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MARCH 2013 • VOL 26, NO 3 •


Making Sense Of Plant Maintenance Despite growing acceptance, SAP’s Plant Maintenance (PM) function remains misunderstood and under-used. Here’s how to change that. ©SUPAKITMOD — FOTOLIA.COM

Daniel Van Wyk, Quadro Solutions


How To Reduce Automation Obsolescence Risks (Without Losing Your Mind) Don’t wait until it’s too late to think about managing the life cycles of your automation investments. Your operation’s bottom line is at stake. Lonnie Morris, Rockwell Automation




My Take

How To Find And Prevent Pitting & Crevice Corrosion


Stuff Happens

These lower-profile corrosion types are dangerous and deserve your attention. This author fills you in on what to look for and how your operation can protect itself from these problems.

10 13 14



Automation Insider

38 41

Technology Showcase




Information Highway

The Maintenance & Reliability Technology Summit is:



An annual, four-day educational experience and professional-development opportunity


Supplier Index

Created for plant and facility managers, maintenance leaders and crew members, reliability engineers, industrial technicians and all other capacity-assurance professionals



Gerald O. ‘Jerry’ Davis, P.E., Davis Materials & Mechanical Engineering, Inc.



The Proper Selection And Installation Of Flexible Cable Connectors What you use and how is key to secure, trouble-free terminations. Chad Smith, Thomas & Betts


Motor Decisions Matter Don’t Procrastinate… Innovate!

Solution Spotlight

Composed of two days of Conferences (60-minute sessions) and two days of Workshops (full-day sessions) presented by industry experts. Scheduled for April 30-May 3, 2013 at the Hyatt Regency O’Hare, Rosemont, IL.

For more information, visit today! MARCH 2013



We Stock Solutions Hybrid Ceramic Bearings Coated Bearings Insulator Sleeves AEGIS Grounding Rings Insulated Carrier


March 2013 • Volume 26, No. 3 ARTHUR L. RICE President/CEO

BILL KIESEL Executive Vice President/Publisher




Executive Editor



Director of Creative Services


Editorial/Production Assistant


Direct Mail 800-223-3423, ext. 110


Philadelphia, PA

Gastonia, NC

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“Visual systems, when applied to equipment, can reduce training time by 60 to 70% and eliminate errors.”

Reprint Manager 866-879-9144, ext. 168

Editorial Office: 1300 South Grove Ave., Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 / FAX 847-304-8603 WWW.MT-ONLINE.COM

Subscriptions: FOR INQUIRIES OR CHANGES CONTACT JEFFREY HEINE, 630-739-0900 EXT. 204 / FAX 630-739-7967

—Robert Williamson, lean equipment specialist

Our Visual Supplies Can Improve Your Equipment’s Performance! Colored gauge marking labels Problem and Opportunity Tags in English or Spanish Red Move Tags Colored paint pens Colored grease fitting caps and lube point labels Vibration analysis pickup discs and labels Proven Tips for Equipment Troubleshooting handbook Lean Machines instructional book for applying visuals Temperature indicating strips and more

Visual systems supplies that deliver! To view and order from our complete line of Visual Systems Products, go to... To order by phone or fax, call (864)862-0446 Strategic Work Systems, Inc. PO Box 70 Columbus, NC 28722

Maintenance Technology® (ISSN 0899-5729) is published monthly by Applied Technology Publications, Inc., 1300 S. Grove Avenue, Barrington, IL 60010. Periodicals postage paid at Barrington, Illinois and additional offices. Arthur L. Rice, III, President. Circulation records are maintained at Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Maintenance Technology® copyright 2013 by Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Annual subscription rates for nonqualified people: North America, $140; all others, $280 (air). No subscription agency is authorized by us to solicit or take orders for subscriptions. Postmaster: Please send address changes to Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Please indicate position, title, company name, company address. For other circulation information call (630) 739-0900. Canadian Publications agreement No. 40886011. Canada Post returns: IMEX, Station A, P.O. Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5, or email: cpcreturns@ Submissions Policy: Maintenance Technology® gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc. permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. “Maintenance Technology®” is a registered trademark of Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Printed in U.S.A.

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MARCH 2013

The Truth About Compressed Air! If you think compressed air is too expensive and noisy - read this. The facts will surprise you!

Compare these Blowoffs

Facts about Blowers

There are a variety of ways to blow the water from the bottles shown in the photo below, but which method is best? To decide, we ran a comparison test on the same application using four different blowoff methods: drilled pipe, flat air nozzles, Super Air Knife (each using compressed air as a power source), and a blower supplied air knife (using an electric motor as a power source). Each system consisted of two twelve inch long air knives. The following comparison proves that the EXAIR Super Air Knife is the best choice for your blowoff, cooling or drying application.

Energy conscious plants might think a blower to be a better choice due to its slightly lower electrical consumption compared to a compressor. In reality, a blower is an expensive capital expenditure that requires frequent downtime and costly maintenance of filters, belts and bearings.

The goal for each of the blowoff choices was to use the least amount of air possible to get the job done (lowest energy and noise level). The compressed air pressure required was 60 PSIG which provided adequate velocity to blow the water off. The blower used had a ten horsepower motor and was a centrifugal type blower at 18,000 RPM. The table at the bottom of the page summarizes the overall performance. Since your actual part may have an odd configuration, holes or sharp edges, we took sound level measurements in free air (no impinging surface).

Here are some important facts:

Filters must be replaced every one to three months. Belts must be replaced every three to six months. Typical bearing replacement is at least once a year at a cost near $1000.

Drilled Pipe

Blower Air Knife

This common blowoff is very inexpensive and easy to make. For this test, we used (2) drilled pipes, each with (25) 1/16" diameter holes on 1/2" centers. As shown in the test results below, the drilled pipe performed poorly. The initial cost of the drilled pipe is overshadowed by its high energy use. The holes are easily blocked and the noise level is excessive - both of which violate OSHA requirements. Velocity across the entire length was very inconsistent with spikes of air and numerous dead spots.

The blower proved to be an expensive, noisy option. As noted below, the purchase price is high. Operating cost was considerably lower than the drilled pipe and flat air nozzle, but was comparable to EXAIR’s Super Air Knife. The large blower with its two 3" (8cm) diameter hoses requires significant mounting space compared to the others. Noise level was high at 90 dBA. There was no option for cycling it on and off to conserve energy like the other blowoffs. Costly bearing and filter maintenance along with downtime were also negative factors.

Flat Air Nozzles

EXAIR Super Air Knife

As shown below, this inexpensive air nozzle was the worst performer. It is available in plastic, aluminum and stainless steel from several manufacturers. The flat air nozzle provides some entrainment, but suffers from many of the same problems as the drilled pipe. Operating cost and noise level are both high. Some manufacturers offer flat air nozzles where the holes can be blocked - an OSHA violation. Velocity was inconsistent with spikes of air.

The Super Air Knife did an exceptional job of removing the moisture on one pass due to the uniformity of the laminar airflow. The sound level was extremely low. For this application, energy use was slightly higher than the blower but can be less than the blower if cycling on and off is possible. Safe operation is not an issue since the Super Air Knife can not be deadended. Maintenance costs are low since there are no moving parts to wear out.

• •

Blower bearings wear out quickly due to the high speeds (17-20,000 RPM) required to generate effective airflows. Poorly designed seals that allow dirt and moisture infiltration and environments above 125°F decrease the one year bearing life. Many bearings can not be replaced in the field, resulting in downtime to send the assembly back to the manufacturer.

Blowers take up a lot of space and often produce sound levels that exceed OSHA noise level exposure requirements. Air volume and velocity are often difficult to control since mechanical adjustments are required. To discuss an application, contact:

EXAIR Corporation

11510 Goldcoast Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45249-1621 (800) 903-9247 Fax: (513) 671-3363 email:

See the Super Air Knife in action. The Super Air Knife is the low cost way to blowoff, dry, clean and cool.

Blowoff Comparison Comp. Air Type of blowoff




Horsepower Sound Purchase Required Level dBA Price

Annual Electrical Cost*

Approx. Annual Maintenance Cost

First Year Cost

Drilled Pipes











Flat Air Nozzles











Blower Air Knife











Super Air Knife











*Based on national average electricity cost of 8.3 cents per kWh. Annual cost reflects 40 hours per week, 52 weeks per year.

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Jane Alexander, Editor-In-Chief

First Rule Of Book Club: Do Talk About Books


small, framed quote hanging on my kitchen wall sums up my approach to life fairly accurately: “When I have a little money, I buy books. If any is left, I buy food and clothes.” I’ve hauled that darned thing around from one domicile to another for more than 30 years—and it still makes me smile whenever I read it. Books have always been a passion of mine. News or discussions of a good one, whatever the topic, whatever the source, are a sure-fire way to send me to Amazon Prime. And as long as I’m ‘fessing up, let me say that I like my books the way I like my magazines—in print. Nothing wrong with books on tape, digital editions or online articles. Same goes for nifty little e-reader devices. (As my husband frequently reminds me, his keeps him occupied nicely as I meander through brick-and-mortar stores.) I just prefer the feel of a real book and turning real pages. One of my most recent impulse buys, Well Said! Presentations and Conversations That Get Results, by author Darlene Price, was sparked by a short Forbes article entitled “13 Things You Should Never Say at Work.” In it, staff writer Jacquelyn Smith emphasized Price’s contention that there’s one reason leaders are seen as leaders: Their words compel people to follow. The wrong words don’t. To refresh yourself on phrases that are inappropriate in a workplace, see jacquelynsmith/2013/02/15/13-things-you-should-never-say-at-work/. Then try to get Price’s book, if not for your personal library, then for your department or site. As I ordered my own copy, I began wondering about books that might be providing inspiration for you and your team these days: not the heavy-duty technical titles so crucial to effective equipment-asset management, but rather those from outside the maintenance and reliability arena that are helping you do your jobs better. If you have one or more favorites, I hope you’ll share. Starting in our April “Stuff Happens” section, you’ll see a new “Book Club” box. Help us fill it. We’re looking for 50 words or less on individual books that you have read and believe to be of value to other maintenance and reliability pros. For each submission, tell us the title, publisher and why you think ideas in the book could be important for MT readers. Be sure to include your name, title, company and complete contact info, in case we need to get in touch with you. While we welcome reviews of just about any literary category, including business, fiction, history, self-help, real-life adventure, etc., good taste and respect for Book Club’s mission are of the essence. Hint: 50 Shades of Grey and Winning Craps For The Serious Player are examples of inappropriate titles. No haters allowed, so stay away from politics, college football and the like. Authors, publishers, booksellers and professional marketing types need not apply; we know of other opportunities and venues through which you can promote your faves.* (Refer to the bottom of this page.) Email your recommendations directly to me, or use the form at For now, the last rule of Book Club is this: Do let us hear from you often. If more rules are needed, I guess we’ll make ‘em up as we go along. MT



maintenance technology

MARCH 2013

Measure. Export. Trend. The new Fluke 805 Vibration Meter is the easy, rugged and repeatable way to check vibration. Make go or no-go maintenance decisions with confidence. t Checks overall vibration, bearings and temperature t Equipped for exportable data logging and trending t Four-level severity scale quickly assesses urgency of problem t Sensor tip provides accurate measurements regardless of angle or pressure

Forget the pens. Think METER:

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HELP DRIVE SUPPORT FOR MISSION: ABLE Get In On A Good Cause This Spring Pennzoil has announced that it will donate $250,000 in 2013 to the Paralyzed Veterans of America’s “Mission: ABLE” program that helps veterans with disabilities get the care, benefits and jobs that they’ve earned and deserve. Through Mission: ABLE, veterans with disabilities are able to reconnect with driving and regain their freedom and love of the car. A portion of Pennzoil’s donation will go into retrofitting three brand new vehicles specially designed for injured veterans. You can help. Consumers who purchase five or more quarts of Pennzoil Platinum or Pennzoil Ultra motor oil from a participating retail location between March 1 and May 31, 2013, will receive a $10 mail-in rebate offer, plus a coupon for $5 off their next purchase of Pennzoil Platinum or Pennzoil Ultra. The form will include an option to donate $5 of the mail-in rebate savings to support efforts by Pennzoil on behalf of Paralyzed Veterans of America. Consumers can also lend their hand in supporting the Paralyzed Veterans of America by purchasing an oil change with any qualifying Pennzoil motor oil this March and April. Participating oil-change locations will run a promotion that lets customers get up to $20 back on their next Pennzoil oil change through a mail-in offer. To learn more visit:, or


Klüber Lubrication North America, LP, has appointed Ralf Kraemer as CEO. He assumes the role from Dieter A. Becker, who will be returning to Klüber’s global headquarters in Munich, Germany, after having led the North American operations for nearly three years.

IRISS, Inc., a leader in the industrial IR window market, has appointed Jim Seffrin as Director of Training for the company. He will also serve as a subjectmatter expert to the IRISS sales team and its customer base. Seffrin is well known to readers of this magazine as the Director of Infraspection Institute. A practicing thermographer, he brings nearly 30 years of experience as an infrared consultant to his role with IRISS.

Des-Case has added a fourth lubrication consultant to its team. Jim Frisbie comes to the company from CCECO Lab & Filtration, where he most recently was serving as Operations Manager. Frisbie holds ICML MLT I certification and Machinery Failure Analysis certification through Pape Machinery.

SEE IT NOW... LUDECA, Inc., has announced the release of Soft Foot Checks and Corrections, the first installment in the company’s new series of information-packed Crash Course Videos. Posted on YouTube at, it focuses specifically on what Alan Luedeking, LUDECA’s Manager of Technical Support, characterizes as “every alignment technician’s worst nightmare.” In addition to providing insights and instructions on solving various types of soft foot, it demonstrates industryleading techniques using laser alignment equipment. Look for additional Crash Courses Videos soon. 8|


MARCH 2013


Got items for Stuff Happens? Send your news to

’ N I T S D FIGH R O W Inspiration For Those Battling The

Enemies Of Reliability & Productivity

Have you read, heard, seen, thought or written down something that falls into the realm of “fightin’ words” for the maintenance and reliability community? Send your favorites to We’ll be selecting one or two (maybe even three) to feature each month. Be sure to give full credit to the individual (dead, alive, real or fictional) that uttered or wrote the words, and why those words inspire you. Don’t forget to include your complete contact info.



This month, we again turn to Contributing Editor Bob Williamson for a good battle cry. One of the most recognized faces in the maintenance and reliability wars, he’s always willing to take up the flag, so to speak. You may have already heard this one, but it bears repeating:

“If you think training is expensive, put a price tag on ignorance.”

Point taken, Bob! When an operation invests in new equipment, it must invest in training to properly operate and maintain it.

According to The Register Guard, of Eugene, OR (, Oracle will be using $1.4 million in loans from the state of Oregon to expand its Hillsboro site and bring production of data-center servers and storage systems back from Mexico. The move will result in the addition of 130 full-time jobs and keep others from going overseas. Oracle is receiving the loans in exchange for creating those full-time positions and retaining 300 slots over the next two years.


After inviting researchers from around the world to submit grant proposals for projects that will help shape the future of industry, ABB has selected 40 for funding (including 18 from the United States). The ABB Research Grant program is intended to support promising graduate students and senior researchers who are working on projects with industrial applications in the power and automation area. The successful submissions were chosen from over 500 proposals that came in from more than 250 universities in 46 countries. Among the selection criteria was how well projects matched the 33 research topics specified by ABB, as well as their potential for industrialization. Although these new grants, which typically range from $50,000 to $80,000 a year, are initially based on a one-year duration, ABB expects to support the projects over a longer period of time. Funding will start as soon as contractual formalities have been concluded. (FYI: Prior to announcing this year’s grants, ABB was already engaged in about 100 research collaborations with universities around the world. The corporation expects to fund 40-50 new ones each year.) For a list of this year’s 40 successful proposals, go to: 1143c8f0dc1257b17003ac501/$file/Project_list_ABB_ Research_Grant_program.pdf

MARCH 2013

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Bob Williamson, Contributing Editor

Smart Machines: Careers With A Future This economic downturn, Great Recession or whatever it’s called is taking quite a toll, given the loss of middle-class jobs across so many business and industrial sectors. At the same time, worker productivity in the U.S. is high, largely because of improving methods and the affordability of newer technologies and “smart machines.” Equipment, processes and technologies must be reliable for other productivity-improving methods to work. Because of that, I believe careers in industrial maintenance and reliability will not only be important, the field will grow rapidly. There is NO alternative to skilled and knowledgeable maintenance technicians performing precision maintenance and making expert repairs. However, our productive and profitable equipment-intensive businesses that are relying on ever-smarter machines will not be able to survive if our industrial-maintenance skills shortage continues on its current track. If I were a young(er) person looking for a solid career choice, though, I’m not sure a future in industrial maintenance and reliability would appear anywhere on my list of possibilities. Unfortunately, these high-paying jobs are often hidden from view and/or overpowered by media sound bites with narrowly focused analysis. What would make teachers, counselors, school administrators or parents advise a child or young adult to consider industrial maintenance and reliability? To start with, what the heck IS maintenance and reliability anyway? “If that means working in dirty, smoke-belching factories, there’s no future in it,” they would probably say. And they could come up with lots of anecdotal evidence from a variety of media outlets to support that perception. (More about that later…) The truth is that technology in our basic industries is shifting as older systems become obsolete. Our national technology-based economic advantage begins in mining, farming and manufacturing, whether by traditional processes or smart technologies. As the technology paradigm shifts, not only do unprepared people and businesses lose out, so does our economy. We can’t afford to let that happen. 10 |

mAintenAnce tecHnoloGY

Headline Story: Factory City, USA New industrial technology replaces workers in this ‘lights-out factory’ made possible by the latest ‘smart machine’ technology. Once in operation, the factory is to be staffed by one worker and a dog. The worker’s job pays well and requires little education and training. He/she will be required only to maintain plant security, feed the dog and keep it healthy. The dog’s job is to remain alert and bite the worker IF he/she touches any machine in the factory…

OK, so you caught me making a bad joke. Let’s look at some of the real stories around us… Have you seen or heard recent news or opinion pieces discussing how “smart machines can replace workers” or asking you to “imagine a future when machines will have all the jobs?” I have. No wonder readers/listeners/ viewers/recipients might decide that technology really is taking over our lives! Some in the scientific community are even buying into the idea. As one computer expert recently claimed, “Everything that humans can do, a machine can do.” Permit me to add my own two cents to the dialogue: “Everything that humans can do, a machine can do. . . except maintain itself!” How did machines get so smart? Equipment, processes and facilities that operate with microprocessor-based central processing units (CPUs) are referred to as “smart machines” because they can replace certain mechanical devices, mental processing and work done by people. But they still come with an HMI—a “human-machine interface” that lets people communicate with a smart machine. MARCH 2013


Today, smart machines go well beyond the computers and industrial-control systems to which we’ve become accustomed. Consider these examples: n Drone aircraft n Autonomous cars (i.e., cars that drive themselves) n Library “Book Bots” to store and retrieve books n Long-haul, heavy-duty driverless trains (for mining) n Driverless mine-haul trucks n Automated passenger rail systems

Smart machines like these can diagnose problems, communicate to humans and avoid accidents. On the other hand, contrary to computer scientists’ and engineers’ dreams and statements, they really can’t do everything that humans can do. Wanted: smarter people One of the key takeaways from this discussion is the fact that smart machines need smarter people to take care of them. Every advancement in industrial technologies, since James Watts’ steam engine or Abraham Darby’s iron smelter in 1770s England, has led to the need for an increasing number of higher-skilled workers replacing lower-skilled and craft labor. And that trend has continued through time: New machines need smarter people to build and maintain them. That means “human capabilities” must match the pace of smart-machine deployment. While technology is capable of replacing labor and human thinking, is it really capable of strapping on a tool belt, performing preventive maintenance, replacing worn parts, replenishing fluids, rebuilding components, tightening loose connections or diagnosing the causes of mechanical failures and developing a routine to prevent future failures? I don’t think so. Smart machines still depend on nuts and bolts, motors and bearings, shafts and seals, drive belts and chains, wheels and tires, light bulbs and LEDs, sensors and wiring and any number of other common mechanical and electrical/electronic parts. The dirty little secret about today’s heralded smart machines is that they can get pretty stupid when they drift out of calibration, their logic becomes corrupted or they experience component wear, misalignments, failures, etc. MARCH 2013

Advancing technology, job-loss, skills shortage, extinction… The domestic U.S. textile sector is a good historical example of an industry that replaced workers with better, more efficient machines—and then found itself penalized by skills shortages to the point of near extinction. Throughout the 1970s, 80s and 90s, textile machines got smarter, leading to a growing number of mill workers losing their jobs. In fact, over time, advances in textilemachine technology made many highly experienced, yet lower-skilled, workers obsolete. Still, wages continued to grow. The tipping point came when machine technology advanced faster than the industry’s operating and maintenance skills and knowledge. Eventually, low-wage countries became highly competitive using our older textile-manufacturing technologies. That’s when a huge portion of the textile industry shifted offshore. There is a seldom-told interesting backstory to the textile industry’s decline and eventual offshoring: As the press relentlessly reported on this sector’s projected downturn, many top-skilled workers began seeking jobs outside textile manufacturing. Moreover, with stories of the industry’s demise casting a pall over many homes and schools, careerchoice discussions with students and young adults began to put more emphasis on the value of “college educations”—or anything BUT textiles. Ultimately, when experienced “hightech textile-machine technicians” left the mills or died out, the replacement pipeline ran dry. Training new hires was seen as a cost rather than an investment. The U.S. textile industry’s smart machines were no longer productive. A call to action Let’s bring this discussion into the 21st century—today. Since the 1980s, smart machines have been embraced and feared at the same time: embraced because they work fast and are consistently reliable and repeatable; feared because they can lead to the need for fewer people in the workplace. Interestingly, smart-machine costs have decreased as their capabilities have increased, something that has made them more affordable for smaller businesses lured to the glamour of high-tech productivity improvements at a low cost. Businesses across the board, however, should keep in mind that “smart machines” will NOT overcome skills shortages, nor will they meet the demand for skilled and knowledgeable industrial maintenance and reliability technicians. What they will do is require workers in our field to have more skills and more knowledge than in the past. Act now. Let the media in your community (and your particular industry) know how skills shortages—now and into the foreseeable future—are penalizing your operations. | 11


A smart machine’s dirty little secret is that it can get pretty stupid if it’s not well-maintained. INCREASE CHAIN LIFE. DECREASE CHAIN COSTS.

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To combat miscellaneous sound bites about manufacturing job losses and waning skills shortages, tell your own stories about the critical need for more highly skilled industrial maintenance and reliability technicians. Our economic well-being depends on reliable machines of all types, especially in mining, farming and manufacturing (the three sources of original wealth in the global economy). Smart machines and the smart people that build, operate and maintain them are among the most important parts of the equation. MT Resources 1. In Jan. and Feb. 2013, the Associated Press distributed the following articles on middle-class jobs and technology. For links to media outlets that carried them, please visit uptimelinks. • Loss Of Middle-Class Jobs Compounded By Tech Advances (Part 1) • Practically Human: Can Smart Machines Do Your Job? (Part 2) • Will Smart Machines Create A World Without Work? (Part 3) • Imagining a Future When Machines Have All The Jobs • Is Technology A Job Killer? A Few History Lessons • Smart Machines Create Hands-Free Workplaces 2. Zuboff, Soshana, 1989. In The Age Of The Smart Machine: The Future of Work And Power, Basic Books Robert Williamson, CMRP, CPMM, and member of the Institute of Asset Management, is in his fourth decade of focusing on the “people side” of world-class maintenance and reliability in plants and facilities across North America. Email: FYI: Bob will present a full-day Workshop at MARTS 2013 entitled “Putting All The Pieces Together For 100% Reliability.” Reserve your seat now. For more details and/or to register, go to MARCH 2013


Manufacturing System Savings


enry Ford once said, “Quality means doing it right when no one is looking.” Sound motor management practices, like conducting a motor inventory to assess repair-replace decisions before motors fail, are done behind the scenes, but can lead to noticeable energy and cost savings. The right management practices enhance the quality of your operational processes, and serve to make your plant more lean and efficient. As you practice motor management, don’t overlook the value of assessing other equipment connected to your motor. Motor-driven systems can include adjustable speed drives (ASDs), interfaces such as belts and the driven load, for example, as well as pumps, fans, etc. As the following example shows, managing motor-driven systems yields significant process improvements, energy savings and quality. Rubber Manufacturer Extrudes System Savings [Ref. 1] An industrial rubber manufacturer found an energy savings opportunity through assessing their motor-driven system. In this case the motor system included a 1500 hp motor controlled by an electromagnetic, eddy-style clutch, which powered an extruder. By replacing the clutch with a variable frequency drive (VFD), the manufacturer was able to achieve process improvements, energy savings, reduced maintenance costs and improved power factor for the entire plant. The 24-pulse frequency drive saves more than 1.3 million kilowatt-hours per year, which adds up to over $40,000 in utility-bill savings. After the project, analysis revealed that 40% of the extruder’s electricity consumption was previously wasted using the clutch controller. Additionally, the installation of the VFD improved operations and maintenance in the plant. The VFD also increased the precision of speed control, allowing for better extruder


operations. Additionally, the VFD installation increased the space around the extruder that was previously occupied by the clutch, improving the effectiveness and reducing the cost of extruder maintenance. Working with its local utility on this project, the plant realized a 5.75-year simple payback on investment, based only on electricity savings. Other returns on investment, including labor, product quality and power-factor benefits further reduced the project’s payback time. As this example shows, significant process improvement and energy-saving opportunities are the reward for sound motor system management. When it comes to assessing your system’s potential, find information on successful application of drives in the NEMA Application Guide for AC Adjustable Speed Drive Systems [Ref. 2]. To learn more about building on the basics of motor management by considering system savings with drives, visit the MDM VFD Resources Webpage [Ref. 3] that provides links to resources such as VFD savings calculators and additional case studies. MT 1. MidAmerican_VFD.pdf 2. 3. For more info, enter 01 at

The Motor Decisions Matter (MDM) campaign is managed by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE), a North American nonprofit organization that promotes energysaving products, equipment and technologies. For further information, contact MDM staff at or (617) 589-3949.



Ken Bannister, Contributing Editor

Power From Making Lists And Checking Them Twice Those lucky enough to visit the magnificent National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, OH, marvel at the superbly restored aircraft of past generations that lay testament to man’s innovative spirit. Among the facility’s national treasures, one plane’s star shines brighter than all the rest. It began life as the Boeing 299 and took flight at the same Ohio air base on Oct. 30, 1935— in prototype form—as part of a competition between the Boeing, Martin and Douglas aircraft companies. On the line was an immediate USAAC (United States Army Air Corps) order for 65 bombers. The 299 was considered a “shoe-in” to win the contract. After all, it was bigger, faster, had twice the number of engines (4) and twice the range of the competition and could carry five times the requested payload. As the 299 was the most technically advanced aircraft of the day, Boeing relied on its veteran test pilot, Major Ployer T. Hill, to impress the military brass that October day. Things looked good (at first): The plane took off smoothly and rose sharply to 300 feet, then it suddenly stalled, lost control and crashed, killing Hill and one of the other five crewmen on board. Because of this, the 299 did not complete the competition requirements and was disqualified. A subsequent investigation revealed the cause of the crash as a simple pilot error—the vastly experienced Hill had forgotten to release a new locking mechanism on the rudder and elevator controls. While that in itself was newsworthy information, the innovation that resulted from it helped to change not just the aviation industry but the course of modern history. Normally, a crash like that of the 299 would lead to a more thorough pilot-training program. Boeing chose to take an innovative approach to the problem, one that simplified the training process while simultaneously overcoming any

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pilot ineptitude or ignorance, through the development of a simple aviation pilot checklist. Due to the complicated nature of the 299, the checklist ensured that future pilots would go through the same exacting preflight, taxiing, takeoff and landing processes every time the aircraft flew. This checklist procedure continues to be used on every plane flying today—aircraft infinitely more complex than models of the 1930s! Interestingly, despite Boeing’s—and the U.S. military’s—disappointment over the crash of the 299, the Army was impressed enough to take an innovative look at its bidding-process rules and found a loophole that led to the purchase of 13 of the aircraft for evaluation purposes. This, in turn, resulted in the aircraft going into service a short while later under its new name: the B-17 “Flying Fortress,” arguably the greatest bomber in aviation history. We all owe a debt of gratitude to the almost 13,000 B-17s and their crews that flew over Germany and the Far East during World War II. They not only helped make the world a safer place, they left a checklist legacy that continues to look out for the safety of anyone who travels on a plane, military and otherwise. From planes to medicine In a recent book, The Checklist Manifesto – How to Get Things Right, Dr. Atul Gawande details how he pioneered the “Safe Surgical Checklist.” It’s an intriguing read. The practice of medicine (and surgery, in particular) is a highly complicated, very organized activity requiring a complexity of knowledge that too many times has resulted in avoidable failures—i.e., usually patient death. In his role as head of the World Health Organization (WHO) “Safe Surgery Saves Lives” program, Dr. Gawande was tasked to reduce avoidable hospital deaths. His book explains how he chose to model his solution, a simple pre- and post-surgical checklist, based on the aviation

MARCH 2013


Checklists can be powerful tools for any maintenance organization. That goes double for those coping with demands to do more with less. model. In fact, he used the same type of thinking and methodology adopted by that industry following the Boeing 299 crash over 75 years earlier. The result? He credits use of his simple, innovative checklist tool for the dramatic reduction in hospital and surgical deaths since its introduction in 2009, regardless of hospital conditions.

and clutter and uses both upper and lower case in a sans serif font such as Helvetica. In the maintenance field, we are probably most familiar with the operator checklist written in a DO-CONFIRM style, used as a due-diligence check and commonly performed in a TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) or 5S environment.

(Editor’s Note: Dr. Gawande’s checklist can be viewed at

Adopting the checklist manifesto I have found, in my experience as a maintenance management consultant, that work-order instructions—even for planned standardized maintenance tasks—aren’t only wildly inconsistent, they play a huge role in the resulting varying quality of work and mean times to repair. This is due, largely, to the sometimes-conflicting interpretations of job requirements and planning practices these instructions reflect. As the skilled workforce diminishes, maintenance departments are increasingly tasked to do more with less. Coping successfully with this transition means applying innovative strategies and tools to ensure work is performed consistently and faster. One such strategy already proving that the result is worth the effort is adoption of the checklist manifesto for maintainers and operators—for both planning and work execution purposes. Modeled on successful aviation and medical-industry checklist formats, it can be one of the most powerful tools your organization uses. Good Luck! MT

Secrets of effective checklists When dealing with highly trained individuals such as pilots, surgeons and maintenance pros, the very idea of working with and adhering to a checklist may seem preposterous. (According to Dr. Gawande, many medical professionals view the use of such a simple tool as embarrassing.) Overcoming this type of bravado and misguided thinking requires a checklist to be written in a manner that doesn’t challenge or insult those who are expected to use it. According to Daniel Boorman of Seattle, WA— the person who has been in charge of developing aviation checklist manuals for all of Boeing’s planes over the past 20+ years—the secret of a good one is in how it’s written. Using simple and precise language that is familiar to a profession, a checklist doesn’t have to be too comprehensive to be effective (usually between five and nine items). A well-designed checklist fits the flow of the work, encourages the user to read each point out loud and allows him or her to detect potential failure, prior to occurrence. Boorman advocates the use of two types of checklists—DO-CONFIRM and READ-DO— and advises us to select the one most suitable for the task. A DO-CONFIRM format allows professionals to perform work from memory and experience and then pause and confirm that the specified tasks/steps were completed and in what sequence. In a READ-DO format, users check off tasks as they perform them (like cooks following a recipe). According to Boorman, the successful checklist ideally fits on one page, is free of unnecessary color

MARCG 2013

Ken Bannister is author of Lubrication for Industry and the Lubrication section of the 28th edition Machinery’s Handbook. He’s also a Contributing Editor for Lubrication Management & Technology. Email: FYI: Ken will present Industrial Lubrication Fundamentals: Certification Preparatory Workshop, a three-day, ICML-related Professional Development Course, at MARTS 2013. For details on this value-added lubrication-training opportunity, visit



Making Sense Of Plant Maintenance Despite growing acceptance, SAP’s Plant Maintenance (PM) function remains misunderstood and under-used. Here’s how to change that. Daniel Van Wyk Quadro Solutions


AP® R/3 (real-time data processing, 3-tier), or ECC (Enterprise Central Component), is an Enterprise Resource Planning tool that provides facilities an integrated solution for managing business operations and customer relations. The SAP PM (Plant Maintenance) module is a subset of SAP EAM (Enterprise Asset Management). SAP PM contains the key Maintenance Planning and Scheduling functionalities to support successful asset or equipment maintenance. The ultimate challenge for a maintenance department is how to optimize and integrate SAP PM/EAM system functionality for the planning and scheduling of repairs, inspections and STO (shutdown, turnaround, outage) activities that support effective asset management.

16 |


MARCH 2013


SAP® PM/EAM Implementation, Improvement and Maturity Phases Initial SAP PM/EAM Implementation

User Adoption

Business Driven Improvements

Continuous Improvement +/-10% of Implementations

+/-30% of Implementations Progress and Benefits

+/-70% of Implementations stop after the initial phase Work Processes

Work Processes

Best Practices Organization System Phase 1

Phase 2

When an industrial organization runs SAP, it typically includes the SAP EAM program, which encompasses the SAP PM module that supports Maintenance and Reliability. Based on this arrangement, users typically expect that they will be able to effectively manage maintenance planning and scheduling to track and analyze "repairs and inspections." Management, for its part, usually will be expecting something else: It desires powerful reporting that can help to control and possibly reduce the amount of reactive work, while at the same time maximize proactive work. Despite such high expectations, however, most SAP implementations never reach their hoped-for business objectives. Consequently, SAP users are often unhappy— to the point that many consider their implementations to be failures. Common complaints involve the improper setup of SAP functions, which can lead to system misuse; under-utilization of the system due to its complexity; and the belief that the system can't support the organization’s needs. MARCH 2013

Time / Phases

Phase 3

Phase 4

Fig. 1. Manufacturing and maintenance organizations typically go through multiple phases of implementing, improving and maturing their SAP PM/EAM functionality before they reach acceptable or advanced business benefits. Typically, the initial core functionality that's implemented does not give the expected maintenance and reliability benefits because of the focus on the 'system' implementation. With every implementation comes increased workloads and steep learning curves due to SAP’s extensive functionality. This challenge, along with high cost and other distracting priorities, means about 70% of organizations implement SAP’s core functionality only, roll it out, then leave the users to their own devices. Around 30% are unhappy with the limited ROI they realized, and start post-go-live improvement efforts to capture additional benefits. About 10% of all implementations mature to the point where full benefits are realized.

Table I. Additional Details to Support Fig. 1: Typical SAP PM/EAM Implementation & Improvement Phases

Initial Implementation & Rollout: •Implementation Of Core SAP PM/EAM Functionality •Limited Use Of Best Practices •Typically IT And Corporate Driven

Learning To Use The System: •End User Community Learns Basics Of SAP PM/EAM •SAP PM/EAM Utilization Between 10 And 20% •Benefits Realized By Maintenance Initial Outcome: & Reliability •Reduced Number Are Limited Of CMMS •Business Process Related Systems Requirements •Globalized PM/ And Objectives EAM System Are Sill Not Met •Integrated Accounting & Financial Reporting •Improved System Integration •Limited Departmental/Business Process Integration

Business Driven Improvements: •Business Processes Based On Better/ Best Practices And Industry Standards •Improved Departmental/Business Process Integration •System Integration & Data Quality Improvement •Advanced Functionality In SAP PM/EAM •Advanced User Capabilities •SAP PM/EAM Utilization Improves To Above 60% •KPIs And Advanced Reporting/Trending In Place And Used Regularly •Frequent Assessments To Drive Improvement

Continuous Improvement To Reach Superior Outcome: •Refined Business Processes •Focused Assessments To Drive Superior Results •Better Or Bestin-industry/Class Practices In Use •Reached Business Objectives •Optimized SAP PM/EAM •Superior User Capabilities •SAP PM/EAM Utilization Above 80%



Is it the system or the people? The many years I've spent implementing and optimizing SAP PM for organizations around the globe have led me to conclude that perceived implementation failures and successes need to be carefully evaluated. It's important to understand the exact circumstances and criteria used to make such evaluations. For example, is it possible that many successful implementations of SAP PM/EAM were once “failures” to some extent? Figure 1 on the previous page (17) offers an explanation. (Note: Table I supports Fig. 1 with additional details on the four typical implementation and improvement phases.) Many factors can work against an SAP implementation from the very beginning. These include not only each organization’s unique history and culture, but also specific experiences with various CMMS/EAM systems prior to SAP, their use of different maintenance and reliability initiatives and varying preferences in how a company approaches improvement and optimization. Based on my own experience, use of SAP PM/EAM prior to any business-focused optimization effort normally varies between 5 and 60%, with an average of 10 to 20%. Small facilities typically use very little of SAP after an implementation; larger sites tend to use more of the system functionality. In general, 70% of implementations leave maintenance and reliability in poor shape, and without well-defined work processes, systems or documentation in place. Exceptions to do exist—usually where business-driven organizations learned how to implement SAP PM/EAM correctly from the start. SAP is a very structured and robust system, with enough functionality to allow organizations to successfully manage maintenance planning and scheduling and the related work processes. But to operate successfully requires creative thinking, an in-depth knowledge of SAP and a good understanding of how maintenance works. The following case study explains how a company running SAP PM launched a post go-live business-driven initiative to improve maintenance and reliability, and, in the process, also optimized its SAP PM/EAM system. SAP PM on the job The referenced company owns 30+ specialty-chemical manufacturing sites around the world. Its well-established improvement culture encourages continuous-improvement efforts by individuals and groups. Prior to implementing SAP PM/EAM, the organization successfully implemented and rolled out a couple of CMMS systems globally. In addition, a maintenance and reliability improvement initiative was started, with limited results. The company was not new to improvement initiatives and, in time, established a good internal knowledge base and understanding of best practices in maintenance and reliability. 18 |


The company strived to increase its OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) and understood that the Maintenance Planning and Scheduling work process was the core of maintenance execution. Without improving and establishing a proficient maintenance execution vehicle, it would have been impossible to realize meaningful results, and the organization would have remained reactive with limited OEE and lowered product quality. Management knew it was important to form an internal improvement team comprised of operations and maintenance personnel, which would lead to development of broadbased, practical solutions. They also recognized the importance of having team champions who could help promote acceptance. Still, the company lacked the in-house knowledge of SAP PM/EAM to maximize system integration in support of its work processes. They needed professional support to optimize existing data standards and structures, transactional execution and reporting. My consulting group provided them the in-depth SAP PM/EAM knowledge, and helped design, document and implement a drastically optimized SAP system. Subsequently, the company launched a pilot implementation that was followed by global rollouts to multiple sites. The approach was to first implement maintenance improvements, followed by reliability improvements. Optimization of SAP PM/ EAM formed a very important and major part of both improvement phases. Specific SAP PM/EAM gaps that the company experienced prior to the improvement effort included: ■ Incomplete equipment/asset structures ■ Not all maintenance work was processed through SAP ■ Poor communication of equipment/system problems ■ Limited use of SAP bills of material; ■ SAP Task Lists not used to outline repetitive repair work ■ Unclear on set up of Maintenance Plans for single equip-

ment, complex equipment/system or inspection routes ■ PM compliance and management couldn't be executed

within SAP ■ Workloads and backlogs were expressed in terms of

open notification and order counts, making it impossible to determine if work crew numbers were sufficient to maintain stable workloads, while minimizing deferred backlogged work. MARCH 2013


The company subsequently implemented the following work-process and SAP PM/EAM improvements: â–  The site verified its SAP Functional

Implementation successes are a reality. How many, though, were once perceived as failures?

Location and Equipment Structures. This, in turn, resulted in approximately 4000 structural additions and changes to complete and adjust its asset structures. â–  Improved overall work identification

quality using SAP Notifications to capture all work within the System, with well-defined standards that enabled clear communication of equipment problems/symptoms. â–  Established advanced job-planning

standards for work orders and task lists, outlining every plan to include all resource needs with hours, along with full task descriptions, activities, safety requirements and more. This helped the planners and engineers build complete repair task-list libraries and bills of material (spare parts lists) which, in turn, resulted in faster work turnarounds and reduced planner workloads by 20%. â–  Defined advanced Maintenance Plan


standards, with easy-to-use overdue preventive maintenance reports


â–  Established a comprehensive sched-


uling methodology to work seamlessly with the SAP scheduling transactions to publish schedules weekly


â–  Added custom reports that allowed

for better workload management, KPI-reporting and trending. Most of the above improvements were achieved by maximizing the standard SAP PM/EAM functionality, with the exception of the advanced reports. Prior to the improvement effort, overall work-process compliance and system use at the pilot site was measured at 60%. This increased MARCH 2013






a ust

b ina


Vision Mission & Objectives Accomplished



Increased Equipment Effectiveness & ROI

Organization Aligned


Visibility & Performance Tools In Place Third Party Solutions & Custom Reports Established



SAP PM/EAM System Optimized

Core & Advanced Functionality Refined High Utilizattion

to more than 80% over nine months. These results were achieved through effective training along with numerous coaching sessions. The optimization process Optimization of SAP PM/EAM cannot be effectively performed if the project is executed in isolation. It’s necessary to thoroughly incorporate and integrate all key aspects required to improve the Maintenance and Reliability organization. Many organizations make the mistake of either skipping over or rushing through the process of setting clear objectives, and they fail to benchmark best practices. Conversely, others may actually do this work, but never incorporate their findings into the work-process design and system setup. MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY


Aligned With Industry & Cross Industry Benchmarks

Benchmarked Performance Goals Set

Work Processes Optimized

Standardized Integrated Simplified Automated & High Levels of Compliance

Quality Data Accessible & Reliable Documentation Improved Integration




Best Practices Incorporated

Roles & Responsibilities Adopted

20 |


Clearly Defined Business Objectives

Consistent High Quality Work Execution



t gra


Fig 2. The effective and sustainable optimizing of SAP PM/EAM can only be accomplished if an organization works through and implements the key aspects shown in the Maintenance & Reliability Optimization Wheel.

To achieve a well-tailored set of work processes that is supported by the SAP system and aligned with the organization, it is necessary to be thorough in every step along the way. This will set the stage for high levels of compliance and system utilization, which will yield much higher maintenance and reliability benefits (see Fig. 2). The best place to start SAP PM optimization is to compare the status of your maintenance and reliability landscape to a comprehensive framework. This will help your organization understand which aspects work well, work only partially or do not work at all. Figure 3 shows a sample assessment overview with Maintenance Planning and Scheduling at the core. The assessment must be performed within the context of business objectives, benchmarked goals, best practices and the optimal use of SAP PM/EAM. It’s important to assemble a MARCH 2013


Vision, Mission & Objectives Defined

Aligned with Benchmarked Results

Reliability Driven Improvements Technical Structures

Best Practices Incorporated

Work Processes Designed


Spare Parts Management

Work Identification

FMEA / RCM / RCFA (example methods)

Risk Ranking & Prioritization Planning & Preparation

Scheduling & Coordination

Technical Documentation Fig. 3. This sample assessment is a result of interviews with a plant’s maintenance, reliability, operations and support organizations and a thorough review of SAP PM/EAM functionality, standards and utilization.

Work Execution & QA Work Completion High Quality Equipment History

small team that understands these areas and how they work together to create synergetic results. This may mean getting expert help from corporate or from specialty companies. The successful optimization of SAP PM/EAM is always part of a comprehensive Maintenance and Reliability initiative. It is imperative to establish a dedicated in-house team with strong leadership, whose focus is to reach business objectives. It is important that during the optimization project, in-house expertise is developed and expanded to ensure long-lasting results. To achieve high levels of success will mean stepping outside the comfort zone. Assemble the team and take the necessary time to craft high-quality, integrated, practical, yet simplified solutions and engage your organization by educating, training and coaching them on your vision and business objectives. MT Daniel Van Wyk is President of Quadro Solutions, based in Houston, TX. He has over 17 years of experience in SAP® EAM (PM) consulting, custom-software development and training. Email: Website: For more info, enter 02 at MARCH 2013

Organization Aligned

Support Services & Work Processes

Prioritized Equipment

Maintenance Plans

Maintenance Planning & Scheduling (SAP PM)

PPM (PM/PdM) Actions

✘ System Optimized

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✘ ✘

Procurement Accounting Contracting Management STO Management

Abbreviations: FMEA = Failure Mode Effects Analysis RCM = Reliability Centered Maintenance RCFA = Root Cause Failure Analysis QA = Quality Assurance STO = Shutdowns, Turnarounds & Outages

Tips For Configuring And Using Your SAP PM/EAM Most SAP PM/EAM systems are configured with a main focus on only a few key transactions. The remainder of the system is normally set up incorrectly or is overlooked, making it difficult for users to navigate the system and use it efficiently. To successfully configure and use your SAP PM/EAM, consider the following: ■ Hide unused transactional screens and fields. ■ Set up standard “selection variants” for all list reports. ■ Set up standard “layouts” for all list reports. ■ Activate and configure advanced transactional functions to

extend current work-process capability. ■ Use the Information System reports in SAP ( “standard

analysis” of statistics) ■ Develop and maximize your users’ navigational capabilities. ■ Establish custom reports to allow advanced management and

trending capabilities for enhanced visibility and control of the organization. MT-ONLINE.COM | 21

MARTS 2013 Workshops

Yo u k r c W o R o l r l i l April 30 and May 3 d W At The Hyatt Regency O’Hare Hotel, Rosemont, IL.

Seven big names in industrial maintenance and reliability come together to give your program star power. Choose one full-day Workshop or two, but don’t miss this once-a-year opportunity to amp up your skills. This year’s lineup:

Bob Williamson

Maintenance Technology contributing editor and longtime MARTS favorite...presenting

Doc Palmer

Respected author of McGraw Hill’s Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Handbook...presenting

Maintenance Planning and Scheduling: Increase Your Workforce Without Hiring

Putting All the Pieces Together for 100% Reliability

Jim Seffrin

Howard Penrose

Level III Certified Thermographer and Director of Infraspection Institute...presenting

Vice president of Dreisilker Electric Motors and widely published industrial researcher...presenting

IR Thermography for Electrical and Mechanical Systems

Forensic Analysis of Machines: Beyond RCFA

Enrique Mora

An expert in Lean Manufacturing, Six Sigma and TPM who consults and trains worldwide...presenting

Balance the 3 Ms — Management, Maintenance and Manufacturing — to Achieve World-Class Performance

Kris Bagadia

CMMS expert and founder of PEAK Industrial Solutions, LLC...presenting

Turning Downsizing Into an Opportunity

Ed Stanek

President of LAI Reliability and renowned instructor on Maintenance & Reliability, PM Optimization and Asset Management...presenting

Productivity Optimization Workshop

For complete information and registration details: MARTS is an annual four-day educational event for industrial maintenance professionals. In addition to two days of Workshops, MARTS includes a two-day Conference program, a three-day Professional Course for lubrication professionals, and the opportunity to take professional certification exams. For more information or to register, visit or call 1-847-382-8100, ext. 116. For more info, enter 71 at


Mastering mitigation...

Valero Refi nery HowHow To Reduce Automation Obsolescence AchievedRisks Losing YourPractices Mind) Best(Without Maintenance Don’t wait until it’s too late to think about managing the life cycles of your automation investments. Your operation's bottom line is at stake. Lonnie Morris Rockwell Automation

MARCH 2013


rom a constant stream of mobile-device releases to the explosion of cloud applications for all areas of business, technology advances are occurring at such an exhausting pace these days, it can be easy to become paralyzed by the possibilities. It’s intimidating to think how an organization— especially one in a production environment dealing with capital budget constraints, global competition, rising maintenance costs, less access to skilled labor, information security and safety concerns—can plan quickly enough to leverage such changes for competitive advantage. Before a production facility can even consider trying to justify emerging plantfloor technology, it’s generally necessary to maximize the life of its existing automation investments. Managing aging equipment is an often-overlooked component of this: In a 2010 study by ARC Advisory Group (ARC), over 90% of process manufacturers acknowledged the use of automation beyond the OEM’s obsolescence date. In the same ARC study, 58% of users acknowledged having no formal plan for managing the life cycle of their equipment. Production facilities that continue to run aging equipment without a plan for addressing and managing



end-of-life technology face a variety of risks that threaten to drastically increase downtime and decrease profitability should legacy systems fail:

The Bathtub Curve Hypothetical Failure Rate versus Time

were designed and launched in the 1970s and 1980s are still in use today. Shifts in technology, diminishing demand and economic impacts have made some vital components and subassemblies used in these systems hard to come by—some are in short supply and others are completely extinct.

Increased Failure Rate

■ Supply chain fragility. A number of control systems that Infant Mortality Decreasing Failure Rate

■ Support challenges. Difficulties locating legacy products

can be further compounded by maintenance challenges— not only is maintenance expensive, attrition among subjectmatter experts brings an added layer of complexity. ■ Regulatory restrictions. Safety regulations and rules regarding

hazardous substances (e.g. the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive) have expanded significantly in recent years, leaving many older products at risk for compliance. Mitigate or eliminate? Operating legacy equipment beyond its obsolescence date will always carry a degree of risk. But by identifying and quantifying this risk, production facilities can determine whether to mitigate the risk until scheduling and/or capital funding becomes available, or to eliminate risk through product migration. Here are some critical questions to ask in determining the best path forward: ■ How long do you intend to operate equipment? ■ Is support readily available? ■ Is capital funding available? ■ Is applicable new technology available? ■ What are the migration implications related to spare

parts, training, support, etc.? Considerations for mitigation In many cases, mitigating obsolescence risk is the best option given budget and resource constraints. Though specific plans for effectively mitigating obsolescence risk may vary from one organization to another, best-practice plans contain four basic pillars: 1. Conducting consistent preventive maintenance… According to ARC, there is currently more than $65 billion worth of legacy automation assets reaching the end of their useful life. And though some would like to think these systems can run and be serviced indefinitely, it is simply not possible. 24 |




t ain




C ce

End of Life Wear-Out Increasing Failure Rate

Normal Life (Useful Life) Low "Constant" Failure Rate Time

Fig 1. Failure rates and maintenance costs have been shown to increase as equipment reaches the end of its useful life.

After operating a PLC-5® for over 20 years, for example, maintenance might feel the unit is bulletproof, and since it has run so long without a problem that it will continue to do so. But as it does in our own lives, age wins in the end, and serviceability may be limited or even non-existent. As equipment reaches the end of its useful life, age and wear take their toll. Failure rates drastically increase, as do maintenance costs (Fig. 1). Plants are perpetually one major part break or machine failure away from a shut down, and legacy equipment is more susceptible to these sorts of hiccups. As a result, preventive maintenance becomes absolutely essential. To drive consistent preventive maintenance of discontinued products, maintenance engineers need to routinely ask questions like these: ■ Are the filters replaced regularly? ■ Is the current operating environment within OEM

specifications? ■ Are cooling fans operational and clear of obstruction? ■ Does the equipment possess the latest firmware update? ■ Is there an updated logbook documenting inspections of

obsolete equipment? ■ When was grounding last checked?

After getting the answers, the maintenance team needs to remedy problems and correct any irregularities. This, unfortunately, is often easier said than done… Most organizations realize the importance of preventive maintenance, but many simply don’t have the tools or the organizational bandwidth to do it. Finding a way to get it done—either by outsourcing or reprioritizing—is paramount to extending the useful life of equipment. Systems that aren’t properly maintained are much more likely to fall victim to extended downtime and lengthy shutdowns. Developing an MARCH 2013


enhanced preventive maintenance program is vital to maximizing the life of legacy automation. 2. Training to support legacy equipment… Preventive maintenance activities will only be productive if performed by personnel with the know-how to handle the machines they are maintaining. It’s not uncommon for a production facility to be running equipment that’s more than 20 years old, and most of the people that designed and installed it have moved on from the department or organization. Often, these experts have been replaced by younger engineers that can’t be expected to hold the same level of knowledge on legacy equipment. Developing a training program to address these gaps is critical, but according to ARC, 58% of companies have faced difficulties in training young engineers and technicians to operate and maintain older control systems. Effectively training staff to maintain legacy products can be even more challenging because it requires a great breadth of knowledge. Employees need to know how to maintain

For more info, enter 72 at MARCH 2013

all legacy products—this includes installation, configuration, programming, maintenance, diagnosis, troubleshooting and repair. An undertrained workforce can have significant business impact on performance and metrics like downtime, on-time deliveries, vendor support expenses, overtime, scrap rate, programming costs and maintenance. In fact, the United States Department of Labor estimates that raising the educational level of employees by one year results in eight to 13% higher labor productivity. If the in-house staff doesn’t have the time or expertise required to teach new talent, it’s valuable to invest in an outside resource that does. 3. Planning for spare replacement and legacy repair support… Just as important as having the right people is having the right parts—an ineffective spares-management process can extend downtime by 15 to 35%, and legacy products can make this statistic even worse. MRO (maintenance, repair, overhaul) operations are constantly seeking opportunities to cut carrying costs by

For more info, enter 02 at



reducing inventory. To do so, they examine the turnover rate of each part. During this process, internal financial entities often pressure the department to get rid of parts that aren’t turning over quickly. While this approach makes intuitive sense, it is the opposite of what should be done, especially with legacy automation equipment. As availability of legacy parts begins to dry up on suppliers’ shelves, firms that rely on them need to carry extra inventory to counter potential shortages. When they don’t, the result is often less than ideal—some production managers have been known to consider purchasing unverified spare parts on eBay. Allowing a machine’s health and, ultimately, the company’s profitability to depend on someone’s last eBay purchase is not a sound business model. A spare-part-replacement strategy should involve more than just stockpiling parts. It's a process that involves: ■ Calculating the optimal amount of spare parts ■ Determining the condition and supply of the spares ■ Identifying spares of legacy equipment ■ Identifying a trustworthy and timely supplier of legacy spares

Because of the complexity that can be involved in effectively managing spares for legacy equipment, companies sometimes choose to leverage a third party to manage the process. Parts-management programs can help reduce inventory and carrying costs, and can help provide more immediate spare parts availability. This was the case with the City of College Station, TX, when it decided to leverage a vendor-managed parts-management agreement after a recent process-control system upgrade. Since a vendor owns and manages the inventory, College Station is able to budget a monthly fixed cost. Previously, the City’s control system stocked spare parts inventory was about $250,000, but it was able to reduce it to less than $20,000 while also significantly lowering the square-footage required for onsite inventory storage. A resource that understands the intricacies of the process can help ensure that the right parts are in the right place at the right time. 4. Managing obsolescence status… Further complicating risk mitigation is the fact that it’s in a constant state of flux. Within a year or two of conducting a comprehensive audit of the installed base, production facilities often start to discover products that were once active have become discontinued. If risk isn’t being continually assessed, it’s much more likely status changes and threats associated with them will be missed. To prevent the above situation, companies need to establish a process for monitoring life-cycle stages of equipment. This should include developing a database and assigning subject26 |


matter experts within the organization to collect and maintain all life-cycle information. Vendors also can help provide information around life-cycle statuses, parts and service availability and migration recommendations that align with business goals. The bottom line While most facilities agree that better management of automation life cycles is becoming critical, few programs are in existence and most are yet to get off the ground. One reason is that most facilities don’t have the personnel for it. In most cases, there isn’t a role specifically responsible for creating, monitoring and updating a database. Consequently, these tasks are often overlooked. Now is the time to develop a life-cycle strategy for your automation assets (before it’s too late). Lack of resources to invest in dedicated personnel is no excuse for neglecting this process. Enlisting the help of third-party experts can double the benefits of risk mitigation—saving operations the time and money required to train in-house personnel and keeping these resources from being squandered on unnecessary downtime. MT Lonnie Morris is a Senior Manager with Rockwell Automation.

Creating An Obsolescence Plan The overarching goal of obsolescence planning is to quantify risk in order to determine whether it makes more business sense to mitigate through maintenance and support or eliminate it by migrating systems. A phased approach can help ensure risk is addressed effectively and efficiently: ■ Identify. Define the goals and scope of the obsolescence

plan, and develop a strategy for safely collecting data on all legacy equipment. Dedicating qualified resources to creating the plan generally nets the best results. ■ Research. Collect product life-cycle status information

by reviewing manufacturer Websites and notifications, publications, and distributor and reseller information. Identify inventory gaps and orphans by comparing MRO spares versus the installed base and by comparing repair activity with replace activity. ■ Prioritize. Aggregate data to highlight areas of greatest

obsolescence concern. Using that information, design a plan to accept, mitigate and eliminate obsolescence risk. Next, develop a process for gathering ongoing life-cycle status changes for all installed products. For more info, enter 03 at MARCH 2013

HOLD THESE DATES April 30 – May 3, 2013

Come Help Us Celebrate Our 10th Anniversary

As Always, You’ll Find Just What You Need: Training Networking Solutions Program Details & Registration Information Will Be Announced Soon

Plan Now To Attend MARTS 2013 The Hyatt Regency O’Hare Hotel, Rosemont, IL. For more info, enter 73 at

Pitting & Crevice Corrosion

These lower-profile corrosion types are dangerous and deserve your attention. This author fills you in on what to look for and how your operation can protect itself from these problems.


itting and its closely related form, crevice corrosion, cause significant problems across industry, yet don’t receive the attention they deserve. Maintenance professionals often focus on other types of corrosion, such as stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and microbiological-influenced corrosion (MIC). But because pitting and crevice corrosion can be just as damaging, it’s important to understand what causes these lower-profile forms of attack, where to find them and what corrective actions to apply.

Gerald O. ‘Jerry’ Davis, P.E. Davis Materials & Mechanical Engineering, Inc.


How To Find And Prevent


Materials most susceptible to pitting and crevice corrosion are metals whose corrosion-resistance is based on their capacity to form protective oxide (passive) films. A passive film will protect the substrate metal as long as it remains intact. When the film breaks down and the material cannot repair itself, corrosion occurs. Film breakdown at discrete locations results in localized corrosion, which is most likely to affect stainless steels, nickel, copper and aluminum alloys. Carbon steels are also susceptible to localized corrosion, but less so, due to their weaker and essentially non-repairable films. Film breakdown on carbon steel is usually widespread, which leads to general rather than discrete corrosion. Pitting and crevice corrosion (shown in Figs. 1 and 2) have several common characteristics: Both are localized forms of attack, for example, where corrosion is concentrated and therefore more dangerous than general corrosion. Localized corrosion speeds up metal penetration, and the irregular surfaces it generates can apply stress that leads to other forms of corrosion, such as SCC. Also, corrosion fatigue can start at the bottom of pits or in the pit-like features created inside crevices. Because areas typically prone to pitting and crevice corrosion are relatively small, they can easily go undetected with traditional non-destructive examination techniques.

Fig. 1. This cross-section illustration shows the internal attack by one type of crevice corrosion on two overlapping plates that aren’t sealed at the opening (both plates don’t have to be metallic).

Corrosion basics All corrosion in aqueous corrosive media is electrochemical, meaning that it has both electrical and chemical aspects. Two types of reactions take place: 1. Anodic reaction occurs through chemical oxidation when metal atoms with no electrical charge lose electrons and form positively charged ions of that metal. 2. Cathodic reaction occurs when the lost electrons travel through the metal to a site where they then react with chemical species in the corrosive solution (the electrolyte). Anodic and cathodic reactions occur at the same rate, so slowing or accelerating either has that same effect on the other. This explains why certain actions decrease or increase the rate of corrosion. Both pitting and crevice corrosion are said to be autocatalytic in that the overall electrochemical action is self-accelerating. Pitting occurs on a freely exposed metal surface where the anodic oxidation reaction is confined inside each pit and the matching cathodic reduction reactions occur on the immediate surrounding area. The surface condition of a metal exposed to an electrolyte is an important factor in predicting the probability of pitting. Corrosion is more likely if the surface is rough or has scratches or grooves. MARCH 2013

Fig. 2. Pitting is most often found on the lower, horizontal areas in equipment where wetting is likely (i.e. as illustrated here in the 6 o’clock position on a horizontal tank, pressure vessel or pipe).

In a crevice attack, the anodic reaction occurs inside a partially closed-off area, while a cathodic reaction occurs just outside that area. For a partially closed region to act as a crevice it must be open enough for the electrolyte to wet it inside but not open enough to allow free circulation in and out. Thus, the size of a crevice site is critical to the probability of attack occurring. Attack at a crevice will initiate and progress before pitting starts on the free surface of the same metallic material if there is exposure to the same process conditions. MT-ONLINE.COM | 29

The materials most susceptible to pitting and crevice corrosion are those metals whose corrosion-resistance is based on their capacity to form protective oxide (passive) films. Finding pit and crevice corrosion Corrosion rates are typically accelerated by high service temperatures, high concentrations of certain ions in electrolytes (especially chloride ions), the presence of oxygen or certain oxidizing ions such as ferric or cupric ions, and service situations that allow stagnant or very low-velocity electrolyte exposure to the metal. On stainless steels, attack is promoted by low-pH electrolytes. Such corrosionpromoting conditions may not be constant, but often occur because of process upsets. Aqueous corrosion requires a liquid that can form ions. Residual water and other liquids that ionize and are not fully drained from equipment during shutdowns present the potential for pitting, crevice and all forms of aqueous corrosion. Attention to details of construction during initial design can minimize this issue. But inspectors should be aware that it’s not always possible to eliminate all areas that cannot be completely drained. At minimum, they should determine where such areas exist in their operation. Pitting sites are most often found on the lower, horizontal areas in equipment where wetting is likely. Heataffected zones (HAZ) of welds are often pitting sites, especially if the weld heat has sensitized the alloy to intergranular attack and the local electrolyte is aggressive to the particular alloy. Rough surfaces on weld beads are also susceptible to pitting, while weld splatter left to remain on equipment can invite crevice attack. Creviced sites must also be wetted by an electrolyte, but an attack can occur on vertical and horizontal surfaces. Deposits of dirt and other debris that are wetted in service provide crevice sites that can easily be overlooked during inspections. Metal surfaces under these deposits generally give the appearance of pitting, as do the inside edges of most crevices.

Specific crevice examples are plentiful because it is difficult to fabricate something without creating at least some crevices. They include the unsealed interfacial space between lap joints (only one of the lapped materials needs to be metallic); the unsealed interfacial edges of “saddles” and horizontal tanks that rest in them; butt- or fillet-welded structural members joined by skip (tack) welds rather than continuous weld beads; the gasket surface in a pipe flange, especially if the gasket material is absorbent; and deposits of soil or debris on a wetted metallic surface. Crevice corrosion is sometimes observed at the interface between water and air (or other gas) in storage tanks and pressure vessels. The area just above this line is often freely exposed to oxygen while the area just below the line will see much less. This arrangement encourages a cathodic oxygen reduction reaction above the line and anodic metal oxidation below it. Taking corrective measures The four traditional corrosion control measures call for use of the following: ■ Highly resistant alloys for repair and replacement ■ Effective coatings ■ Cathodic protection (CP) ■ A chemical corrosion-inhibitor program

Any one of the above measures can provide resistance to both pitting and crevice corrosion—and at least one, if not more, should be in place in any manufacturing environment. In some areas, specialists may be needed to recommend choices, particularly when applying corrosion inhibitors for metal alloys that are most susceptible to pitting and crevice attack. Interestingly, use of an inhibitor concentration that is too low can cause faster corrosion rates than would be found on such alloys with no inhibitor present.

Because areas that are typically prone to pitting and crevice corrosion are relatively small, it can be easy to miss these types of problems with traditional non-destructive examination techniques. 30 | MAINTENANCE technology

MARCH 2013


When seeking more-resistant alloys for use in repair or replacement of the popular austenite stainless steels, it is important to recognize the role of particular elements in providing improved service. Alloys with more chromium, nitrogen and especially molybdenum are most effective in increasing resistance where high concentrations of chloride ions are present. Of course, the initial cost of the replacement material will be greater as the percentages of these elements increase, but the life-cycle cost versus use of lesser alloys may well be less. Other options to consider include nickel-based alloys and titanium alloys, depending on service conditions. If resources allow, another corrosiveprevention measure can be to redesign equipment during repair or replacement work, and introduce measures that reduce or eliminate corrosion opportunities. This might include changes that would eliminate crevices by sealing them shut or increasing the opening size; eliminate “dead legs” and other piping and equipment features where the process liquid is stagnant or has low velocity; or allow for easier cleaning of deposits that may collect in service and form crevices. Other changes might include the introduction of slopes to piping or equipment to ensure that full drainage occurs during prolonged out-of-service periods. MT Jerry Davis is a principal in Davis Materials & Mechanical Engineering, Inc. (DMME), a consulting firm based in Richmond, VA. He holds graduate degrees in both engineering and business and spent 31 years working in mechanical, metallurgical and corrosion engineering for several organizations, including the U.S. Air Force, Honeywell and Battelle Memorial Institute. Telephone: (804) 967-9129; Internet: Email: MARCH 2013

FYI: Jerry Davis will discuss the topic of “Identifying and Controlling Corrosion,” in a regular MARTS 2013 Conference presentation, on Wednesday, May 1. To learn more and/or register, visit

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Air Sentry® A Division of Whitmore Rockwall, TX


ir Sentry® is a leading developer of contamination control products that keep particulate matter and excess moisture from the headspace inside vessels like gearboxes that hold lubricants, greases, hydraulic fluids and fuels. This extends the life of critical machinery and equipment, and significantly reduces lifecycle costs. The company’s innovative products have been the gold standard in contamination control since 1997. Its line includes nine series of desiccant breathers, anodized color-coded closed system adapter kits that prevent crosscontamination, manifold adapters and pressure-vacuum-indicating gauges. Air Sentry has recently introduced a revolutionary new line of desiccant breathers called Guardian™. These “next-generation” contamination control products are the first breathers constructed of Tritan™. This patented material provides the most chemical-, temperatureand impact-resistant casing on the market. Guardian also is the first desiccant breather to incorporate an isolation check valve that protects the adsorbent from exhaust air and volatile splashing fluids. This lengthens the desiccant’s service life and reduces replacement frequency. Learn more about how Guardian increases fluid life, improves lubrication and lowers maintenance costs by visiting

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MARCH 2013


The Proper Selection And Installation Of Flexible Cable Connectors What you use and how is key to ensuring secure, trouble-free terminations. Chad Smith Thomas & Betts


Editor’s Note: This article is based on one that first ran in the November/December 2012 issue of IEC Insights Insights, a publication of the Independent Electrical Contractors organization.

MARCH 2013


lexible-conductor cable, or flex cable, has become increasingly popular for its ease in maneuvering in tight spaces, particularly where larger conductors are needed, as well as where cable movement may be an issue (as in the wind turbine application shown here, for example). The increased use of flex cable has led to the need for guidance in selecting the proper compression connectors and terminals appropriate for these applications, as well as the proper method for installing these connectors for secure, trouble-free termination. In April 2012, the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) issued Bulletin No. 105, which advises that mechanical set-screw connector lugs and terminals are not intended for use with fine-stranded conductors.


Table I. Flex Cable Classifications & Strands Cond Size AWg/ MCM 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 10 20 30 40 250 262 300 313 350 373 400 444 450 500 535 550 600 750 777 800 900 1000

Cir Mils

Stranded Code

Approx Diam



16510 26240 33090 41740 52620 66300 83690

7, 19, 37 7, 19, 37 7, 19 7, 19, 37 7, 19 7, 19, 37 7, 19, 37, 61 7, 19, 37, 61 7, 19, 37, 61 7, 19, 37, 61 7, 19, 37, 61 37

0.146 0.184 0.206 0.232 0.26 0.292 0.332 0.419 0.47 0.528 0.575

49 49 49 49 49 49 133 133 133 133 133 259

Strands 133 133 133 133 133 133 259 259 259 259 259 427







133100 167800 211600

I K M DLO #24 #30 #34 #24 (.020 in) (.010 in) (.006 in) (.020 in) 41 63 84 105 133 161 210 266 342 418 532 637

168 266 336 420 532 665 836 1064 1323 1666 2107 2499

420 665 836 1064 1323 1666 2107 2646 3325 4256 5320 6384
















37, 61


259 259

427 427

1127 1127

4522 4522

11396 12691

61 61

0.893 0.998

427 427 427

703 703 703

1372 1470

5054 5985

13364 14945

61, 91


61, 91


427 427 427

703 703 703

1995 2261 2527

7980 9065 10101

20069 22631 25193

Even though mechanical set-screw connectors are commonly used with solid, B- or C-Code cables, they are not recommended for fine-stranded flexible conductor cable because the fine strands break too easily from the stress of a mechanical connection. Broken strands can cause overheating and wire pullout. NEMA recommends compression connectors for termination of fine-stranded flexible conductor cable. Table I lists flex cable classifications and strands. Some connectors are dual-rated for code and flex cable, while others require a different connector for each application: the connector should identify the proper application clearly, whether B- or C-Code or flex cable (Fig. 1). According to the UL standard, 486 A–B: “A connector, a unit container or an information sheet packed in the unit container for a connector tested with conductors other than Class B, SIW or Class C stranding shall also be marked with the conductor class or classes and the number of strands.”

37 61 91 105 125 150 225 275 325 450 550 650 775 925 1100 1325 1600 1925

Compression connectors come in a variety of configurations—including one- and two-hole lugs, butt splices, H-taps and C-taps, among others—and are available for copper, aluminum or copper-clad aluminum conductors. Among the advantages a compression connector offers over a mechanical connector is the permanence of its connection when properly installed with the correct tooling: it cannot be loosened accidentally. Other advantages include its irreversibility, which may be required for grounding applications; its low-profile crimp, which is easy to insulate; and some compression connectors are available with an oxide inhibitor. The disadvantages are that each conductor size requires its own connector and crimp tooling is needed to make a proper connection.

Crimp terminations There are two well-known methods of crimping a connector termination: the indent-style crimp, made by die-less compression tools, and the hex-style crimp, made by compression tools equipped with interchangeable hex dies. Indent-style crimp… Correct execution with a proper tool that corresponds to the size of cable and connector enables the indent-style crimp to ensure reliable electrical performance and excellent pullout resistance. An indentstyle crimp results in rounded edges and no flash on the connector. It also forms strands tightly together inside the connector, which eliminates air gaps from the conductor. The indent-style crimp, however, does not provide the ability to inspect for a proper crimp.

Fig. 2. Indent-style crimp

Fig. 1. As magnified here, per UL standard, 486 A–B connectors must show conductor classes and number of strands. Other information that’s important to the user is also carried on these components, including, among other things, application.


Hex-style crimp… The hex-style crimp has been the industry’s preference for crimping compression connectors onto B- and C-Code copper, and aluminum/copper cables up to 1000 kcmil. The hex-style crimp provides superior electrical performance and excellent pullout strength, and hex dies emboss the

Fig. 3. Hex-style crimp MARCH 2013


die code onto the connector for easy inspection and verification of a proper crimp after installation. Hex-Flex® Die System… Recently, a third method of attaching connectors to flexible conductors was introduced, which combines the best of the indent- and hex-style crimps: superior pullout ratings and the ability to inspect for a proper crimp. The Hex-Flex Die System consists of standard hex die halves and an indenter. The hex portion provides colorcoding and die embossing for easy identification and inspection. The indenter is round and smooth and produces the higher pullout values across all types of flex cables. Due to the higher pullout values created by the Hex-Flex® system, it also reduces the number of crimps required on most connectors. Fig. 4. Hex-Flex® Die System

Broken strands can cause overheating and wire pullout. Bottom line: NEMA recommends compression connectors for termination of fine-stranded flexible conductor cable.

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The right way to install connectors Steps in installing a compression connector properly are quick and easy with the right tools: Step 1. Preparing the cable properly… Without damaging the conductors, strip the insulation to a length that allows the conductors to be fully inserted into the connector barrel with no bare wire exposed (see Figs. 5 and 6).

IMPORTANT: Connectors marked with just the cable size or “CU” should be used on copper conductors only. Connectors marked “AL( )” with a cable size should be used on aluminum conductors only. Connectors marked “AL( )CU” with the cable size may be used on aluminum or copper conductors. Step 3. Choosing the proper tool and die… A wide range of gear, from manual tools to battery-operated hydraulic crimping units, is available to make terminating compression connectors easier. Connectors with colored bands or dots that correspond to the colored markings on the dies facilitate proper matching of connectors with dies. Connectors and dies also have a die code number marked or stamped on them. Dies have a code number engraved on the crimping surface.

Fig. 5. Wire stripped

Fig. 7 Dies and connector markings

Fig. 6. Wire length

Step. 2. Picking the proper connector. . . As stated previously, compression connectors—along with their packaging materials and enclosed literature—clearly point out several important pieces of information. Pay close attention to them. Look for marks that indicate: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Manufacturer Application by color and die code Wire size Crimp indicator bands UL and/or CSA listings

36 | MAINTENANCE technology

Step. 4. Crimping properly… Locate the markings on the connector and die. Keeping your fingers away from the crimping mechanism, insert the connector into the tool and align the die with the connector. With multiple crimps, the first should be nearest to the tongue and subsequent crimps should move toward the barrel end. Connectors are marked with colored stripes to indicate the number and location of each crimp and the die code number at each compression location. A proper crimp will emboss the die code number on the connector for easy inspection to determine if the correct die and connector combination were used. MT Chad Smith is Director, Product Management, for Thomas & Betts. For more info, enter 05 at MARCH 2013


Bringing It All Together By Gary Mintchell


he 2013 ARC World Industry Forum was the 17th in a series of successful annual events. Held Feb. 11-14 in Orlando, this year’s Forum appeared to live up to its billing as the largest general gathering of people involved with industrial automation in the United States. While you might think that the presentations were all about control and process engineering, or that they were aimed primarily at operations personnel, there was much more to the 2013 program. To be specific, there was plenty of discussion about maintenance, reliability and asset management. One theme I picked up from many of the sessions I attended concerned how technology can lead the way in breaking through barriers that exist among different groups in a plant. Everybody likes a good solution. What I learned along the way Ron Helson, Executive Director of the Hart Communication Foundation, told me that maintenance personnel often are not told about all the benefits of using Hart networking. For example, did you know you can tap into the network at any point and find the status of any device on it? Let’s say operations were to tell you something flaky is going on with a transmitter that just so happens to be located high atop a tower. You probably start worrying about that long climb to check out the status. Then you remember that you can simply tap into the network and check the status through the built-in diagnostics in the Hart protocol to determine your next step. Maybe you don’t have to climb up there after all. Glenn Schulz, Executive Director of the FDT Group, explained the way each instrumentation vendor can build faceplates that show all the characteristics of a given device. In this way, both operations and maintenance can gather far more information than you might have imagined about the devices they deal with. This leads to much faster diagnosing of problems and the ability to take the right tools and replacement parts out to the field. Finally, Larry O’Brien, Marketing Director of the Fieldbus Foundation, discussed how knowing the status of the network at any point in time can help you correct network problems quickly. We’ll discuss these types of asset management issues and more in upcoming columns. MT Gary Mintchell,, co-founder and long-time editor in chief of Automation World magazine now writes at For more info, enter 06 at

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TECHNOLOGY SHOWCASE On the horizon and moving toward you...

PdM Solutions Oil-Rig Torque Transmitter For Controlling Support Loads


CRT® 39000X devices from S. Himmelstein accurately measure torque for control and verification of loads on oil-rig support legs. They enable load monitoring during jacking operations and help maintain stability despite uneven and shifting sea beds and strong currents. Mounted between the electric motors and pinion drive gearboxes on each leg’s truss, the system transmits data via a two-wire 4-20 mA loop to the Control Room. According to the manufacturer, because the MCRT 39000X measures source-load distribution directly, it allows a significantly faster response time than other systems and with no guessing as to the location of stress on the rig’s structure. Immune to ambient noise, vibration, lubricants and other hostile environments, these robust, ferrite-free units incorporate no slip rings, brushes, radio transmitters or other noisy, limited-life elements, nor are they susceptible to cracking and impact damage. The MCRT® 39000X has been certified by both ABS and DNV for oil field use. S. Himmelstein and Co. Hoffman Estates, IL

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UV Leak-Detection Tool For All Industrial-Fluid Systems


he new, compact Spectroline®’ OPTI-LUX™ 365 leak detection flashlight provides UV light for optimal fluorescent dye response for all types of industrial-fluidsystem applications. The product works with all oil- and water-based fluorescent dyes, including OIL-GLO™ 22 (yellow), OIL-GLO™ 30 (white), OIL-GLO™ 33 (green), OIL-GLO™ 40 (bright blue), OIL-GLO™ 44 (yellow/green), OIL-GLO™ 45 (blue) and OIL-GLO™ 50 (red), as well as with WD-801 and WD-802 water dyes. Producing a brilliant glow that makes all leaks easier to find, while slashing valuable diagnostic time, this flashlight even works with difficult-to-fluoresce dirty fluids. According to the manufacturer, the OPTI-LUX 365 is more than twice as powerful as most corded, high-intensity UV lamps. Featuring “instant-on” operation, it provides up to four hours of continuous run-time. Its rugged, anodized aluminum body resists corrosion and stands up to years of heavy use. The flashlight comes with a lanyard, belt holster, two rechargeable batteries, smart charging cradle with AC power cord and UV-absorbing spectacles, all packaged in a padded carrying case. Spectroline Corp. Westbury, NY

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MARCH 2013


Advanced, User-Based Energy-Industry Software Predicts, Diagnoses, Prioritizes


E has released Proficy® SmartSignal® Shield 4.0 for the Oil & Gas and Power industries. This advanced software provides early warning of impending equipment problems, diagnostic guidance and prioritized actionable intelligence. Protected by more than 40 patents, Shield 4.0 was developed with the help of blind data from GE customers based on millions of machine hours and tens of thousands of failures in over 12,000 rotating and non-rotating assets. Using that shared data, GE was able to identify fault patterns in the context of operating behavior that are critical to the Power and Oil & Gas industries and incorporate them into the software. Beyond vibration and thermal analyses, the software uniquely models all data on all critical rotating and non-rotating equipment. Shield 4.0 also incorporates a suite of applications that allow quick design and implementation, including clear access to diagnostics and rules that let users understand and adjust the software based on their own expertise. GE Intelligent Platforms Charlottesville, VA

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CHIP TRAPPER EXAIR’s Chip Trapper™ offers a fast, easy way to clean chips, swarf and shavings out of used coolants and other liquids. The Chip Trapper vacuums the coolant or liquid that is filled with debris and traps all the solids in a reusable filter bag. Only the liquid pumps back out. Coolant that used to last only 6 weeks can now last 6 months or more!

EXAIR Corporation 11510 Goldcoast Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45249-1621 Phone (800) 903-9247 Fax (513) 671-3363 E-mail: Internet: For more info, enter 80 at

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Automated Lubrication System Improves Container-Crane Efficiency Special to MT


elgium’s Port of Antwerp (“Antwerp”) is Europe’s second largest and the fourth largest in the world. Thousands upon thousands of ocean-going vessels call at this busy facility each year, and containers are a huge (and growing) component of its maritime traffic. As it is around any port, each hour saved in handling freight that moves through this one—even an hour spent maintaining freighthandling equipment—can be important to the bottom lines of the companies doing it. That includes MSC (Mediterranean Shipping Company), one of the biggest players in the container-transport arena. MSC’s terminal operation in Antwerp is the site of a notable lubrication success story. Since SKF installed SKF ProFlex automated lubrication systems in the MSC Home Terminal at the Port of Antwerp, the customer has been able to reduce manual maintenance on its cranes by about 1900 hours annually. It previously spent, on average, about 90 hours per year/per crane to perform lubrication routines manually—which had to be done when the cranes weren’t in operation. With container traffic through Antwerp experiencing explosive growth, terminal personnel were coming up against ever-shorter maintenance windows for completing that work. According to Henrik Lange, SKF President Industrial Market, Strategic Industries, automating its lubrication process was an ideal solution for the MSC Home Terminal. The SKF ProFlex systems not only support crane availability and help reduce downtime, they have eliminated the safety risks that workers used to be exposed to when they conducted manual lubrication work on the cranes. Solving the problem at the port The SKF ProFlex system features a pump unit that delivers grease to a series of progressive feeders that can automatically provide a defined amount of lubricant for up to 150 lube points. The systems installed at the Port of Antwerp lubricate the cranes’ wheelbases, winches and trolleys—providing the exact amount of lubricant to over 60 points on each unit. Additionally, SKF fitted each of these ProFlex systems with

MARCH 2013

The SKF ProFlex Systems on the MSC Home Terminal cranes lubricate the units’ wheelbases, winches and trolleys. They’ve not only helped increase uptime, they’ve eliminated safety risks that workers had previously been exposed to while performing manual lubrication work on the cranes.

control options on the pumps, distributors and feeders, thus allowing personnel to monitor units from the office (and help keep the cranes in optimal condition). Other applications

Capable of handling oil, semi-fluid grease and hard grease NLGL grades 000 to 2, SKF ProFlex systems are designed for small and medium-sized applications. Typical applications include printing equipment, construction machinery, industrial presses and wind turbines, among others. Advantages include. . . ■ Continuous delivery of lubricant during pump running time ■ Simple system blockage control ■ Easy system monitoring via series connection of metering pistons SKF USA Lansdale, PA For more info, enter 30 at MT-ONLINE.COM | 41


Versatile, Bluetooth Workplace Headsets


Air Coolant For Machining Operations


M’s Peltor WS Headsets with Bluetooth Wireless Technology allow users to communicate, listen to music, talk on the phone and simultaneously monitor connected electronics without removing the unit. Offered in four styles, they amplify lower-level sounds, like voices, while attenuating higher-level sounds, like those found in the workplace, and limit exposure to 82 decibels.

XAIR’s Cold Gun Aircoolant SystemTM produces a cold, quiet stream of air to reduce heat buildup on machining operations. According to the company, the Cold Gun is an alternative to mist systems and helps reduce costs associated with the purchase, filtration and disposal of liquid coolants. Features include an improved hot-air exhaust muffler that reduces the operating noise level to 70 dBA.

3M Personal Safety Div. St. Paul, MN

Exair Corp. Cincinnati, OH

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CUSTOM REPRINTS Use reprints to maximize your marketing initiatives and strengthen your brand’s value. Reprints are a simple way to put information directly into the hands of your target audience. Having been featured in a well-respected publication adds the credibility of a third-party endorsement to your message.

REPRINTS ARE IDEAL FOR: Q New Product Announcements Q Sales Aid For Your Field Force Q PR Materials & Media Kits Q Direct Mail Enclosures

Q Customer & Prospect Communications/Presentations Q Trade Shows/Promotional Events Q Conferences & Speaking Engagements Q Recruitment & Training Packages

For additional information, please contact Foster Printing Service, the official reprint provider for Maintenance Technology.

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MARCH 2013


Updated Regulatory Software Tool


lue Mountain Quality Resources’ Regulatory Asset Manager software is an EAM built specifically for GMP-compliant organizations. A new release provides enhanced features and functionality around document embedding, emails, reports, business rules and overall usability. The software now allows users to embed files and documents into the system rather than linking to it. These documents can include calibration certificates, images and more. Blue Mountain Quality Resources, Inc. State College, PA

Wearable Gas Detector Pump


he Ventis™ Slide-on Pump from Industrial Scientific is compatible with the company’s Ventis MX4 and MX4 iQuad multi-gas detectors. It is suited for gas-monitor users who wear a gas monitor for personal protection but require a pump for confined-space entry. The pump samples up to 50 feet in a range of applications. No tools are required to attach the pump to or remove from the Ventis monitor. Industrial Scientific Corp. Oakdale, PA

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Low-Temp Food Grade Lubricant


U™214 Food Grade Low Temperature Lubricant from Sprayon® Products is NSF® H1-rated and suited for extended service under low-temperature conditions (down to -78 F). Its blend of synthetic oils includes extreme-pressure corrosion inhibitors, anti-oxidant, anti-foam and anti-wear additives. Kosher-approved, this non-staining formulation with a high load capacity is suited for use on air-compressor systems, gears, chains and more.

Your Best Solution



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IR Cameras With Improved Resolution


he Avio Model R300SR series of infrared thermography cameras is equipped with an onboard function that improves spatial resolution of the thermal image. The pixel count is increased to four times that of the detector by software processing, which allows for multiple frames of high-quality image information at a lower cost. The series also features edge enhancement for clearer images. SOLTEC An NEC Group Company San Fernando, CA

Vibration Switch For Cooling Towers


almac’s Model 555 Vibration Switch with Remote Accelerometer provides continuous vibration monitoring on motors and gearboxes for coolingtower applications and other rotating machinery. Powered by either 110-130VAC, 50/60 Hz. or a 22-28 VDC 150mA supply (190-250 VAC optional), the switch provides user-selectable vibration measurements in acceleration, displacement and velocity, and features high and low amplitude ranges. A standard NEMA 4X fiberglass housing resists water, dust and chemicals. Balmac, Inc. Plain City, OH

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Semi-Permanent Spill Containment Solution


ew Pig’s crush-resistant Build-A-Berm® Barrier Kit lets facilities create semi-permanent spill containment barriers around machinery or storage areas. The pliable, open-cell barrier can be shaped to suit the application and springs back into shape after being walked on or rolled over with light, wheeled equipment. It features a highvisibility yellow color and 18-oz all-vinyl covering that resists oils, coolants and most chemicals. The kit includes straight sections, corners and sealant, and the barrier is easily removed with a flat-bladed shovel. New Pig Corp. Tipton, PA For more more info, info, enter enter 38 90 at For more For 85 at MARCH 2013


Flexible, Scalable CMMS Solution

Hour-Meter And Location Monitoring


eytroller’s Cyberwatch LAN is a wireless hour-meter that connects through a facility’s wi-fi network. In addition to monitoring engine or motor ignition by time (hours and minutes), it offers other specialized sensors like over/under temperature, over/under hydraulic pressure and over/under voltage. Featuring four hour-meter inputs, the device is simple to install on any model vehicle or machine. Cyberwatch LAN can be viewed directly on a browser or can transmit to an external server. Keytroller, LLC Tampa, FL For more info, enter 39 at


PM, RealVision’s preventive maintenance system, provides asset management, preventive maintenance, work-order scheduling, stockroom inventory control and other functions. It is offered in standalone, enterprise or cloud-based CMMS environments in MS SQL or Oracle databases. This flexible, scalable system also offers BOM-based equipment and component life-management capabilities for maintenance of multiple components, from simple to complex. RealVision Alexandria, LA For more info, enter 40 at

“Industrial Lubrication Fundamentals” 3-Day, On Site, Certification Preparation Training Program

With over 70% of all mechanical failures attributed to ineffective lubrication practices, you will want to have professionally trained and certified lubrication personnel working on your reliability efforts!

Unlock the Secrets that let you Tap your True Maintenance Potential and Maximize Asset Reliability! World Class organizations know that increased asset reliability, utilization and maintainability, reduced operating costs, downtime, contamination, energy consumption and carbon footprint all commence with a best practice lubrication program! Course design is based on ISO 18436-4 and the ICML body of knowledge and exceeds minimum training requirements to write the ICML, MLT1, MLA1 and ISO LCAT1 International lubrication certification exams. Exams can be arranged to take place at your site immediately following the training. For more information on this unique training program developed and delivered by internationally accredited lubrication and maintenance expert Ken Bannister, author of the best selling book Lubrication for Industry endorsed by ISO and the ICML as part of their certification Domain of Knowledge Content. Contact ENGTECH Industries Inc at 519.469.9173 or email

For more info, enter 82 at

MARCH 2013

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INFORMATION HIGHWAY For rate information on advertising in the Information Highway Section Contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 / E-mail: Web Spotlight: U.S. Tsubaki

Air Sentry® is a leading developer of contamination control products that keep particulate matter and excess moisture from the headspace inside gearboxes, drums, reservoirs, oil tanks, etc. that hold oils, greases, hydraulic fluids, and fuels. Air Sentry breathers and adapters ensure longer fluid life, better lubrication and lower maintenance costs. For more info, enter 89 at

U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC is excited to announce the integration of KabelSchlepp America into its operations as part of the Tsubakimoto Chain Company’s global acquisition of the Germanbased Cable & Hose Carrier manufacturer. KabelSchlepp America will now operate as a division of U.S. Tsubaki and will expand Tsubaki’s presence in the U.S. market by adding cable & hose carrier systems to its already extensive product lineup. For more info, enter 86 at

The Maintenance & Reliability Technology Summit is the #1 learning venue and source of practical solutions for anyone concerned with the reliability, maintenance and the overall capacity assurance of critical equipment systems in a plant or facility. Mark your calendars! MARTS 2013 is taking place April 30-May 3, 2013 at the Hyatt Regency O’Hare in Rosemont, IL. For more info, enter 87 at



Easy to use. Powerful software. Priced right. Whether you’re a three-store pizza operation or a global conglomerate, MAPCON CMMS is designed for you. No matter if you merely want a basic start-up maintenance package or a complete enterprise CMMS solution with advanced capabilities, MAPCON CMMS is the answer.

PIP is a consortium of process plant owners and engineering construction contractors harmonizing member’s internal standards for design, procurement, construction and maintenance into industry-wide Practices. PIP has published over 450 Practices. A current listing of published Practices is available on the PIP website at: For more info, enter 90 at

The ability to identify, verify and locate every voltage source from the outside of electrical panels greatly reduces electrical risks. That’s why we’ve incorporated two of our most popular products - ChekVolt® and VoltageVision® - into one unique, exclusive product called The Combo Unit.. For more info, enter 91 at

For rate information on advertising in the Classified Section contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 / E-mail:

ATP List Services

In order for us to send

Customized, Targeted Lists For Your Marketing Needs

to you FREE,

we are required by the US Post Office to have a completed and signed renewal form once a year.

Contact: Ellen Sandkam 847-382-8100 x110 800-223-3423 x110


You may renew online at 46 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY 1300 S. Grove Ave., Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010

MARCH 2013



MARCH 2013 Volume 26, No. 3 •


March 2013 • Volume 26, No. 3 RS #


Air Sentry .........................................89 ..........................46 ATP Lists ............................................84 ..........................44 Baldor Electric .............................................93 .........................BC Bartlett Bearing Company, Inc. ..............................64 ............................4 Cascade Machinery Vibration Solution ....................................77 ..........................37 CIM ............................63 ............................2 CRC ..........................43 EASA .................................................92 .......................IBC Engtech Industries ..........................45 Exair ..........................66 ............................5 Exair ........................80 ..........................39 Fluke ...............................62 ............................1 Fluke ..................67 ............................7 Foster Printing Services ................................82 ..........................42 Grace Engineered Products. Inc. ...............................................91 ..........................46 Inpro/Seal, LLC C/O Waukesha Bearing, ............................76 ..........................35 iReliability .......................................74 ..........................31 Mapcon ..........................46 MARTS-Applied Technology ...........................71,73,87..... 22,27,46 Meltric Corporation ..........................39 Nidec ....................... IFC PdMA Corporation ..............................................72 ..........................25 Process Industry ....................................................68,90 ..................9,46 SKF ........................................75 ..........................32 SKF USA, Inc. ....................................70 ..........................19 Strategic Work Systems, Inc. .....................................65 ............................4 Test Products International (TPI) .............................78,81 .....................39 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC .................................69 ..........................12 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC ..................................86 ..........................46

Access and enter the reader service number of the product in which you are interested, or you can search even deeper and link directly to the advertiser’s Website. Submissions Policy: Maintenance Technology gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. Reproduction of Materials: Materials produced by Maintenance Technology may not be reproduced in any form for any purpose without permission. For Reprints: Contact the publisher, Bill Kiesel (847) 382-8100 ext. 116.


MARCH 2013

1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 PH 847-382-8100 FX 847-304-8603

SALES STAFF OH, KY, TN 5107 Berkshire Drive North Olmsted, OH 44070 440-463-0907; Fax 440-891-1254 JOHN DAVIS AL, DC, DE, FL, GA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, PA, SC, VA, WV 1750 Holmes Drive West Chester, PA 19382 610-793-3093; Fax 610-793-3094 JIM HANLEY IA, MN, NE, ND, SD 1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 x116; Fax 847-304-8603 BILL KIESEL CT, ME, MA, NH, NY, RI, VT, ON, QC P.O. Box 1059 Osterville, MA 02655 508-428-3331; Fax 508-428-2545 VINCENT LeGENDRE IL, IN, MI, WI 1173 S. Summit Street Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 x108; Fax 847-304-8603 TOM MADDING AR, KS, LA, MO, NM, OK, TX 5930 Royal Lane, Suite E #201 Dallas, TX 75230 972-816-3534; Fax 972-767-4442 GERRY MAYER AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY, AB, BC, MB, SK 3605 N. Tuscany Mesa, AZ 85207 480-396-9585 JERRY PRESTON CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 3605 N. Tuscany Mesa, AZ 85207 480-396-9585 JERRY PRESTON


viewpoint G. Keith Diepstra, Marshall Institute

Making Change Stick


nyone who has ever attempted to bring about change in an organization knows the frustration of watching good principles be ignored despite the commitment of training and funding. Although management may have committed sufficient funds and those who were trained may have intellectually accepted its concepts, no one follows through. But why—and what can be done about it? In their article “The Neuroscience of Leadership” (Strategy + Business, May 2006), authors David Rock and Jeffery Schwartz noted the experience of change is neurologically similar to that of pain. If that’s true, how do people find the motivation to change? The answer, according to Rock and Schwartz is the discovery, realization or epiphany associated with problem solving. As their article explained, a neurological change takes place when people solve problems themselves. This realization process releases neurotransmitters in the brain establishing new links that make change appealing and less “painful.” Such findings support the idea that adult learners learn best by doing. Through the act of performing the task and demonstrating the principles in action, the trainee is solving the problem himself/herself and experiencing the neurological benefit. This is an ideal situation since successful training is that which results in a change of behavior. Getting leaders to change Leaders, just like everyone else, often resist change— something that’s frequently reflected in how they approach organizational challenges. For example, it’s rare for a senior leader to look at an organization and wonder what in his/her own behavior is allowing problems to persist. It’s not unusual, however, for leaders to look for “off the shelf ” packages or programs they can purchase for their operations. This type of response has sparked many Lean, Six Sigma and TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) programs—and it’s also the

reason why many of these programs have floundered. Sadly, leaders who don’t make the effort to fully understand and embrace the principles embodied in such programs will not create appropriate expectations in day-to-day interactions with their personnel. Simply being a program sponsor is insufficient. Leaders must be the advocates for what “right” looks like. n As a leader, you can’t expect to engender a culture of continuous improvement if you don’t speak the language of root cause for failure modes, standards and corrective actions. n As a leader, you can’t expect to have a maintenance program that includes robust planning and scheduling if you don’t create the expectation that the resources to accomplish this are properly sequestered and given timely objectives and follow-up. Two key steps toward the ‘stick’ To make change stick, the change agent first must get managers and executives to understand that no program will be successful if they themselves are not already trained on it. Remember: Leaders must commit to interacting with their cultures in a way that pulls the culture along with tasks, objectives and follow-up. They can’t change a company’s culture if their culture hasn’t changed. This is the single point of failure for all programs. Leaders must be converts to programs—not merely buyers. Second, the change agent must craft training that leads people through solving problems themselves. When people experience the principles working, they will use those principles. Only when these things have been done will an organization have a shot at making desired changes stick. MT Keith Diepstra is a Consultant with Marshall Institute. Email: For more info, enter 10 at

The opinions expressed in this Viewpoint section are those of the author, and don’t necessarily reflect those of the staff and management of Maintenance Technology magazine.


MARCH 2013


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Full Service

Baldor’s service programs for large motors and generators can reduce your risk of unexpected downtime while extending the useful life of your machines. Through our exclusive maintenance plans and ABB’s LEAP and MACHsense diagnostic and monitoring programs, Baldor services can help predict failures before they occur, putting an end to unexpected downtime emergencies.

Call or log on for complete information on how to put our team at your service today.



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Maintenance Technology March 2013