INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR DEMANDING OPERATIONS
Don’t be the victim of senseless downtime. When lines go down, profits fall victim. And you can be
just exceptional quality; you get the best engineering
found guilty by association. How do you identify the
service and support in the industry. Prevent
culprit before the damage is done? Tsubaki has it
unnecessary casualties. Keep your
solved. Stick with Tsubaki and you get more than
operation in good company. www.ustsubaki.com/lmt
Stop by and check us out at Pack Expo International 2013 Sept. 23-25, Las Vegas, NV Booth # C-3718 © 2011 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC. All Rights Reserved.
LEADING SERVICE & SUPPORT
For Formore moreinfo, info,enter enter61 61at atwww.LMTfreeinfo.com www.LMTfreeinfo.com61
JULY/AUGUST 2013 • VOL 14, NO. 4 • www.LMTinfo.com
ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES THROUGH PRACTICES & PRODUCTS
REAL-WORLD CASE HISTORIES 8 Mining Success With World-Class Oil Analysis Let the experiences of others help you find gold in your own program. Ray Thibault, Contributing Editor
SUPPLY CHAIN LINKS 15
Developing An Effective Lubrication Management Program Improving a site’s lubrication program can be the single greatest factor in decreasing unplanned downtime. It also provides the greatest ROI. Brian G. Richards and Paul Michalicka, SKF USA
ICML CERTIFICATION SERIES 21
Industrial Lubrication Fundamentals: What’s In A Lubricant? (Base Oils) The base stocks that a manufacturer starts with and where they come from determines more than you might have thought with regard to finished lube products.
DEPARTMENTS 6 27 30 30
From Our Perspective Problem Solvers Supplier Index Info Highway
Ken Bannister, Contributing Editor
WORKFORCE ISSUES 24
What Does ‘Empowerment’ Have To Do With Maintenance? A seasoned consultant says the correct answer to the question is ‘a lot.’ That is, if you want to bridge the skills gap and build a savvier, happier, more productive team. Enrique Mora, Mora Global Consultants, Inc.
R.I.P. We regret to announce that our longtime friend and colleague Tom Madding passed away on July 4, 2013. Tom had been associated with Applied Technology Publications, parent company of LMT, for more than 10 years. During that time, he served in numerous roles, from national sales/management positions to overseeing our annual MARTS conferences. To view Tom’s obituary, please visit www.mt-online.com/RIP.
Achieving Efﬁciencies Through Practices & Products Apply for a free, one-year subscription at
www.LMTinfo.com www.LMTinfo.com | 3
Dramatically extends equipment life!
ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES THROUGH PRACTICES & PRODUCTS
July/August 2013 • Volume 14, No. 4 ARTHUR L. RICE President/CEO firstname.lastname@example.org
BILL KIESEL Executive Vice President/Publisher email@example.com
JANE ALEXANDER Krytox Fluorinated Greases and Oils are: Chemically Inert. Insoluble in common solvents. Thermally stable. Temperature range (-103˚F to 800˚F). Nonﬂammable. Nontoxic. Oxygen Compatible – safe for oxygen service. Low Vapor Pressure. Low Outgassing. No Migration – no silicones or hydrocarbons. Krytox® offers Extreme Pressure, Anticorrosion and Anti-wear properties. Mil-spec, Aerospace and Food Grades (H-1 and H-2) available! Useful in Vacuum Systems. ®
For technical information, call: 203.743.4447 / 800.992.2424 (8 AM – 4 PM ET)
Authorized Dupont™Krytox® Distributor Since 1991 Over 100 grades in stock! No minimum quantities.
RICK CARTER Executive Editor firstname.lastname@example.org
KENNETH E. BANNISTER RAY THIBAULT, CLS, OMA I & II Contributing Editors
Director of Creative Services email@example.com
Editorial/Production Assistant firstname.lastname@example.org
California - Illinois - Connecticut - Canada e-mail: email@example.com www.miller-stephenson.com m
For more info, enter 62 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
“Visual systems, when applied to equipment, can reduce training time by 60 to 70% and eliminate errors.” —Robert Williamson, lean equipment specialist
Our Visual Supplies Can Improve Your Equipment’s Performance! Colored gauge marking labels Problem and Opportunity Tags in English or Spanish Red Move Tags Colored paint pens Colored grease fitting caps and lube point labels Vibration analysis pickup discs and labels Proven Tips for Equipment Troubleshooting handbook Lean Machines instructional book for applying visuals Temperature indicating strips and more
Visual systems supplies that deliver results...fast! To view and order from our complete line of Visual Systems Products, go to...
www.swspitcrew.com To order by phone or fax, call (864)862-0446 Strategic Work Systems, Inc. PO Box 70 Columbus, NC 28722
For more info, enter 63 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
Direct Mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Reprint Manager 866-879-9144, ext. 168 email@example.com
Editorial Office 1300 South Grove Ave., Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 / FAX 847-304-8603 www.LMTinfo.com
Subscriptions FOR INQUIRIES OR CHANGES CONTACT JEFFREY HEINE, 630-739-0900 EXT. 204 / FAX 630-739-7967 Lubrication Management & Technology (ISSN 19414447) is published bi-monthly except Mar/Apr by Applied Technology Publications, Inc., 1300 S. Grove Avenue, Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010. Periodical postage paid at Barrington, IL and additional offices. Arthur L. Rice, III, President/CEO. Circulation records are maintained at Lubrication Management & Technology, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Lubrication Management & Technology copyright 2013. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted without written permission from the publisher. Annual subscription rates for nonqualified people: North America, $140; all others, $280 (air). No subscription agency is authorized by us to solicit or take orders for subscriptions. Postmaster: Please send address changes to Lubrication Management & Technology, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Please indicate position, title, company name, company address. For other circulation information call (630) 739-0900. Canadian Publications Agreement No. 40886011. Canada Post returns: IMEX, Station A, P.O. Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5, or email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Submissions Policy: Lubrication Management & Technology gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. Printed in U.S.A.
42nd Turbomachinery 29th Pump SYMPOSIA
GEORGE R. BROWN CONVENTION CENTER
9.30 â€“ 10.3.2013 turbolab.tamu.edu /TurbolabatTAMU
For more info, enter 64 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
FROM OUR PERSPECTIVE
Ken Bannister, Contributing Editor
Taking Back The Normal
t this year’s MARTS conference, Jeff Dudley, former Corporate Director of Reliability and Maintenance for The Dow Chemical Company, delivered the keynote address entitled “Are You Reliable Enough?” In it, he explored the problem of maintenance departments not simply normalizing abnormality, but going above and beyond to actually embrace this new state. While working with a mechanical maintenance group setting up a reliability-based approach to their work, I was asked to review a major machining center at the site. The machine’s hydraulic material-handling system was particularly problematic—as the group characterized it, “leaking like a sieve” after only eight months of operation. Upon further questioning, it became evident that all of the plant’s fixed hydraulic systems suffered from major leaks. Interestingly, none of the site’s forklift hydraulic systems leaked: As it turned out, those systems are maintained by a dedicated mechanic. This situation is a classic case of something that was abnormal having become an acceptable norm. Looking into the site’s preventive maintenance (PM) job tasks revealed that the entire approach revolved around ensuring that hydraulic-oil-tank fluid levels were checked and “topped up,” and that newly designed and installed “oil catch pans” were vacuumed out with a fluid vac—on a daily basis, due to the rate of leakage! When questioned about the frequency of these activities, the maintainers believed, in light of the system’s design, that their approach was acceptable. Some of them actually thought the machine was designed to leak as a way to ensure a constant flow of fresh lubricant through the system! Further investigation revealed that none of the high-tech electronically monitored hydraulic filters were connected to the machine interface—and since both were operating in a bypass mode, they offered no machine protection. The PM to change the oil and filter on a quarterly basis
LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
had never been acted on, as it was felt the daily PM had rendered it redundant. Once again, the abnormal had become normal. Clearly, this maintenance group had become rather short-sighted: They had found it easy to deal with a simplistic, symptom-based maintenance approach. As long as no one questioned the excessive lubricant costs or fees for disposal of used oils—and as long as the machine availability didn’t affect production output— the new normal prevailed.
Those who take a symptom-based approach to maintenance can easily be lulled into thinking that abnormal conditions/incidents are the norm. Breaking this mold and moving toward a reliability-based approach isn’t as difficult as you might think: It just requires an open mind and the ability to ask “why?” In this group’s case, highlighting the abnormality of their symptom-based approach (that NEVER addressed why rod and valve seals were leaking) and comparing it to the forklift mechanic’s approach was quite an eye-opener. It led the team to question their motives and develop a PM approach focused on preventing leaks rather than just managing them. After a series of “asking why” sessions, the group realized that the leaks were NOT part of the machine design after all, but were caused by poor housekeeping, missing breather caps on reservoirs and dirty fluid-transfer equipment, leading to dirt ingression that was ineffectively filtered. Success meant embracing reliability and “taking back the normal.” Good luck in your own efforts! LMT email@example.com
BOOSTING YOUR BOTTOM LINE
Three Cautions Regarding Drives
ne common cause of wasted energy—and wasted money—around industrial facilities is the running of motor-driven equipment at full speed, regardless of the load. Installing an adjustable speed drive (ASD) can help by matching motor speed to application requirements. There are, however, some important exceptions. This article explores several situations where installing an ASD may warrant a second look. Where Can Drives Save Energy? ASDs can save energy if they are used in appropriate applications, are installed properly and if potential harmonics issues are identified and addressed. Generally, ASDs are recommended for centrifugal loads such as fans, pumps and blowers that operate at least 2000 hours per year; in systems where flow varies over time; and where valves, throttles or dampers are used to regulate the flow and pressure. Where Are Drives Unlikely To Save Energy? While ASD energy efficiency is typically high (approximately 97% at full load), they are less likely to save energy in applications where motor speed remains relatively constant over time. Below are a few more examples where ASDs are unlikely to save energy. 1. High-static-pressure installations: A system that is static head-dominated (open loop) is one where the pump is working to overcome gravity or elevation. Examples of these applications include boiler-feed water pumps, submersible pumps, above-ground pumps that operate with a high static-dominated pressure level and pumps that lift water to fill a reservoir. In these applications, ASDs may not achieve overall energy savings as a control option; however, they may make sense where the ASD is used to address water-supply demand that modulates continuously.
| MAINTENANCE JULY/AUGUST 2013 TECHNOLOGY 32
2. Poor sequencing: Some motor-driven equipment is designed and installed with sequenc-ing in mind. For example, cooling towers or evaporator fans are often set up in lead-lag fashion, a good practice where each fan immediately turns on and off based upon demand. Adding an ASD to the existing lead-lag configuration may consume more energy because the drive programming algorithm could activate multiple fans to start earlier and operate longer at a higher energyconsumption level. 3. ASD functioning as soft starter: An ASD used solely to eliminate equipment failure at startup, or to reduce demand charges by soft-starting motors does not necessarily save energy. Soft starters can provide this functionality. So What’s The Bottom Line? In the right applications, drives can offer solid benefits. Be sure to ask your utility representative or a motor and drive expert about other application-specific considerations. More information on motors and drives is available through the MDM campaign at www.motorsmatter.org/resources/asds.html. LMT For more info, enter 01 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
The Motor Decisions Matter (MDM) campaign is managed by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE), a North American nonprofit organization that promotes energysaving products, equipment and technologies. For further information, contact MDM staff at firstname.lastname@example.org or (617) 589-3949.
|7 www.LMTinfo.com OCTOBER 2007
REAL-WORLD CASE HISTORIES
Mining Success With World-Class Oil Analysis Let the experiences of others help you find gold in your own program.
Ray Thibault CLS, OMA I, OMA II, MLT, MLT II, MLA II, MLA III Contributing Editor
oday, most industrial enterprises, including mining operations, have a similar focus: maintaining their competiveness through productivity. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a strategy employed by progressive organizations to help achieve that goal. RCM puts great emphasis on the adoption of a world-class lubrication program. (The March/April 2013 installment of this LMT case-study series discussed such a program at a large petrochemical facility.) Oil analysisâ€”a condition-monitoring tool that reflects both predictive and proactive maintenance capabilitiesâ€”is a crucial component of a world-class lube program. This article discusses implementation of that type of program within a major gold-mining operation.
8 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
REAL-WORLD CASE HISTORIES
The goals of an effective oil-analysis program are to…
■ Practice continuous improvements by adapting to
changing conditions and requirements. ■ Improve asset reliability. ■ Identify and eliminate repetitive problems. ■ Reduce unscheduled maintenance. ■ Obtain maximum use of lubricants in service. ■ Reduce maintenance and lubrication costs. ■ Achieve fault-free component-life extension. ■ Utilize proactive maintenance flanked by predictive
maintenance technology. ■ Achieve condition-based maintenance.
To build a world-class program, a site must… ■ Select an oil-analysis lab that will help achieve the
above objectives. ■ Develop criteria for equipment to be sampled and
prepare an equipment list. ■ Develop a sampling strategy. ■ Select the appropriate oil-analysis tests based on
equipment type. ■ Select and allocate personnel for the program along
with an overall coordinator. ■ Work closely with the oil-analysis laboratory selected to
The mining company profiled in this article has successfully implemented each of these key steps. Historical program development An oil-analysis program was first developed in the early 1990s. There was no formalized program, and many different laboratories were tried. At one time, they were using three different laboratories. In 2001, a company specializing in oil-analysis data management was brought in to set up a database and train people in proper sampling collection techniques. Even though there were improvements, the program still had many problems. Equipment was incorrectly entered or had missing information in the database. There was a great deal of inconsistency in the development and utilization of condemning limits for equipment and fluids. One group made their decisions visually to determine whether to change the oil or not. Others utilized their laboratory data on oil condition as best they could to make their decisions. One comment made by a maintenance planner summed up the state of the oil-analysis program: “We monitor our components in the oil database right up to failure and when they fail we replace them.” In 2006, the mining company contracted with an oil-analysis data-management organization. It also adopted a Web-based data-management system and formed a fluid-management team to improve its existing program. At that time, the company was using one laboratory (one of the larger oil-analysis providers in North America) for many sites. Implementation included a number of activities conducted over a desired timeline. ■ The oil-analysis data-management company provided the
following training: ♦ Sampling best practices for technicians.
continue to improve the program to meet objectives. ■ Provide proper training with the use of internal and
♦ Training on oil-condition monitoring program for maintenance-planning groups.
external resources. ■ Track and document cost benefits.
♦ Training of technicians and planning groups on how to use new oil database program.
World-class lubrication programs include world-class oil-analysis efforts. The mining company referenced in this article could be a model for many other operations. JULY/AUGUST 2013
www.LMTinfo.com | 9
REAL-WORLD CASE HISTORIES
■ A new laboratory was selected. This was a major step.
The mining company decided to go with a smaller laboratory that didn’t have the capabilities of the major lab they were currently using. They had antiquated equipment, but there was potential to establish a program designed specifically for the mining company. This effort was difficult at first, but the mining company elected to put strict key performance indicators (KPIs) on the laboratory. Quarterly meetings with the lab were conducted to discuss the progress on the KPIs. Guidelines included: ♦ Timely sample turnaround times. ♦ Resolution of sample transportation issues which were initially sent by bus to the laboratory. This was resolved by having the laboratory pick up the samples from the various mine sites. ♦ Purchase of new equipment to meet mining company standards. Frequent meetings were conducted between the mining company and the laboratory to monitor the quality of the data generated. ♦ Minimization of incorrect data from laboratory. ♦ Obtaining ISO 17025 accreditation and maintaining compliance. This was achieved several years after program implementation. ♦ Current program after six years is functioning very well with excellent results. All the KPIs are being met and continuous improvement is practiced. Current state; the program as it is now Equipment… If equipment has oil in it and is operating, it is added to the database and sampled. The following equipment types are being sampled and analyzed by the laboratory: ■ All diesel engines except pickups and small forklifts. ■ Mobile equipment drive-train components.
■ All air compressors, both screw and reciprocating. ■ All crushers. ■ All mills. ■ All electric motors that have oil-lubricated bearings.
Currently, there are nearly 6500 oil-filled components registered in the equipment database. Test slate… Table I summarizes the oil-analysis tests run on the various equipment components. The mining company utilizes LaserNet Fines for particle counts and classification of particles >20 micron. This is a powerful tool allowing users to be both predictive and proactive. Utilized by very few labs in North America, it’s quite popular in Europe. Proper use of LNF results can be helpful on all equipment except engines. Sampling… An oil-analysis program is only as good as the integrity of the samples. Sampling is done by the same people at the mine sites to achieve consistency. Proper training also has been conducted—and is ongoing/reinforced though the use of visual aids such as laminated wall charts illustrating photos of the sample points and proper sampling techniques. These charts are constantly updated to reflect changing conditions. The mining company, its fluid-management group and the data-management consulting firm work together closely to continuously improve the sampling program. When the current program started six years ago, 1000 samples/month were collected. Over time, the number of samples increased to 4000/month—and continues to increase in light of new equipment. Sampling frequency for engines is every 250 hours. Transmissions, mobile hydraulics, differentials and final drives which were sampled every 500 hours are now sampled every 250 hours. Fixed equipment on most sites went from every 90 days to monthly. Again, the criteria for sampling: If it is loaded in the oil database and has oil, it will be sampled. One of the strengths of the program is highly trained people utilizing the latest techniques to collect representative samples.
■ All hydraulic systems both fixed and mobile. ■ All pumps that contain > 2 quarts of oil and all critical
pumps regardless of sump volume. ■ All gearboxes and agitators.
10 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
Predictive/proactive condition-based maintenance… Wear debris analysis (through the use of emission spectroscopy [ICP], ferrous density analysis [PQ]) and particle counts/shapes (through the use of LaserNet Fines [LNET]) identifies defects at an early stage. This facilitates the type JULY/AUGUST 2013
For more info, enter 65 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
REAL-WORLD CASE HISTORIES
Table I. Oil-Analysis Tests Conducted on Equipment Components
Oxidation Nitration, Soot, Glycol Sulfur Water
Glycol Fuel Dilution
Oxidation Glycol Sulfur Water
Final Drives/ Differentials
Gearboxes Pumps, Motors, Agitators
Laser Karl Net Fines Fischer + Crackle
Oxidation Antiwear Sulfur Water
Oxidation Sulfur Water
Oxidation Sulfur Water
Oxidation Sulfur Water
of timely corrections that prevent equipment failures. Oil analysis also allows the mining company to proactively maintain fluid integrity and make proper oil changes to prevent equipment damage. Establishing warning limits is a critical part of an oilanalysis program from a predictive and proactive basis. Initially, alerts were set on the make and model of the equipment though years of knowledge. This system was refined five years ago by a joint team formed from the mining company and the data-management company. Alerts are currently adjusted as new information is developed. It is anticipated that the information will be refined this year by using statistical analysis. Any alert changes are a joint decision between the mining company’s fluidmanagement group and its maintenance planners. Once an alert is established on the equipment by the data managements’ condition intelligence team, a recommendation is made and it goes to the maintenance-planning group responsible for that equipment. The decision is made to accept or reject that action and, if accepted, when to implement that action. 12 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
Except for engines and air compressors, oil changes are now based primarily on the condition of an oil—that is, unless an alert occurs on the fluid. The decision to change the fluid is made by the maintenance planner to an alert being generated on the fluid. Condition-based oil changes are based on contamination from one or more of the following: ■ Water ingression ■ Fuel dilution ■ Coolant leaks ■ Process fluids ■ Oil deterioration ■ Dirt ■ Incorrect oil mixing JULY/AUGUST 2013
REAL-WORLD CASE HISTORIES
For equipment, an alert is set for each contaminant with condemning limits. Each is reviewed by the maintenance group and a course of action is determined. All actions don’t necessarily require an oil change, but could involve just a filter change.
■ Identified wrong oil delivered to bulk tanks.
Program results The success of any program is predicated on the useful information made to increase equipment reliability. The following is a summary of some of the results obtained from the oil-analysis program:
■ Identified the addition of wrong oil to equipment.
■ Identified product formulation changes from the
■ Basing oil changes on condition has resulted in lowered
oil consumption from longer drain intervals. ■ Identifying component defects early through wear-debris
■ Identified wrong filter sizes and housings from OEMs,
analysis is preventing equipment failure.
based on particle-count results from LNF. ■ Identified air-integrity problems (high sulfur) in
rotary-screw compressors. ■ Identified OEM-related problems with engine
The above list, reflecting both predictive and proactive maintenance practices, has resulted in extension of equipment life. A major budgeted cost for the mines is the cost/hour to run the equipment. The oil-analysis program has significantly extended equipment life, leading to a lowering of the cost/ hour to run the equipment and extended oil-drain intervals.
For more info, enter 66 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
www.LMTinfo.com | 13
REAL-WORLD CASE HISTORIES
The mining company’s three-person fluid-management group is the glue that holds this successful program and its world-class oil-analysis efforts together.
There are also major savings from the prevention of catastrophic failures through early defect detection. These are difficult to identify, but they are there. Minimization of unplanned equipment downtime—a very costly proposition in mining—has been especially important for this company. Work is continuing to better quantify cost prevention of equipment saves. Future state; program plans Ongoing planning with regard to the mining company’s oil-analysis program includes: ■ Practicing continuous improvement in
sampling and test methods to obtain the best data possible. ■ Linking the oil-analysis database with
a new SAP program allowing maintenance planners to have to work with only one database.
the maintenance planners with lots of input from the other groups. This arrangement has worked successfully for many years. ■ Training:
A two-day training program is conducted annually by the fluid-management group, with the help of outside consultants and oil-analysis lab personnel. A basic lubrication class is conducted by an outside consultant for new employees requiring lubrication and oil-analysis training and an advanced oil-analysis training class for experienced personnel involved in oil analysis. The class reviews new developments in oil analysis, but also involves hands-on training utilizing the data-management system to interpret data and make recommendations on actual oil-analysis data from the laboratory on mine-equipment components. All groups are involved in conducting this class.
■ Developing a rigorous statistical
analysis program to refine equipment/ lubricant data alerts. ■ Continuing to quantify benefits of
oil-analysis program. Conclusion I have observed many oil-analysis programs in my years in the lubricants industry. The mine in this article truly has a world-class oil-analysis program which is one of the finest I have ever encountered. It wasn’t quick or easy, but nothing worthwhile ever is. The following are the factors resulting in the successful development of the oilanalysis program:
■ The mining company’s fluid-
management group: This team is the glue that holds the program together. It is a small team of three people, including a manager, who are highly experienced in equipment and oil analysis. Two team members are both Certified Lubrication Specialists (CLS) and Certified Oil Monitoring Analysts (OMA). The success of the program is due to developing a good plan, and having the patience to implement it effectively with the involvement of high-quality, dedicated mine personnel assisted, as needed, by experienced and knowledgeable outside consultants. LMT
The program involves close work among five major groups: the company’s fluidmanagement group and maintenanceplanning group, its data-management consultants, lubricant supplier and oilanalysis laboratory. There is frequent interaction among the groups. The final decision on the equipment is made by 14 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
Long-time Contributing Editor Ray Thibault is based in Cypress (Houston), TX. An STLE-Certified Lubrication Specialist and Oil Monitoring Analyst, he conducts extensive training for operations around the world. Telephone: (281) 250-0279. Email: email@example.com. JULY/AUGUST 2013
SUPPLY CHAIN LINKS
Get help where you need it most. . .
Developing An Effective Lubrication Management Program Improving a siteâ€™s lubrication program can be the single greatest factor in decreasing unplanned downtime. It also provides the greatest ROI. Brian G. Richards and Paul Michalicka SKF USA
he potential bottom-line benefits of proper lubrication are often overlooked. This is true throughout the industrial world and in countless applications, from machine tools, off-highway and pulp and paper to steel, railroad and wind turbines. If no effective lubrication program is in place, an operation is likely to experience significant unplanned downtime at a substantial cost to its bottom lineâ€”and, potentially, its customers. Conversely, the right lubrication process can provide opportunities to improve profitability by reducing costs and boosting reliability, increasing the overall life cycle of equipment, and, ultimately, turning out products at a more competitive rate. www.LMTinfo.com | 15
SUPPLY CHAIN LINKS
As noted in the above pie chart, the cost of lubricants typically represents 1-3% of a maintenance budget. Contrast that fact to the impact of improper or insufficient lubrication: The cost of failed components and overtime due to machine downtime can total as much as 40% of maintenance dollars spent. This fact highlights the importance of a well-functioning, proactive lubrication management program. There are a variety of reasons why machine components fail prematurely, including imbalance, misalignment, corrosion, overload, etc. The most frequent causes are related to lubrication: As the second pie chart notes, approximately 50% of premature bearing failures are due to issues such as too much or too little lubricant; lubricant contamination or cross-contamination with incompatible lubricants; lubricant-chemical degradation; and use of the wrong type or grade of lubricant. Many facilities strive to minimize the number of lubricants they stock and use, both to reduce cost and lessen the chance of misapplication. However, each machine has a distinct set of parameters that should be used to select the appropriate lubricant based on environment, temperature, speed, bearing type, manual or automatic lubrication, etc. A well-defined lubrication management program lets a site optimize selection while minimizing the number of lubricants utilized within the plant. 16 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TEChNOLOGy
Doing it the right way By leveraging proper lubrication techniques, machine uptime and service intervals may be extended and maintenance and operating costs can be lowered, greatly improving the overall life cycle of the equipment. Depending on the equipment in place and the manufacturing process, manual lubrication, automatic lubrication or a combination of both may be employed on a single piece of equipment. Lubricant is applied and maintained through a range of application methods, from simple lubrication solutions such as grease guns, single-point lubricators and multipoint lubricators, to fully automatic lubrication systems capable of maintaining adequate lubricant film integrity from a single point to 2000 lubrication points. Automatic lubrication systems range from single-line, dual-line or multi-line, as well as progressive, circulating oil, oil and air and minimal-quantity systems. It can be a complicated task to determine what methods should be used to accomplish proper lubrication throughout a facility, but assistance is available. One of SKFâ€™s five platforms is lubrication, providing customers with a full range of servicesâ€”from evaluating and specifying lubricants to fully autonomous lubricating solutions. In 2012, the company implemented its JULY/AUGUST 2013
SUPPLY CHAIN LINKS
Success Stories Following are examples of two companies that utilized the SKF Lubrication Management Program to improve their lubrication practices: Oil Platform: During a routine oil sampling from a compressor on an oil platform, suspicions were raised when results identiﬁed continuing levels of organic debris in the oil before and after the ﬁlter element. Lubricant analysis indicated a large amount of bacterial growth in the oil tanks, which was blocking the ﬁlters and causing bypass valves to be utilized. SKF recommended that the oil tanks be fully drained and ﬂushed to eradicate bacterial growth. The tanks were then treated against further infestation with desiccant breathers ﬁtted to reduce the risk of condensation buildup.
Aluminum Plant: The customer realized the opportunity to reduce unplanned downtime and grease consumption by means of proper lubrication. After evaluating the plant’s current lubrication practices, SKF personnel helped the customer to establish industry standard practices across the plant. By implementing these practices, the customer beneﬁted from extended re-lubrication intervals, reduced grease consumption and reduction of overall maintenance costs. In addition, the plant was able to minimize physical risks when performing lubrication activities and minimize the contamination and cross-contamination risks during re-lubrication.
For more info, enter 02 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
Lubrication Management Program to help customers learn what they could gain by implementing a sound lube plan. (Though similar processes were in place prior to that date, they weren’t part of a single, comprehensive program necessary to provide the level of service and knowledge that SKF is capable of delivering based on its unique perspective and extensive tribological knowledge as a leading bearing manufacturer and its position in the centralized lubrication systems arena under the Lincoln brand.) SKF’s Lubrication Management Program consists of five main steps: ■ Client needs analysis ■ Lubrication audit ■ Improvement proposal ■ Design and implementation ■ Optimization
Client needs analysis. . . This analysis usually takes place during a one-day visit in which the customer answers 40 basic questions. SKF will provide an appraisal of the maturity level of the customer’s lubrication program. Strengths and areas of improvement are identified. For more info, enter 67 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
www.LMTinfo.com | 17
SUPPLY CHAIN LINKS
Lubrication audit and improvement proposal. . . The audit will take approximately three to five days, and customers provide answers to 270 questions. A thorough report is generated which evaluates the current lubrication program and its efficiency. Recommendations are made to improve the customer’s lubrication practices. An optional module of the process includes using SKF’s potential savings calculator to estimate the losses related to lubrication and determine the potential savings from investing in an SKF lubrication management program. Design and implementation. . . Upon customer approval, SKF moves forward with the improvement proposal. This may include components such as lubrication planning and scheduling design, lubricant analysis program design, standard procedures generation, storage room design and training, as well as lubrication tools and automatic lubrication system recommendations. In addition, the customer may request a root cause failure analysis, EAM/CMMS (Enterprise Asset Management/Computerized Maintenance Management System) data population and SKF integrated maintenance solutions. Optimization. . . Optimization of the program involves maintaining contact between SKF and the customer during the implementation and evolution phases of the recommendations, as well as communication regarding the achieved results. Covering all your bases Regardless of whether a customer chooses to work with SKF or another entity, a comprehensive lubrication management program should address the following: ■ Logistics and supply chain ■ Lubricant storage and handling ■ Lubricant selection and application methods ■ Analysis ■ Contamination and condition control ■ Lubrication task planning and scheduling ■ Lubricant waste handling ■ Training
18 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & technology
Logistics and supply chain. . . When selecting suppliers necessary to augment the lubrication management program implementation, consider “partners” capable of providing a full range of goods and services, including lubricants, lubricating systems, lubricant analysis, failure analysis and services that may need to be outsourced due to manpower constraints or specialization not found within the facility. Lubricant storage and handling. . . It’s recommended that the lubricant storage area be a safe and controlled environment that complies with health and safety regulations. Required documentation must be available and accessible. The area should be equipped with spillage and fire-control devices. Another important task is to determine if your dispensing tools and equipment help to minimize the ingress of contaminants. Lubricants and tools should be properly identified to avoid cross-contamination. Lubricant selection and application methods. . . Customers need to confirm that their lubrication technicians are trained to select and apply lubricants and that those technicians have the proper tools and safety equipment for the job, as well as written procedures. How is the decision made to use manual or automatic lubrication? Do the technicians have lubrication system knowledge? Lubrication analysis. . . Customers should know if their lubricant sampling plans, procedures and analysis are defined for each critical asset and if they include primary and secondary tests. Test results should be tracked and examined for trends. Sampling ports should be identified, labeled and prepared, and samples should be taken in a reliable and consistent, external contaminant-free manner, following written guidelines and procedures. Contamination and condition control. . . Contamination in lubricants accounts for approximately 25% of all lube-related bearing failures. Only clean lubricants should be used on machines, so it’s essential to know what procedures are in place to avoid contaminants being introduced to new lubricant. How are sources of contamination identified and controlled? Are ISO cleanliness codes and water-level content defined for critical assets and how often do you control these levels? In addition, it is key to have a defined plan for spillage and leakage control in place. JULY/AUGUST 2013
SUPPLY CHAIN LINKS
Lubrication analysis is an essential part of a successful lubrication management program. Keep in mind that your testing results should be tracked and examined for trends.
Lubrication task planning and scheduling. . . The actual act of lubricating, filling or visually monitoring a specific asset within a manufacturing facility requires planning and scheduling. The plan should be mapped out defining the points, lubricants required, frequency and quantity needed for re-lubrication, refilling or changing the lubricant, as well as the personnel and procedures required to perform and document the specific lubrication task. Lubricant waste handling. . . Adequate procedures for disposal and handling of used and/ or contaminated lubricants need to be defined and monitored to confirm that all applicable environmental regulations are met. This process also can provide verification of consumption trends within a given facility. Training. . . All effective lubrication management programs require specific training ranging from the physical activity of applying JULY/AUGUST 2013
the lubricant, the effects of misapplication and proper audits. In addition, training should include development plans necessary to maintain, monitor and improve the lubrication management program being implemented. Conclusion The lubrication process is an essential component in the operation of every production facility. Implementing a well-defined lubrication management program can help to maximize potential bottom-line benefits received from proper lubrication techniques. LMT
Brian Richards is a Business Development Manager with the SKF Lubrication Business Unit. Paul Michalicka is SKF North American Area Manager of Maintenance Products. Email: Brian.G.Richards@skf.com and/or Paul.Michalicka@skf.com. For more info, enter 03 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com www.LMTinfo.com | 19
SPONSORED INFORMATION SOLUTION SPOTLIGHT
Redefining the meaning of best-in-class...
Meet Emerson’s Next-Generation Vibration Analyzer The CSI 2140 Machinery Health Analyzer is a complete tool for assessing and preserving mechanical-equipment health.
merson Process Management has introduced the CSI 2140 Machinery Health Analyzer, the next generation of its portable tool for analyzing machinery vibration to detect potential problems before they lead to unplanned downtime. This new analyzer builds on the capabilities of Emerson’s popular CSI 2130 to provide new four-channel simultaneous data collection functionality, wireless and Bluetooth communication, and a full-color touchscreen. The CSI 2140 also delivers the fastest route collection capability on the market, enabling workers to spend long beentasks. considered the heart of rotating moreearings time onhave higher-value machinery. Going forward, the words The new ergonomic shape andinlighter weightofofSKF, the they CSI 2140 can also be “the brain.” With new SKF Insight™ intel-is over make data-collection routes easier on users. Data gathering ligent wireless technology integrated into the the company’s 50% faster than with other analyzers, minimizing time spent in bearings, these components (i.e., “smart bearings”) commuuncomfortable or dangerous environments and allowing technicians their the operating conditions continuously via internally tonicate complete collection more quickly. The screen is easy to read sensors and data-acquisition inpowered both direct sunlight and dark areas, electronics. and auto-adjusts based on According to Tom Johnstone, SKF President and CEO, ambient lighting. these innovations are set to revolutionize condition moniHelp Where, When and How You Need Itmachinery and techtoring for bearings, especially in critical Given the fact that more than 50% mechanical are caused by nically challenging applications.of“SKF Insightissues technology bearing wear, effective monitoring of bearing health should be a key will make condition monitoring more widely available,” component of your reliability program. The CSI 2140 has you covered. he says, “especially in applications where it was previously With its four-channel data collection capabilities, users can impossible or impractical. With our integrated diagnosticgather vertical, horizontal and axial readings on a better bearingcontrol at the same technology, our customers can get even over time. Using this data and Emerson’s unique PeakVue™ technology, reliability the life cycle of their machinery, leading to lower total costs technicians can detect compromised bearing performance earlier than with higher reliability and machinery uptime.” with any other measurement technique. In addition, advanced diagNotable features/characteristics/capabilities nostics embedded in the help users drive to the root cause of Emerson Process Management (www.emersonprocess.com), Monitoring directly onCSI the 2140 bearing ■ Miniaturization: Sensor-technology packaging allows the mechanical issues. an Emerson business, is a leader in helping businesses autoThe company notes that prior to the introduction of SKF measurement of critical parameters like RPM, temperature, Most vibration programs require a cabled connection to the plant mate their production, processing and distribution in the Insight, condition-monitoring techniques could only detect velocity, vibration and load, among others. chemical, oil and gas, refining, pulp and paper, power, water asset database data However, for analysis.byThat’s not directly the case on with the damage aftertoitupload occurred. sensing and wastewater treatment, mining and metals, food and CSI It canSKF sendiscollected wirelessly the fifrom eld to the the office. the2140: bearing, able todata monitor thefrom damage ■ Self-powered: Using the application environment itself, life sciences and other industries. The company The can then his/her route—or start this another— smartbeverage, firsttechnician microscopic effectcontinue as it isonhappening, and with bearingssuperior can generate the power needed to operate. combines products and technology with industrywithout a returncustomers trip to the maintenance shop. Theaction data isto also available for information, can take remedial reduce specifi c engineering, consulting, project management and analysis by specialists at corporate headquarters other locations. the reason for damage in the bearing (i.e.,oradding lubricant, ■ Simplicity: Intelligent wireless communication capabilimaintenance services. Its brands include PlantWeb™, Additionaltransient CSI 2140overloads, capabilitiesetc.). allow users to perform single, dual ties inside the bearing allow communication in environmitigating Syncade™, DeltaV™, Fisher®, Micro Motion®, Roseor four-channel vibration analysis, cross-channel analysis, transient mentsmount®, In addition, by monitoring the load directly on the bearing, where Bettis®, traditional WiFiOvation™ can’t operate. Daniel™, and AMS Suite. analysis, structural analysis, AC electric motor monitoring and 4-plane Insight technology makes it possible to measure the load dynamic a complete, easy-to-use toolwhat for fast, that thebalancing—providing bearing actually experiences, rather than it accu■ Smart networks: Communicating through each other and rate assessment of rotating machinery health. was designed for. This information can be routed back into via a wireless gateway, bearings with SKF Insight form a
About Emerson Process Management
the design phase to improve both the system and bearing morebetter about operational this game-changer at: better design. BenefitsLearn include knowledge, maintenance planning, optimized manpower and spare-part www.assetweb.com/vibration management—which can all lead to lower operating costs. 20 |
MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY & TECHNOLOGY LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT
“mesh network” that sends information relevant to their condition for analysis. The future ofFor ‘smart’ isinfo, now more info, enter 3075atatwww.MT-freeinfo.com For more enter www.LMTfreeinfo.com FEBRUARY 2013 JULY/AUGUST
ICML CERTIFICATION SERIES
Domain of Knowledge Element #4
Industrial Lubrication Fundamentals:
WHAT'S IN A LUBRICANT? (BASE OILS)
The base stocks that a manufacturer starts with and where they come from determines more than you might have imagined with regard to your finished lube products.
Ken Bannister Contributing Editor
very finished “ready to use” lubricant is manufactured to a proprietary formula. Each is expected to combat friction according to various design, function and operating conditions under which bearing surfaces must be kept separated. Lubricating oils— either as liquids or as thickened forms known as grease—are blended products consisting of a base-oil stock and an additive package. The base-oil percentage of a finished oil can range from 75% to 99%, depending on how much of an additive package is used to enhance, suppress or contribute new properties to the oil. Base-oil stocks come from three primary sources that classify an oil as an animal/vegetable, mineral or synthetic lubricant. JULY/AUGUST 2013
www.LMTinfo.com | 21
ICML CERTIFICATION SERIES
Animal/vegetable base oils The Industrial Revolution ran for a long time on olive oil and rendered animal fat. Eventually, the problems associated with animal/vegetable oil’s inability to arrest rapid acid formation under ever-increasing speeds and loads were solved by the discovery of crude mineral oil. One of the few exceptions was the use of sperm whale oil—prized for its exceptional lubricating properties and used up until the early 1970s as a base oil for automotive ATF (automatic transmission fluid). The animal/vegetable oil classification is now generally reserved for cooking purposes. Mineral base oils Often defined as petroleum-based oil, mineral-base-oil stock is overwhelmingly the most popular base-oil stock in use today. Mineral oil comes out of the earth in a crude form that must be refined to remove impurities (i.e., aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds, acids and wax) and improve the base oil’s desirable properties (i.e., its Viscosity Index [VI], pour point and stability). (Refining separates crude-oil molecules by size and weight to produce a variety of petroleum-based products. Interestingly, lubricating-base-stock oil constitutes only 1-2% of a barrel of crude oil’s yield. At approximately 25%, gasoline accounts for the highest percentage of refined product yield from a barrel of crude.) Where (in the world) the crude oil originates establishes the base-oil properties and, in turn, the type of service application for which the finished lubricant is suited (as determined by the levels of paraffin and napthene present in the crude stock). Paraffinic crude oils, which are generally found in the MidContinental U.S., the Middle East and the British North Sea, are favored for the manufacture of crankcase oils, gear oils, bearing oils, turbine oils and most hydraulic fluids. Paraffinic crudes will contain to 60% paraffin and up to 10% wax, giving this type of oil an excellent VI rating—in the range of 95 to 105. Napthenic crude oils, which are generally found in coastal U.S. and South American regions, are favored for the manufacture of compressor oils, refrigerant oils and locomotive oils. Napthenic crudes contain up to 75% napthene and show only traces of wax. While such percentages give these oils an improved (lower) pour point than their paraffinic siblings, they also lead to a lower flash point and a less-desirable VI rating—in the range of 30 to 70. Synthetic base oils Synthetic base-oil stocks are, as their name implies, manmade. Designed with an improved, more uniform molecular structure than mineral-oil stocks, they display more predictable fluid properties and can work better under the types of severe conditions that are unsuitable for mineral-based lubricants. (Element #5 of this series will explore synthetic base stocks and their characteristics in more detail.) 22 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
Fig. 1. Viscosity rating chart
Base-oil properties The quality of any base-stock oil is measured by its resulting properties that define how well the oil will perform in service, and what additives will be required to enhance its performance. There are five major properties identified in a base-oil specification. #1. Viscosity. . . Defined by the oil’s molecule size, viscosity is recognized as a lubricant’s measure of resistance to flow. With larger molecule sizes, an oil’s resistance to flow increases, thus slowing down the flow rate. Higher-viscosity (i.e., “thicker”) lubricants will have slow flow rates, whereas lower-viscosity (i.e., “thinner”) lubricants will demonstrate faster flow rates. Viscosity will change based on the ambient temperature and load. When the temperature increases, the lubricant becomes thinner and the viscosity decreases. Inversely, as the temperature decreases, the lubricant thickens and viscosity increases, making it more difficult to pour or pump around. When a lubricant comes under extreme load, its viscosity will increase. This is a phenomenon experienced in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) film state found in rolling-element bearings. It occurs when the ball or roller moves into the direct loading contact area known as the Hertzian contact area, causing the component to elastically deform, trap and pressurize the lubricant momentarily. This raises the viscosity, which causes the lubricant to change from a fluid state to a solid and back again, as the roller or ball moves through the direct-load area. JULY/AUGUST 2013
ICML CERTIFICATION SERIES
Base oils are rated with a viscosity number according to a recognized Viscosity Index numbering system. The most commonly used imperial system for industrial-lubricating oils is the SUS (Saybolt Universal Seconds) rating index, which charts the viscosity rating at two different temperatures of 100 F and 210 F. Its equivalent metric rating is the ISO VG rating index that follows the Kinematic viscosity rating measured in centistokes @ 40 C and 100 C. For example, an ISO VG 220 gear oil is the equivalent viscosity to an SUS 1000 @ 100 F gear. Different oil types have their own rating systems, as depicted in Fig. 1. #2. Viscosity index. . . The Viscosity Index (VI) is a measure of oil’s viscosity change due to temperature. Oils with higher VI ratings are more desirable, as they are more stable under changing temperature conditions, and reflect a narrower change in viscosity over a standard temperature range. As noted above, paraffinic oils have much higher VI ratings than napthenic oils, which makes them more stable and desirable where a wide operatingtemperatures range is experienced. Oils can be grouped and classified by their VI property as shown here in Fig. 2. #3. Specific gravity. . . Specific gravity rates an oil’s density relative to water.
Low - LVI
Medium - MVI
High - HVI
Very High - VHVI
Fig. 2. Viscosity Index rating chart
have a wax pour point, which is not as low as the viscosity pour point that napthenic oils are described as having. Lower-viscosity oils will have lower pour points. Remember this An oil base stock is a canvas for the additive package that makes up the final lubricant blend designed for an intended application purpose. LMT Ken Bannister is a certified Maintenance and Lubrication Management Consultant with ENGTECH Industries, Inc., and author of the Machinery’s Handbook lubrication chapters, and the Lubrication for Industry text recognized as part of the ICML and ISO Domain of Knowledge. He teaches numerous preparatory training courses for ICML MLT/MLA and ISO LCAT certifications. Telephone: (519) 469-9173; or email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Because viscosity measurement should be simple � Simple to Use: Graphical Touch Screen � Rapid Automated Analysis: ~3 min. � Reliable: Only 2 Moving Parts � Small Sample Volume <1 mL � Range: 10 to 700 mm2/s at 40 or 100°C
#4. Flash point. . . The flash point rating is used to determine a lubricant’s volatility. Flash point is the lowest temperature a lubricant can be heated before its vapor, when mixed with air, will ignite but not sustain combustion. Paraffinic oils have higher flash points than napthenic oils. #5. Pour point. . . The pour point defines the lowest temperature at which the oil will still pour, or flow. Because of their level of wax content, paraffinic oils are said to
Watch a video of the new SimpleVIS at www.cannoninstrument.com 2139 High Tech Road • State College • PA • 16803 814-353-8000 • 800-676-6232 Fax 814-353-8007
email@example.com • www.cannoninstrument.com For more info, enter 68 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
www.LMTinfo.com | 23
What Does ‘Empowerment’ Have To Do With Maintenance?
Fig. 1. Cooling tower plates can collapse due to scale.
This seasoned consultant says the correct answer to the question is ‘a lot.’ That is, if you want to bridge the skills gap and build a savvier, happier, more productive team. Enrique Mora Mora Global Consultants, Inc.
e’ve all heard about “empowerment” as a management strategy. But given the nature of the maintenance profession, it’s possible many of us may not have taken the time to analyze if or how empowerment may apply to our activities. Those who discount empowerment’s potential, however, could be overlooking its strengths, including the ability to help address the skills crisis. The scarcity of qualified technicians is, in fact, a challenge only for those who expect technicians to arrive “ready-made.” Through training and empowerment, existing staff can very often become the skilled workers you need.
LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
Se m er
X X X X X X X X
W rit t
Happy people perform better It’s crucial for leaders to understand that the training and empowerment game is an ongoing marathon, not an isolated 100-yard dash. Regular, useful training builds self-esteem. Positive self-esteem, in turn, is the foundation for happiness— which we know is an important factor in high performance.
ar e PC
Empowerment as a way to grow a workforce isn’t a new concept. GE’s Jack Welch, one of the most effective leaders in modern business, had a clear vision of success. His continuous message was simple: “Increase the capability of your team.” Put another way, Welch was saying, “Train and empower!” He also used the phrase “Grow people to grow the business” to encourage GE team members to help each other continuously improve their knowledge and capabilities. Among his many brilliant strategies, this one played a key role in helping turn GE into one of the most powerful enterprises the world has ever known. Welch and others have long understood that the right levels of training and empowerment develop trust and commitment within a workforce. This, in turn, inspires greater levels of cooperation—which is vital to operational success. Indeed, cooperation comes more naturally when team members have both the knowledge and authority to do their tasks. Empowerment, though, doesn’t always come naturally. There are those who hoard knowledge to make others depend on them. Unfortunately, by doing so, they not only add to their own burden, they prevent their team(s) from reaching higher levels of excellence. Hoarding knowledge usually develops from the mistaken belief that “subordinates” are incapable of assimilating knowledge, either because they won’t understand it or they lack the ambition to learn. Modern leaders understand the folly of this approach and see empowerment as an opportunity to continuously create higher performance among their “associates”—the new term that replaces “subordinates.” The more powerful team members become, the higher their performance.
ag de Le a
tM an ec
Supervisor Technician Technician Technician Technician Analyst Quality Engineer Project Manager
Role Joe Smith Sally Johnson Susan Jones Alex Taylor Sandra Day Frank Wright Jane Doe Barbara Steel
X = Critical to role Basic skill Advanced skill Needs training
e Co m Pr m es un en ic ta at tio io n n
X X X
X X X
Fig. 1. As shown in this example, a skills matrix should be available to all team members. Some will be surprised when they realize their need for additional or different training in skills that are critical to their particular roles.
If training and the self-esteem/happiness within people that it generates leads to higher performance, doesn’t it make sense to champion training across your organization? Keep in mind that you don’t need long periods of formal classes to make an impact. A zeal for continuous learning should just become part of the culture, and everyone in the organization must understand its value and importance. Note: Learning is so pleasurable that people will discover it spontaneously as soon as they get the opportunity. An easy way to create a natural desire among team members to learn more is with a skills matrix (Fig. 1). This is a document listing the current skills of team members and the number of development opportunities they have to become more skilled and versatile. This matrix should be available to all team members—some of whom will be surprised when they realize they need additional (or different) training in skills that are critical to their particular roles. The effectiveness of the matrix will improve if, each time someone achieves an advanced skill, he/she is congratulated in front of other team members. Recognition—one of the strongest tools a leader can develop, by the way—will help consolidate the cooperation of team members. It’s an alwayswelcome stimulus that goes a long way. Even if an associate happens to do only one thing right among all the tasks he/ she does in a day, make a big deal of it! And be specific, as in “What a great job you did cleaning up the area after you finished that repair!” or “I’ve been watching you work on this pump and commend you for your knowledgeable use of the tools!” As a result of such recognition, not only will most people continue trying to do the referenced task well in the future, they’ll find ways to improve their other daily actions in the hopes of getting recognized again. This can lead to them gaining a reputation for doing things better all the time. Alas, the converse is also true: Public reprimands can be damaging to a person’s reputation. Remember the following: www.LMTinfo.com | 25
person is present.
■ Always try to recognize in public, even if only one other Greasing of Bearing Using Grease Gun
■ Always reprimand or correct in private.
Prepared by: Team Member
Agreed by: Team Leader
Authorized by: Line Manager
The tandem approach of a skills matrix and regular recognition of accomplishments is a good way to help develop multi-skilled technicians in any working environment— including those that are heavily unionized. The single-point lesson Sharing the simplest pieces of information will gradually create an accumulative knowledge base. This common-sense technique can be accomplished with the single- or one-point lesson, which is based on a person’s ability to teach one simple skill. To put the single-point lesson into action, enlist a team member with expertise in one operation. Then encourage that person to develop a one-page, five- to 10-minute lesson to share the details of that operation with his or her peers (Fig. 2). The idea is to create one page that combines pictures and short explanations that will not only help the experienced person express the idea quickly, but will make it memorable to others. Establish a time and place for one single-point lesson per day—and expect three or four people to attend. This should be easy to do. If the lessons are about topics of permanent interest, such as instructions, post them on billboards to help others see and understand them. The single-point lesson was first created to help maintenance crews and operators working toward autonomous maintenance acquire technical knowledge and achieve good practices. An excellent example of how anyone can teach something in a few minutes of friendly conversation, it is now applied universally. Train, then empower (not the reverse) Empowerment can only come after good training. Remember that you are responsible for equipping the people you empower. Empowerment is not about passing the buck. It is about bestowing a higher level of authority on a team member because they have the knowledge and authority required to do the job right. Many defects in processes and even accidents happen every day because someone was empowered without the necessary training. Any organization that seeks to achieve world-class status must increase, formalize and strengthen its training programs. Without training, no progress or growth can be expected. Training requires focus, commitment and a culture that supports it. Although it can also be costly and time-consuming, it is the most rewarding task for a leader. Moreover, while empowerment can make you feel that you are losing control over some things—which you are— 26 |
LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
Pillow Block Bearing
WHITE EP2 General Lubrication Grease
One action of the grease gun trigger equals One squirt of grease One squirt of grease is sufficient
Fig. 2. A one-page, single-point lesson that combines pictures and short explanations from an experienced person can be an effective way to train less experienced associates.
the rewards can be significant: While empowerment gives power to others, it expands the power of the team. As with most skills, empowerment gets stronger with practice. Teams are always better performers when mutual trust flows among all members. Begin by empowering your people in simple things, then regularly increase the importance of their tasks. Don’t micromanage—and don’t be afraid to let your team assume the weight and responsibility of the power you give them. You don’t want empowerment’s magic to vanish. LMT The head of Mora Global Consultants, Enrique Mora Enrique is an expert in Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma. A popular presenter at MARTS and frequent contributor to MT, he’s spent more than 55 years working as a practitioner and consultant in industry. His specialties include a range of technical training, as services in the areas of human relations, motivation and leadership, with an emphasis on teamwork and labor synergy. Based in Green Bay, WI, Mora has worked with hundreds of companies and their diverse operations in the U.S., Mexico, Puerto Rico, Colombia and other countries around the world. Telephone: (920) 569-9060; or visit: www.enriquemora.com. For more info, enter 05 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
High-Performance, Hybrid Coupling
he Kop-Flex MAX-C WB hybrid coupling is a solution for managing torsional vibration in high-performance drivetrains powered by synchronous motors, VFDs and diesel engines, or those driving reciprocating machinery or handling shock loads. The design combines a maintenance-free, nonlubricated MAX-C resilient coupling half with a lightweight diaphragm, disc or high-performance gear coupling half, depending on the application. Kop-Flex A unit of Emerson’s Power Transmission Solutions business Florence, KY
For more info, enter 30 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
Lube Products For Trade And Industrial Pros
o serve the needs of today’s busy professionals throughout the trades and industry, WD-40® has announced the addition of three new products to its Specialist® lineup: Dirt & Dust Resistant Dry Lube is a specially created, fast-drying formula that reduces friction and wear. An NSF Category H2 product, it resists dirt, dust and oil, helps release molded parts and is suitable for lubricating slides, rollers and hinges. Machine & Engine Degreaser, which can spray up to five feet, has a deep foaming penetrating action that quickly removes grease, oil, dirt and grime. Authorized for use under NSF Category C1, it’s appropriate for use on engines, gears, chains, industrial machinery, power equipment and metal tools. Electrical Contact Cleaner Spray, an NSF K2-registered product, is safe to use on plastic, rubber and metal surfaces. Incorporating Smart Straw® technology, it can easily clean oil, dirt, flux residue and condensation from circuit boards, controls, switches, precision instruments and electrical panels. These new products are available at select retailers and industrial distributors nationwide. WD-40 Company San Diego, CA
For more info, enter 31 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com www.LMTinfo.com | 27
Long-Life ER-Style Ball Bearings
aldor’s line of Baldor·Dodge® ER-Style ball bearings is available in two shaft-attachment methods: The set-screw version has a 65-degree set-screw angle for maximum shaft grip, while the D-Lok™ product offers a clamp collar grip for maximum concentricity to minimize vibration. Both employ snap-ring retention to securely fit the cylindrical outer diameter into equipment. They both incorporate the Dodge ProGuard™ seal and flinger package to prevent contamination and maximize component life. Modifications to the seal package are available. Baldor Electric Co. Fort Smith, AR For more info, enter 32 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
Clean And Protect Hot Line Tools
RC’s new dual-action, lint-free Hot Line Tool Cleaner & Protectant Wipes keep fiberglass hot line tools clean. These pre-moistened, easily disposable wipes are saturated with a special cleaner and protectant designed to effectively remove dirt, tar, sap and grease without harming the tool. According to the manufacturer, this unique formula won’t remove or adversely affect gloss finishes or build up on tools over time, nor will it harm lineman gloves, climbing gear or insulating blanket covers. OSHA regulation 29 CFR 1910.1200 requires the daily cleaning of hot line tools prior to use. CRC’s convenient 8” X 10.5” wipes allow for easy one-time use and eliminate the need for rags and storing of bulk chemicals. CRC Industries, Inc. Warminster, PA For more info, enter 33 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
For more info, enter 69 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
28 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
Grease For Steel Surfaces
Easy-To-Use Oil Containers
rico’s Spectrum Oil Containers provide a solution to identify, store, transport and dispense lubricants in a variety of applications. They are built with High Density Polyethylene to perform in hostile environments, and feature a wide opening for rapid no-spill filling. The containers are semi-transparent with molded volume markings, in gallons and liters, to provide visual monitoring of fluid levels. Available in two-, three- and fourgallon sizes, they contain three handles with contoured finger grips to provide a comfortable and secure hold. Trico Corp. Pewaukee, WI For more info, enter 34 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
Food Grade EP Grease
hesterton’s 630 SXCF Synthetic Food Grade Grease combines extreme-pressure and anti-wear properties with resistance to water washout and corrosion. It’s well suited for use in processing and packaging applications across the food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. According to the company, this NSF H1-registered product can extend the life of food-industry bearings subject to water, sanitizing chemicals and high temperature. A.W. Chesterton Co. Woburn, MA For more info, enter 35 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com JULY/AUGUST 2013
ayLube high-performance grease uses nanoceramic particles that act as sub-microscopic ball bearings to provide continuous lubrication to steel surfaces. It operates in temperature ranges from -40 to 800 F, and the nanoceramic particles remain intact to 2500 F. Characterized by high load-bearing properties and a low dielectric constant, DayLube contains no metal or silicone and is resistant to steam, acids and most chemical products. Dayton Progress Dayton, OH For more info, enter 36 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
ATP List Services Customized, Targeted Lists For Your Marketing Needs www.atplists.com Contact: Ellen Sandkam 847-382-8100 x110 800-223-3423 x110 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com 1300 S. Grove Ave., Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010 For more info, enter 70 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com For more more info, info, enter enter 87 84 at at www.MT-freeinfo.com www.MT-freeinfo.com For
www.LMTinfo.com | 29
JULY/AUGUST 2013 Volume 14, No. 4 •
CIRCLE # PAGE #
Air Sentry ..................................................www.airsentry.com..................................65,72 .......... 11,30 ATP Lists....................................................www.atplists.com ....................................70 .................... 29 Cannon Instruments ................................www.cannoninstrument.com ................68 .................... 23 Des-Case Corporation .............................www.descase.com ....................................66 .................... 13 Emerson ....................................................www.assetweb.com/vibration.................75 .................... 20 FEMA ........................................................www.ready.gov/business .........................73 .................... 31 Meltric .......................................................www.meltric.com ....................................67 .................... 17 Miller-Stephenson Chemical Co. ............www.miller-stephenson.com..................62 ...................... 4 Royal Purple ..............................................www.royalpurpleindustrial.com ............74 .................... 32 SMRP.........................................................www.smrp.org/annualconference ..........69 .................... 28 Strategic Work Systems, Inc. ....................www.swspitcrew.com ..............................63 ...................... 4 Turbomachinery Lab................................http://turbolab.tamu.edu........................64 ...................... 5 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC ..www.ustsubaki.com/lmt .........................61 ...................... 2 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC ..www.kabelschelepp.com .........................71 .................... 30
Access LMTfreeinfo.com and enter the circle number of the product in which you are interested, or you can search even deeper and link directly to the advertiser’s Website.
Submissions Policy: Lubrication Management &Technology gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned.
ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES THROUGH PRACTICES & PRODUCTS
1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 PH 847-382-8100 FX 847-304-8603
SALES STAFF OH, KY, TN 135 N. Rocky River Road Berea, OH 44017 440-463-0907; Fax 440-891-1254 JOHN DAVIS firstname.lastname@example.org AL, DC, DE, FL, GA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, PA, SC, VA, WV 1750 Holmes Drive West Chester, PA 19382 610-793-3093; Fax 610-793-3094 JIM HANLEY email@example.com IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, NE, ND, SD, WI 1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 x116; Fax 847-304-8603 BILL KIESEL firstname.lastname@example.org CT, ME, MA, NH, NY, RI, VT, ON, QC P.O. Box 1059 Osterville, MA 02655 508-428-3331; Fax 508-428-2545 VINCENT LeGENDRE email@example.com AR, KS, LA, MO, NM, OK, TX 5930 Royal Lane, Suite E #201 Dallas, TX 75230 972-816-3534; Fax 972-767-4442 GERRY MAYER firstname.lastname@example.org
U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC is excited to announce the integration of KabelSchlepp America into its operations as part of the Tsubakimoto Chain Company’s global acquisition of the German-based Cable & Hose Carrier manufacturer. KabelSchlepp America will now operate as a division of U.S. Tsubaki and will expand Tsubaki’s presence in the U.S. market by adding cable & hose carrier systems to its already extensive product lineup.
For more info, enter 71 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com www.kabelschlepp.com
Air Sentry® is a leading developer of contamination control products that keep particulate matter and excess moisture from the headspace inside gearboxes, drums, reservoirs, oil tanks, etc. that hold oils, greases, hydraulic fluids, and fuels. Air Sentry breathers and adapters ensure longer fluid life, better lubrication and lower maintenance costs. For more info, enter 72 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com www.airsentry.com
For rate information on advertising in the Information Highway Section Contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 / E-mail: email@example.com
AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY, AB, BC, MB, SK 3605 N. Tuscany Mesa, AZ 85207 480-396-9585 JERRY PRESTON firstname.lastname@example.org CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 3605 N. Tuscany Mesa, AZ 85207 480-396-9585 JERRY PRESTON email@example.com
For more info, enter 31 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY
Up to 40% of businesses never recover after experiencing a major disaster. Do you have a plan to keep your business running if disaster strikes? For a free online tool that helps you develop an emergency plan, visit Ready.gov/business.
For more info, enter 73 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com
5/6/11 10:59 AM
For more info, enter 74 at www.LMTfreeinfo.com