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Fluke 810 Handheld Vibration Tester

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Watch Dave use both vibration testing and thermal imaging to increase productivity and efficiency in his plant, and sign up for your free demonstration. Go to

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Fluke Ti32 Thermal Imager

Fluke Ti105 Thermal Imager

Fluke thermal imaging can have a significant impact on your troubleshooting and maintenance productivity. Now you can see problems you’ve never been able to see before, fi x them proactively and reduce costly repairs and downtime.

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Fluke 810 Handheld Vibration Tester

Vibration testing and thermal imaging.

Combine Fluke vibration testing and thermal imaging are joining forces to dramatically increase your troubleshooting capabilities. Let Dave, our maintenance guy, show you how these technologies work together to provide an unbeatable maintenance solution. He’ll even give you the opportunity to experience the savings for yourself with a free diagnostic report of your facility prepared by Fluke experts.

Watch Dave use both vibration testing and thermal imaging to increase productivity and efficiency in his plant, and sign up for your free demonstration. Go to

Fluke 805 Vibration Meter

Get answers now. In the world of mechanical maintenance, vibration remains one of the earliest indicators of a machine’s health. Now you can get fast, accurate and actionable answers with revolutionary vibration testers from Fluke.

Fluke Ti32 Thermal Imager

Fluke Ti105 Thermal Imager

Fluke thermal imaging can have a significant impact on your troubleshooting and maintenance productivity. Now you can see problems you’ve never been able to see before, fi x them proactively and reduce costly repairs and downtime.

©2013 Fluke Corporation


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GE Industrial Solutions

Before the questions have been asked, we’re already working on the solution. For more than 100 years, we’ve been listening and learning, becoming experts in your business. That commitment is why leading companies across many industries trust GE Industrial Solutions to maintain their critical assets and improve their processes. Your challenge is our catalyst for innovation. Together, let’s transform your goals into achievements.

For more information, call 24/7 888-434-7378 U.S. and Canada or 540-387-8617 or visit us at

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FEBRUARY 2013 • VOL 26, NO 2 •


Finding The Root Cause Isn’t Always A Solution What’s your next move when things don’t make sense? ©ALPHASPIRIT — FOTOLIA.COM

Randall Noon, P.E.


How Valero Refinery Achieved Best Maintenance Practices Expanding asset management through expert services can add to savings, as well as improve work practices. Paul Chandler, Valero Refinery, Wilmington, CA




■ Big Money Talks


My Take

William C. “Bill” Livoti


Stuff Happens

■ Efficiency Showcase


The Plant Manager As Change Agent, Part II: Defining The Maintenance Program The plant manager can’t succeed without a well-defined maintenance program. Here’s how to make things happen. Paul D. Tomlingson, Paul D. Tomlingson Associates, Inc.


The Maintenance & Reliability Technology Summit is: An annual, four-day educational experience and professional-development opportunity Created for plant and facility managers, maintenance leaders and crew members, reliability engineers, industrial technicians and all other capacity-assurance professionals

10 13 14 26


36 39 40

Technology Showcase




Information Highway




Supplier Index



Compressed Air Challenge For On The Floor Lubrication Checkup

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February 2013 • Volume 26, No. 2 ARTHUR L. RICE President/CEO

BILL KIESEL Executive Vice President/Publisher

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Maintenance Technology® (ISSN 0899-5729) is published monthly by Applied Technology Publications, Inc., 1300 S. Grove Avenue, Barrington, IL 60010. Periodicals postage paid at Barrington, Illinois and additional offices. Arthur L. Rice, III, President. Circulation records are maintained at Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Maintenance Technology® copyright 2013 by Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Annual subscription rates for nonqualified people: North America, $140; all others, $280 (air). No subscription agency is authorized by us to solicit or take orders for subscriptions. Postmaster: Please send address changes to Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Please indicate position, title, company name, company address. For other circulation information call (630) 739-0900. Canadian Publications agreement No. 40886011. Canada Post returns: IMEX, Station A, P.O. Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5, or email: cpcreturns@ Submissions Policy: Maintenance Technology® gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc. permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. “Maintenance Technology®” is a registered trademark of Applied Technology Publications, Inc.

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Jane Alexander, Editor-In-Chief

A Gathering Of Innovative Eagles


had the joy of sailing around the post-holiday doldrums last month by spending a couple of days at the 2013 Shell Innovation Summit. As an invited media guest, to say that I felt like an odd duck among a gathering of eagles would be quite the understatement. But you know me: I do love “innovation” and will travel far and wide to learn about the concept—then write about it as it applies to your jobs, your suppliers and our magazine. This January event, held at the Shell Technology Center in Houston, was full of it (innovations and innovators and those who support them, that is), from both Shell and non-Shell sources. The formal program was marked by a number of compelling presentations, panel discussions and videos from in and outside industry. The informal program offered some of the finest networking opportunities I’ve ever experienced. I was like a kid in a candy shop when it came to deciding which innovative spirit to talk with next. Would it be the head of the X PRIZE Foundation, who sat next to me in the audience; the professor on my shuttle bus, who teaches an entire course devoted to innovation at Texas A&M; the astronaut across the table from me at lunch one day; or those very enthusiastic members of Shell’s GameChanger Team who were everywhere? How about all the above and lots of others? Trying to choose specific takeaways from the Summit to share with you here is also difficult (there were so many). One that resonated loud and clear, though, came from top Shell management: To help fuel innovative thinking, the company has recognized the importance of breaking down information silos across its operations, upstream and down. As Gerald Schotman, Chief Technology Officer and Executive VP, Innovation Research & Development noted, “Real innovation relies on co-creation, collaborative problem-solving and cultivating next-generation ideas from within and outside the company to pioneer unique solutions.” Refreshing, huh? Of course, if you’ve been reading this magazine for very long, you know that we have our own vested interest in growing and recognizing innovators and innovations—albeit in the maintenance and reliability arena. In fact, we’re now involved in the judging process for our “2012 Maintenance & Reliability Innovator Award” (the winner of which will be announced in March). We’re also putting together details of the 2013 competition that will run from June 1 – December 31. That leads me to this month’s pitch: Why not start breaking down some of those pesky information silos in your operations, get your innovative selves in gear and go for this year’s award? Or, how about getting your team members in gear and encouraging their participation? Need a jump-start? Check out this month’s “Viewpoint” by Matt Hudson on page 48. Matt was one of the remarkable Shell GameChangers that I met in January. Rather than attempt to quote him, I asked him to tell you in his own words about his experiences in the area of innovative thinking. He’s done a fine job. I hope you’ll enjoy his column, be inspired by it and, most important, let it help you inspire others on your team(s). MT


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Protocols For Performance Measurement New ASHRAE Publication Can Help Commercial-Building Owners/Operators Reduce Costs Performance Measurement Procedures for Commercial Buildings: Best Practices Guide is a step-by-step, how-to guide for continuously evaluating and improving the performance of commercial buildings from ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). Funded in part through a grant from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, it provides specific guidance, based on building size, in the areas of energy use, water use and four elements of indoor environmental quality (IEQ): thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ), lighting/daylighting and acoustics. This information has been compiled to help owners/operators be proactive on an ongoing basis in reducing costs through measurement and verification of their buildings’ environments. The new manual is a companion to ASHRAE’s 2010 publication, Performance Measurement Protocols for Commercial Buildings, which identifies what to measure, how to measure it and how often to do so for inclusion in a building’s operation and maintenance plan. For details or to order, visit

ASSOCIATIONS... The International Society of Automation (ISA) has welcomed Terrence G. Ives as its 2013 President. A long-time ISA member and leader, Ives is the third-generation President and Owner of his family business, Ives Equipment Corp., a process-control manufacturing representative and stocking distributor that serves industries in eastern and central Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Southern New Jersey and Virginia. He’s also the third member of the Ives family to serve as President of ISA. His father, C. Blair Ives, Jr., was President of ISA in 1994; his uncle, Robert P. Ives, held the same position in 2003. 8|



Pentair has announced the recent appointment of Alok Maskara as President of its Thermal Management business. Having joined the corporation in 2008 to lead its Residential Filtration unit, a joint venture with GE Water, Maskara had most recently been serving as President of Pentair’s global Water Purification business. T.A. Cook Consultants has announced the appointment of Philip Morel as Managing Partner, effective immediately. With 25 years of consulting experience under his belt, Morel has been responsible for key account management in the chemicals, petrochemicals and oil and gas industries since joining T.A. Cook in 2010. His new role calls for him to retain those responsibilities while helping expand the firm’s business in Asia. Trico Corp. has announced the promotion of Jim Jung to the position of Vice President. A fourth-generation member of the family that owns and operates Trico, he will now play a crucial role in strategic planning and shaping the future direction of the company. Prior to this promotion, Jung had served as Trico’s Director of Operations, where he provided oversight for manufacturing. Mark McFann, the well-known, long-serving Vice President of Sales and Marketing for Royal Purple, has elected to transition from the day-to-day management of marketing and consumer sales for the company into a consulting role. McFann has also joined the marketing company Cast a Long Shadow and is a Principal of Xecu Group, a company whose EZ Waiver product provides cloudbased complete electronic waiver and riskmanagement application.



’ N I T S D FIGH R O W Inspiration For Those Battling The

Enemies Of Reliability & Productivity Have you read, heard, seen, thought or written down something that falls into the realm of “fightin’ words” for the maintenance and reliability community? Send your favorites to We’ll be selecting one or two (maybe even three) to feature each month. Be sure to give full credit to the individual (dead, alive, real or fictional) that uttered or wrote the words, and why those words inspire you. Don’t forget to include your complete contact info.

Here’s what Bill Simon, President and CEO of Wal-Mart’s U.S. biz recently had to say at a retail industry event about his company’s plans to help jump-start the economy (including hiring more veterans, buying more American-made products and trying to move more parttime workers onto full-time rolls):


“The beauty of the private sector is that we don’t have to win an election, convince Congress or pass a bill to do what we think is right. We can simply move forward, doing what we know is right.” Try substituting “maintenance department” for “private sector” and see if you don’t come up with some fine “fightin’ words.”

QUESTION OF THE MONTH SOUND-OFF: Tell us what you think. . . Really. . .


Yokogawa Electric Corp. and McAfee have entered into a partnership agreement to offer holistic and value-added IT security solutions for industrial automation applications. Building on Yokogawa’s track record in the delivery of control-system solutions and McAfee’s cyber-security expertise, the agreement aims to address the growing problem of digital threats to industrial-control systems. In particular, the partners will collaborate to offer Yokogawa’s customers seamless solutions to avoid gaps between different IT systems across proprietary solutions and expanded communication channels (e. g. IP, wireless and mobile) and running common operating systems and applications.

What are the top three items on your site’s disaster-preparedness plan? Go to with your answer.

Danfoss is now accepting entries in its fourth annual Envisioneer of the Year competition. Launched in 2010, the contest recognizes U.S. end-users, municipalities, building owners and OEMs that have introduced a new product, opened a new facility or invested in a building or system upgrade in the past 18 months using Danfoss products or solutions to realize significant energy and/or environmental savings. Deadline for entries is July 1, 2013. For information and entry forms, visit h t t p : / / w w. e n v i s i o n e e r i n g . d a n f o s s . c o m / A b o u t / EnVisioneering+Award.htm. (BTW: The 2012 Danfoss Envisioneer Award went to Smardt Chiller Group, Inc., for a chiller-plant project at Sub-Zero’s manufacturing facility in Goodyear, AZ.) For more info, enter 69 at For more info, enter 68 at FEBRUARY 2013



Bob Williamson, Contributing Editor

Don’t Believe Everything You Read: The Skills Shortage Is Very Real “I just got through reading a report that said something about the ‘worries of a skills gap crisis are overblown.’ From where I sit and from the people I talk to in manufacturing, this report can’t be right. We have a skills gap in our plants now and it’s probably only going to get worse. What’s going on? Help me understand this skills gap crisis, please. It is real?” Entitled “Skills Gap in U.S. Manufacturing,” that report by a major U.S. consulting group dumbfounded me, especially the line that “the findings underscore the idea that worries of a skills gap crisis are overblown.”1 Quite frankly, I don’t believe a word of it. What really worries me is the visibility this latest report may be getting. Business leaders, educators and politicians might actually believe it! America is liable to breathe a sigh of relief knowing that the skills gap crisis is overblown, and return to business as usual: Back off the training, back off the reliability improvement programs, don’t worry about the aging maintenance and technician workforce, etc., etc., etc. What a critical mistake for our nation’s future that would be! Stating that the worries of a skills gap are overblown misses the mark entirely. It’s NOT about the gross numbers of highly skilled manufacturing workers needed that concerns me. It’s more about the skills gaps in certain critical job roles that concerns me— and it should concern every manufacturing, facility, warehousing, transportation, utility and mining company in North America. The worries of a skills gap should be as real as the equipment in your plant, the transport trucking fleets on our roads, the power- generation and distribution systems we rely on and the heavy equipment that builds roads and mines ore. The most critical (and largely unknown) skills crisis Comparatively, the number of highly skilled people working in maintenance and reliability (M&R) job roles is very small—considerably smaller than the groups that operate the equipment. So when you look at the sheer number of M&R workers, the current and future skills shortages and the job openings compared with numbers of production workers in manufacturing, the M&R group is very small. 10 |


What many “researchers” often fail to understand is the significant impact ONE highly skilled maintenance person has on productivity, on revenue generation, when those skill sets are NOT available to perform that critical PM properly or to troubleshoot the problem completely or make the repairs properly. Only ONE person with the critical skills and knowledge missing in the workplace can bring an entire operation to a screeching halt or keep it from performing as intended. This is our world: the frequently misunderstood world of maintenance and reliability. I’ve been studying and experiencing the “skills gaps” and “skills deficits” and “skills shortages,” as well as the precipitous decline of vocational-technical education and training in the U.S. for decades. I’ve seen the results of an untrained semi-skilled workforce operating and maintaining sophisticated (not necessarily “high-tech”) equipment and facilities, as have many of our readers. The aging workforce has not slowed at all. In fact, the workforce is aging-out faster as a product of the “Baby Boom” generational demographics. My take on all this is as follows: The skills gap crisis is REAL—particularly in highly skilled maintenance and reliability job roles. Read on… Ammunition to defuse erroneous report Back to the consulting group report that got me fired up: How in the world did the authors come to their conclusions? The report stated that “the U.S. is short some 80,000 to 100,000 highly skilled manufacturing workers” representing “less than 1% of the nation’s 11.5 million manufacturing workers and less than 8% of the nation’s 1.4 million highly skilled workers.” What was that based on? The authors further stated that they surveyed “more than 100 U.S.-based manufacturing executives at companies with annual sales of $1 billion or greater.” (Just for your information, annual sales of $1 billion or more represents LARGE manufacturers.) Small is BIG. . . Take a look at something other than LARGE manufacturers. n The Federal government defines small- to medium-size

(non-farm) enterprises as having less than 500 employees and $7 million to $25 million in annual revenues.2 FEBRUARY 2013


The lack of just one knowledgeable, highly skilled maintainer in a plant can bring operations to a screeching halt. n The National Association of Manufacturers (NAM)

and the Manufacturing Institute define small manufacturers as having 500 or fewer employees and medium manufacturers as having 2500 or fewer employees. The most important fact regarding manufacturing jobs. . . n The Manufacturing Institute reports that 94% of

all U.S. manufacturers employ less than 100 people. In other words, 94% of all U.S. manufacturers are considered SMALL businesses.3 n Some 296,000 small to medium manufacturers

(SMM) generate 40% of the total value of U.S. production4 with more than 65% of the total U.S. manufacturing workforce.5 n Ninety-five percent (95%) of all manufacturing

exporters are SMMs. And almost 100% of SMM are privately owned.6 Given the above statistics, we can come up with some calculations of our own: In reality, the study suggesting that the skills gap crisis is overblown surveyed less than four-hundredths of a percent (0.04%) of the total 335,315 U.S. manufacturers7 with annual sales of more than $1 billion dollars. This is a very small group that most likely doesn’t look a thing like most of our small- to medium-size manufacturing firms. The report went on to state: “Using data and job-vacancy rates” researchers “looked at localities where wage growth has exceeded inflation by at least 3 percentage points annually for five years.” It then stated that “Wage growth is a widely accepted indicator of skills shortages in other sectors, such as energy; it reveals where employers have been forced to bid up pay to attract hard-to-find workers.” (My emphasis.)

Let’s be clear about some important details. . . First, manufacturing is not as unfettered as the “energy” industry. Consider the employment trends in North Dakota (Bakken trend) and in western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio (Marcellus formation) where wages have escalated significantly to attract skilled workers in a shrunken labor puddle (gone is the labor pool). This type of “wage growth” with hiring incentives, premium benefits and annual signing bonuses rarely occurs in manufacturing because of labor agreements, job classification systems and approved pay rates. Second, our skills gap crisis is real. “Manufacturing workers” include those who work in management, staff, administration, front-line leadership, engineering techs, production operators, maintenance and others. Typically, small- to medium-size manufacturers have approximately 55% or less of their total workforce employed as “highly skilled” maintenance and technical workers. This means on average that 94% of our nation’s manufacturers have a total of five highly skilled maintenance workers at most. And, according to BLS data, the average age of these “highly skilled” manufacturing workers is 56 years old. As my prior columns have pointed out, in countless plants and facilities, our workforce skills and knowledge haven’t kept pace with technology growth. Many employers have skimped on equipment- and technologyspecific training and qualification for their M&R workforce as a whole. If it weren’t for the powerful motivation and interest in figuring things out by the individuals in our M&R workforce, those workers might feel helpless. We know the story. . . It’s a fact that’s been proven many times over: One “highlyskilled” person was out sick. Someone else filled in and shut the plant down. . . or caused a major problem that limited production on a critical line. . . or caused that very critical piece of equipment to break down. . . or created a major environmental incident, or caused a serious accident or injury. All it takes is the shortage of ONE highly skilled maintainer (mechanic, electrician, instrument/controls tech) to cause major problems.

Our workforce skills and knowledge haven’t kept pace with technology, nor has the spending to train and qualify the workforce of tomorrow. FEBRUARY 2013 | 11


Regardless of what you may have read or heard, we’re in a crisis, one that is going to get worse before it gets worse. CHOOSING CHAIN SHOULDN’T BE RISKY BUSINESS

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Spread the word Despite what you may have read elsewhere, there IS a skills gap in today’s workplace—and it’s a big one. What’s more, it’s going to get worse before it gets worse, regardless of what highlevel studies report. Highly skilled maintenance and reliability job roles are demanding and the labor puddle is all but dried up. All it takes is ONE skills gap, one time, to shut a plant down. Please let us know how the “skills gap crisis� is affecting you, your employer and your community. MT References 1. October 15, 2012 (Source withheld but you can look it up if you wish) 2. Bureau of Labor Statistics 3. Manufacturing Institute 4. Manufacturing Institute, National Association of Manufacturers 5. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Dec. 2012 6. Manufacturing Institute, National Association of Manufacturers 7. Bureau of Labor Statistics Robert Williamson (Bob), CMRP, CPMM, and member of the Institute of Asset Management, is in his fourth decade of focusing on the “people side� of world-class maintenance and reliability in plants and facilities across North America. Email:

FYI: Bob will present a full-day Workshop at MARTS 2013 entitled “Putting All The Pieces Together For 100% Reliability.� Reserve your seat now. For more details and/or to register, go to FEBRUARY 2013

Overcoming Your Challenges

Protecting Your ‘Heart’ By Ron Marshall, for the Compressed Air Challenge (CAC)


ith some imagination, one can equate your plant’s compressed air system to the circulatory system of the human body. Think of the air compressors as the heart, pumping life into your production machinery. Your compressed air system’s dryers and filters perform similar functions to the kidneys and liver, removing undesired components from the compressed air. The compressor room and plant piping might be thought of as arteries and veins, directing the compressed air where it needs to go to keep your production equipment running smoothly. But systems sometime fail Alas, much like a human body, a compressed air system can suffer from common maladies that are capable of compromising the life of a process or facility: Heart Attack: This is a serious condition for a compressed air system, one that can kill or greatly reduce plant output. Compressors need to be maintained in a condition that lets them produce full output at a moment’s notice. Arrhythmia: Air compressor controls need to be coordinated in a logical manner so that they maintain system pressure adequately at all times. Poor control can cause a compressor to “skip a beat,” leading to poor system pressure. High Blood Pressure & Stroke: As in human health, high compressed air pressure isn’t good for the overall health of a plant. Excess pressure makes air compressors operate inefficiently, i.e., consuming about 1% more power for every 2-psig increase in discharge pressure. Poor control of plant air pressure can allow levels to rise so high that storage receiver blowoffs activate, causing transient low-pressure events that impact system pressures. Kidney & Liver Failure: Like organs in a human body, failure of air dryers and filters will allow contamination downstream that clogs machinery internals and can even spoil production output. A healthy plant has a constant supply of clean, dry compressed air flowing to its constituents on demand.

Blood Clots & Plaque Buildup: Restrictions to flow, be they clogged filters, faulty regulators or undersized pipework, cause unhealthy high-pressure requirements at the compressor room to overcome. Even with this compensation, the end uses may still receive a poor flow of compressed air during peak demand (when a plant’s compressed air equipment and piping receive their biggest workout). Internal Bleeding: Leakage of life-giving compressed air makes your compressors work harder, which leads to system inefficiency. The level of this leakage can increase undetected over time to a point where pressure falls and additional air compressors are required. See a specialist The good news is that even if your compressed air system is suffering from one or more of these conditions, there’s still hope. The doctor does make house calls. Compressed air specialists can attach instrumentation to your equipment and diagnose your problems. Like performing an EKG on a human patient, a specialist can pinpoint issues with your compressed air system and prescribe the right “medicine” to solve them. Contact yours today. More information on these topics can be found in the CAC online Library at, or in the Best Practices for Compressed Air Systems Manual that’s available through our online Bookstore. MT The Compressed Air Challenge® is a partner of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Industrial Technology programs. To learn more about its many offerings, log on to, or email:

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FOR ON THE FLOOR An outlet for the views of today’s capacity assurance professionals Rick Carter, Executive Editor

What’s Your Site’s Capacity For Disaster? Industrial professionals have always lived closer to the potential for disaster than average citizens. But the frequency and scope of catastrophic events today (from natural disasters to armed, disgruntled workers to fires and explosions) seem to defy conventional ability to prepare for them. We asked our Reader Panelists about the disaster preparedness of their own operations. Q: What type of disaster plan does your operation have in place? How effective do you believe it to be? “My company’s mandated emergency response plan covers natural or man-made disasters, with or without malicious intent. The plan has procedures for when to initiate the plan, roles and responsibilities and escalation. It is required to be tested and practiced periodically.” … Maintenance Engineer, West “Our site has an excellent disaster plan with a horn signal system. Our plants are split into zones, each with a different number of signal blasts. A full plant evacuation is signaled by a series of single blasts; a tornado by a solid three-minute blast. We have two evacuation drills per year and one tornado test. All trades people have specific roles in case of a disaster.” … PM Leader, Midwest “In an emergency, our system shuts down the entire plant and can be activated at several locations. Each location has a light that indicates when it is the one that was triggered, and each is tested regularly.  We have a safe zone outside the plant where workers are trained to gather when the alarm is sounded. And we have a sign-in/sign-out policy to verify who is in the plant at any given time, so if an emergency should occur we know who needs to be accounted for. We also have two underground storm shelters that will accommodate the number of people at the plant on a normal day.” … Senior Maintenance Mechanic, South

14 |


“In [my geographic area], the natural disasters we’re most likely to face are tornadoes, microbursts, heavy snow, forest fires and high winds. Otherwise, chemical leakage seems to be the main event most plants in this area train for, especially an ammonia spill. This type of training is done every few months and covers how to leave the building, what to shut down, personnel counts, final sweeps, 911 contacts, etc. Food-industry operations often contract with companies that can supply portable chilling and power units in an emergency.” … Former Senior Maintenance Engineer, now Teacher, West “Our plans feature a redundancy component for tank leaks with retaining/containment walls that are designed to contain leaks entirely within the building. When we’ve had leaks, these plans have worked.” … Lubrication Specialist, Midwest “We have a plant-wide evacuation plan and severe-weather alert tones.  Each section of the plant has a designated assembly area based on the type of alert issued. We test our systems quarterly and treat each drill as if it were real.” … Reliability/Maintenance Engineer, South “Our disaster plan considers issues such as extended electrical power outages, extended compressed air loss and extended chiller loss, though it has not been updated recently. Also, I am not aware of a plan that covers how to respond if our only facility access—a single bridge—collapses. We do not conduct drills.” … Maintenance & Facilities Project Specialist, New England “Our main concern with a natural disaster is the uncontrolled release of natural gas at high pressure.  To handle this, the entire station is equipped with an emergency shutdown: The flow



of gas to flares, boilers, etc., is cut off with solenoid valves, and gas piping is blocked off and blown down with hydraulic control valves. The plan also designates meeting areas for staff, and we have a sign-in/sign-out sheet to ensure all employees present are accounted for. All components of the emergency shutdown system are tested biannually.  Firearms are not allowed on-site and plant access is restricted.  The maintenance staff is actively involved in the disaster program through the repair of any faulty components in the emergency shutdown system, as well as monthly PMs that ensure all materials needed for disasters or spills are on-site and stocked.” … Storage Mechanic, South

“Take every situation into review. All [events] that could happen should have a plan to deal with that situation.” … Lubrication Specialist, Midwest

Q: What key elements should any disaster preparedness plan include?

A word from the witnesses Few Panelists have personally experienced on-the-job disasters, but those who have corroborate the need for plans built on real-world possibilities, not budget constraints or head-in-the-sand denials. For example, a Panelist who was on-site when a hurricane destroyed an industrial park reports there were no plans or preparations for such an event. Why? “Because management (which didn’t believe this could happen) didn’t want to spend any money.” Another says that only after a stray bullet came through the front-office window during hunting season did his plant post the property. Yet another Panelist described managers that preferred to see the plant in an ideal world, and insisted that a proffered list of worst-case conditions was way off base. But problems obey only one rule, he warns: “If conditions allow, the worst will happen.” MT

“Every plan should define the types of events that fall into the ‘disaster’ category and explain how and when to enact the emergency response plan. Specific people should be designated as leaders for specific situations, and leaders should know when to escalate from a plant response to one that involves local government or state emergency responders.” … Maintenance Engineer, West “The best way to prepare for any emergency is practice. Our fire-brigade members are required to have eight hours of training, which includes first-aid, fire-suppression and hazard-identification. Also, we meet during the year to review any calls that we’ve been involved in to see what went right and what could have been different.” … PM Leader, Midwest “A good plan will have clearly defined instructions that are regularly communicated and tested. It should detail who is covered by the plan, what they should do if a particular alarm is sounded, when they should respond to the alarm, how long they should assemble in the safe area, and the location of the safe area and how to reach it. There should be a roll call at each assembly area to ensure everyone is accounted for. There should also be a person designated to perform a sweep of each area to ensure everyone in a particular work area has been evacuated to safety.” … Reliability/Maintenance Engineer, South


“Have more than one action/option for each possible disaster scenario. Place printed copies in multiple locations both inside and outside the plant, such as town offices.” … Maintenance & Facilities Project Specialist, New England “Employee involvement and input is the most important part of any disaster plan.” … Storage Mechanic, South

About the MT Reader Panel The Maintenance Technology Reader Panel is comprised of working maintenance practitioners who have volunteered to answer bimonthly questions prepared by our editorial staff. Panelist identities are purposely not revealed, and their responses are not necessarily projectable. The Panel welcomes new members: Have your comments and observations included in this column by joining the Reader Panel at Click on “Reader Panel” under the “MT Resources” header, and follow the instructions. If accepted, you will automatically be entered into a drawing for a cash prize after one year of active participation.



The Root Cause Isn't Always A Solution What's your next move when things don't make sense?

Randall Noon, P.E.

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Failure is fundamentally a cause-and-effect relationship. This is represented by the following logic expression, where “A” is the cause and “B” is the failure—or effect:


(i) A => B i.e., if condition “A” occurs, “B” will then occur. In a simple failure, “A” can be a single factor, “A1”, acting alone that causes “B”. For example, if a bearing has been in service too long, but all other design and environmental conditions are good, the bearing will eventually fail due to age. In this case, “A1” is a simple causative factor related to service time. In a slightly more complicated failure, “A” can be a group of factors, labeled “A1, A2, A3,” etc., acting in a linear sequence, one after another like falling dominoes, that eventually cause “B” to occur. Beginning with “A1”, removal of any one of the “Ai” factors can interrupt the chain of events that lead to “B”. There are several root cause methodologies based upon this “domino” theory of failure. The following expression represents this: (ii) A1 => A2 => A3 => B For example, if a bearing is in service too long and fails due to age, the machine in which the bearing is used may also cease operating, which in turn causes the production line to stop. Using expression (ii), the service time is “A1”, the bearing is “A2”, the machine is “A3”, and the failure of the production line is “B”. Alternately, “A” can be a group of factors acting in parallel with one another like the famous fire triangle of oxygen, fuel and an ignition source. All three factors must be present at the same time for a fire to occur. Expression (iii) represents this: (iii) A1 + A2 + A3 => B Increased complexity As the complexity of failure increases, “A” can be composed of a combination of both linear and parallel factors acting at various times. When such a failure is diagrammed, it resembles a logic switching circuit—similar to the example illustrated in Fig. 1. Figure 1 depicts a nondescript failure, “B”, which has four causative factors: “A1”, “A2”, “A3”, and “A4”. Starting at the bottom and working up through the logic diagram, there are three failure scenarios that can result in “B”. They are as follows: First Failure Scenario: First, causal factor “A1” and “A2” both occur. With both factors present, the event path proceeds through gate 1, the green AND gate, to the next stage, gate 2, the yellow OR gate. Because gate 2 indicates that the event path can proceed if either “A3” occurs or both “A1” and “A2” occur, the event path continues through gate 2 to “A4”. This then causes “A4” to occur. When condition “A4” occurs, the event path continues again and causes “B”. FEBRUARY 2013

A4 2 1


A3 A2

Fig. 1. Failure diagrammed like a logic circuit

In shorthand notation, this failure pathway is represented as follows: (iv) (A1 + A2) => A4 => B Second Failure Scenario: Causal factor “A3” occurs first. With this factor present, the event path proceeds through gate 2 to “A4”. (Either “A1” or “A2” may be present. It doesn’t matter.) The preceding event, “A3”, then causes condition “A4” to occur, which in turn then causes “B”. In similar fashion, the shorthand notation for this failure pathway is as follows: (v) A3 => A4 => B Third Failure Scenario: This one is simple. For whatever reason, condition “A4” occurs first without any precedents. The occurrence of “A4” then causes “B”. The simple shorthand for this failure pathway is as follows: (vi) A4 => B MT-ONLINE.COM | 17


Preventing failure via typical root cause analysis Having laid out the failure scenarios for “B”, how can the failure be prevented using the usual type of root cause analysis? Consider the following possibilities.

Does your root cause process help determine the most cost-effective corrective action strategy, or does it merely assume that elimination of the root cause is the solution?

■ The simplest way is to remove factor “A4”. Removal of

this single factor, which is common to all the failure scenarios, definitely stops “B” from occurring. The other three causal factors can be allowed to occur or not occur. It makes no difference as long as “A4” is removed from the event path. But what if removing “A4” is a prohibitively expensive or risky option?

■ Removing either “A1” or “A2” could also prevent the

failure if factor “A3” does not occur. Perhaps “A3” occurs so infrequently that it can be left in place and just “A1” or “A2” needs to be removed to prevent failure. Perhaps the chance is worth taking, especially if the removal of either “A1” or “A2” is relatively cheap and easy.

■ Likewise, removing “A3” alone could prevent failure “B”

if there were assurances that “A1” and “A2” occurring at the same time is sufficiently infrequent. Since both “A1” and “A2” have to be present for “B” to occur without “A3”, the occurrence of one of the two factors can be tolerated without harm. Perhaps if “A1” were to occur, for example, there is sufficient time to fix it before “A2” can occur.

■ Removing all four identified causative factors, sometimes

known as the shotgun approach to problem solving, can prevent “B” from occurring. However, this would likely be the most expensive approach. You have options As the preceding example demonstrates, the prevention of failure “B” can be accomplished completely by two options: 1 and 4. On the other hand, perhaps failure “B” could also be reasonably prevented by assuming a small amount of risk with either option 2 or 3. So, which of the four options is best? If you’re involved in a capital project, the standard approach is to perform a feasibility assessment and weigh the various costs and risks. Does your root cause process include a similar assessment to determine which corrective action strategy is the most cost-effective, or does it assume that elimination of the “root cause” is always the solution? Such questions bring us to a significant issue that fuels much discussion and unnecessary consternation in root cause analysis: Which causal factor is the “root cause” of failure “B”? 18 |




â– Some methods suggest that the

causative factor or factors that first set in motion the failure scenario reflect the real root cause. By this definition, “A1� and “A2� could be the root causes. Then again, “A3� could also be the root cause if “A3� occurs first and “A1� and “A2� do not occur.

Identification of a root cause could vary, depending upon the specific method(s) used.

â– Some methods indicate that there

should be one, and only one, “root cause,� and that it is the one causative factor that when removed, completely stops the failure scenario. This would make the root cause in this case “A4�. ■Some methods indicate that the

real “root cause� is the one factor or factors over which you have control that precludes the failure. This might mean that all the identified causative factors are root causes or perhaps just one of the four. Depending upon which definition of “root cause� is used, any one of the four options in the preceding list could be considered a “root cause.� Now comes an additional dilemma. Many, if not most, root cause methods require a person to preclude failure from recurring by eliminating the root cause. In fact, the term “root cause analysis� itself suggests that the focus of the investigation is to find and eliminate the “root cause.� In shorthand notation, the solution strategy being assumed is this:




(vii) A => B eliminate “A� so that “B� doesn’t occur As demonstrated, however, in our simple example, finding and eliminating the “root cause,� as defined by whichever method is being applied, may not be the most cost-effective way to address the problem, especially if the failure can be caused by various combinations of the same factors.






Removing the “root cause” that caused “B” this time may preclude one failure scenario yet leave others in place. Further, the term “root cause analysis” itself is suggestive: It floats the idea that the goal of an investigation is to find and eliminate a “root cause” so that a specific failure will not recur. Unfortunately, this approach ignores two other potentially useful strategies. If the goal is to preclude recurrence of the failure rather than just find the “root cause,” there are three strategies that can be employed. ■ Prevent “B” from occurring by eliminating “A”. This, of

The term 'root cause analysis' is itself suggestive, in that it floats the idea that the goal of an investigation is to find and eliminate a root cause so that a specific failure will not recur.

course, is the essence of many, if not most, of the root cause analysis methods in use. A => B ■ Change the consequences of “B” so that when “A” occurs,

“B” may still occur but the consequences are tolerable. In other words, instead of eliminating the cause, eliminate the result. Note that if the deleterious effects of “B” are eliminated, it is not even necessary to know what the root cause is. A => B ■ Eliminate the link between “A” and “B”. Break the link,

perhaps by an intervention strategy, between the two events so that they are independent events. Thus, if “A” occurs, “B” does not automatically occur. A => B How it all works With respect to item 2 above, here is an example of how things can work. A nuclear station had regularly performed a required safety test of steam test stop valves in the middle of each run. During one such test, one of the re-heat test stop valves failed to operate. This occurred at the same time as a high-level alarm in the steam moisture separator. Because both the moisture high-level alarm and the stuck valve occurred at the same time (parallel events), the plant was required to SCRAM, that is, the reactor had to be shut down. A subsequent investigation found that the particular test steam stop valve had jammed because of manufacturing debris in the valve. A small machining chip had caused the piston-type valve to bind. The valve was a commercial-grade item, but was unique in design. Various plans were studied to prevent machining chips from being present in the valve and various replacement valves were considered. However, all these measures were costly and still did not provide the kind of assurance needed to prevent a SCRAM. 20 |


A closer look at the required safety test found that while it had to be performed at least once every 18 months, and had always been done at mid-cycle, it could be conducted any time in the cycle. Thus, the most cost-effective fix was to move this testing to the end of the cycle—which cost nothing. When the test was performed at the end of the run, if the valve jammed and there was a moisture alarm at the same time, the reactor would still be SCRAMed. But the reactor would be deliberately SCRAMed within minutes anyway for a planned maintenance outage. In other words, both the cause and effect were left in place, but the timing of the test was changed so that the consequence was no longer an issue. With respect to item 3, de-linking cause and effect, consider this nationally famous example. In 1949, there were about 42,000 cases of debilitating and sometimes deadly polio. Many of you reading this are too young to recall the iron lungs, the leg braces and crutches associated with polio. In the early 1950s and continuing, there was a national program to vaccinate children against polio. First, it was the Salk vaccine, and later the oral Sabin vaccine. Eventually, the number of polio cases in the U.S. dropped to zero. Vaccination didn't get rid of polio germs—the root cause. The germs are still there. Vaccination didn't cure the disease. Although treatment is better, there's still no cure for polio. The consequence is still there. The vaccine did, though, break the link between cause and consequence, and polio no longer causes grief to 42,000 families a year. MT Randy Noon is a Root Cause Team Leader at Nebraska's Cooper Nuclear Station. A noted author and frequent contributor to MT, he has been investigating failures for more three decades. Email: FYI: Noon will speak at MARTS 2013 on the troubling topic of why some root cause investigations fail. Be there. Register now at FEBRUARY 2013

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How Valero Refinery Achieved Best Maintenance Practices Paul Chandler Valero Refinery Wilmington, CA

Expanding asset management through expert services can add to savings, as well as improve work practices.

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etween 2004 and 2012, the Valero Wilmington Refinery saved more than $900,000 by applying technology to minimize the number of control valves repaired during three maintenance turnarounds. Plans had been made to overhaul more than 250 control valves, but only 28 were found to actually need that level of maintenance. Hundreds of man-hours were saved, and there was no delay getting back into production due to valve maintenance.



The positive results of this single program led to an expansion of the asset management technology through services provided by Emerson Process Management. Our goal was to improve maintenance without increasing the workload of an already-thin staff. As a result, we have rapidly implemented predictive maintenance and other best practices with confidence that the long-term interests of the refinery are being served. Ours is not a new facility, having been commissioned near Los Angeles in 1969. Valero’s Wilmington Refinery can process 80,000 barrels of high-sulfur heavy crude oil per day; with the purchase of gas oil, the refinery output maxes out at 135,000 barrels per day. This is done with a permanent staff of 440. Careful turnaround planning that begins up to two years in advance has been a hallmark of our growth and efficiency. Asset management An important factor in turnaround planning and execution has been Emerson’s AMS Suite: Intelligent Device Manager asset management software installed here in 2003. Smart field transmitters and digital valve controllers (DVCs) were connected to the distributed control system (DCS) through HART FTA panels. HART signals are passed through ELCON multiplexers and transmitted via fiber optics to the AMS Suite Server in the control room, where fieldgenerated information can be accessed, evaluated and used by Reliability Group personnel. Emerson’s local business partner, Caltrol, assisted in setting up the original 500-tag asset management system and has provided an onsite control valve asset manager for at least two years. He surveys all control valves, interprets valve diagnostics, assists in troubleshooting poorly performing valves, provides solutions to unresolved valve problems and makes recommendations to improve operations. At first, the server was employed to maintain an online library of documentation necessary to locate and work on control valves. This included manuals, P&IDs, photos, AutoCAD drawings, repair reports and special notes— but other capabilities for calibration management, configuration and diagnostics were neglected. Control-valve evaluation utilizing valve signatures was the other early use of AMS Device Manager software. Unique signatures, captured since 2004 on nearly 1000 new or recently repaired valves, regardless of manufacturer, are maintained in the database. During turnaround planning or any time a valve is suspected of lagging performance, a current signature is compared with the original looking for changes in performance as an indication of potential failure. FEBRUARY 2013

Previous planning was based largely on considering those valves that were “always pulled at turnaround.” Now, the on-site control valve asset manager works closely with the turnaround planners in determining exactly which valves really need to be pulled for repair and which ones can be left alone. In each of the last three turnarounds, the only valves pulled were the ones confirmed in this way as needing to be overhauled. As a result, only about one-tenth of the valves considered were actually pulled and repaired. The cost of on-site manpower plus Repair Center charges were avoided for every valve not pulled. The net value calculated in 2011 dollars was $914,853. Equally significant, all of the valves left in place have continued to perform flawlessly between turnarounds. Not one of those valves has failed in service, proving the benefit of comparing valve signatures. Implement services The value derived from AMS Device Manager in turnaround planning prompted us to consider ways to take advantage of other features of the upgraded 1500-tag system: “How,” we asked, “could we take this system to the next level and use it more in line with our strategy of predictive maintenance?” Caltrol’s answer was Emerson’s AMS Implement Services. This service group has helped the refinery move up to the next level of maintenance by providing the following services: ■ Prioritizing critical assets ■ Setting up a device-alert system ■ Configuring device polling rates based on priority ■ Developing key performance indicators (KPIs) ■ Offering written procedures and work-process instruction

At the close of 2011, each operations group met with the Emerson engineers to assign priority rankings to the assets in their respective unit, based on the operational criticality of each device, probability of failure (often related to severity of the service), safety and regulatory compliance. From that ranking, Implement Services determined the polling rates and alerts to be programmed into the asset management software. While alerts can be set up for all kinds of smart instrumentation, few devices other than DVCs are actively monitored in the Wilmington Refinery. More than 90% of our work is with control valves. If the performance of a device falls below an established norm, an alert is raised. A valve could be slow in responding, exceed travel deviation limits or lag in some other KPI. Continued on page 25 MT-ONLINE.COM | 23


Services Lead to Improved Asset Performance By Jane Alexander, Editor The compelling case study about the Valero Wilmington Refinery in the accompanying article isn't an isolated one. Emerson’s service offerings are helping other sites around the globe write their own success stories. Consider the following: At a major Midwest refinery. . . A long pump-repair backlog and unclear maintenance work processes were among the existing problems leading to a series of unplanned environmental, health and safety (EHS) events, culminating in a serious pump fire in 2008. The refinery’s vibration monitoring program was only partially effective, advanced analysis techniques were not used and no limits were in place to shut down a pump showing signs of severe degradation. Fortunately, management viewed the situation as an opportunity to engage in a number of pump-improvement initiatives. The first step was a gap analysis conducted by Emerson’s Asset Optimization Services group. The existing condition monitoring and maintenance program came under considerable scrutiny, leading to identification of several issues that were corrected through organizational changes or technology. The use of advanced portable vibration data collector/analyzers and predictive maintenance software was expanded. The refinery established alarm limits, identified key performance indicators (KPI) and integrated vibration data with the OSI/ PI database. Rotating equipment engineers and technicians received training to strengthen their understanding of pump vibration and its impact on operations. In addition, the pump-repair backlog was reduced by employing outside contractors.

A separate but related program to improve pump reliability incorporated a new root cause failure analysis (RCFA) procedure that led to better hardware, better operating methods and better maintenance. Using improved diagnostics, pump repairs are now done right the first time, pumps run longer and fewer repairs are necessary in the long run. Finally, better vibration analyses and predictive decision-making have essentially eliminated costly unplanned EHS events. The overall program resulted in an 18 percent improvement in mean time between repairs over an 18-month period up to March 2011. At the Emirates National Oil Co. (ENOC), wholly owned by the Government of Dubai. . . Asset Optimization Services personnel established a program to protect essential assets from unexpected failure and assure their long-term, high-performance operation. The program called for Emerson technicians to collect and analyze vibration data on more than 400 rotating assets, including pumps, compressors, and fans. Many are critical to maintaining uninterrupted production. Over the past 10 years, this service has proven its value many times. For example, when excessive vibration led to the identification of misalignment on a critical pumping unit that moves gas oil product from a gas oil stripper to the diesel oil drawing unit, the pump was taken out of service as soon as possible. If the problem had not been detected through advanced analysis, an unexpected breakdown would have occurred eventually, forcing a shutdown and causing substantial financial losses due to emergency repairs and lost production.

At the SECCO Petrochemical Co., in Shanghai, China. . . Here, Emerson’s Asset Optimization Services group conducted a site audit to find solutions to several challenges. The study included an assessment of the process technology and the current level of automation, as well as a benchmark gap analysis designed to reveal areas of improvement. Recommended actions included making better use of diagnostic information generated by smart field devices in the plant, adopting a predictive maintenance strategy to cut reactive maintenance to just 10%, and improving internal communication of maintenance information. AMS Suite asset management software was implemented to optimize a maintenance program driven by diagnostics accessed from 1000 key field instruments and control valves. These assets were prioritized by a criticality ranking according to the needs of the process. The priority assigned to each determined the scope and timing of the maintenance provided, whether predictive or preventive. Plant personnel now use information from all available sources to determine which assets might be failing and estimate how long the process can continue to run without risking an unplanned shutdown. Cost-effective corrective measures are then employed. The optimized maintenance strategy promotes a clear understanding of critical asset health and how to apply this knowledge to protect the plant over the long term. As a result, according to Emerson, the reliability improvements and production increases can be sustained. In fact, unscheduled shutdowns in this plant have been essentially eliminated, and availability is now greater than 98%. For more info, enter 02 at

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Continued from page 23 Each day, a technician checks for alerts that may have come up within the previous 24 hours. Those are reviewed by Reliability Group personnel and the on-site asset manager to determine if a condition that must be acted upon is emerging. Often, it’s worthwhile to simply know that certain assets are performing below par so they can be watched for signs of further deterioration. In some cases, corrective adjustments can be made online or at the valve. If failure of a critical valve is imminent, action is taken immediately to avoid an unplanned shutdown. Without question, this kind of predictive maintenance has proved to be beneficial, minimizing costs and improving reliability. After about eight months of operation, online alerts have prevented operating problems at least six times, avoiding emergency situations and saving substantial amounts of money. Increased security is another benefit. In the past, our AMS technician could log into the asset management system and manipulate valves or change the configuration of a transmitter. Our work process required a work order and permit for work to be done in the area, but no separate password other than the standard user access to the AMS server was required. Now, AMS-administrator access to these instruments is limited to a restricted list of supervisors—and only a few persons are qualified to evaluate control valves and write instructions. Even the technician who checks the Alert Monitor on a daily basis can’t write instructions to a valve. According to our Best Practice rules, technicians must obtain permission in terms of a work-order approved by the operations department. Then, he/she goes to the unit operations manager or maintenance supervisor to get a working window FEBRUARY 2013

(usually three hours) before going into the field to perform the required maintenance. No one can work on an operating control valve without the necessary approvals, so a valve position cannot be changed without the knowledge of control-room personnel. This conforms with work practices recommended by Emerson. Expanding the power Understanding the power of asset management has come with experience and familiarity with its full capabilities. As a result, use of this tool is expanding throughout the refinery, including the use of instrument diagnostics to evaluate more and more critical assets. In many areas, old FTA panels don’t have HART connections, so wireless networks are being evaluated to possibly serve the asset management system. Long-term, having the wireless structure in place will bring further benefits, but for now, we are just looking to monitor additional devices. As a progressive company, Valero is leveraging the new work practices to other refineries. That’s a nice confirmation of the value of predictive maintenance and the best practices now in place here. MT Paul Chandler is Senior Instrument Engineer at the Valero Wilmington Refinery.

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Lubrication Checkup Synthetics For Ammonia Compressors By Dr. Lube, aka Ken Bannister


“Dear Dr. Lube: In the past we’ve always used mineral oil to lubricate the ammonia-refrigerant compressors that operate our ice rinks. As part of our sustainability program, I have been asked to review the use of synthetic lubricants. Are these available for refrigeration compressors? Can I expect benefits to offset their cost?”

Diagnosis: The life of a compressor lubricant is not easy! A regular mineral-based oil can deteriorate quickly. Deterioration leads to oxidation-caused carbon, gum and varnish buildups that result in excessive wear of all mechanical moving parts, increased energy costs and reduced compressor efficiency and availability.



Higher revenues, increased reliability: special oils made by Klüber Lubrication help you achieve these goals through long maintenance intervals, high efficiency and lasting component protection — even at the gear’s performance limit. Together we can increase the efficiency and reliability of your mechanical systems. Klüber Lubrication North America L.P. wind3 your global specialist

A variety of synthetic compressor fluids for large commercial ammonia refrigeration systems have been formulated to relieve many of the problems associated with volatile solvent-refined paraffinic and naphthenic mineral oils, including: ■ Wax deposit problems at very low temperatures ■ Excessive oil consumption resulting from oil carry over into the refrigerant

low-temperature side ■ Premature oxidation causing oil thickening, deposits and sludge formation

In large commercial refrigeration operations, temperatures can be lower than -60 F (-51 C). Synthetics provide the viscosity stability required for dealing with the extreme hot and cold temperatures. They’re also less soluble in ammonia refrigerant than their mineral counterparts and can significantly reduce oil consumption and subsequent refrigerant contamination effects. Compared to typical mineral-based lubricants with a recommended maximum life of 3000 hours, synthetics are often rated for up to 8000 hours, thus reducing downtime, maintenance and environmental impact. Synthetic-oil manufacturers also claim energy savings of up to 4%. Your choice of synthetic type will usually vary among polyalphaolefins, alkyl benzines, polyol esters and polyalkylene glycols. Selection is based on compressor type, operating conditions, oil-separator efficiency and system design. To learn if a synthetic is right for your application, discuss the refrigeration-system design with your lubricant supplier. Based on that information, the vendor can develop a business case with a return-on-investment statement that will allow you to determine if the change meets the needs of your sustainability program. MT Lube questions? Ask Dr. Lube, aka Ken Bannister, author of the book Lubrication for Industry and the Lubrication section of the 28th edition Machinery’s Handbook. He’s also a contributing editor for Maintenance Technology and Lubrication Management & Technology. E-mail:

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BIG MONEY TALKS XX UM UM William C. “Bill” Livoti

Power Generation 2013


012 was quite a year for change in the power industry. What can we expect in 2013? The keynote speakers at Power-Gen advised the attendees to expect changes, but what will they look like? Here’s a brief run-down: ■ Industry executives (decision-makers) expect an

increase in combined-cycle natural-gas power generation. Capacity factors for these plants will also increase. ■ Coal-fired power generation is expected to decrease

from a high of 52% to around 35% by the year 2030. ■ Nuclear power will retain 21% of the generating

capacity in the US with a couple of new plants under construction after a 30-year hiatus. In spite of the negative press, nuclear power continues to develop new technology. There is quite a bit of interest in small modular reactor (SMR) technology, for which benefits include faster licensing and lower cost. ■ Renewable energy is expected to provide 24% of

power generation worldwide by 2035. It appears wind-generation tax credits have been extended for another year. This extension will cover all wind projects that begin construction in 2013. Had the tax credits been extended earlier in 2012, wind generation could have seen 8 Gigawatts of new construction in 2013. Unfortunately, the delay in extending the credits means only 8000 to 8500 MW will reach the construction stage this year. ■ Solar photovoltaic is growing in leaps and bounds

as the cost per KWH continues to drop. Photovoltaic will also play a major role in distributed generation as increasing numbers of homeowners and businesses install the technology. ■ Geothermal, biomass and tidal and wave tech-

nology will also play a role. How large that role may be remains to be seen, as a majority of funding is being focused on solar and wind development.

The long view of coal What’s to become of our coal-fired power plants? The technology has an uphill battle to fight in dealing with special interest groups, EPA (Clean Air and Clean Water Act) and fly ash issues. Few utilities are willing to take the risk of investing billions in new coal-fired generation without clear, defined regulations from our government. A number of large utilities have targeted older coal plants for decommissioning over the next few years, which will result in reduced capacity. However, due to the downturn in our economy and successful implementation of state, local and federal energyefficiency programs, power demand has decreased, minimizing the impact of reduced generation.

While coal technology has an uphill battle to fight with special interest groups, the EPA and fly ash issues, it should remain a power-gen staple for the foreseeable future, just with a smaller piece of the pie. The changing landscape In a nutshell, we will see more combined-cycle natural-gas-fired power plants with a mix of wind and solar. Coal will remain a staple for the foreseeable future, albeit with a smaller piece of the pie. Is this a good mix? I’m not so sure; remember the 1990s and the big push for natural gas? At least we have alternatives. UM Bill Livoti is Power-Generation Business Development Manager for WEG Electric Corp. and Electric Machinery Co., Inc. For more info, enter 261 at

VOLUME 82 / NO. 12



Split Roller Bearings Handle Greater Loads


ooper Roller Bearings has increased load capacities of many of its split roller bearings to levels higher than any split roller bearings of similar size, with L10 life that is 23% to 135% longer (depending on size). These new 01E (medium-duty) and 02E (heavy-duty) bearings are fully interchangeable with Cooper’s 01 and 02 Series bearings, yet provide up to 29% more radial capacity and 16% to 90% more axial load capacity. The increased life and capacities are due primarily to changes in internal geometry. Featuring the same superior sealing and energy-efficiency as their counterparts in the 01 and 02 Series, they also share the same exterior dimensions, giving users more capacity in the same space. Rugged brass cages make the 01E and 02E bearings suitable for service underground and in other challenging environments. Typical applications include mining equipment, industrial fans, conveyors and power generation.

The Cooper Split Roller Bearing Corp. Norfolk, VA

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Packing Solution Reduces Flush Rates


hesterton’s SuperSet has been specifically designed to increase packing and equipment service life while dramatically reducing flush rates. It combines the sealing capabilities of the company’s Mechanical Packing products (including enhanced performance, sealibility, leak prevention, chemical compatibility, strength, toughness and thermal characteristics) with the patented design of the EnviroSeal SpiralTrac™ Version P Environmental Controller for Packed Stuffing Boxes. The SpiralTrac Version P enhances the utilization of the flow and centrifugal effects around the shaft by performing like a centrifugal separator. The built-in tangential lantern ring and helical grooving system impart motion to the flush, and the resulting centrifugal force throws the particulates in the fluid to the outside of the bushing. The SpiralTrac grooving system then hydrodynamically pumps the solids to the bottom of the stuffing box and back into the pump casing. A.W. Chesterton Co. Woburn, MA

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AODD Accessories Boost Pump Efficiency


arren Rupp’s SANDPIPER brand has launched a new, improved line of Air Filter/Regulators and Lubricators for air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps. Features include a liquidfilled pressure gauge, as well as accessories such as lockout valves and mounting bracket kits. These point-of-use Air Filter/Regulators have been specifically developed to reduce maintenance and lower operating costs. The addition of a Filter/Regulator will help prevent dirty, wet and contaminated compressed air from decreasing the performance of an AODD unit, and SANDPIPER recommends the use of these items with all of their pumps. Although the company’s AODD pumping equipment is designed to operate without lubrication, in applications with poor-quality air supplies or where nitrogen runs the pump, lubrication of the compressed air is required. For these situations, SANDPIPER offers a full-line of Lubricators that easily connect to its Filter/Regulators. Warren Rupp, Inc. A Unit of IDEX Corp. Mansfield, OH 30 | UTILITIES MANAGER

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Analyze Power And Quantify Energy Losses


ccording to Fluke, its 430 Series II Three-Phase Power Quality and Energy Analyzers not only offer exceptional power-quality analysis capabilities, they introduce, for the first time, the ability to monetarily quantify energy losses. The models in the Series II (the 434, 435 and 437) help locate, predict, prevent and troubleshoot powerquality problems in three-phase and single-phase power-distribution systems. Incorporating what the company calls revolutionary functions, they can help a facility reduce electrical-power consumption and improve the performance and lifespan of its electro-mechanical equipment. Capabilities include: ◆ Frontline troubleshooting: Quickly diagnose problems on-screen. ◆ Energy loss management: Measure and quantify causes of energy losses to enable simple ROI, calculation of harmonics and unbalance mitigation. ◆ Power inverter efficiency: Simultaneously measure AC input and DC output for power electronics systems. ◆ Dynamic load testing: Capture instantaneous values to see the effect of load switch on generators and UPS systems. ◆ Capture fast RMS data: Show halfcycle and waveforms to characterize electrical system dynamics. ◆ Predictive maintenance: Detect and prevent power-quality issues before they cause downtime. ◆ Quality of service compliance: Validate incoming power quality at the service entrance. ◆ Long-term analysis: Uncover hard-to-find or intermittent issues. ◆ Load studies: Verify electrical system capacity before adding loads. Fluke Corp. Everette, WA

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Wireless Pump Control Goes Mobile


rundfos North America has launched the Grundfos GO, a combination of a mobile interface and free app that provides intuitive wireless pump control. To manage pumps by remote control, users need only to download the app from the App Store or Google Play and connect the mobile interface to an iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch or Android smartphone. They can then copy profiles to new pumps, generate installation reports, request status data, adjust pump settings and receive alarms and warnings, as well as monitor a live data feed from the pumps that includes duty points, historical data, power consumption, pump speed and temperature. The app also provides round-the-clock access to exhaustive product information via Grundfos GO CAPS, a mobile version of the company’s product database that, among other things, allows users to select replacement pumps on site at any time. Grundfos Pumps Corp. Olathe, KS VOLUME 8 / NO. 1

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Part II Conclusion

The Plant Manager As Change Agent:

DEFINING THE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM The plant manager can’t succeed without a well-defined maintenance program. Here’s how to make things happen. Paul D. Tomlingson Paul D. Tomlingson Associates, Inc.


art I of this article in the January 2013 issue of MT explained two key connections that must be made for improvements to take hold: First, a solid maintenance program is required. Second, the plant manager drives the creation of a solid maintenance program, along with the plant culture needed to support cross-departmental cooperation. In this concluding installment, the author details how to define a world-class maintenance program. There’s much more to that definition than management might think. By sharing it with your plant manager, you can help him/her help you.

32 |




Defining the maintenance program requires careful assessment of the audience to which the program applies. Program definition must be presented in a clear, concise way that everyone will understand, because maintenance requires the support of all plant personnel. Avoid using a 2-inch-thick binder that no one will read. There are simpler techniques, including flowcharts. (A particularly effective one with supporting documentation can be found at, in the online version of this article.) Finally, remember that the best way for supervisors to explain a program to crew members is by way of commonly understood terminology.

The objective of explaining the maintenance program is to ensure that each person understands how his individual role fits into it. No one can be omitted from this process. Remember that the electrician who fills in when his supervisor is on vacation may be the one who unintentionally fails to follow a critical procedure because he did not get the word. To best explain the process, our experience suggests that a combination of a schematic diagram and a legend works effectively. For example, consider the preventive maintenance portion of the total maintenance program in Fig. 2 and its explanation.

9 Advise of Deficiencies



Advise of PM Services Due


8 12



Assist Crew

Perform Services






Do Now



Assign Services


13 2

Static PM Services Due


Dynamic PM Services Due


1 Fig. 2. Conduction of preventive maintenance (PM) services for fixed plant equipment: (1) The information system prescribes services required when and how. (2) PM services are static (require shutdown) or dynamic services (while running). (3) Static services are integrated into the weekly schedule. (4) Dynamic services are done at the discretion of the maintenance supervisor during the week they are scheduled. (5) The maintenance supervisor assigns services to individual crew members. (6) Crew members perform services according to instructions. (7) Crew members confer with operators to learn of current equipment condition. (8) Operators assist by describing equipment problems. (9) Operations supervisors are advised of equipment deficiencies. (10) Deficiencies are reviewed by the maintenance supervisor with crew member and converted into work as follows: (11) Emergency repairs (supervisor assigns at first opportunity). (12) Work to be planned (supervisor forwards to planner based on planning criteria). (13) Unscheduled repairs (entered in work-order system pending first opportunity to complete). In similar fashion, the additional specifics of requesting, classifying, planning, scheduling, assigning, controlling and measuring maintenance work, and then assessing performance, must be communicated across the total operation. FEBRUARY 2013



The information system The information system is only the communications network that provides information to control internal maintenance activities and inter-departmental actions while also providing information to manage total plant operation. Be aware that the work-order system is part of the overall information system, not just the maintenance department. This system applies equally to work done by any and all departments. Choose an information system that matches what the plant actually does as depicted in the program. Do not allow the choice process to be overly influenced by accounting, and be aware that some maintenance departments may need substantial help to transition to a modern information system. Also, be careful that the maintenance team leader does not assume that a new CMMS will be the single, longsought solution to all of his problems. The critical information required to manage maintenance consists of five elements:

#2. Work-order status is an overview of the cost and performance of individual major planned and scheduled jobs, from inception to completion. #3. Backlog is the estimated man-hours by craft required to complete all identified but unfinished planned and scheduled work. The backlog is represented by a series of formal work orders whose labor, material and equipment resources have been identified and the work is ready to be scheduled when operations can make its equipment available. The backlog 34 |




Estimated MH crafts 1, 2 and 3

#1. Control of labor is the most important indicator of maintenance performance. The only way maintenance can control the cost of the work they do is the efficiency with which they install materials. They have no control over equipment damage caused by improper operation of equipment, for example. Maintenance cost control is accomplished primarily by maximizing the amount of work that is planned. Preventive maintenance (PM) services, such as inspection, testing and condition monitoring, find equipment problems in advance of equipment failure. The leadtime gained allows sufficient time to plan work before new work can degenerate into emergency repairs and equipment failure. Planned work assures higher-quality work and longer periods before similar repairs are required. This extends equipment life and reduces the rate of material consumption. Planned work is completed more efficiently, using less labor and more productively in less elapsed time. As a result, planned work, when compared with similar unplanned work, is completed with less labor cost and significantly reduced down time. The quality of labor control is verified by measuring worker productivity.


TIME (Weeks) Fig. 3. Over an eight-week period, backlog has increased. During this time, estimated man-hours of Craft 1 have grown significantly, pointing to a need for more personnel. Craft 2 has too many people, indicated by a backlog decrease. Craft 3 has enough personnel, as backlog is constant. These trends indicate a need to adjust workforce size and craft composition.

determines the degree to which maintenance is keeping up with the generation of new work, and allows adjustment of workforce size and composition as workloads change. Figure 3 illustrates how the backlog can be used to determine staffing needs. #4. Repair history is the chronological list of significant repairs made on critical equipment. It is used to identify and correct chronic, repetitive problems and failure trends. It also identifies the life span of critical components so future replacements can be forecasted and components replaced at optimum times. #5. Cost summaries are descriptions of actual costs versus budgeted costs by cost center on a monthly and year-todate basis. Detailed cost reports identify the cost of labor and materials by unit (truck) and component (engine) on a monthly and year-to-date basis. FEBRUARY 2013




Cost Detail: Unit, component




Cost Summary: Area, system




Repair History: What, when, how, why Work Order: Exact job detail


Structure of information Fig. 4. In this illustration, the KPI indices appear at the apex of the information triangle. They permit the plant manager, upon seeing inadequate performance, to pose questions to maintenance. With quality information, maintenance can examine cost summaries to identify the offending cost center or area, consult cost detail to identify the unit and component at fault, and scrutinize repair history and work-order detail to pinpoint and correct underlying causes. Then, after formulating proper corrective actions, maintenance can respond to the plant manager with the actions taken to improve performance. The cycle repeats as the plant manager continues to observe the indices to confirm actual improvement.

Use of KPIs KPIs—key performance indicators—are often used to identify performance trends, but care must be observed in their meaning and use. Any performance index requires that complete, timely and accurate information be available to correct the inadequacies identified by the indices (see Fig. 4). Plant managers should always verify that the information system can provide the data from which KPIs are developed. Then they must ensure that the information system provides the actual information necessary to correct or improve the problem identified by the indices. Use of the above procedures will enable plant managers to ensure the existence, development and effective utilization of a quality maintenance program. And, as shown in Part I, this is a fundamental contribution to long-term plant profitability. MT Paul D. Tomlingson is the Principal of Paul D. Tomlingson Associates, Inc., based in Denver, CO. Eighty-two years young, he's been working as a worldwide maintenance consultant for almost 45 years. Email: For more info, enter 04 at FEBRUARY 2013

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TECHNOLOGY SHOWCASE On the horizon and moving toward you...

Automation Solutions Flexible, Extended-Height Gauging System


enishaw’s Equator 300 Extended Height comparative gauge doubles the space below the measuring volume of the company’s original model, providing a 300-mm height to accept tall parts or those attached to machining fixtures. The additional space also facilitates automated part handling with robots and conveyors. The system can inspect features on parts up to 300 mm tall, with rapid changeover to smaller parts using an extended fixture plate spacer. Equator is a lightweight, highly repeatable gauge that can switch between parts in seconds, making it suited for flexible manufacturing processes or for accepting parts from multiple machines. An Equator-specific stylus changing rack, included with the system, allows automated in-cycle changing of SH25 stylus holders. Up to six stylus combinations can be loaded into the rack at any time. Renishaw, Inc. Hoffman Estates, IL

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Extended-Rating Drives


ockwell Automation has extended the ratings of its Allen-Bradley PowerFlex 755 AC drives to 1500 kW/2000 Hp. The high-power drives are suited for applications from simple variable speed and variable torque control to those requiring constant torque control. The latest frame extension delivers the same control capabilities of earlier high-power models, such as 400/480/600/690 volt ratings and N-1 technology. With N-1 technology, users can configure the PowerFlex 755 high-power drive to use one, two or three power structures. This gives the redundancy and advanced control needed to manage load changes, protect equipment and keep the drive running in the event of a power failure. Like all PowerFlex 755 drives, the latest includes an embedded Ethernet port and multiple option slots.

Rockwell Automation Milwaukee, WI

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Adaptable, Modular I/O System


he XI/ONTM modular input/ output (I/O) system from Eaton is designed for decentralized signal processing and provides adaptable I/O options. It includes XN and the XNE series of I/O modules. The XN Series provides modularity with hotswappable plug-in modules, while the XNE series provides integrated I/O modules and bases in higher density configurations. The XI/ON system also includes a host of digital, analog and technology modules. A programmable CANopen gateway delivers PLC power to the fieldbus terminal. Engineered to handle decentralized automation tasks, the gateway relieves the load of higherlevel PLCs. A configuration and diagnostics tool, I/O assistant, provides interactive support and can be used to plan and implement installation. Eaton Corp. Pittsburgh, PA

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POWERFUL STATIC ELIMINATORS EXAIR’S Super Ion Air Knife™ removes static electricity from webs, sheet stock and plastic surfaces where dust, tearing, jamming or hazardous shocks are a problem. The balanced laminar airflow of the Super Ion Air Knife effectively eliminates static at distances up to 20 feet away. Production speeds, product quality and surface cleanliness can improve dramatically. Other styles include Ion Air Cannon, Ion Air Gun, Ion Air Jet, Ionizing Bars and Ionizing Point. Applications include web cleaning, pre-paint blowoff, bag opening and neutralizing plastic parts.

EXAIR Corporation 11510 Goldcoast Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45249-1621 Phone (800) 903-9247 Fax (513) 671-3363 E-mail: Internet: For more info, enter 80 at

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Top Troubleshooting Method For Motors Howard W. Penrose, Ph.D., CMRP Vice President, Dreisilker Electric Motors, Inc.




s shown in the accompanying chart, the top-ranked method for troubleshooting electric motors, as reported in the 2013 Motor Diagnostics and Motor Health (MDMH) study, was visual inspection, followed by insulation-resistance testing. Interestingly, in 2003, the first MDMH study also identified these as the top two methods, albeit with the order reversed (i.e., insulation resistance took the top spot).

Source: 2013 Motor Diagnostics and Motor Health (MDMH) Study

Visual inspections are more important than most people realize. They’re more effective than instrument tests because the human eye can detect broken parts, overheated insulation and missing grounds; other senses, such as touch and smell, can detect a number of different problems. In fact, several standards call out visual inspections, including IEEE 1068-2006 (motor repair) and IEEE 432-1992 (insulation testing and maintenance). When making decisions related to the condition, reliability or troubleshooting of your machines, it’s crucial to remember that visual inspection findings are more important than electrical or mechanical tests, not the other way around. This is one reason why a machine-experienced technician should take data or make inspections when evaluating electric motors. MT Dr. Howard Penrose is VP of Engineering and Reliability Services for Dreisilker, Webmaster of the IEEE Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society, and Director of Outreach of the Society for Maintenance & Reliability Professionals (SMRP). For more info, enter 08 at

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Ensuring That Your Electric Motor Repairs Are Complete C

Special to MT

ascade Machinery Vibration Solutions points out that there’s an easy way to measure motor condition and reliability—with an emphasis on “easy.” It’s referring to the Easy-Laser® E-Series system that lets a motor shop record a unit’s condition before and after repair, as well as provide full documentation that indicates changes throughout the life of the motor. Full documentation without extensive setup Until recently, most motor stators could only be measured in repair shops after extensive setup. Moreover, that type of difficult setup meant most 2-pole electric motors would just get measured when a vibration issue was reported. The EasyLaser E-Series system has changed this equation: As shown in the accompanying photos, crucial measurements can now be made on the shop floor with NO special setup. But that’s not the only benefit for motor shops and end-users:

n The Easy-Laser E-Series system gives the end-user a new

parameter by which to measure motor condition and reliability. Measuring parallelism of the stator centerline compared to the feet has been simplified with this package. Through such measurement, the client is able to verify that all repairs have been completed and within allowable tolerances. When the motor is tested in the shop and recorded, there will be fewer questions as to what was repaired (and how). n A large motor can be in service for 20 years or more—

with a repair scheduled every seven years on average. Depending on the unit’s type of service, it could be started many times within a year. This generates uneven heat and distortion typically not measured until a real problem arises. With the Easy-Laser E-Series system, the motor could be checked at each repair interval, over the life of the motor. 40 |


n The Easy-Laser E-Series system has the ability to doc-

ument the ovality of the stator. There are tolerances for ovality (out of round) of a motor stator before it must be corrected. Until now, this has been manually measured and documented. Think of the Easy-Laser® E-Series system as extra insurance—and peace of mind—when it comes to your large, expensive motors. As Cascade notes, in the past, there was no simple solution for ensuring the complete repair of these types of motors. Now there is. MT

About Cascade Machinery Vibration Solutions (MVS) Cascade MVS (part of Cascade Analytic, LLC) is the U.S. Master Distributor for Easy-Laser®, “the total alignment solution.” The company offers a wide range of machinery-health products and services backed up by a “No Cure No Pay” policy. For more details, visit Cascade Analytic, LLC USA Dickinson, TX For more info, enter 30 at FEBRUARY 2013



From Cascade Machinery Vibration Solutions (MVS) When a motor is installed in the field, the four points of contact (motor feet) need to be co-planar and parallel to the stator center line. This evaluation has typically been performed on a test bed at the motor shop. Using feeler gauges, the technician will check contact to the test plate at each motor foot. Most shops will accept up to .002” total across all feet. The magnetic field of a 2-pole motor is not strong enough to hold the rotor in the center should the motor not be mounted level. This will cause the rotor to shift in the axial direction. With large motors, there is as much as .500” float within the motor and when using flexible element couplings, this can cause a preload on the elements.


Before performing an alignment, the motor should be set on the magnetic center. The DBSE (distance between shaft ends) should be set correctly when using flexible element couplings, typically with .010”-.015” of pre-stretch, not compression. (Consult the coupling manufacturer.) When the motor feet are not all in the same plane, it can cause the motor frame to distort and misalign the rotor and stator center lines. This causes a vibration at twice the frequency of the incoming supply power, 2x Line Frequency or 120Hz. This sometimes can be heard when standing near the motor as a beat frequency. It’s important to verify that the rotor and stator are centered. This is typically verified once the rotor is installed. Feeler gauges are used to check radial clearances around both ends of the rotor/stator.



Housing With Multiple Connection Options For Timers And Monitors

Channel Grinder With Increased Flow Through



new housing for ABB’s CT-S range of time relays and CM range of measuring and monitoring relays features two connection options: DoubleChamber Cage Connection terminals and Push-in terminals. Double-Cage Connection terminals use screw technology and can be connected with two wires of different diameters up to 14 AWG, solid or stranded, with or without wire-end ferrules. Push-in terminals feature springclamp, Easy-Connect technology, which allows timers and monitors to be wired without tools. They are suitable for solid or stranded wires up to 20-16 AWG. The industrial housings complement other ABB din rail products, and all models meet UL standards for voltages up to 690V. ABB Low Voltage Products New Berlin, WI

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he Moyno® Annihilator™ C3A channel grinder is now available in 40” and 60” models. According to the company, the new versions produce an average of 30% more flow through due to high-flow side rails and a lower-profile bottom housing. The revamped models offer the same design and features as the company’s smaller units, and have an added intermediate bearing for greater service life. Moyno, Inc. A unit of Robbins & Myers, Inc. Springfield, OH For more info, enter 32 at

ENGINEERED TO SERVE INDUSTRY MAINTENANCE At Revere, we engineer controls for an incredible range of industrial applications. From mining conveyor controls to 15 kV switchgear and plant wide PLC systems for municipal, industrial and energy applications. System upgrades, expansions, and maintenance. Control your systems. Control your business.

Fuel-Efficient Air Compressor


tlas Copco’s XAS 1800 JD7 air compressor is designed for applications requiring a high volume of air at medium pressure. Compliant with Tier 4 EPA emission regulations, the compressor produces 1800 cfm at 100 psi (7 bar) and 1600 cfm at 150 psi (10 bar). A large display and intuitive design provide ease of use. With the optional FuelXpert fuelsaving system, engine speed and air-inlet valve can be electronically regulated to optimize fuel consumption. CONTROL SYSTEMS T 1.205.824.0004


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Atlas Copco Rock Hill, SC For more info, enter 33 at FEBRUARY 2013


Thermoplastic Basket Strainers For Piping System Components


latinum GF-PP (Glass Filled Polypropylene) SB Series Basket Strainers are designed to protect critical piping-system components such as pumps, filters and flow meters from particulate and debris. The series is available in sizes up to 4”, with true unionthreaded or flanged-end connections. Vessels feature a maximum pressure rating of 150 psi at 70 F non-shock, with a maximum service temperature of 240 F. Other features include FPM or EPDM O-Rings and Seals, and an ergonomic hand-removable cover. Hayward Flow Control Clemmons, NC

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Portable Four-Gas Detector


oneywell’s IQ Force™ multi-gas detector is available as part of the company’s IQ Management System for portable gas detection. The detector can function as a base-model four-gas detector for meeting compliance requirements, or as an extension of the IQ Management docking station for automated bump test, calibration and recharging. It monitors O2, LEL, CO and H2S gas hazards, and can remotely send email notifications of an alarm. Honeywell Analytics Distribution, Inc. Lincolnshire, IL For more info, enter 36 at FEBRUARY 2013

Cart-Mounted Temporary Power System


he MGL25-8C-480120V-GFI Temporary Power Distribution System converts three-phase 480V current to usable single-phase 240V AC and 120V AC for applications where operators must tap into high voltages independently of the local grid. Safeguarded by fused and integrated GFI breakers, the portable substation provides multiple outlets and includes 50’ of line power cord fitted with a 480V 60amp 3ph/4 wire plug. An optional glass door allows for quick visual inspection. Larson Electronics, LLC Kemp, TX For more info, enter 35 at


Leonova Diamond is the latest proof of our commitment to developing first class condition monitoring products for more profitable maintenance. Use SPM HD for accurate rolling element bearing analysis. Reduce data collection time with tri-axial vibration measurements. Add balancing, laser alignment, orbit analysis and much more, all in a rugged and lightweight instrument. For a total Condition Monitoring package, contact us today! Tel. 1-800-505-5636 For more info, enter 85 at



USB Port Hub For Harsh Environments

S’s 7-port USB 3.0 hub (ST7300USBM) enables users to add multiple external USB 3.0 connection ports to a PC, server or thin client located in industrial operating environments. The hub features a solid metal chassis for harsh conditions, 350W surge protection on each port and can be mounted to a wall or DIN rail. USA LLP Lockbourne, OH

Multi-Point Lubrication Delivery System


il-Rite’s Hydracision multi-point lubrication system can distribute to as few as 12 or up to hundreds of separate points. It combines efficient hydraulic movement of fluid with the precision of positive displacement injection. The reservoir housing contains a gear pump motor which pressurizes the outlet for uniform fluid distribution. A PLC with programmable display allows selection of lube cycles, while a low-level switch prevents operation when oil supply is depleted. Oil-Rite Corp. Manitowoc, WI

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ATP List Services Customized, Targeted Lists For Your Marketing Needs Contact: Ellen Sandkam 847-382-8100 x110 800-223-3423 x110 1300 S. Grove Ave., Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010 For more info, enter 86 at For more info, enter 87 at


Compact High-Viscosity Filter Cart


he OilMiser 15V456 High Viscosity Filter Cart features a low center of gravity, compact design and high-efficiency TEFC motor. Its colorcoded Filter Condition Indicator signals a needed filter change. Quickdisconnects comply with ISO-7241-1B Interchange Standards, and are supplied with dust caps on suction and discharge ports. The cart’s low flow rate of 1.9 gpm (7 L/m) minimizes filter media stress and maximizes contamination retention on the oil filter. JLM Systems Ltd. Richmond, BC, Canada For more more info, info, enter enter 39 90 at For more For 85 at FEBRUARY 2013


High-Efficiency Geared Motors


he Simogear geared motor series from Siemens features helical, parallel shaft and helical bevel gear unit types with integral high-efficient and NEMA Premium® efficient motors. The line’s twostage helical bevel unit features a mechanical efficiency of up to 96% and a wide range of ratios that make it suitable for replacing worm and spiroid units in conveying applications. Designed for automation engineering, Simogear integrates smoothly with all Siemens drives and automation products. Siemens Industry, Inc. Atlanta, GA For more info, enter 40 at

Crimp Tool For Tight Spaces


IDGID® Close Quarters ASTM F1807 PEX crimp tools feature handle openings up to 70 percent smaller than standard PEX crimp tools, allowing for easy maneuvering in tight spaces. Available in ½” and ¾” sizes, they have glass-filled polycarbonate E3™ handles and a built-in Go/No-Go Gauge that folds into a handle for easy access and storage. An adjustable lock screw for easy calibration is also included. RIDGID An Emerson Business Elyria, OH For more info, enter 41 at

“Industrial Lubrication Fundamentals” 3-Day, On Site, Certification Preparation Training Program

With over 70% of all mechanical failures attributed to ineffective lubrication practices, you will want to have professionally trained and certified lubrication personnel working on your reliability efforts!

Unlock the Secrets that let you Tap your True Maintenance Potential and Maximize Asset Reliability! World Class organizations know that increased asset reliability, utilization and maintainability, reduced operating costs, downtime, contamination, energy consumption and carbon footprint all commence with a best practice lubrication program! Course design is based on ISO 18436-4 and the ICML body of knowledge and exceeds minimum training requirements to write the ICML, MLT1, MLA1 and ISO LCAT1 International lubrication certification exams. Exams can be arranged to take place at your site immediately following the training. For more information on this unique training program developed and delivered by internationally accredited lubrication and maintenance expert Ken Bannister, author of the best selling book Lubrication for Industry endorsed by ISO and the ICML as part of their certification Domain of Knowledge Content. Contact ENGTECH Industries Inc at 519.469.9173 or email

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INFORMATION HIGHWAY For rate information on advertising in the Information Highway Section Contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 / E-mail: Web Spotlight: MAPCON

Air Sentry® is a leading developer of contamination control products that keep particulate matter and excess moisture from the headspace inside gearboxes, drums, reservoirs, oil tanks, etc. that hold oils, greases, hydraulic fluids, and fuels. Air Sentry breathers and adapters ensure longer fluid life, better lubrication and lower maintenance costs. For more info, enter 89 at

Easy to use. Powerful software. Priced right.

Whether you’re a three-store pizza operation or a global conglomerate, MAPCON CMMS is designed for you. No matter if you merely want a basic start-up maintenance package or a complete enterprise CMMS solution with advanced capabilities, MAPCON CMMS is the answer. For more info, enter 88 at

The Maintenance & Reliability Technology Summit is the #1 learning venue and source of practical solutions for anyone concerned with the reliability, maintenance and the overall capacity assurance of critical equipment systems in a plant or facility. Mark your calendars! MARTS 2013 is taking place April 30-May 3, 2013 at the Hyatt Regency O’Hare in Rosemont, IL. For more info, enter 91 at



U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC is excited to announce the integration of KabelSchlepp America into its operations as part of the Tsubakimoto Chain Company’s global acquisition of the German-based Cable & Hose Carrier manufacturer. KabelSchlepp America will now operate as a division of U.S. Tsubaki and will expand Tsubaki’s presence in the U.S. market by adding cable & hose carrier systems to its already extensive product lineup.

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PIP is a consortium of process plant owners and engineering construction contractors harmonizing member’s internal standards for design, procurement, construction and maintenance into industry-wide Practices. PIP has published over 450 Practices. A current listing of published Practices is available on the PIP website at: For more info, enter 90 at

The ability to identify, verify and locate every voltage source from the outside of electrical panels greatly reduces electrical risks. That’s why we’ve incorporated two of our most popular products - ChekVolt® and VoltageVision® - into one unique, exclusive product called The Combo Unit.. For more info, enter 93 at

For rate information on advertising in the Classified Section contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 / E-mail:

ATP List Services

In order for us to send

Customized, Targeted Lists For Your Marketing Needs

to you FREE,

we are required by the US Post Office to have a completed and signed renewal form once a year.

Contact: Ellen Sandkam 847-382-8100 x110 800-223-3423 x110


You may renew online at 46 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY 1300 S. Grove Ave., Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010




FEBRUARY 2013 Volume 26, No. 2 •


February 2013 • Volume 26, No. 2 RS #


Air Sentry ................................................89 ..........................46 ATP Lists ...................................................86 ..........................44 Cascade Machinery Vibration ...........................................77 ..........................35 CIM ...................................65 ............................2 Des-Case Corporation ..................................................64 ............................1 Dreisilker Electric Motors ...............................................83 ..........................39 Engtech Industries ..........................45 Exair .................................80 ..........................37 Fluid ..................................75 ..........................27 Fluke .............................................61 .Front Cover Flap Foster Printing Services .......................................68 ............................7 General Electric Company ...........................62 ....................... IFC Grace Engineered Products. Inc. ......................................................93 ..........................46 Herguth Laboratories, .................................................66 ............................4 ..........................21 IRISS, .......................BC Kluber Lubrication North America L.P. ..........................26 Ludeca .......................IBC Mapcon Technologies, Inc. ..........................46 MARTS-Applied Technology ..................................91 ..........................46 Meltric Corporation ..........................37 Process Industry ...........................................................69,90 ..................9,46 Revere Control ........................................84 ..........................42 Royal Purple, Inc. .......................76 ..........................28 Scalewatcher ............................5 SKF USA, Inc. ...........................................71 ..........................19 SPM Instrument, Inc. ....................................85 ..........................43 Strategic Work Systems, Inc. ............................................73 ..........................25 Test Products International,81 .....................37 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC ........................................70 ..........................12 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC .........................................92 ..........................46

Access and enter the reader service number of the product in which you are interested, or you can search even deeper and link directly to the advertiser’s Website. Submissions Policy: Maintenance Technology gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. Reproduction of Materials: Materials produced by Maintenance Technology may not be reproduced in any form for any purpose without permission. For Reprints: Contact the publisher, Bill Kiesel (847) 382-8100 ext. 116.



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viewpoint Matt Hudson, Ph.D., MChem, Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc.

To Innovate, Break The Routine


believe that innovation can’t be taught. It must come naturally, as part of a lifestyle. This became clear to me recently when I was given an opportunity to experience a work process outside of my day-to-day routine. Not that my job as a lubrication scientist on Shell’s Aviation Technology team in Houston is boring. I’m involved in a range of interesting activities, from working on aircraft engine oils and hydraulic fluids for high-tech jets to researching what makes the whitest, brightest smoke for stunt aircraft. However, when Shell offered me an opportunity to work with the X PRIZE Foundation*— an educational nonprofit that uses prize concepts to drive game-changing innovations across many fields— I saw innovation in a new light. It happened first when I realized that just by being in the X PRIZE offices near Los Angeles, I had more freedom to think. When presented with problems, I found it easier to identify solutions I wouldn’t normally have considered. But why? The answer hit me one day in the facility’s large kitchen area. The X PRIZE kitchen offers a vast choice of food for staffers, including candy and snacks, healthy foods, fruit and enough drinks to open a juice bar. It’s restocked weekly by the pallet-load, with new selections each time. Thus, whenever I visited the kitchen, I could try something new. And that was it: I realized that every day in that office was different from the one before. Not only were my food options different, so was my office location, my co-workers, even our meetings, one of which was held outdoors by a fountain. These things made my normal life at home in Houston—based on my own comfort-zone routines— seem rhythmic and monotonous. They also made me appreciate the elements of my professional life that do challenge the routine. These include Shell’s Hunters Network, for example, a group I’ve joined that “hunts” new technologies and ideas (not game) for our potential use. Shell also sponsors

Project Better World, a conservation and sustainabledevelopment organization that deploys hundreds of employee volunteers around the globe annually to support exciting conservation projects.

How can people ever think outside the box if they are living entirely inside a box? A senior Shell leader calls an opportunity to take part in Project Better World a “hidden gem” of personal development. It may seem odd for a manager to recommend that his staff leave their jobs for two weeks to research rainforest soil erosion in Borneo, but his view highlights my point: The experience puts people outside their comfort zones and allows them to develop new skills and explore professional and personal limits. When they return to their jobs, they can apply what they’ve learned in ways that may not have occurred to them, and view projects from a new perspective. To be sure, not everyone can embark on a lifechanging expedition, eat a different lunch each day or even hold group meetings around a fountain. Still, in our typical 9-to-5 environments, why not try to break the monotony caused by the normal human condition that embraces the familiar? How can you think outside the box if you live entirely inside a box? To be truly innovative and to think beyond standard solutions, it’s necessary to break out of that cycle, lose the regularity, mix things up and get your mind and body used to the unconventional, every day. The question is, how do you, as a leader, inspire your team(s) to innovate? MT For more info, enter 09 at

* The opinions expressed in this Viewpoint section are those of the author, and don’t necessarily reflect those of the staff and management of Maintenance Technology magazine.



MARTS 2013 Workshops

Yo u k r c W o R o l r l i l April 30 and May 3 d W Att The Hyatt Regency O’Hare Hotel, o Rosemont, IL. otel,

Seven big names in industrial maintenance and reliability come together to give your program star power. Choose one full-day Workshop or two, but don’t miss this once-a-year opportunity to amp up your skills. This year’s lineup:

Bob Williamson

Doc Palmer

Maintenance Technology contributing editor and longtime MARTS favorite...presenting

Respected author of McGraw Hill’s Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Handbook...presenting

Putting All the Pieces Together for 100% Reliability

Maintenance Planning and Scheduling: Increase Your Workforce Without Hiring

Jim Seffrin

Howard Penrose

Level III Certified Thermographer and Director of Infraspection Institute...presenting

Vice president of Dreisilker Electric Motors and widely published industrial researcher...presenting

IR Thermography for Electrical and Mechanical Systems

Forensic Analysis of Machines: Beyond RCFA

Enrique Mora An expert in Lean Manufacturing, Six Sigma and TPM who consults and trains worldwide...presenting

Balance the 3 Ms — Management, Maintenance and Manufacturing — to Achieve World-Class Performance

Kris Bagadia CMMS expert and founder of PEAK Industrial Solutions, LLC...presenting

Turning Downsizing Into an Opportunity

Ed Stanek President of LAI Reliability and renowned instructor on Maintenance & Reliability, PM Optimization and Asset Management...presenting

Productivity Optimization Workshop

For complete information and registration details: MARTS is an annual four-day educational event for industrial maintenance professionals. In addition to two days of Workshops, MARTS includes a two-day Conference program, a three-day Professional Course for lubrication professionals, and the opportunity to take professional certification exams. For more information or to register, visit or call 1-847-382-8100, ext. 116. For more info, enter 63 at

HOLD THESE DATES April 30 – May 3, 2013

Come Help Us Celebrate Our 10th Anniversary

As Always, You’ll Find Just What You Need: Training Networking Solutions Program Details & Registration Information Will Be Announced Soon

Plan Now To Attend MARTS 2013 The Hyatt Regency O’Hare Hotel, Rosemont, IL. For more info, enter 98 at

For more info, enter 99 at

For more info, enter 100 at

Maintenance Technology February 2013  

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