is your most critical equipment… the equipment that should perform as intended the first time, every time? It should be 100% reliable for safety, environmental or just plain business purposes. What organization would be satisfied with 45% reliability of these critical processes? Probably none. But under-performing processes are more common than many can imagine. Reliability is NOT a maintenance program. In other words, maintenance alone can’t achieve the highest levels of equipment reliability in a sustainable manner. That’s because “maintenance actions” aren’t the solutions to most causes of unreliability. Equipment reliability vs. process reliability Reliability improvement is about driving out variations in the way equipment and processes perform. Improving equipment and process reliability is a constantly moving target, especially when more than one machine is involved; and when humans are involved; and when non-standard work processes are involved; and… well, you get the idea. Which now brings us to “process reliability.” There’s often a tendency to focus on equipment reliability improvement. While that IS important, we must also consider the process within which the equipment operates. The “process” produces a useful output, while a piece of equipment may only contribute to a portion of that output. The causes of unreliability may be fairly easy to identify and correct when “equipment reliability” is the target. Conversely, when multiple equipment items must perform as part of a single process, the causes of process unreliability can be huge. Process reliability improvement will likely be a never-ending battle unless the causes of process unreliability are addressed in a balanced manner. To fully appreciate Manufacturing Process Reliability Variables, take a look at the accompanying diagram of a filling-packaging process. Improvements to “process reliability” must focus on the entire filling-packaging line’s capacity to produce at desired levels of production efficiency, quality and cost per unit for each scheduled operating shift. To improve overall process reliability, we must understand what the process as a whole tells us about the causes of unreliability. 12 |

mAintenAnce tecHnoloGY

Expected vs. actual reliability Again, to be reliable, the process “does what it is supposed to do in stated operating conditions for a stated period of time.” Every major part of the manufacturing process will affect the overall reliability. Start by counting the major UNITS contributing to manufacturing process variability. I count 89 major units associated with our diagram—including 18 humans conducting manual and equipment-related tasks (calculated 6 people X 3 crews). Each of these 89 separate UNITS must function properly for the manufacturing process to produce a single product. But it’s about more than performing properly—they all must perform together, at the same time, in sequence. Every one of these 89 UNITS is a VARIABLE. Still, if it’s a reliable process it will do what it is supposed to do in stated operating conditions for a stated period of time: three eight-hour shifts per day/seven operating hours per shift. Is 45% reliability acceptable? For discussion’s sake, let’s say that to justify its existence, our hypothetical filling-packaging process is expected to perform at 85% reliability per shift. If we target each of the line’s 89 variables at 99% reliability, overall process reliability won’t exceed 40.9%. Ouch! What if we narrow the field? Historical data indicates that nine of the line’s UNITS almost never have problems during scheduled operating times: electrical power systems (4), the compressed air system (1), the accumulators (2), bulk storage (1) and blend-mix (1). That means 89 variables are now reduced to 80. If we target each of them at 99% reliability, overall process reliability will be no better at (ouch, again) 44.8%. And what about the operating crews? Two of our three crews are highly experienced and rarely (if ever) cause any problems. Unfortunately, that leaves us with a six-person crew that is quite inexperienced, still in training and routinely causing problems. Until this crew is fully qualified, it can’t be expected to perform all of its tasks at 99% reliability—which, alas, has a direct effect on overall process reliability. Don’t bother with the calculation here… but you get the idea. People MUST perform their tasks reliably, too. MAY 2013


UPTIME

Manufacturing Process Reliability Variables INPUT:

Unscrambler

Operator Bulk Storage

Maintenance & repair procedures Setup/Changeover procedures Trained & qualified people Process controllers Data collection process

Utilities: Electrical, comp. air Bulk product Package components Operating procedures Quality & testing procedures

Bottles

Blend-Mix Operator

Filler

Capper

Plugs

Caps

Level Detect

Labels Case Labeler

Case Packer

Supervisor

Accumula tion

Elevator

Labels

Bands

Film

Cartons

Inserts

Case Erector

Bundler

Cartoner

Insert Folder

Glue

Conveyor

Neck Band

Cases

Glue System Operator

Labeler

Vision System Accumula tion

Glue System Glue

Line Maintenance

Palletizer

Date Coder

Output

RMW

Operator

© 2013

$

( ) COST = Profit$

Sales KEY: Conveyor Section: Pkg. Component:

So, is 44.8% reliability acceptable for the filingpackaging line? Is that what it was designed to do? Is that level of reliability going to meet the business goals? NO, NO and NO. Improving process reliability First, we must determine what the DATA is telling us about the major causes of unreliability. Is it a specific piece of equipment? A packaging component? Operator or maintainer errors? The key activity at this point is to determine the MAJOR causes—the most penalizing losses to the business (typically referred to as the “low-hanging fruit”). The major causes of unreliability could lead to lower production rates than planned or higher defect rates than allowable, both of which translate into higher costs per unit and/or late deliveries to customers. Sometimes the cost of maintaining reliability can be so high that the cost per unit produced has a negative impact on the business. MAY 2013

DATA:

Production throughput Waste Performance & Reliability Maintenance Costs

The tools to address causes of unreliability will vary depending upon where they are focused. Take for example the following macro-level data analysis: n The most penalizing problem in the process: “cartoner jamming” ◆ Four parts are coming together: carton, insert, bottle, glue ◆ Potential causes of “cartoner jamming:” ◆ Cartoner out of time (adjustment) ◆ Cartoner out of time (deterioration, wear) ◆ Cartoner not set up properly for the product ◆ Packaging: Carton size or shape variation from standard ◆ Packaging: Product container variation from standard ◆ Conveyor: Debris buildup (glue, paper, carton pieces…) ◆ Cartoner: Debris buildup (glue, paper, carton pieces…) mt-online.com | 13


UPTIME

◆ Feeder: carton feeder/magazine damaging

cartons (loaded wrong?) ◆ Conveyor: bottle feeding screw not aligned with cartoner ◆ Cartoner: running above/below specified speed ◆ Insert folder: insert is out of location ◆ Insert folder: insert is not folded properly (loaded wrong?) ◆ Labeler: labels on bottles not fully glued: flagged ◆ Cartoner: proximity sensors out of position (multiple locations) ◆ Air pressure is incorrect ◆ Electrical power variation: power quality The takeaway from these documented causes of “cartoner jamming” is that not all are correctable by maintenance actions. In some cases, this may be related to improper tools used for adjustments or the fact that procedures are unavailable or not followed. Other deficiencies may include a lack of training to the level of being “qualified” to operate, set up or maintain; inadequate levels of detail in

PM procedures; lack of timely PM completion; or no PM addressing the problem areas. Critical factors in improving process reliability You have a lot of pieces to put together in pursuit of 100% reliability. Keep all of them in mind. Data collection, analysis and trending must be accurate (and reliable). Focus on the major causes, the most penalizing and chronic problems first. Think beyond “equipment reliability” and consider the process as a whole. Finally, remember that the points of unreliability are a continually moving target. “Maintenance” is NOT the only solution for all causes of unreliability. Furthermore, creating a “reliability mindset” among the entire workgroup is essential. MT Robert Williamson, CMRP, CPMM, and member of the Institute of Asset Management, is in his fourth decade of focusing on the “people side” of world-class maintenance and reliability in plants and facilities across North America. Email: RobertMW2@cs.com.

For more info, enter 71 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

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mAintenAnce tecHnoloGY

MAY 2013


BOOSTING YOUR BOTTOM LINE

Tools To Manage Motor Breakdown

H

ow will you respond when a motor breaks down in your plant? A common course of action is to repair the unit if that costs less than replacement. As shown by the chart below, however, total costs of motor ownership depend more on a motor’s efficiency than repair or replacement costs. Typically, the energy to operate a motor represents 95% of its lifecycle cost, while purchase and repair costs represent less than 5%. Motor Decisions MatterSM (MDM) can help you make the costeffective choice through resources like the MDM Decision Tree, which diagrams the steps in the decision-making process. The MDM Website (www.motorsmatter.org) links you to resources like the Horsepower Bulletin [Ref. 1] that can help inform your repair-replace decisions. Developed by Advanced Energy, it breaks down the many aspects of lifecycle costing and helps users establish guidelines for repairing or replacing a motor based on size, operating hours and cost of electricity. Another useful resource, MotorMaster+ 4.0 [Ref. 2], was created by Washington State University and the U.S. Department of Energy. This comprehensive program compares the financial results of various repair-replace decisions. Once the true lifecycle cost of a motor is understood, you can make a sound decision about whether to replace it with an energy-efficient motor or to repair using best practices. Best Practice Motor Repair-Rewinds Motor repair-rewinds that are improperly performed, or performed on a motor with significant damage, have the potential to degrade its nameplate efficiency. Since even a small decrease in motor efficiency can cause a marked increase in your total operating costs, it pays to make sure your repair maintains motor efficiency. Bestpractice repair services can do just that. As detailed in the ANSI/EASA AR 100 standard [Ref. 3] developed by EASA, the Electrical Apparatus Service Association (www.EASA.com), and approved by ANSI (the American National

| MAINTENANCE MAY 2013 32 TECHNOLOGY

Standards Institute), a 22-page document defines recommended best-practice repair-rewind by establishing guidelines for each rewinding and rebuilding step. A 2003 study by EASA and the Association of Electrical and Mechanical Trades (AEMT) found that best-practice rewindrepair procedures maintain motor efficiency within ± 0.2%—and in some cases can improve motor efficiency [Ref. 4]. When it comes to motor rewinds or repairs, work with your local utility and motor service provider to develop and implement a repair policy that makes efficiency a priority. More resources, including a 2011 Webcast, Motor Management Truths and Consequences: Understanding Electric Motor Rewinds and Efficiency [Ref. 5], are available in the “Helpful Resources” section of the MDM Website. Visit us online to start making cost-effective motor management decisions today. MT 1.www.advancedenergy.org/md/knowledge_library/ resources/Horsepower%20Bulletin.pdf 2. www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/tech_deployment/software_motormaster_intl.html 3. www.easa.com/energy 4. The Effect of Repair/Rewinding On Motor Efficiency; EASA/AEMT Rewind Study and Good Practice Guide; http://www.easa.com/energy 5. www.motorsmatter.org/events/May11/MDM_ EASAMotorRepairSlides.pdf; and https://vimeo.com/28827577 For more info, enter 07 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

The Motor Decisions Matter (MDM) campaign is managed by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE), a North American nonprofit organization that promotes energysaving products, equipment and technologies. For further information, contact MDM staff at mdminfo@cee1.org or (617) 589-3949.

| 15 MT-ONLINE .COM2007 OCTOBER


DON’T PROCRASTINATE…INNOVATE!

Ken Bannister, Contributing Editor

The Why Factor In 2011, Applied Technology Publications (parent of Maintenance Technology and Lubrication Management & Technology magazines) launched its first “Maintenance & Reliability Innovator of the Year” competition. The level of response we received for that inaugural competition overwhelmed us. Response for the 2012 competition was just as exciting, making it difficult for the judges to choose an overall winner and three runners-up. The 2012 competition, like the one in 2011, reconfirmed our belief that the spirit of innovation is alive and well—and working hard—in the maintenance and reliability community. It was reflected in all entries, each of which managed in one way or another to challenge the status quo and current orthodoxy regarding the true meaning of “innovation.” In her book, The Power of Why, Amanda Lang questions and successfully answers how curiosity and the ability to ask “why” fuels change in both business and personal lives. She goes on to investigate the small child’s urge to question “why” at everything new in the world and how few parents continue to foster and sustain that curiosity, choosing instead to shut it down with a simple “just because!” retort. Moving into the school system, the curious and ever-questioning child, unless mentored by caring educators, can soon be muted—and frequently shunned by peers and teachers alike. Clayton Christenson, often referred to as the ”Father of Innovation,” published results of a groundbreaking study with co-authors Jeffrey Dyer and Hal Gregerson in a 2011 book The Innovator’s DNA—Mastering the Five Skills of Disruptive Innovators. The six-year study of more than 500 of the world’s top innovators concluded that the number-one attribute or discovery skill of any innovator is the ability to ask “why”—questioning the unquestionable! The book reasons that a manager often only

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asks “how” (i.e., “How are we going to speed up production?”) An innovator, conversely, asks “Why is production so slow?” In the world of reliability, we’ve long used a simple, highly effective five-stage approach for getting to the root cause of failure. This “5-Why” process merely involves asking “why” the component or system failed, then questioning the answer with “why” for a total of five times. Often, the root cause can be found in fewer than five answers. Innovators aren’t afraid to challenge common wisdom and are unaccepting of the “because we’ve always done it that way attitude.” In his book The Future of Management, Gary Hamel quotes a study that shows—regardless of what country they live in—only 14% of employees are highly engaged, and as many as 62% merely show up to work for the paycheck! In this “who cares” culture, the answer to making America great again is in the fostering of an environment that nurtures innovative thought and encouraging the asking of “why” or “why not.” Hamel notes that “managers are the gatekeepers of innovation,” meaning they must be open to and work diligently to not only promote the “why” culture, but support ideas to fruition. Fortunately, we’ve seen many organizations—both end-users and OEMs—doing just that (including the 2012 sponsors of our award program, Dreisilker Motors and Scalewatcher). We thank them all as we highlight this year’s “Maintenance & Reliability Innovator” awards! 2012 Grand Prize Winner Our “2012 Maintenance & Reliability Innovator” “Grand-Prize winner” received a “grand slam” from the judging panel—and is truly worthy of this year’s top award. Leading a team from WaveOn Technologies, Inc. (Osceola, WI) that included Charles Miller, CTO, and Suman Minnaganti, Project Manager, CEO Chad Erickson submitted “Lubricheck,” a unique, handheld “first alert” oil-condition testing

MAY 2013


DON’T PROCRASTINATE…INNOVATE!

Innovators aren’t afraid to challenge common wisdom and are unaccepting of the ‘because we’ve always done it that way’ attitude. device. As innovators do, the team had asked “why” there was no instant, reliable, easy method of spot-checking oil to know if its condition truly warranted a changeout. They then set out to build one. Struggling to fund the costly design and development stage of their Lubricheck device, the WaveOn team turned to what could be considered a rather innovative approach for producing engineered products: They took the advice of Charles’ teenage children and sought cloud funding through kickstarter.com—which puts creators and backers together to collectively raise substantial amounts of venture capital funding one dollar at a time. The only caveat is that the project must reach its funding goal for the creators to receive their money. Money raised, the Lubricheck product hit the market in the second half of 2012. At the heart of the Lubricheck unit is a batteryoperated sensor that sets up an electrical excitation field, which changes in a known manner when a fluid, such as oil, is placed on the sensor pad. When oil becomes oxidized, it also becomes acidic and will affect the electrical field differently than new oil. Lubricheck’s electronics interpret these types of changes and display them through a series of 10 LED lights that light up GREEN (when the oil tests OK), or AMBER or RED when it doesn’t (depending on the severity of condition problems and the urgency of a changeout). Although the unit is primarily designed for fleets and can be switched to analyze diesel or gas engine oil, it can also be used to check most lubricating oils. 2012 Runners-Up 1. Doug Sackett, of Smith Brothers Oil (Smith) (Bartow, FL), submitted an innovative way to support the reliability programs of Smith customers by replacing old bulk oil tanks with new totes and a “clean and fill” tote management system. When empty, Smith picks up the totes and takes them to

MAY 2013

its own facility to clean and fill with filtered oil. The oil is then “loop” filtered, checked with a particle counter and certified as clean before returning to the customer. 2. Martin Robinson, of IRISS Corp. ( Bradenton FL), submitted an innovation that made a good idea even better. IRISS took an already innovative electricalpanel polymer plastic infrared and visual inspection window and redesigned it into a lifetime-warrantied inspection window that’s impact-resistant, stays clear throughout its life and can be customized to any shape or size. This new product solves the limited life and visual clarity failures of previous inspection window materials, which makes it safer and less expensive over its life cycle. 3. Wesley Valverde of Lightning Bolt & Supply (Baton Rouge, LA), submitted a wireless Customer Managed Inventory (CMI) solution for fasteners, fittings and MRO inventory replenishment. This unique scanner, provided free to the company’s customers who are on the program, can read all competitor inventory labels and uses an Apple app to upload “bolt bin” orders using the scanner or an optical camera. This allows customers to have their refill orders taken care of more efficiently and competitively. Moving forward Congratulations to all our innovating winners, as well as to other great ideas that didn’t make it into the winner’s circle this year or last. Now it’s time to get ready for the 2013 Maintenance & Reliability Innovator Award Program. It launches with the June issue of Maintenance Technology. Stay tuned for details. MT Ken Bannister is author of Lubrication for Industry and the Lubrication section of the 28th edition Machinery’s Handbook. He’s also a Contributing Editor for Lubrication Management & Technology. Email: kbannister@engtechindustries.com.

MT-ONLINE.COM | 17


CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS

Finding CMMS Success

When the reality of CMMS implementation and use falls short

©kabliczech—Fotolia.com

What’s At The End Of Your Rainbow?

of ‘pot-of-gold’ expectations, knowledge and experience can help bridge the gap. But where do you get it? John Reeve Cohesive Information Solutions, Inc.

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MAY 2013


CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS

T

he consultants had signed in at the front desk and the management team joined them in the conference room. The project leader started the meeting by reviewing its purpose, which purportedly was to discuss lessons learned and other opportunities relating to reliability, process efficiency and, most important, overall use of the company’s CMMS. Something was left unsaid, however. This gathering had a hidden agenda: to evaluate the consultants. Following obligatory introductions and opening remarks, the consultants launched into a litany of observations, opportunities and recommendations. The assembled management team—already vastly familiar with consultant presentations—wanted value for its money. Not everyone in the room, however, was sure they needed outside help. Still, the consultants thought they were doing pretty well until one of the plant managers asked, “What company can we visit that has industry best practices for asset management and is also using the same CMMS software we do?” A member of the consultant team responded quickly: “That type of client organization may not exist.” Just as quickly, he realized this response fell short of expectations. The room had grown silent, indicating that the managers were curious, they would probably judge the capabilities of the consulting firm based on the consultants’ answer to this one question. Suddenly, a second consultant stood up and drew an illustration on the white board—it depicted a long rainbow that disappeared into a golden pot. The implication was clear: Management’s goal was worthy, but perhaps unrealistic. The elusive pot of gold The managers gathered in the conference room that day assumed the consultants had many experiences to share. Thus, if they were as good as they claimed to be, they should be able to point to and arrange a visit to a client site with a bona fide CMMS success story. Seeing, after all, is believing. The consultant team understood the intent of the question—and also knew of many companies with various best practices. Unfortunately, they also realized that no single site encompassed all of the best practices the management team might want or need to see. They encouraged the managers to expand their thoughts. While the consultants agreed that the type of requested site visit could be of great value, they suggested that some additional questions needed to be asked and clarifications made, including: ■ Because a single company might not exist with all of the

desired best practices, which among several companies that meet best-practice criteria should be included? MAY 2013

■ Must the visited companies all be in the same industry

as the prospective client? For example, Henry Ford came up with his idea for the assembly line when he visited a hog farm. Thus, it can be acceptable for a company to go outside its own industry when looking for improvement ideas. ■ Is the definition for "best practice" clear? If each mana-ger

in the conference room were asked to write down his/her idea for best practice design, would they have similar answers? ■ Creative solutions to complex problems can be found

in many places, even outside the prospective client’s own company (sometimes where and when they're least expected). Examples are applications of newer technology, clever use of a product or anything else. ■ If a target best-practices company were to be identified,

would they agree to such a visit? Or might that company worry about giving away competitive information? ■ How many people would the visiting organization send?

Are the right people available internally to make such a visit? How would it be conducted and how much time should be allocated to glean adequate information? ■ What questions would be asked? The visitors would need

to organize a list of topics in advance. Suggested topics might cover these three areas: 1. Software—Data content & accuracy, analytical reports, integration, KPIs, error checks 2. Process—CMMS SOP, standardization, business rules, definitions, advanced processes 3. Organization—O&M roles and responsibilities, buy-in, training, core team function, business analyst, CMMS expert, reliability team MT-ONLINE.COM | 19


CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS

Sometimes, the best practice is simply one of cultural buy-in. Any organization can install and set up a CMMS, but a lot fewer can get everyone engaged. ■ The visiting team might discover undesirable processes

and data at a host’s site. While this would not necessarily be discussed with the host, it could still be instructional as examples of situations to avoid. These might include large/growing maintenance backlog, poor work prioritization, lack of failure analysis and many others.

The purpose of benchmarking Visiting other organizations for the purpose of mutual self-improvement—one type of benchmarking—is itself a best practice. Most consultants can help with the decision to do this based on the previously noted conditions. Once the decision to visit another operation is made, the benefits become clear: Visitors will get to see how others implement, use and benefit from their CMMS software. Other activities can be used to reinforce this knowledge, including:

Attitude and buy-in Sometimes the best practice is simply one of cultural buy-in. Any organization can install and set up a CMMS—but a lot fewer can get everyone engaged. When it comes to staff engagement and buy-in on this issue, many questions can arise:

■ Research—Read as much as possible about subject of

■ Are all levels aware of the importance of creating a true

interest in books, trade magazines and on the Internet. Become a student of asset and reliability management.

knowledge base and analytical reporting? ■ Training—Attend training classes on specialty topics, ■ Do the skilled trades understand the system's purpose?

such as failure analysis, analytical reporting, advanced scheduling and others.

■ Is there fear among some that CMMS is a tool to micro-

manage personnel?

■ Virtual participation—View online user forums and follow

threads of interest or start your own topics. Be part of a debate. ■ Are work orders created for all work performed? ■ Attend industry events — These include user-group meet■ Is completed work properly documented and closed out? ■ How does management plan to create buy-in?

Some believe this process is like raising children: Countless parents have figured it out—their children become respectful, self-motivated and want to do the right thing. Others never get the hang of it. When dealing with industrial maintenance and reliability professionals, it can be important to remember that the best of the best do not need a rule for every field on the screen. 20 |

MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY

ings and trade events. Listen to presentations, take notes and establish new contacts. Ask questions. The purpose of consultants Experience does matter. Over a 10-year period, a seasoned consultant may visit up to 50 client organizations. But even that many visits may not be enough to discover a best-of-the-best site. The one thing a consultant can usually claim is that he/she has found and documented best practices. It's with this knowledge base that they can provide extensive thought leadership across all areas of asset, work and reliability management. MAY 2013


CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS

Within any consulting firm you’ll find a mix of managers, programmers and working-level consultants. In many cases, management-level staff began as working-level consultants and, thus, have knowledge of both software and industry-leading practices that can be of enormous value to clients. The working-level consultants on their staffs can be expected to have knowledge of implementation and operational challenges based on the real-world events they regularly encounter in the field. They also would have documented trends and practices—good and bad— and know which advanced processes add true return on investment (ROI). A formal CMMS review by consultants can take weeks— if not months. Such systems are complex: Even if the software is best-of-breed, processes surrounding it can be weak. So, on a visit by a prospective customer's team to an actual client site, how many questions is it reasonable to ask? A checklist can help visitors stay focused. The team should also be careful to not overwhelm the host organization, meaning the review should be completed in a day or less. In today’s busy workplace, it’s hard to get all stakeholders in the same meeting at the same time. (Nor would you want a meeting that large.)

Based on these facts, a site visit requires considerable pre-trip preparation by the visiting organization. While the process of determining sites to visit and questions to ask don't have to involve a consultant, there can be a value in doing so. Consultants can leverage the experience of others on their staffs not just to come up with a list of relevant questions to ask, but to identify client sites that are open to such visits. Do the math: A staff of 20 consultants with 10 years of field work each brings a total of 200 manyears of experience to the table. It can also be helpful to have a third-party make the initial contact. Important information Considering a consultant? Keep the following questions and answers in mind. Question: What do you do when you are already world-class? ANSWER: It’s good to be confident, but better to seek ongoing improvement. There is value in performing a formal CMMS system and process review, which includes a long-range (five-year) plan. If you stand still, the odds are great you will get passed by.

For more info, enter 72 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

MAY 2013

MT-ONLINE.COM | 21


CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS

Question: What can go wrong when implementing the world’s best CMMS? ANSWER: The software is the easy part. The real magic is in the surrounding process and procedure. Don’t assume software will fix poor process. And remember that advanced processes have the most prerequisites. Question: How do you create a true knowledge base within the CMMS? ANSWER: This is the most challenging goal. Supporting elements include: buy-in, asset-management vision, clear roles and responsibilities, business rules, training and error checking. With accurate data, you can create real business intelligence, improve decision-making and manage by exception. Otherwise, you could be entering bad data on “day two,” the period immediately following go-live. Question: How do we prepare for tomorrow’s inevitable change? ANSWER: Recognize that change can be in the form of new technology, government regulations or an industry accident. Good companies expect change. Your ability to react quickly can make the difference.

Bottom line A strong organization welcomes change. It understands the importance of benchmarking activities and continuous improvement. A strong organization will also periodically engage consulting services to help its team identify new ideas, discuss trends and review opportunities for improvement. Consultants expect management teams to ask tough questions. Accordingly, they work hard to be the ones in the room with the best knowledge to solve whatever problems you throw at them—and help your organization find that pot of gold at the end of your rainbow. MT John Reeve has spent 25+ years supporting CMMS/EAM users across a wide range of industries. Today, as a Manager and Senior Consultant with Cohesive Information Solutions, he serves as Practice Leader for Maintenance & Reliability Solutions. Email: jreeve@cohesivesolutions.com. For more info, enter 07 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

“Industrial Lubrication Fundamentals” 3-Day, On Site, Certification Preparation Training Program

With over 70% of all mechanical failures attributed to ineffective lubrication practices, you will want to have professionally trained and certified lubrication personnel working on your reliability efforts!

Unlock the Secrets that let you Tap your True Maintenance Potential and Maximize Asset Reliability! World Class organizations know that increased asset reliability, utilization and maintainability, reduced operating costs, downtime, contamination, energy consumption and carbon footprint all commence with a best practice lubrication program! Course design is based on ISO 18436-4 and the ICML body of knowledge and exceeds minimum training requirements to write the ICML, MLT1, MLA1 and ISO LCAT1 International lubrication certification exams. Exams can be arranged to take place at your site immediately following the training. For more information on this unique training program developed and delivered by internationally accredited lubrication and maintenance expert Ken Bannister, author of the best selling book Lubrication for Industry endorsed by ISO and the ICML as part of their certification Domain of Knowledge Content. Contact ENGTECH Industries Inc at 519.469.9173 or email info@engtechindustries.com For more info, enter 88 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

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MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY

MAY 2013


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UM BIG MONEY TALKS

XX UM

William C. “Bill” Livoti

What’s Up With Waste-To-Energy?

F

or those unfamiliar with “waste-to-energy” (WtE), it’s the process of burning municipal wastes in large furnaces to produce steam that, in turn, is used to drive turbines that generate electricity. WtE has always interested me. During a recent tour of a waste-to-energy plant in Central Florida, the conversation turned to our National Energy Policy (or to be more specific, the lack thereof) and Federal tax credits for renewable energy. My host shared some alarming facts with me—along with his concerns and frustration. His facility had recently been acquired by a company that has patented a promising WtE technology called “Advanced Thermal Recycling” (ATR®). Although the plant is now using ATR, it’s limited in how much power it can produce due to— get ready for this—lack of trash! Here’s our dirty little secret: More than half the waste produced in this country goes into landfills. Only a quarter to a third is recycled, and a very small amount is used for energy recovery. I left that Central Florida operation enlightened by the innovative technology I had seen, but bewildered as to why our country has failed to embrace waste-to-energy as a solution to a couple of nagging problems (i.e., where do we find new sources of energy and what can we do about our ever-growing mountains of waste). Looking back at the history of WtE in the United States, it seems as though both politics and specialinterest groups may have had a hand in running the long roller-coaster ride this viable technology has found itself on. A Brief history of WtE in the U.S.

■ 1920s: Atlanta sells steam from its incinerators to

the Atlanta Gas Light Co. and Georgia Power Co. ■ 1970: Clean Air Act ends open burning at U.S.

landfills, opening the door for WtE technology and forcing cities to look at this type of technology with regard to trash disposal. ■ 1975: The first privately built WtE plant opens in

Massachusetts. ■ Late 1970s: The Federal government begins

funding feasibility studies for local governments interested in setting up new WtE plants. ■ 1980: The 1980 Energy Security Act provides

insured loans, loan and price guarantees and purchase agreements for WtE projects using municipal solid waste. ■ 1980: The Energy Security Act authorizes research

and development for promoting the commercial viability of energy recovery from municipal waste. ■ 1986: The Federal Tax Reform Act (FTRA) is

implemented, which both helped and harmed the development of WtE facilities. While the FTRA extended Federal tax credits available for such facilities to 10 years, it unfortunately repealed the tax-free status of WtE plants that were financed with industrial development bonds. ■ 1990s: With the expiration of tax credits, WtE

plants begin to fall out of favor.

■ 1885: U.S. Army builds the first garbage incin-

■ 2007: The U.S. has 87 WtE facilities, consuming about

erator on Governor’s Island in New York Harbor, and Allegheny, PA, builds the first municipal incinerator.

31.4 million tons of solid waste (which represents 12.5% of all municipal solid waste disposal). ■ 2010: Eighty-six WtE plants with the capacity to

■ Early 20th century: Some U.S. cities begin gener-

ating electricity or steam from burning waste.

| UTILITIES 24 VOLUME 2 / NO.MANAGER 2

process more than 97,000 tons of municipal solid waste per day are operating in 24 states.

| 24 8 / NO. 2 UTILITIESVOLUME MANAGER


BIG MONEY TALKS UM

U.S. Waste Disposal

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and BioCycle Magazine.

Sources: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and BioCycle Magazine.

■ 2012: There is a sudden increase in WtE sector

activities as companies begin developing new technologies for converting municipal garbage into electricity, heat and biofuels. Interesting WtE Facts Estimates by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and BioCycle magazine on the amount of U.S. waste and modes of disposal give some indication of the potential we have with waste-to-energy technology. Look at the accompanying tables and consider the following: ■ Approximately one ton of waste will produce 525

kWh of electricity (roughly what a quarter-ton of coal or a barrel of oil produces). ■ During combustion, the volume of waste material

is reduced by about 90%, and its weight by 75%. Fifteen states have categorized waste-to-energy as a resource in their renewable portfolio standards. Yet, while some Federal laws have categorized waste-toenergy as a renewable resource, some Federal and state tax advantages given to other renewable resources ARE NOT available to WtE facilities. Furthermore, as you might expect, special-interest groups in various parts of the country staunchly oppose waste-to-energy. Renewable energy and waste disposal From a semantics perspective, although waste-toenergy may not actually be a renewable source of

energy, it most certainly is saving our environment. I would definitely categorize WtE as a “Green Solution” and submit that it should be subsidized by Federal tax credits. This technology has a future: What better way to kill two birds with one stone? Like any other energy source, however, there are downsides: Emissions, odor from the waste prior to incineration, convoys of trash trucks and the proverbial engine blocks that could be thrown by irresponsible individuals into dumpsters and, in turn, destroy WtE processing equipment are just a few of them. Can these issues be overcome? Given the technology available today, I think so. My next column (coming in August’s MT) will discuss how a WtE plant works and more. UM Bill Livoti is Power-Generation Business Development Manager for WEG Electric Corp. and Electric Machinery Co., Inc. Sources 1. “Municipal Waste Production” (Chapter 18), Window on State Government, Susan Combs, Texas State Comptroller of Public Accounts, http://www.window. state.tx.us/specialrpt/energy/renewable/municipal.php 2. “Waste to Energy: A Mountain of Trash, or Pile of Energy,” Melissa C. Lott and David Wogan, http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/pluggedin/2011/09/12/waste-to-energy-a-mountain-oftrash-or-a-pile-of-energy/ 3. Recovered Energy, Inc., Presents the Recovered Energy System, http://recoveredenergy.com/d_wte.html For more info, enter 261 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

VOLUME VOLUME 82 // NO. NO. 22

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UM DRIVEN-EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCIES

The Importance Of Best Efficiency Point

©Konstantin Romanov—Fotolia.com

(BEP)

Understanding the factors involved in pump performance is key to optimizing the fluid-handling systems in your operations. Eugene Vogel Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA)

H

ave you become so focused on the efficiency of the motors around your plant that you’re losing sight of the equipment those motors are driving? In many applications, pumps included, the answer to the efficiency question is best addressed when the complete system is studied.

26 | UTILITIES MANAGER

VOLUME 8 / NO. 2


UM

Sooner or later, most maintenance professionals who work with pumps will encounter a pump curve and its key parameters, one of which is Best Efficiency Point (BEP). The BEP graphically represents the point on a pump curve that yields the most efficient operation. For electric motors, efficiency varies with load, with the best efficiency being at about 75% of load. With rotodynamic pumps (which includes centrifugal and axial flow types), efficiency depends on three important pump curve parameters—head, flow (i.e., capacity or volume) and power—as expressed in this simple equation:

To understand BEP, it is essential to know that the flow through a rotodynamic pump varies from zero flow at “dead head” (discharge valve closed) to maximum flow at “run out” condition (no discharge restriction). Pump efficiency, it turns out, is a function of flow through the pump, although it is not strictly linear (see Fig. 2).

BHP = Q x H x s.g. 3960 x n Where: BHP Q H n s.g.

= = = = =

brake horsepower flow head efficiency specific gravity (remains constant)

As the equation shows, power is inversely proportional to efficiency, which basically means pumps use less power when operating more efficiently. But power is also directly proportional to flow X head (Q X H), both of which vary with demand in a rotodynamic pump system. If the system restricts the discharge of the pump, as when a discharge throttle valve is closed, the flow decreases and the head increases. Conversely, less restriction from the system means greater flow and less head. This relationship is illustrated by a pump curve that is specific to each pump (see Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Pump curve: head vs. flow VOLUME 8 / NO. 2

Fig. 2. Efficiency curve: efficiency vs. flow

Effect of flow rate To visualize how flow affects pump efficiency, imagine the flow of traffic on a highway, with efficiency measured as cars per minute. Late at night with no cars on the road (and therefore no traffic), efficiency is zero. Early in the morning, traffic moves quickly, but with few cars traveling, efficiency remains low. During rush hour traffic volume greatly increases, so bottlenecks form, traffic slows to a crawl and efficiency plummets. Usually, there is a time just before rush hour with lots of fast-moving traffic when the highway handles the most cars per minute—i.e., its BEP. The BEP for a pump is similar (see Fig. 3). With the discharge valve closed (“dead head”) and zero flow, efficiency is zero. As the discharge valve opens (i.e., the discharge restriction is gradually reduced), flow and efficiency gradually increase, until the flow through the pump becomes more turbulent. At that point, efficiency will start dropping and then continue to drop as the pump approaches “run out” condition (zero). As with traffic flow on a busy highway, somewhere between “dead head” and “run out” condition, there is a flow rate at which the efficiency is maximum— i.e., the BEP. Note that the BEP in Fig. 3 occurs at a flow rate of about 1600 units—which coincides with the maximum value on the efficiency curve. That flow rate also intersects the pump curve at a point equal to head of about 220 units. UTILITIES MANAGER | 27


UM DRIVEN-EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCIES

Fig. 3. Head and flow at BEP

If the efficiency of the pump changes with flow rate, a logical question might be “Why?” As mentioned earlier, one reason is that pump efficiency directly correlates with turbulence in the flow—i.e., the greater the turbulence, the lower the efficiency. Thus, it makes sense that the BEP is where turbulence is minimal. Effect of impeller design Impeller design is the most significant factor for determining the BEP of a pump because it dictates how efficiently power (brake horsepower or BHP) is transmitted to the liquid being pumped (“pumpage”). A properly designed impeller optimizes flow while minimizing turbulence. Pumpage enters the impeller eye and accelerates as it travels radially outward toward the impeller discharge. As the liquid discharges from the impeller, it merges with liquid already in the impeller housing. If the impeller vanes are at just the right angle relative to the flow rate, incoming pumpage will merge smoothly with the swirling pumpage in the housing, minimizing turbulence, maximizing efficiency and yielding the BEP for that impeller. Designers use a series of vectors to calculate impeller vane angle for a certain flow rate. As shown in Fig. 4, vector Vt represents the speed of the vane tip (tangent and relative to the impeller), and Vr represents the radial velocity of the pumpage flowing out of the impeller. The discharge angle of the flow is Vm, the sum of vectors Vt and Vr, which should match the impeller vane angle at the discharge. The length of vector Vr changes with flow rate, so greater flow through the pump means the pumpage must move faster as it exits the impeller. 28 | UTILITIES MANAGER

Fig. 4. Impeller discharge angle vectors

Note that the flow rate changes the discharge angle, but the impeller vane angle remains constant. The BEP is the flow rate where the discharge angle matches the vane angle. Similar design factors apply to the impeller intake. Although impeller housing characteristics also play a role, the impeller design is the primary factor that determines the flow rate at which the BEP occurs. Points to remember The most important thing to remember from this discussion is that any modification of the impeller will change the BEP of the pump. Trimming the outside diameter (OD) of an impeller, replacing an impeller with one of different diameter or number of vanes or changing the rotating speed of the impeller will alter the BEP for the pump. Before modifying an impeller in any way, make sure that you determine how the change will impact the pump curve, the efficiency curve and the BEP. UM Eugene Vogel is a Pump and Vibration Specialist with the Electrical Apparatus Service Association, Inc. (EASA), in St. Louis, MO. EASA is an international trade association of more than 1900 firms in 59 countries that sell and service electrical, electronic and mechanical apparatus. Telephone: 314-993-2220; email: easainfo@easa.com; Web: www.easa.com. For more info, enter 262 at www.MT-freeinfo.com VOLUME 8 / NO. 2


EFFICIENT GADGETS UM

Best-in-Class Power & Run Time From Intelligent Rotary Hammers

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ilwaukee Tool has expanded its M12 FUEL™ line of power tools with the new M12 FUEL™ 5/8” SDS Plus Rotary Hammer for drilling holes of up to 5/8” in concrete and masonry. According to the company, this electro-pneumatic unit not only offers 75% more speed and the largest SDS Plus bit capacity in its class, at only 10” long and 3.9 lbs, it performs comparably to much larger tools at a fraction of the size and weight. Designed, engineered and built by Milwaukee Tool, the product’s 12-volt brushless POWERSTATE™ motor provides up to 6200 BPM and up to 900 RPM. New Milwaukee REDLITHIUM™ XC4.0 batteries allow up to 2X more run-time, 20% more power and 2X more recharges than standard Lithium-Ion batteries, and function in extreme conditions (below 0 F/-18 C) with fade-free power. An advanced REDLINK PLUS™ Intelligence hardware and software system ensures continuous full-circle communication between tool, battery and charger to optimize performance and overload protection. Milwaukee Tool, Inc. Milwaukee, WI

For more info, enter 02 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

Retrofittable Variable-Speed Refrigeration Motors

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he Nidec 56 Frame Variable Speed Condenser Motor for Supermarket/Commercial Refrigeration applications is designed to work with both split- and self-contained refrigeration systems. A key feature of the compact unit’s integrated motor and drive system is its use of ECM technology (permanent brushless magnet) According to the manufacturer, in addition to longer motor life, the variable-speed capabilities of the easy-to-install 56 Frame Condenser Motor translate can translate into higher efficiency, lower energy costs and greater precision in controlling refrigeration systems for end-users. Other features/benefits include: ■ Integrated electronics for quick retrofit ■ Active Power Factor Correction (PFC) ■ Active thermal protection ■ Dip switches allow easy set-up on factory floor or in field ■ Sensorless feedback gives precise rpm without encoder ■ 6 KV surge protection ■ Rigid base or belly band mount ■ Sine wave and ball bearings ensuring less noise and vibration

These units are well-suited for use by both OEMs and aftermarket/retrofit customers. Nidec Motor Corp. St. Louis, MO VOLUME 8 / NO.2

For more info, enter 03 at www.MT-freeinfo.com UTILITIES MANAGER | 29


EXPERT Q&A

Sage Advice: Understanding RCM

Respected industry icon Anthony M. ‘Mac’ Smith expounds on Reliability Centered Maintenance and some of the many benefits it can deliver. Special To MT

30 |

MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY

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is three decades of exploring, implementing and leveraging the principles of RCM have given Mac Smith valuable insight into the subject. This Q&A is based on his edited responses to several questions from a 2012 Webinar sponsored by the Pharma Special Interest Group (SIG) of the Society for Maintenance and Reliability Professionals (SMRP). MAY 2013


EXPERT Q&A

Q: What is RCM? SMITH: RCM is a maintenance strategy that originated in the 1960s when United Airlines developed it for the 747-100 aircraft. This approach was so successful that every U.S. commercial airplane since has specified RCM methodology as its initial maintenance program to the FAA. RCM contains four key principles. . . 1. Preserve System Function (or avoid system functional failure). Because its focus is on the system rather than specific equipment, this aspect of RCM signifies its departure from the conventional maintenance mindset. With RCM, function will guide resource use. 2. Link Functional Failure and Equipment. RCM calls for a detailed, component-to-component system review to determine what specific equipment failure modes could lead to functional failure. The identified failure modes may deserve special attention. 3. Determine Failure-Mode Criticality. Failure modes should be separated by the impact their occurrence will have on an operation, using the following guidelines: ■ Ocurrence will violate a safety or environmental requirement. ■ Occurrence could result in partial or complete plant outage. ■ Occurrence results in neither of the above (making this fail-

ure mode benign and a possible run-to-failure candidate). ■ Is the occurrence known or unknown to system operators?

Unknown failure modes are considered “hidden,” and are a special area of concern. 4. Define the PM task to implement (assuring a proactive approach to the failure mode’s prevention, mitigation or, if hidden, its discovery). In any RCM analysis, all four principles must be addressed. An analysis that ignores or short-circuits any of them can't be considered RCM. In cases where RCM has been perceived as ineffective, the reason is usually not RCM strategy, but the implementers’ failure to follow RCM procedures. Q: What's the difference between Classical RCM and RCM2? SMITH: 80/20 systems are where 80% of maintenance issues are caused by 20% of the plant systems. The Classical view is that these systems deserve most of the attention and resources. The RCM2 process is based on the premise that every system of a plant needs full RCM treatment. MAY 2013

Another difference is the manner in which the second RCM principle—linking functional failure and equipment— is accomplished. Both Classical RCM and RCM2 use the Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (FMEA) approach, but differ in how to apply it. Classical RCM, for example, acknowledges that failure mode can be separate from failure cause by requiring that each be recorded separately during analysis. RCM2 makes no such distinction, allowing for both to be recorded in a single column. Classical RCM also requires that the Effect portion of the FMEA process be recorded for each failure mode at three levels: locally, for the specific equipment involved; systemically, for the system level in which that equipment resides; and at the plant level. Using these three levels assures that the analyst must carefully consider the possible cascading consequences of the failure mode all the way to its possible effect on the entire plant. By contrast, RCM2 uses only a single column to record Effect. This can provide an inconsistent portrayal of failure-mode consequences if the failure is determined to affect only one level. Absent a complete picture of failure effect at all three levels, a later difficulty can arise in the process to determine the potential safety or outage criticality imposed by the failure mode. A third area of concern in the FMEA is the manner in which RCM2 records the selection of a PM task for each critical failure mode. Classical RCM requires that all reasonable PM actions proposed be recorded, not just the final selection. In RCM2, only the selected PM task is recorded. Since these RCM analyses are often revisited, I have found it very useful to know all of the task options that were originally considered, especially when the original does not seem to provide the expected result. Q: What is the difference between failure mode and failure cause? SMITH: Failure mode describes what went wrong, usually with two or three words, one of which is a verb. Examples include “connecting shaft cracks” or “pipe joint leaks.” Failure cause describes why it went wrong, such as “low cycle fatigue” or “gasket age deterioration,” respectively, for the two examples noted. Separation of these terms is necessary because maintenance strategy must ultimately specify the task definitions that will be used to issue PM work orders that will eliminate or mitigate failure modes. It will be known, for example, how to avoid or mitigate the occurrence of shaft cracks (with vibration monitoring or alignment checks), but not that a work order is needed to specifically stop low cycle fatigue. Likewise, it will be known how to avoid serious leaks (by tightening joints or through periodic inspection), but not if a specific work order is required to stop the natural degradation that occurs over time with gasket materials. MT-ONLINE.COM | 31


EXPERT Q&A

Stated differently, failure mode is what directly results in a corrective maintenance action and, possibly, a plant or system outage. From a maintenance-strategy perspective, it’s also the failure mode that maintenance can stop or mitigate before it becomes a failure effect. And while maintenance work orders cannot realistically eliminate or mitigate a failure cause, an accurate estimate of causes can provide information needed for a change in design or operating procedure. Elimination or mitigation of failure cause is a design issue, while elimination or mitigation of a failure mode is a maintenance issue. If we mix up the two terms, it can be difficult (or impossible) to define what maintenance action should be taken versus what design change should be considered. Q: How do we get RCM buy-in? SMITH: When trying to get organizational buy-in for an RCM program, the most important consideration is money or, more specifically, return on investment (ROI). Introducing RCM into the operations and maintenance side of a plant requires top management to commit staff resources— mainly O&M supervisors and technicians—to perform RCM studies, then take actions to implement the findings. The biggest hurdle is often to get approval for a pilot project to determine how RCM will work within the plant and its culture. In making its decision, management will consider the cost to do this, including consultant charges, versus what they can expect in terms of ROI. Using the 80/20 approach, I’ve not found it difficult to convince O&M management to try a pilot program. But if you have to sell the program, it behooves you to play a key role in selecting both the system for the pilot as well as the personnel who will supply the data and information for the RCM analysis. Be sure to focus on critical equipment for the best ROI, and to choose top people. Make no mistake: The proper database for an RCM analysis will come from the “A” team of craft technicians. If you meet the ROI test, your next challenge will be to gain buy-in from the larger O&M population. You may now have a handful of converts from the successful pilot project, but to make this a plant-wide program, a majority of their peer technicians must be brought onboard. No matter what you try, things won’t happen overnight— but the following strategies can help change mind-sets: 1. Embark on a steady training program regarding RCM and its potential benefits for all who might interface with its analysis and implementation. People tend to automatically resist change, especially if they don’t understand what RCM is about. Count on individuals who have experienced the successful pilot project to be key participants in your training efforts.

2. Maintain program visibility at the management level on what's happening and what's planned Define KPIs that are to be religiously tracked and frequently reviewed with management. You must keep management on your side and not let them lose sight of the fact that ROI is trending in the right direction. 3. Consider designating an “RCM Champion” who will be responsible for assuring that the above actions happen. Based on my 30-year experience with Classical RCM implementations, about 60% succeed and 40% either never get off the ground or stall after the pilot project. The failures can be traced to one or more of the above three factors not being done. Q: What about the 20/80 systems? SMITH: Concern for 20/80 systems—or “better-behaved” systems—was first expressed to me in the 1980s by U.S. Air Force management at the Arnold Engineering Center, in Tennessee. It came after three years of multiple, successful Classical RCM Projects on 80/20 systems. My response, which also proved successful, was to develop the ExperienceCentered Maintenance (ECM) analysis methodology. ECM is not RCM: It is data-driven while RCM is functiondriven. ECM data comes from two sources. The first is data obtained from existing PM tasks, which is analyzed to see if the tasks performed as expected and, if not, what should be changed. The second source is data obtained during corrective maintenance events from the previous 12 to 18 months—and follow-up analysis to learn why these unexpected failures occur-red and how they could be prevented. The ECM process takes about one-fourth the time of a full-blown Classical RCM study. But ECM isn't intended for use on 80/20 systems: Those problems typically require more than a minor correction to the existing PM Task structure. ECM also does not explore the full range of possible failure modes that could initiate functional failures. Q: What's the future of RCM? SMITH: The answer is self-evident: U.S. industry is still predominantly in the reactive maintenance mode and, for the most part, doesn't even recognize the application of the 80/20 rule. RCM can change that unfortunate situation to a shift toward proactive maintenance. The opportunity is there for those who choose to seize it. MT Mac Smith is Principal Consultant with AMS Associates (San Jose, CA.) His 50+ years in engineering include 24 with GE’s aerospace, jet-engine and nuclear-power operations. He has personally facilitated more than 75 RCM studies and authored two books on the subject. Telephone: (408) 532-7126; email: amsassoc@sbcglobal.net.

EDITOR’S NOTE: Go to www.mt-online.com/smith for the unedited version of Smith’s answers to the Webinar questions. 32 |

MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY

MAY 2013


TECHNOLOGY SHOWCASE

TRAINING REENGINEERED: Stretch Your Training Dollar By Leveraging Technology

On the horizon and moving toward you...

By Shon Isenhour and Darrin Wikoff, GPAllied, LLC

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ollowing the economic challenges of 2008, the training landscape eroded; 2012, however, marked a notable turning point in Technology and Manufacturing industries. As highlighted in a Bersin by Deloitte report, The Corporate Learning Factbook 2013: Benchmarks, Trends and Analysis of the U.S. Training Market, mature manufacturing companies that were still focused on creating a learning organizational culture spent 20% more on training in 2012 than 2011 (up 9.5% over the previous two years). Learning and Development professionals agree that the focus of training in industrial sectors is no longer on “continuing education,” but on “continual learning” to ensure a competitive advantage. The first differentiator of mature learning organizations is instructional design. Constrained by cost and desiring a high-impact learning experience, talent managers shifted toward pairing novices and experts through communities of practice that leveraged experiential learning opportunities. As skill gaps were assessed, instructional design took a blended approach to conceptual instruction via technologyenabled formats and reinforced skill application facilitated by coaches. Curriculum design became less abstract and more about giving employees what they needed to know to demonstrate desired skills (which were defined based on role responsibility and connection to the company’s strategic goals and objectives. Training, in turn, was measured by the organization’s ability to achieve each objective. Mature learning organizations also recognized the importance of employee engagement in the learning process. Design of training had to support the various ways by which adults learn and provide relevant material for each employee without increasing costs. At the time of reengineering, training budgets were between $700 and $800 per employee (nearly half pre-2008 $1300-$1500 budgets): Even mature organizations could not afford to customize the training for individual employees. Course design called for a blended approach that standardized content while ensuring relevancy and flexibility for experiential learning. Breakout groups and simulations were incorporated to permit role playing and peer-to-peer dialogue. Coach-assisted practical exercises were engineered to facilitate skills application and immediate

MAY 2013

feedback, and downloadable real-world examples submitted by peers demonstrated each skill in detail for those who were less confident at first. With the average age of plant population shifting and more technology-savvy learners among the ranks, Learning and Development leaders within mature organizations further set themselves apart by leveraging social media and virtual forums to deliver and reinforce skills application. Learning Management Systems provided chat rooms, live feeds, and online libraries where students could engage their peers in discussion. With “Branching” methods of delivering conceptual content via the Web, students were engaged in a realistic scenario, asked to make decisions along the way based on their personal understanding of a topic, then guided to additional content based on their responses. This facilitated a game-like environment that created relevance and scalability while maintaining content consistency at a lower cost per student.

Incorporating ideas from these authors into your organization’s training program can help improve your training results. The final differential deals with the pace of the learning process. Learning and Development leaders understood that adults working full-time and raising families had to be able to participate in training ad hoc. Both conceptual eLearning modules and skill-application assignments had to be structured in a way that allowed completion in short intervals and within a student’s day-to-day responsibilities. Using an adaptation of the popular “CPR” method of instructional design (Fig. 1), leaders challenged designers to constrain themselves to 3-5 minutes of conceptual content delivery, 10-15 minutes for practical exercises within eLearning modules, simulations and group breakouts, and 3-5 minutes to reinforce knowledge through interactive games, quizzes and other activities aimed at ensuring comprehension and retention. MT-ONLINE.COM | 33


TECHNOLOGY SHOWCASE

Fig. 1. CPR Method of Design

Based on this type of model, students would spend no more than 25 minutes learning about a skill before they had enough of a foundation to go out and apply it. This required each competency to be broken down into a unique learning objective and content to be delivered in written, visual, and experiential formats in order to ensure a sufficient level of understanding. To build confidence and encourage skill application, coaches were provided to support the student, evaluate performance and supply the necessary level of personal follow-up instruction that would allow the skill to be repeated with confidence and mastery. Again, this prevented the training material from having to be customized for each employee, but still ensured a consistent level of learning across the organization. What’s important to managers is making sure provided training is retained and applied and that it generates a return on the training investment. The return in the reengineered curriculum comes from direct application of its concepts to a site’s challenges through project-based learning. As skill application assignments are completed, projects and the educational experience move in parallel toward a target state. The idea is that the student gets to apply each portion of the training as it is received. When the training is finished, the project is also complete. This method generates a measurable change in performance that a manager can monitor. 34 |

MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY

Having worked your way through this reengineeredtraining model article, try adopting some of the ideas in it to stretch your training dollars while improving results. Remember to put adequate time into instructional design and break topics into small pieces that can be communicated and readily applied within your plant. Use reinforced skill application facilitated by coaches to ensure understanding of material. Apply electronic media to boost motivation through natural competitiveness and allow content to be self-tailored based on performance. Incorporate projectbased learning techniques to produce documented results and demonstrated success that can be leveraged to grow your efforts. With this combination, you should see a step change in the value of your training dollars and be able to bring your organization to a new level of performance. MT With a combined 40 years of industrial experience backing them up, GPAllied subject-matter experts, Shon Isenhour and Darrin Wikoff have successfully reengineered the model for Maintenance and Reliability training. Their University of Tennessee accredited and award-winning inspired Blended Learning (iBL) program is a real-world example of the innovative concepts explained in this article. Take a test drive by visiting www.ibltraining.com and clicking the demonstration link, or email the authors directly at sisenhour@gpallied.com and dwikoff@gpallied.com. MAY 2013


TECHNOLOGY SHOWCASE

The Worldwide Operator Training Simulator Market

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ccording to the ARC Advisory Group (ARC), the worldwide market for Operator Training Simulator (OTS) software and services is set for rapid growth. The retiring workforce, lack of experienced operators, and manufacturing expansion in emerging markets are major drivers for OTS. Operator training simulators are defined as dynamic simulators designed to train process operators using process simulators in the process industries. The study includes information about software technologies, tools, and methodologies that are both high-fidelity solutions that replicate plant operations exactly and generic simulators that are process- or application-specific. Operator training simulation systems considered in the study include 2D, 3D, generic high fidelity, dynamic high fidelity and virtual type applications. Currently, the market is at an inflection point. Widespread retirement and jobchanging patterns of experienced workers and increased safety concerns are among the factors driving this market. Suppliers are responding with dynamic high-fidelity solutions that include 2D, 3D, and immersive reality training. In addition, OTS in the cloud is starting to be an integrated part of the training solution. To obtain this ARC report, visit: http://www.arcweb.com/market-studies/ pages/operator-training-simulators.aspx. MT For more info, enter 04 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

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MAY 2013

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Arc Flash Protection & Electrical Safety 70E Public Seminars or Training at Your Facility • Live, Instructor Led Training • Identify Electrical Hazards • Safety Related Work Practices • Maintenance Requirements • Call or Visit for a Complete Schedule

Creating a Better, Safer and More Efcient Maintenance Workforce

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MT-ONLINE.COM | 35


CAPACITY ASSURANCE MARKETPLACE

Portable, High-Powered Vibration Analyzer

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PM Instrument has introduced a new member of its Leonova line of portable, high-powered vibration analyzers. Incorporating SPM HD technology, the rugged Leonova Emerald®, a sibling of the company’s feature-rich Leonova Diamond®, provides razor-sharp spectrums even where signals are weak and low in energy content. Its excellent signal-to-noise ratio, the manufacturer says, offers a distinct advantage when dealing with equipment like gearboxes, where weak signals are present among stronger ones. Measurement-data-processing, machine-fault-symptom computation and trending are all done in the instrument. Leonova Emerald also comes in an EX-approved version for hazardous environments. SPM Instrument, Inc. Eugene, OR

Remote Cable-Drive Valve Operator

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mith Flow Control’s FlexiDrive cable drive system allows remote operation of valves in hard-to-reach or inaccessible locations. Its flexible linear drive cable connects a hand wheel to a valve up to 100 feet away, and can operate in water up to 50’ and temperatures from -65 to +400 F. Capable of delivering adequate torque output for most manual valve situations, the system can transmit drive to a valve up to 60 meters from the operator station. This product is suitable for use with any conventional wheel-operated industrial valve/device, including oil, gas and chemical-processing applications.

For more info, enter 30 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

Smith Flow Control Erlanger, KY

AC Drives With Revamped Architecture

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Auto-Calibrating CO2 Sensor

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BB’s new lowvoltage, industrial AC drive portfolio is built on a common architecture, designed to simplify operation, optimize energy efficiency and maximize output. The architecture lets the drives control virtually any type of AC motor, and interface across all major fieldbus protocols and remote monitoring solutions. Integrated safety features include safe torque-off (STO) that can prevent unexpected startup.

he SMART-Sensor™ LCD from Reliable Controls now includes an integrated CO2 sensor option with an auto-calibration feature that can establish a baseline CO2 level for any space. The easy-to-program sensor allows users to connect with up to 10 configurable parameters. The unit also includes a non-dispersive infrared optical sensor, a 0-2000 PPM range and optional manual calibration. I/O and humidity and occupancy sensors are available.

ABB New Berlin, WI

Reliable Controls Corp. Victoria, BC, Canada

A

For more info, enter 31 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

36 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY

For more info, enter 33 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

MAY 2013


CAPACITY ASSURANCE MARKETPLACE

Thermal Imagers With Simultaneous Electrical Readings

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luke’s expanded CNXTM Wireless Test Tools system includes Ti1XX Series Thermal Imagers with a free upgrade in SmartView® software that enables the imager to capture and display electrical measurements wirelessly. The system is a set of test tools that wirelessly connects multiple measurement modules and sends simultaneous readings to a CNX main unit up to 20 meters away. Fluke Corp. Everett, WA

Radiation-Resistant Vibration Monitoring

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eggitt’s radiation-hardened vibration sensors meet specific requirements for the reliability of monitoring equipment in nuclear environments. Operable up to 248 F (120 C), mechanical components used in its Wilcoxon 793R sensors can tolerate a cumulative radiation exposure of 1 x 107 RADs and still meet original manufacturing specifications. Model 797R is a side-exit, low-profile IsoRing accelerometer with tight sensitivity tolerance of 100 mV/g, ±5%. Its velocity transducer houses ultra-low-noise electronics for clear signals at very low vibration levels, and has a frequency range of 2 Hz to 7 kHz. Meggitt Sensing Systems Germantown, MD

For more info, enter 34 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

ENGINEERED TO SERVE YOUR MAINTENANCE NEEDS, YOUR PLANT & YOUR BUSINESS At Revere, we engineer controls for an incredible range of industrial applications. From mining conveyor controls to 15 kV switchgear and plant wide PLC systems for municipal, industrial and energy applications. System upgrades, expansions, and maintenance. Control your systems. Control your business.

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UNIQUE BEARING AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS

Leonova Emerald ® is a portable instrument for condition monitoring. This rugged data collector offers advanced and cost-effective methods for shock pulse and vibration analysis. The SPM HD ® measuring technique enables detailed bearing analysis also at very low speeds. The instrument efficiently manages extensive measuring routes and large amounts of measurement data. Also available in Ex version. Contact us today for a complete condition monitoring package!

CONTROL SYSTEMS T 1.205.824.0004

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Tel. 1-800-505-5636 leonovabyspm.com spminstrument.com For more info, enter 83 at www.MT-freeinfo.com For more info, enter 79 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

MT-ONLINE.COM | 37


INFORMATION HIGHWAY For rate information on advertising in the Information Highway Section Contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 / E-mail: jpreston@atpnetwork.com Web Spotlight: U.S.Tsubaki

Air Sentry® is a leading developer of contamination control products that keep particulate matter and excess moisture from the headspace inside gearboxes, drums, reservoirs, oil tanks, etc. that hold oils, greases, hydraulic fluids, and fuels. Air Sentry breathers and adapters ensure longer fluid life, better lubrication and lower maintenance costs. For more info, enter 83 at www.MT-freeinfo.com www.airsentry.com

U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC is excited to announce the integration of KabelSchlepp America into its operations as part of the Tsubakimoto Chain Company’s global acquisition of the German-based Cable & Hose Carrier manufacturer. KabelSchlepp America will now operate as a division of U.S. Tsubaki and will expand Tsubaki’s presence in the U.S. market by adding cable & hose carrier systems to its already extensive product lineup. For more info, enter 80 at www.MT-freeinfo.com www.kabelschlepp.com

Increase reliability while decreasing costs with Inpro/Seal application solutions. The inventor of the original bearing isolator, Inpro/Seal’s technologies increase the reliability of rotating equipment and provide real cost savings by improving MTBR. Our superior customer service and streamlined production processes allow for same-day shipments on most products, even new designs. For more info, enter 81 at www.MT-freeinfo.com www.inpro-seal.com

CLASSIFIED

RENEW

The ability to identify, verify and locate every voltage source from the outside of electrical panels greatly reduces electrical risks. That’s why we’ve incorporated two of our most popular products - ChekVolt® and VoltageVision® - into one unique, exclusive product called The Combo Unit.. For more info, enter 82 at www.MT-freeinfo.com www.graceport.com/3mt_informationhighway

PIP is a consortium of process plant owners and engineering construction contractors harmonizing member’s internal standards for design, procurement, construction and maintenance into industry-wide Practices. PIP has published over 450 Practices. A current listing of published Practices is available on the PIP website at: http://pip.org/practices/index.asp. For more info, enter 84 at www.MT-freeinfo.com www.pip.org

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For rate information on advertising in the Classified Section contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 / E-mail: jpreston@atpnetwork.com

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MAY 2013 Volume 26, No. 5 •

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May 2013 • Volume 26, No. 5 RS #

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Air Sentry ................................................................www:airsentry.com............................................83 .......................38

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American Trainco ..................................................www.americantrainco.com...............................76 .......................35 Baldor Electric Company......................................www.baldor.com ................................................63 .........................2 Bartlett Bearing Company, Inc. ............................www.bartlettbearing.com .................................64 .........................4 Cascade Machinery Vibration Solutions.............www.cascademvs.com .......................................69 .......................10 EASA .......................................................................www.easa.com ....................................................86 ....................IBC Engtech Industries Inc...........................................www.engtechindustries.com.............................88 .......................22 Exair Corporation..................................................www.exair.com/48/462.htm .............................66 .........................5 Fluke ........................................................................www.fluke.com ..................................................70 .......................10 Fluke ........................................................................www.fluke.com/7reasons ..................................87 ......................BC Foster Printing Services .........................................www.fosterprinting.com ...................................73 .......................23 Grace Engineered Products. Inc. ..........................info.graceport.com/4mt2013............................67 .........................7 Grace Engineered Products. Inc. ..........................www.grace.com ..................................................82 .......................38 Inpro/Seal, LLC .....................................................www.inpro-seal.com..........................................81 .......................38 Mapcon Technologies, Inc. ...................................www.mapcon.com.............................................85 .......................38 Meggitt Sensing Systems .......................................www.wilcoxon.com ...........................................62 .........................1 Meltric Corporation ..............................................www.meltric.com...............................................75 .......................35 PdMA Corporation ...............................................www.pdma.com .................................................72 .......................21 Process Industry Practices.....................................www.pip.org .......................................................68,84 ...............9,38 Revere Control Systems.........................................www.reverecontrol.com ....................................78 .......................37 SKF CMC................................................................www.bakerinst.com ...........................................71 .......................14 SPM Instrument, Inc. ............................................www.spminstrument.com ................................79 .......................37 Strategic Work Systems, Inc. .................................www.swspitcrew.com ........................................65 .........................4 Test Products International ..................................www.testproductsintl.com ................................74,77 ..................35 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC ...............www.kabelschlepp.com.com ............................80 .......................38 Yaskawa ...................................................................www.yaskawa.com .............................................61 .................... IFC

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MT-ONLINE.COM | 39


viewpoint Kimberly M. Smith, Piedmont Natural Gas

‘Ladies Of The Energy Industry Unite’

E

nergetic Women is an organization with an important mission: “To increase the pool of promotable women in Energy Operations and Engineering.” As “Our Values Statement” notes, we will always:

n Communicate in a positive manner n Provide an encouraging and supportive environment n Respect each other’s diverse experiences, background and contribution n Encourage collaborative, inclusive and professional dialog The launch of Energetic Women was first publicized via the June 2007 Midwest Energy Alliance (MEA) Energy Delivery News & Solutions eNewsletter, in an article with the same title as this Viewpoint: “Ladies of the Energy Industry Unite! (MEA Announces NEW “Energetic Women” Group!)” Fast-forward six years and it’s easy to see that we’ve grown to be much more than a newsletter item. A partial list of our activities/milestones includes: n Hosting the 6th Annual Energetic Women conference this year (June 12 -14, in Baltimore, MD) n Hosting bi-monthly Webinars on various topics n Providing articles on leadership and development n Providing tools for mentorship n Providing online leadership training

What does Energetic Women mean to me? First, it’s a confidence-building organization. It is also a growing movement—one that’s expanding as we learn more about what women are seeking in the areas of leadership and development while working for a utility company. The tools we offer, however, are useful and meaningful to women seeking advancement or enhanced skills in their current roles, regardless of industry sector. As a woman working in the utility operations field for 10+ years, my experience has been somewhat different from that of others who came before me. I’ve been able to actually see, know and work alongside a number of women who have become professional engineers. Though this pool may be small, I realize that I was blessed with an opportunity early in my career that many never have. The reality is that more times than I care to admit in the course of my work, I’ve been the only woman at the table with an engineering background. I want that to change. Since becoming involved with Energetic Women, I’ve begun leveraging tools provided by the organization to guide my steps as I “Lean In” and try to be an example to other women with interest in engineering and operations. Although increasing numbers of women have begun venturing into roles traditionally held by men, Energetic Women will continue to inspire and support women in the utility industry. Over time, we hope more and more women will say they chose to pursue engineering and operations paths based on utilization of the networks, training, mentors and tools our organization built to pave the way to career development, advancement and success. Energetic Women today is the beginning of what may be the future of utility operations training and development—for both women and men. I invite you to visit us at www.energeticwomen.org. MT

n Inspiring book clubs/reading recommendations n Having a LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter presence n Exceeding expected participation and sponsorship

Kimberly Smith is Operations Supervisor for Piedmont Natural Gas, in Charlotte, NC. A mechanical engineer, she also serves as Chair of the Energetic Women organization. For more info, enter 05 at www.MT-freeinfo.com

The opinions expressed in this Viewpoint section are those of the author, and don’t necessarily reflect those of the staff and management of Maintenance Technology magazine.

40 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY

MAY 2013


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Maintenance Technology May 2013