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SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2012 • VOL 13, NO. 5 • www.LMTinfo.com
ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES THROUGH PRACTICES & PRODUCTS
EQUIPMENT-SPECIFIC LUBE SERIES 8
Compressor Lubrication Part IV-B: Lubrication of Dynamic Compressors Compressor trains represent some of a site’s most complicated and costly equipment. Understanding their various lubrication-related quirks is key to keeping these moneymakers doing what they do best. ©Keller—Fotolia.com
Ray Thibault, Contributing Editor
MAINTENANCE LOG 17
Bearing Monitoring Keeps Coal Safely On The Move Here’s how proactive condition monitoring is helping a well-known energy-services provider defuse a process safety challenge. Jane Alexander, Editor, with Patrick Parvin, SPM Instrument, Inc.
DELIVERING THE GOODS 22
The Anatomy Of A Centralized Lubrication System: Lubrication Controllers & Signal Devices Controls and signal devices are required to complete centralized lube systems. The types used depend on budgets, the levels of system protection needed and other factors.
From Our Perspective
Ken Bannister, Contributing Editor
The Maintenance & Reliability Technology Summit is: An annual, four-day educational experience and professional-development opportunity Created for plant and facility managers, maintenance leaders and crew members, reliability engineers, industrial technicians and all other capacity-assurance professionals Composed of two days of Conferences (60-minute sessions) and two days of Workshops (full-day sessions) presented by industry experts. Scheduled for April 30-May 3, 2013 at the Hyatt Regency O’Hare, Rosemont, IL.
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ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES THROUGH PRACTICES & PRODUCTS
September/October 2012 • Volume 13, No. 5 ARTHUR L. RICE President/CEO email@example.com
BILL KIESEL Executive Vice President/Publisher firstname.lastname@example.org
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California - Illinois - Connecticut - Canada e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.miller-stephenson.com m
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LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
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Subscriptions FOR INQUIRIES OR CHANGES CONTACT JEFFREY HEINE, 630-739-0900 EXT. 204 / FAX 630-739-7967 Lubrication Management & Technology (ISSN 19414447) is published bi-monthly except Mar/Apr by Applied Technology Publications, Inc., 1300 S. Grove Avenue, Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010. Periodical postage paid at Barrington, IL and additional offices. Arthur L. Rice, III, President/CEO. Circulation records are maintained at Lubrication Management & Technology, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Lubrication Management & Technology copyright 2012. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted without written permission from the publisher. Annual subscription rates for nonqualified people: North America, $140; all others, $280 (air). No subscription agency is authorized by us to solicit or take orders for subscriptions. Postmaster: Please send address changes to Lubrication Management & Technology, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Please indicate position, title, company name, company address. For other circulation information call (630) 739-0900. Canadian Publications Agreement No. 40886011. Canada Post returns: IMEX, Station A, P.O. Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5, or email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Submissions Policy: Lubrication Management & Technology gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. Printed in U.S.A.
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FROM OUR PERSPECTIVE
Ken Bannister, Contributing Editor
It’s No Joke: Getting No Respect
ho doesn’t remember the late comedian Rodney Dangerfield, whose humor was based on getting “no respect,” regardless of his efforts? Dangerfield’s lament used to be a common refrain in countless maintenance departments. Recently, with the emergence of reliability groups making sense of data and years of collected history, as well as the use of—and respect for—certified personnel in the condition monitoring sciences, that tune has grown fainter. In my opinion, however, the lube side of the equation continues to be viewed largely as an “anyone can do it” function. Even though “doing it” ineffectively can cause up to 70% of all mechanical failures, lubrication still gets no (or little) respect. This past summer, I was honored to speak at an international condition monitoring excellence conference. While there, I learned, through an attendee survey (representing the manufacturing, mining, oil & gas, utilities and transportation industries) that oil analysis is the number one preferred condition monitoring technique in the Pacific Rim of Australia and New Zealand (with 29% of the respondent vote). Vibration analysis came in second, with 25%. Infrared thermography ranked third, with 20%. Fewer than a handful of respondents acknowledged having formal lube programs or certified lubrication professionals at their sites. In contrast, every attending company had numerous certified vibration analysts and thermographers in their maintenance and reliability departments. (Ironically, several attendees privately admitted that even though they supported an oil analysis program, many oil changes were still activated on a calendar basis, not on condition.) Based on my experience, these findings aren’t out of line. They are, sadly, reflective of industry worldwide—including here in North America. Sometimes we have to find a catalyst to make people pay attention to the positive effects of GLP (Good Lubrication Practices). My confer-
LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
ence presentation discussed just such a catalyst: the fact that all Australian corporations must now pay a carbon tax based on their CO2 emissions. The good news I shared with the attendees is that the use of lubricants and lubricant-delivery methods and systems can deliver up to 18% energy reduction through decreased electrical energy consumption that converts directly into a CO2 reduction at the rate of 0.526 kgCO2 units for every 1kWh saved (Carbon Trust – UK grid electricity conversion – 2011). That’s a “threefor” in my book: 1) increased asset/component lifecycle/reliability; 2) reduced energy consumption; and 3) a reduced carbon footprint. All of these goals and more can be obtained for almost no capital outlay. Needless to say, such benefits cast a respectful light on GLP, and my audience’s attention could not have been higher. Moving GLP forward requires understanding, measurement and communication (all hallmarks of a world-class organization). A significant step toward GLP and achieving respect is the training of lube, maintenance and reliability personnel in the area of industrial lubrication and the promoting of accreditation through any of three international bodies: ICML (International Council for Machinery Lubrication), the largest international certifying body at this time; STLE (Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers); and ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Only with qualified and knowledgeable personnel will the practice of GLP ever be able to gain traction—and finally silence the “no respect” refrain that lubrication has lived with for so long. On a lighter note, take a look at the innovative work that you and your department are doing and consider entering the “2012 Maintenance & Reliability Innovator of the Year” award competition. It can be a team effort. Details and entry forms are available at www.reliabilityinnovator.com. Good Luck! LMT email@example.com
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Tools and techniques to optimize equipment reliability...
Lubrication Of Dynamic Compressors Compressor trains represent some of a siteâ€™s most complicated and costly equipment. Understanding their various lubrication-related quirks is key to keeping these moneymakers doing what they do best.
Ray Thibault CLS, OMA I, OMA II, MLT, MLT II, MLA II, MLA III Contributing Editor
(Authorâ€™s Note: Much of the information in this series is based on the practical knowledge of real-world lubrication professionals. Once such expert is Mark Kavanaugh, who has over 42 years of experience in large manufacturing operations, and is currently responsible for coordinating the lubrication of thousands of pieces of rotating equipment in a refinery. Mark is certified as a CLS, MTL I and MLA II.)
EQUIPMENT-SPECIFIC LUBE SERIES
et’s start with a recap: Per the discussion in Part IV (A) of this article, “Lubrication of Positive Displacement Compressors” (pgs. 8-14, LMT, July/August 2012), a compressor’s lot in life is to increase the pressure of a gas to the point where it can be used in an industrial facility. Rated by discharge pressure (psi) and capacity in cubic feet/minute (cfm), compressors fall into two major groups: positive displacement and dynamic (Fig. 1). The types of units in these two groups, along with the specific gases they compress (see Table I), call for different lube strategies. In this article installment, we’ll review the dynamic side of the compressor family tree, specifically the centrifugal and axial branches.
NOTE: Again, as mentioned in Part IV (A), air-compressor lubrication is not part of this discussion. It was, however, the focus of an article in the May/June 2009 issue of LMT (www.mt-online.com/thibault).
Fig. 1. Compressors types are classiﬁed into one of two major groups: positive displacement and dynamic.
Reciprocating Positive Displacement
Straight Lobe Rotary
Dynamic Axial Table I. Classiﬁcation of Compressed Gases
www.LMTinfo.com | 9
EQUIPMENT-SPECIFIC LUBE SERIES
Fig. 2. Typical centrifugal compressor design
Fig. 3. The basic operating principle behind centrifugal compressors
Centrifugal compressors Centrifugal compressors, like that illustrated in Fig. 2, deliver gases at higher flow rates than positive displacement compressors, but at lower pressures. They’re used extensively in the refining and petrochemical industry because there is no contact between the gas and the lubricant— meaning that centrifugal compressors produce oil-free gas. Reactive gases can also be compressed without coming in contact with the lubricant. Operation… The typical centrifugal compressor relies on the rotating blades (or vanes) of an impeller to accelerate a gas and, thus, create pressure. The impeller sits in a volute—a widening chamber connected to a gas discharge line. Gas that enters the compressor is swept up by the impeller vanes and moved from the center to the outside by centrifugal force, causing an increase in gas velocity. When the gas leaves the impeller and enters the volute, it slows down as the chamber widens. This slowdown converts velocity or kinetic energy to pressure. (Not shown in Fig. 3 are stationary diffuser plates that initially slow down the gas from the impeller and direct it into the volute.) 10 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TEChNOLOGy
To achieve desired pressures, most centrifugal compressors are designed as multi-stage units. (The cutaway in Fig. 2 reflects a five-stage design.) In a multi-stage unit, the impellers are all mounted on the same shaft along with a volute for each impeller and one suction- and one discharge-line. Gases aren’t cooled between stages, as they would be in a reciprocating compressor. Typical multi-stage operating pressures are in the range of 100-150 psi. SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2012
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EQUIPMENT-SPECIFIC LUBE SERIES
Lubrication. . .
Fig. 4. Typical axial compressor incorporating a series of rotating and stationary blades
The major lubricated components in a centrifugal compressor train include: n n n n n n n n n n n
Driver Electric motor Turbine Coupling Compressor Radial bearings Sleeve Tilt pad radial Thrust bearings Angular contact ball Tilt pad
Centrifugal compressors can have large lubrication systems consisting of an oil reservoir, pump, filter, cooler and oil lines. The oil is then pumped to the lubricated parts, which are both radial and thrust bearings. Most centrifugal compressors are lubricated with high quality ISO 32 turbine oil. Some compressors may call for an ISO 46. If a step-up 12 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & technology
gear is present and lubricated with the same oil as the bearings, ISO 68 turbine oil may be recommended. (NOTE: High-speed air compressors, in some cases, are lubricated with synthetics. This was discussed in the previously referenced 2009 LMT article on air compressor oils.) Some compressors rely on a seal-oil system along with a seal at the end of the shaft to prevent gas from leaking beyond it. This is particularly true when compressing environmentally toxic gases. A seal-oil system consists of an oil-collection area, oil supply-line with a check valve, oil return-line, gas returnline, head tank and a seal-oil reservoir. During operation, oil is pumped via the oil supply-line through the seal. Because the pressure of the oil is greater than the pressure of the gas, the oil flowing through the seal keeps the gas from leaking. Oil (carrying the absorbed gas) is pumped to a compartment in the reservoir, at which point the gas is separated and returns to the compressor. The gas-free oil then returns to the seal-oil system. As a safety precaution in the event of pump failure, a separate head tank supplies enough oil on a pump shutdown to allow the compressor to be shut down without a gas leak. Most seal-oil systems use the same oil to lubricate the bearings. The oil from the head tank is NOT used to lubricate the bearings. Axial compressors Operation… Axial compressors are used where high volumes of gas at low pressure are needed. Capable of producing up to 1,000,000 ft3/minute, they incorporate a series of rotating and stationary (or fixed) blades (as illustrated in Fig. 4). In axial units, the rotating blades accelerate gas that comes in contact with the stationary blades, which change the direction of flow—resulting in a lower velocity, but a higher pressure. Each series of rotating and fixed blades is a stage. (Some axial-flow designs have up to 20 stages.) Axial compressors are used in gas turbines to provide compressed air during the combustion process. They are also used in large air-separation, blast-furnace-air and other applications where a high volume of air is required. Lubrication… Bearings—both radial and thrust—on axial compressors are lubricated with high-quality ISO 32 turbine oil. Basic troubleshooting techniques As discussed in Part IV (A) of this series, successful compressor troubleshooting calls for a strong knowledge of machine component design, operating parameters, lubrication requirements and OEM guidelines. In-depth troubleshooting is usually a one-on-one proposition, with a troubleshooter required to look deeply into each piece of the puzzle. SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2012
Oil analysis should be conducted on a quarterly basis. Monthly oil analysis is recommended in severe services. Keep in mind that certain troubleshooting principles hold true for all compressor types. The following recaps basic guidelines, regardless of the group into which a compressor fallsâ€”either positive displacement or dynamic. Temperature. Changes in temperature from an established norm are reliable indicators of changes in machine condition. Daily temperature inspections should, at least, include: suction and discharge of gas, gas interstage coolers, afterstage coolers, lube-oil coolers, cooling water, mechanical seals, crankcase and bearing oils. Periodic checks of bearings, valves and cylinder head temps are advisable. Levels. Liquid levels in compressor components must be monitored diligently. Correct crankcase, bearing housing, reservoir oil levels, feed rates on cylinder injectors and circulating oil systems must be kept constant. Compressed gas receivers, intercoolers, aftercoolers and process piping must be drained and kept liquid-free. Free water should be drained from oil reservoirs and oil filter housings daily. Pressures. All compressors are designed to operate in specific pressure ranges; this is one governing factor determining what type of compressor is used in what service. Pressure differentials between suction, interstage and discharge gases must be tracked and variances out of the norm investigated. Bearing, mechanical seal and oil filter pressures should be checked, at least daily. Air compressor inlet filter differential pressure should be checked daily. Changes in vibration or sound. Knocks, pings, rattles or ticks should be investigated as soon as possible after detection. Oil analysis should be conducted on no less than a quarterly basisâ€”and on a monthly basis in severe services. Tests should include: viscosity, particle counts, wear metals, water content and FTIR or Ruler for remaining useful oil life. Modifications to this basic test slate will be required, depending on compressor type and service. Troubleshooting specifics for dynamic designsâ€Ś Centrifugal and axial compressors are usually large, very costly, precision machines. Most are computer-controlled, with software that monitors both operating parameters (i.e., pressure, flow, temperatures, etc.), and machine conditions (i.e., vibration, bearing and seal-oil pressures and temperatures, oil-reservoir levels, etc.). Troubleshooting these units is a significant undertaking: It typically involves sifting through mounds of data and conducting in-depth hands-on inspections during outages. Oil analysis for centrifugal and axial compressors should include annual ferrography, filter-debris and varnish tests. The large circulating-lube and sealoil systems found in these types of units usually respond well to filter upgrades (higher beta ratios and lower micron ratings). Consult the compressor OEM and lubricant manufacturer before attempting any changes. SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2012
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EQUIPMENT-SPECIFIC LUBE SERIES
Table II. Summary of Compressor Lubricants Compressor Type
Mineral Oil ISO 100-680 Diester ISO 100-150 PAG 100-320 Mineral Oil ISO 100-150
Frame Journal Bearings
Being proactive and reliability-conscious is key
Rotary Screw Flooded*
Speed Gear Roller Radial & Thrust Bearings
Mineral ISO 32-68 PAO 32-68 PAG 68-150 PAG/Ester 32-68 Diester 32-68
Radial and Roller Thrust Bearings Timing Gear
Mineral Oil ISO 32-100
Rolling Element Bearings Sliding Vanes
Mineral Oil AW 32-150
Rolling Element Bearings Timing Gear
Mineral Oil R&O or AW ISO 150-220
Rolling Element Bearings
Mineral Oil ISO 32-68
Radial and Thrust Journal Bearings Radial and Thrust Rolling Element Bearings
Mineral Oil ISO 32-46 PAO ISO 32-46 PAG /Ester 32 (Air Compressor)
Radial and Thrust Journal Bearings Radial and Thrust Rolling Element Bearings
Mineral Oil ISO 32 PAO ISO 32
to minimizing compressor Dry
failures at your site. Keep this advice handy.
*The wide selection of lubricants for ﬂooded screw compressors is based on the type of gas processed.
Conclusion As noted in Parts IV (A) and (B), compressors are among the most important (and complex) types of equipment in a plant. Being proactive and reliabilityconscious is key to minimizing their failures. This article focused on how various compressor types operate, the correct lubricants to use and valuable troubleshooting tips. Review these points—and keep them handy. They’ll help improve the uptime of some of the hardest working “moneymakers” at your site. Coming up Part V of this series covers best practice for improving run time and minimizing shutdowns of blowers and fans. LMT Ray Thibault is based in Cypress (Houston), TX. An STLE-Certiﬁed Lubrication Specialist and Oil Monitoring Analyst, he conducts extensive training for operations around the world. Telephone: (281) 250-0279. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. For more info, enter 01 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
14 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TEChNOLOGy
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November 27-29, 2012
Chicago Marriott O’Hare | Chicago, IL AT THIS WORKSHOP, ATTENDEES WILL LEARN: • Why over 90% of all attempted RCM programs result in failure. • How to successfully implement a comprehensive, classical RCM program without the need for outside expertise. • How to simplify (not streamline) an RCM program using in-house resources. • What the pitfalls of RCM are, and how to avoid them. • Why the Consequence of Failure Analysis (COFA) is more comprehensive and easier to understand than the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). At no extra charge, Neil Bloom will be available on Friday, Nov. 30 to mentor attendees on how to implement his RCM process on specific systems and equipment. For personal attention, bring your own plant-specific P&IDs, plant schematics or design drawings.
• Important differences between “functional failures” and “failure modes,” and between “failure modes” and “failure causes.” • How to establish synergistic strategies for the integration of preventive and corrective maintenance. • The fundamental concepts of “hidden failures” and the “Canon Law” of runto-failure which are a vital but grossly misunderstood part of RCM. • How to develop an RCM “Living Program.” • How to monitor and trend the RCM reliability performance of an entire plant.
For Full Course Details, Lodging Info And Online Registration, Go To: www.mt-online.com/rcm For more info, enter 69 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
Bearing Monitoring Keeps Coal Safely On The Move
Here’s how proactive condition monitoring is helping an energy-services provider © JOSEPPI — FOTOLIA.COM
defuse a process safety challenge. Jane Alexander, Editor with Patrick Parvin, SPM Instrument, Inc.
onveyor systems aren’t just subject to considerable wear. Even in normal use, they can face the risk of fire due to equipment failure or ignition of the materials being transported. In Amarillo, TX, energy-services provider Savage is successfully employing stateof-the-art online condition monitoring on a coal-conveyor system to help eliminate that concern and ensure safe and uninterrupted supply of fuel to Xcel Energy’s Harrington Generating Station. This article originally appeared in the March 2012 issue of Maintenance Technology.
www.LMTinfo.com | 17
Fig 1. Trend graph of measurements on the pulley bearing. HDm (black) is a scalar value expressed in decibels. It represents the strongest impact found during the measurement time, and is the primary parameter for assessing damage severity. HDc (blue) is a scalar value expressed in decibels, representing the level where 200 collisions per second are found. HDc is very useful for determining lubrication condition.
The challenge of PRB coal The coal-conveyor system plays an important part in the operation of the Harrington Generating Station: A reliable and trouble-free supply of fuel is critical to secure energy production. The Harrington plant, owned and operated by Xcel Energy, gets its coal primarily from the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming. A special property of the PRB coal is its propensity to self-ignite. Another characteristic of this coal is its friability, creating combustible dust that can penetrate into bearings and other parts of the conveyor system. While PRB coal has become popular—based, in large part, on its low cost and low sulfur content—that popularity comes at a price. The potential for spontaneous combustion calls for safe operation and maintenance in coal transportation systems and stockyards. Good housekeeping practices, such as properly managing coal stock piles, limiting dust accumulation, preventing spills and conducting regular cleanups are extremely important. For the Savage maintenance department, handling PRB coal has introduced extraordinary hazards. Careful management of these hazards is a must. A mechanical fault in the bearing of a roller, for instance, could cause ignition of the belt or coal. Friction between a seized roller and the belt could also lead to fire. The site’s online condition-monitoring program plays an essential role in dealing with the safety issues that come with the handling of PRB coal. Condition monitoring: a proactive strategy Savage implemented its condition-monitoring program to monitor plant machinery and detect potential failure at an early stage. In late 2009 and early 2010, the Intellinova® 18 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & technology
online system from SPM Instrument was installed to monitor 40 conveyor and crusher bearings. The condition of these bearings is measured with SPM HD®, a new and advanced shock-pulse measurement technique. Particularly well-suited for low-RPM applications, this new technology can be utilized on rolling-element bearings throughout the range of 1-20,000 RPM. At the Savage Harrington location, the conveyor system runs at approximately 120 RPM. A prominent feature of the SPM HD technique is its capacity to detect machine problems at a very early stage and provide reliable diagnostic information months before replacement of a damaged part becomes necessary. SPM HD delivers immediate condition evaluation in greenyellow-red and presents measuring results with remarkable detail, giving a clear picture of bearing condition. Savage’s condition-monitoring program was off to a flying start. Initial readings in June 2010 indicated deteriorating condition on one of the pulley bearings. With the online monitoring system, Savage personnel were able to keep a watchful eye on development of the damage for a full 15 months before the bearing needed replacement. As can be seen in the trend graph in Fig. 1, taken from Condmaster® Nova software, the HDm readings (black) were already in the yellow warning zone when measurements began. Shortly thereafter, they started to move into the red, but the condition degradation was relatively slow. In September 2011, a significant increase was seen, leading to a decision to replace the bearing in a planned maintenance action. Immediately after replacement, the readings dropped into the green zone. SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2012
Fig. 2. Time signal from the pulley bearing; signals dominated by damaged rolling elements
The time signal in Fig. 2 shows that in the late stages of the damage process, the majority of the signals were dominated by damaged rolling elements. The periods between the “bursts” in the time signal are equal to the cage frequency—i.e., how often the rolling element enters the load zone of the bearing.
With this condition-monitoring technology, Savage personnel were able to keep a watchful eye on development of the damage for a full 15 months before the bearing needed replacement. By September 2011, clear indication of both inner and outer race damages was visible in the Condmaster® Nova spectrums (see Fig. 3, page 20). Examination of the replaced bearing showed severe damage on both its inner and outer rings, as well as the rolling elements. Still, no secondary damage to the shaft or bearing housing had resulted, and since the bearing was replaced during normal downtime, no loss of production was incurred. SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2012
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www.LMTinfo.com | 19
Fig. 3. Spectrums showing clear indications of inner and outer race damage
Clear and tangible beneﬁts In general, a majority of industrial accidents happen during cleaning or other maintenance activities. When equipment failures occur during normal production runs, production requirements may call for hurried maintenance efforts to get the machinery back up and running as quickly as possible. This can be an invitation for accidents to happen. In contrast, when maintenance can be carried out only when confirmed necessary and under planned stops, risks are significantly reduced. To Savage, the condition-monitoring program brings indisputable benefits beyond the ability to provide a reliable delivery of coal to its valued Harrington Generating Station customer. A substantial reduction in equipment failures, improved worker and equipment safety and an increase in plant availability and productivity are results that speak for themselves. Assuring dependable, safe and trouble-free operation of the coal conveyor system is a smart business strategy— in more ways than one. When asked about the cost savings for this particular bearing change, Mark Kilgore, Operations Manager at the Savage Harrington site, noted, “We could still run if this bearing would have failed during a run, but had it failed outside the normal hours of the maintenance team, we would have had to call them [maintenance] in and this would have been an extra expense.” According to Kilgore, if the bearing had catastrophically failed, it could have caused a fire. It also could have damaged the belt—one of the longest belts in the plant. 20 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TEChNOLOGy
The pulley bearing in question is located about halfway up a conveyor belt system rising over 200 feet from the ground to the top. If the bearing were to overheat, both it and the coal traveling on the belt could catch fire. That burning coal, in turn, could then fall onto the returning belt below. On its way to the top of the conveyor system, a fire would pull air in from underneath the conveyor system, fueling an inferno-like situation akin to the inside of a blast furnace. Such an incident clearly could be devastating to workers and equipment alike. The early detection of potential bearing problems saves users downtime and money. Kilgore sums it up this way: “As we all know, when you have a catastrophic failure, it never happens when it is convenient, and it usually causes severe damage. With this system [SPMs], we are able to catch these problems before complete failure, and we can schedule the repair when it is convenient for us.” LMT Patrick Parvin is Managing Director of SPM Instrument, Inc., based in Eugene, OR. Telephone: (541)687-6869; email: email@example.com. For more info, enter 02 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
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Plan Now To Attend MARTS 2013 The Hyatt Regency O’Hare Hotel, Rosemont, IL.
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DELIVERING THE GOODS
The Anatomy Of A Centralized Lubrication System
Lubrication Controllers And Signal Devices Ken Bannister Contributing Editor
o complete a centralized lubrication system design, the designer must tie the pump and delivery system together and synchronize their operation with a combination of control and signal devices. The type of controller and signal devices used will depend on the budget, the level of system protection required, the type of pump and distribution system employed and the ability of the host machine to interpret and act upon the control signals. How Controllers Work A lubrication-system controller is often described as the system’s “brain.” Most controllers are multi-function, stand-alone devices housed in a control panel. The exceptions to this can be found in single-point lubricators (SPLs) and some smaller electro-mechanical oil-delivery pumps that have built-in circuit-board-style controllers that can be programmed through an LCD touch screen or a series of mechanical switches. These are usually simple control devices that activate the lube pump and speed up or slow down the flow rate of the pumped lubricant. Turning the pump on and off is the controller’s primary function. In the case of a pneumatically powered pump, the controller opens an electrically operated air solenoid valve to allow air into the piston and fire the pump. With electrically driven piston and gear pumps, the motor is electrically energized, allowing the pumping action to commence. Once the controller receives a signal informing 22 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
it that the pump has fired, a given time has elapsed, a lubricant line pressure has been achieved or a distribution block cycle has been completed, the pump’s power source is shut down until the next lubrication cycle commences. (The only exception to this is a recirculating-oil system that is powered up on machine startup and runs continually until it is turned off when the machine is idled or shut down.) Lubrication cycles can be controlled by a counter that determines the number of machine or production operations, by a programmed or set timer or by a condition signal—for example, an amperage draw meter indicating energy draw increases on a machine system motor because of a mechanical friction rise due to lack of lubrication. (This is a popular control mechanism that measures the amperage of the conveyor drive and take-up motors to activate and deactivate the “power and free” conveyor chain and pin lubricators used in automotive assembly plants.) SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2012
DELIVERING THE GOODS
Cycle Pin Indicator
Blocked Line Indicator Pin Fig. 1. Progressive-divider block signal indicators (courtesy EngTech Industries Inc.)
A controller’s secondary function is to take an emergency signal, shut down the system and activate an alarm. The alarm can be a simple light or buzzer wired directly to a solenoid in the control panel that, in turn, will activate an alarm email or work order—or both—in the CMMS/EAM maintenance management software. A controller’s level of sophistication can range from a manual on/off device, to a simple count-driven on/off device, all the way up to a very sophisticated programmable PLC/computerized PC device. The controller sophistication is usually underwritten by the lube system’s consequence of failure where public safety is a concern—i.e., in the nuclear or chemical industries, etc.—or where production losses are major concerns when lubricated equipment is a production constraint, or where machine failure leads to high downtime. How Signal Devices Work Signal devices used for control and system protection can be mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic or electrical in design— and active or passive in operation. SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2012
Different delivery-system designs will use controls differently. For example, in most single- or dual-line system designs, the pump must continue to operate until the line pressure has reached an end-of-line line pressure of at least 800 psi, allowing the injectors to fire. Once attained, a pressure-signal switch informs the controller to shut off the pump, which, in turn, also reverses a flow valve allowing the lubricant to return to the reservoir and the injectors to reset. A timer then counts operations or elapsed clock time and tells the controller to start the process all over again. In this system type, the pressure switch can also be coupled to a time-out switch set to signal an alarm state if the system doesn’t achieve its line pressure (due to a broken line or no lubricant) in a specified time period. Progressive-divider lubrication-delivery systems can employ simple counters attached to the top piston in a primary delivery block. Once every outlet in the block has fired lubricant, the top pin will have moved in and out of the block once—thus signaling one complete operation of the block. The counter is linked to a controller that actuates the pump based on the number of required block cycles. Progressive blocks also utilize passive hydraulic blockedline indicators that actuate when hydraulic lock up occurs in a line-blockage situation, causing a pin to “pop” out and indicate which line is blocked, thus speeding up the troubleshooting process (see Fig. 1). Availability The bottom line is that there are many control and protection devices available to the customer. Be sure to consult with your suppliers to ensure that you have the right system and right level of control your systems need. Coming Up The November/December issue will address the maintenance of automated lubrication systems. LMT For more information on automated lubrication delivery systems and/or ICML or ISO lubrication certification training, contact Ken Bannister directly. Telephone: (519) 469-9173; email: firstname.lastname@example.org. For more info, enter 03 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com www.LMTinfo.com | 23
SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY IT’S OUR SYNERGY SYNERGY DOUBLE-EDGED SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY NATURAL SYNERGY SYNERGY ADVANTAGE SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY Joined Is Greater Than Our SYNERGY SYNERGY Two Great Individual Parts SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY 2 Publications SYNERGY SYNERGY 1 Publisher SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY 1 Editorial Team SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY In Partnership With You For 1 Purpose: SYNERGY SYNERGY Keeping Your Message, Products SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY and Services In Front of SYNERGY SYNERGY 82,000+ Decision-Makers 24/7/365 SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGYMAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT SYNERGY SYNERGY AND TECHNOLOGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY Your Smart Choice For SYNERGY SYNERGY A Winning Synergy SYNERGY SYNERGY On Line • In Print • In Person SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY Relationships Should Be Rewarding... SYNERGY Not Expensive! SYNERGY SYNERGY Don’t Miss Any Issues • Subscribe To Both MT And LMT At SYNERGY SYNERGY www.MT-online.com/subscribe SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY SYNERGY
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When 1 Is Great, 2 Synergistic Publications Are Better: Much, Much Better! MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY (MT). . . “YOUR SOURCE FOR CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS”
(REACHING 50,000+ KEY DECISION-MAKERS, EVERY MONTH) MT is the premier source of capacity assurance information for manufacturing, process and service operations around the globe! MT targets the critical technical and business information needs of engineers, managers and technicians who have speciﬁc interest in and/or responsibility for the reliability, availability, safety, efﬁciency and environmental integrity of countless plant equipment systems throughout all industry sectors. MT editorial is derived from noted industry experts, end-users and leading suppliers in the marketplace. It focuses on equipment reliability and maintenance management solutions, as well as the proactive strategies and information systems that support them. MT’s goal is to help our readers leverage their precious time with state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies on the way to best practices across their operations.
LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY (LMT). . . “ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES THROUGH PRODUCTS AND PRACTICES”
(REACHING 32,000+ KEY DECISION-MAKERS, EVERY OTHER MONTH) LMT serves crucial specialists with responsibility for the purchase, application, cleanliness, efﬁcacy and efﬁciency of advanced lubricant technologies for operations everywhere. LMT offers top-down penetration, from the person who runs things, to the personnel who keep things up and running. LMT serves the entire lubrication team: engineers, managers, supervisors, technicians and operators. LMT delivers the entire market: process industries, manufacturing, utilities, mining, transportation and everything in between.
2 Great Publications Keeping Your Message, Products and Services In Front of 82,000+ Decision-Makers 24/7/365
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Advanced Zinc-Free Hydraulic Fluid
ccording to Shell, its new Shell Tellus S3 M hydraulic fluid uses advanced zinc-free anti-wear technology to improve pump protection, enhance system efficiency and provide up to twice the life of the company’s previous zinc-free product. It’s suited for use in factory-based industrial hydraulic applications and severe-duty, extended-operation applications, as well as outdoor applications in climates with limited temperature variations. The fluid’s low aquatic toxicity helps reduce its environmental impact. Shell Tellus S3 M meets the requirements of a number of OEM specifications, including, among others, Husky (ISO VG 46), Parker Hannifin HF-0, HF-1, HF-2, and Eaton 694. It also meets standards ISO 11158 HM fluids, AFNOR NF-E 48-603, ASTM D6158 (HM mineral oils), DIN 51524-2 (HLP oils) and Swedish Standard SS 15 54 34 AM. Shell Lubricants Houston, TX For more info, enter 30 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
Low-Foaming, High-Performing Metalworking Fluid
For more info, enter 74 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
26 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
uSoL® Alumax 89 from Chemtool is specifically formulated for all operations on non-ferrous alloys, exotic ferrous alloys (including titanium), Inconel and Monel, plastics and composites. According to the manufacturer, while NuSoL Alumax 89 provides the excellent type of wetting, detergency and boundary lubrication that’s associated with other NuSoL metalworking fluids, this product incorporates a new performanceenhancing additive package that demonstrates lower foaming characteristics for typical use concentrations (5-15%). Chemtool, Inc. Rockton, IL
For more info, enter 31 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2012
Making Total Tool Management Simple
he makers of WinTool say their product is the only centralized, online tool database capable of seamlessly interfacing with many of the software programs that a manufacturing site already uses, including CAM, presetters, tool crib management, scheduling and ERP, purchasing, etc. According to the company, this single database not only provides users with online access to an up-to-date record of tool inventory, it helps them eliminate errors and uncertainty by not ordering tools they already have on hand. WinTool USA Arlington, TX
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Inline Machine Tool Fluid Filtration And More
ccording to Eriez, its fully automated mobile SumpDoc™ provides inline coolant filtration and replenishment for machine tools while they run. The first phase of its three-phase process vacuums chips and sludge from dirty sump coolant at a rate of 85 GPM per minute (50 microns). Fine solid particulate is then filtered to 3-5 microns and tramp oils are removed to less than 0.5% at flow rates of 90-120 GPH. Once clean, the fluid is analyzed and the SumpDoc is set to deliver a lean, medium or rich coolant mix back to the sump. Depending on the regularity of cleaning, a 200-gal. sump typically can be processed in about two hours. Mounted on a battery-powered pallet jack, the unit comes with onboard hookups and extensions for compressed air, plant water and 120V, single-phase electric.
Eriez Manufacturing Co. Erie, PA For more info, enter 33 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
“Industrial Lubrication Fundamentals” 3-Day, On Site, Certification Preparation Training Program
With over 70% of all mechanical failures attributed to ineffective lubrication practices, you will want to have professionally trained and certified lubrication personnel working on your reliability efforts!
Unlock the Secrets that let you Tap your True Maintenance Potential and Maximize Asset Reliability! World Class organizations know that increased asset reliability, utilization and maintainability, reduced operating costs, downtime, contamination, energy consumption and carbon footprint all commence with a best practice lubrication program! Course design is based on ISO 18436-4 and the ICML body of knowledge and exceeds minimum training requirements to write the ICML, MLT1, MLA1 and ISO LCAT1 International lubrication certification exams. Exams can be arranged to take place at your site immediately following the training. For more information on this unique training program developed and delivered by internationally accredited lubrication and maintenance expert Ken Bannister, author of the best selling book Lubrication for Industry endorsed by ISO and the ICML as part of their certification Domain of Knowledge Content. Contact ENGTECH Industries Inc at 519.469.9173 or email email@example.com For more info, enter 75 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
www.LMTinfo.com | 27
Filter Cart Delivers Real-Time Particle Count Readouts
Expanded Automatic Lubricator Product Lineup
Y2K Fluid Power Sioux Falls, SD
PLI, LLC Racine, WI
he Tandem Series filter carts from Y2K Fluid Power feature an on-board particle monitor with a real-time readout of the fluid’s condition to ISO cleanliness standard ISO 4406-1999 (E). This can help eliminate drawing fluid samples and waiting on results. The unit also has two sets of filter elements that allow filtering of different grades of fluid, with no cross-contamination using a single cart.
LI, LLC has added the MEMOLUB® ONE LPS to its line of reusable automatic lubricator products. The unit features a low-pressure 240cc single-point, self-contained design with low environmental impact. According to the PLI, it saves time, money and bearings with precise metered lubricant injection, simple programming and economical, easy-to-change, replaceable lube cartridges. A three-year warranty protects against defects in material or workmanship.
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Custom REPRINts use reprints to maximize your marketing initiatives and strengthen your brand’s value. Reprints are a simple way to put information directly into the hands of your target audience. Having been featured in a well-respected publication adds the credibility of a third-party endorsement to your message.
RepRints aRe ideal foR: n New Product Announcements n Sales Aid For Your Field Force n PR Materials & Media Kits n Direct Mail Enclosures
n Customer & Prospect Communications/Presentations n Trade Shows/Promotional Events n Conferences & Speaking Engagements n Recruitment & Training Packages
For additional information, please contact Foster Printing Service, the official reprint provider for Lubrication Management.
Call 866.879.9144 or firstname.lastname@example.org
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28 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
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What about regulatory compliance?
How do I optImIze and protect mY assets? How can I get HIgHer productIvIty?
Take a break from a week filled with questions, by attending a week filled with answers. Learn about the latest smart, safe, sustainable solutions to optimize production. Improve machine performance. Get all the answers at Automation Fair® in Philadelphia, Nov. 7–8. Visit www.AutomationFair.com. For the truly inquisitive, attend the Safety Automation Forum or Process Solutions User Group. Learn more at www.SafetyAutomationForum.com and http://psug.rockwellautomation.com.
Copyright © 2012 Rockwell Automation. All Rights Reserved. AD RS2290-R1P
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SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2012 Volume 13, No. 5 •
CIRCLE # PAGE #
A.T.S. Electro-Lube Int’l Inc. ....................www.atselectrolube.com ................................67 ............ 13 Baldor Electric Company..........................www.baldor.com ............................................80 ...........BC Engtech Industries Inc...............................www.engtechindustries.com .........................75 ............ 27 Fluid Defense .............................................oilsafe.com/workflow.....................................65 .............. 7 Foster Printing Services.............................www.fosterprinting.com................................76 ............ 28 Idcon, Inc....................................................www.idcon.com/maintenance-jobs.htm ......74 ............ 26 Innovator of the Year.................................www.reliabilityinnovator.com.......................68 ............ 15 LUBE-IT/Generation Systems, Inc...........www.generationsystems.com ........................70 ............ 19 LubeStarz....................................................www.lmtinfo.com/lubestarz ..........................78 ............ 30 MARTS .......................................................www.martsconference.com ...........................71 ............ 21 Miller-Stephenson Chemical Co. .............www.miller-stephenson.com.........................62 .............. 4 Neil Bloom .................................................www.mt-online.com/rcm ..............................69 ............ 16 NSK Corporation ......................................www.nskamericas.com ..................................64 .............. 5 Pennzoil ......................................................www.pennzoil.com.........................................66 ............ 11 Rockwell Automation................................www.psug.rockwellautomation.com ............77 ............ 29 Shell ............................................................www.shell.com/us ..........................................61 ..........IFC U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC ...LongLifeLambda.com ....................................79 ......... IBC UVLM, Inc. ................................................www.uvlm.com ..............................................63 .............. 4
Access LMTfreeinfo.com and enter the circle number of the product in which you are interested, or you can search even deeper and link directly to the advertiser’s Website. Submissions Policy: Lubrication Management & Technology gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned.
It’s Time To Shine!
e We’re b u LStarz Looking For Lube Starz! ©
Our Lube Starz Section is all about our readers, the hardest-working lube pros in the universe! We want to learn who you are, where you work and more about your job. If you’re chosen as the subject of a short, published profile, you’ll soon be reading about yourself in an upcoming Lube Starz Section in Lubrication Management & Technology and on our Website. Go to www.LMTinfo.com/LubeStarz and download the profile form. Fill it out and follow the instructions for submitting it with your photo. That’s all there is to it.
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LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY
ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES THROUGH PRACTICES & PRODUCTS
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THE ULTIMATE POWER TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY
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W O R R Y- F R E E
The Sign of Quality
For almost 100 years, Baldor•Reliance® has developed a reputation for designing and manufacturing the highest quality industrial electric motors available. Beneath the nameplate of every Baldor•Reliance motor, you will find the best industrial electric motor you can buy. When reliability counts, accept nothing less than the Sign of Quality from Baldor•Reliance. baldor.com
• Energy Efficient • Unmatched Quality • Superior Reliability • Quickest Delivery Available
©2012 Baldor Electric Company
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