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JULY/AUGUST 2011 • vOL 12, nO. 4 •


AchievinG efficiencieS ThROUGh PRAcTiceS & PRODUcTS

FeAtures PROfeSSiOnAL DeveLOPMenT SeRieS 8

certification Matters, Part iii: Gearbox Principles And Lubrication


Learn the basics about these key components of all types of applications.

Ray Thibault, Contributing Editor


elemental Analysis

While you’ll want to make sure this ‘exciting’ methodology is part of your PdM toolkit, you’ll need to understand its limitations.

Jane Alexander, Editor, with Ken Bannister and Ray Thibault


Tough Stuff

Harsh environments and challenging processes ask a lot from a lubricant. Here, we look at some outstanding options for extreme and severe service.

dePArtMeNts 6

from Our Perspective


Problem Solvers

DeLiveRinG The GOODS





Supplier index


Lube Starz

The Anatomy Of A centralized Lubrication System: Dual Line Systems Offering many hundreds of lube points from a single pump, these twin-line systems are well-suited for a range of industrial equipment. Ken Bannister, Contributing Editor

Achieving efficiencies Through Practices & Products Apply for a free, one-year subscription at JULY/AUGUST 2011 | 3


July/August 2011 • Volume 12, No. 4 arthur l. rice President/CEO

bill kiesel


Executive Vice President/Publisher

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Reprints are a simple way to put information directly into the hands of your target audience. Having been featured in a well-respected publication adds the credibility of a third-party endorsement to your message.


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Subscriptions For inquiries or changes contact Jeffrey Heine, 630-739-0900 ext. 204 / Fax 630-739-7967 Lubrication Management & Technology (ISSN 19414447) is published bi-monthly by Applied Technology Publications, Inc., 1300 S. Grove Avenue, Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010. Periodical postage paid at Barrington, IL and additional offices. Arthur L. Rice, III, President/CEO. Circulation records are maintained at Lubrication Management & Technology, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Lubrication Management & Technology copyright 2011. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted without written permission from the publisher. Annual subscription rates for nonqualified people: North America, $140; all others, $280 (air). No subscription agency is authorized by us to solicit or take orders for subscriptions. Postmaster: Please send address changes to Lubrication Management & Technology, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Please indicate position, title, company name, company address. For other circulation information call (630) 739-0900. Canadian Publications Agreement No. 40886011. Canada Post returns: IMEX, Station A, P.O. Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5, or email: cpcreturns@wdsmail. com. Submissions Policy: Lubrication Management & Technology gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned.

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Ken Bannister, Contributing Editor

Maintenance Rocks When Opportunity Knocks


n a recent trip to Paris, I reveled in the role of tourist. Among other points of interest, I visited the military academy/museum at the Place Invalides. There, I couldn’t help but chuckle when my electronic “guide” referenced the graduation report for one of this college’s most celebrated alums—Napoleon Bonaparte. The report writer had evidently noted something to the effect that “given the right circumstances,” Napoleon would be able to “make something of himself.” What an understatement! Although Napoleon was greatly disadvantaged due to his Corsican background, he was a master at recognizing opportunity. He used his savvy to open door after door for himself and, in just a few short years, became the legitimate Emperor of France. Fast forward several centuries to a Planning and Scheduling workshop I conducted three weeks after trekking around Paris… My introduction of the work-order backlog management section was met with an all-too-familiar refrain. Like similar groups before them, these attendees voiced great frustration over their inability to get at equipment assets and perform the most basic of routine maintenance tasks. This time, however, my response to all the venting was different from past workshops, in that I could flavor it with this classic Napoleonesque admonition: “Ability is of little account without opportunity.” The point of all this is that while we may know how to plan and schedule effectively, if we can’t get to the asset it is to no avail. Throughout the year, many non-controlled shutdown events will occur within a plant (i.e., operator-induced equipment/ line shutdowns, safety shutdowns, audit inspections, raw-material outages, etc.). There are also many short-term controlled shutdown events that occur on a daily basis (i.e., shift changes, product changeovers, break times, lunch times, manufacturing-target-completion shutdowns, etc.). Both non-controlled and controlled events represent a huge maintenance opportunity and the chance to introduce an Opportunity Based Maintenance (OBM) strategy and program.



For example, at one mining client’s site, when production would not give up its underground scoop-tram vehicles for basic lubrication, we identified an opportunity to introduce a “pit-stop” maintenance service program to service the lubrication needs of the vehicles during normal one-hour lunch periods—outside the drivers’ lunchroom. This “opportunity” resulted in handsome gains in both tram availability and productivity. The fundamental difference between traditional scheduling and OBM lies not only in the duration of the event, but how the work scope is identified. OBM takes advantage of very small time windows. Therefore, the Planner/Scheduler must scope out proactive work tasks that can be scheduled immediately, require just one technician and have job-plan durations suitable for scheduling in increments of 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, on up to a maximum of 2 hours. The scope of work that can be included in an OBM approach will include: n n n n n n n n n

Manual lubrication Oil/filter change Equipment cleanup Laser alignment Utility-system leak checks Calibration Wear checks Oil-analysis sampling Belt replacements

OBM program setup requires maintenance and production departments to develop a communication strategy that will inform maintenance immediately when a non-controlled shutdown takes place—and to agree on an understanding about setting up pit-stop-styled maintenance tactics during short-term planned outages. If you have the ability, find the opportunity! As the comedian Milton Berle put it, “If opportunity doesn’t knock, build a door.” Good luck! LMT


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Certification Matters: Part III

Gearbox Principles And Lubrication Ray Thibault CLS, OMA I, OMA II, MLT, MLT II, MLA II, MLA III Contributing Editor


his article is the third in this ongoing series on the important components of lubrication certification examinations administered by the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) and the International Council for Machinery Lubrication (ICML). Please refer to pgs. 10-14, LMT January/February 2011 for more information on STLE and ICML certifications.

A key component of all types of applications, gears are used to transmit speed and power (torque) from one revolving shaft to another. They can change speed, torque and direction of rotation. Their major advantages as drives include the fact that they don’t slip, they’re able to carry high loads and they are compact in size. Figure 1 shows the simplest type, the spur gear.


Fig. 1. The simplest gear is the spur type. In this unit, the smaller gear is the “pinion.” The large one is the “bull.”




Referring to Fig. 1, note that the smaller gear in the spur unit is the pinion; the larger one is a bull gear (also known as a “driven gear”). Typically, gears are speed reducers. The amount of speed reduction is based on the teeth ratio of the pinion and bull gears. For example, if the pinion has 15 teeth and the bull (driven) gear has 75, the reduction ratio is 5:1. A pinion rotating 3000 rpm would result in the shaft of the driven gear to be 600 rpm. The rotation of the bull gear is opposite the rotation of the pinion. To have the same rotation between the pinion and bull gear, an idler gear—which has no effect on speed and torque— is inserted between the pinion and bull gear. Several terms are used to describe the mating action of gear teeth: 1. Pitch is the distance between a point on one tooth and the corresponding point on an adjacent tooth. It is the point on the tooth where rolling motion and the greatest force occur. Pitch circle is the circle formed by the point on each tooth at which meshing action is pure rolling. 2. Sliding motion that occurs above and below the pitch point, called respectively the addendum and dedendum of the tooth, can result in high wear. 3. The pure rolling at the pitch point results in an elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime characterized by a small solidlike lubricant film one micron or less in thickness. This small film does not prevent asperities (rough surface edges) from coming in contact with the pitch point, and causes

initial pitting along the pitch line of the mating teeth. This is perfectly normal unless the pitting spreads destructively to the dedendum and eventually throughout the tooth. 4. Clearance is the distance between the top of one tooth and the base of the tooth in the other gear. 5. Backlash is the distance between the back of one tooth and the front of the next mating tooth. Gear types and properties Gears are classified by shaft orientation. The most common type makes up the parallel shaft group, shown in Fig. 2. Some confusion can exist between double helical and herringbone gears: Most people consider them the same. In Fig. 2, though, notice that one of these gears has a strip in the middle and the other has continuous teeth. One definition holds that the double helical type has teeth slanting in opposite directions, while the teeth in the herringbone all slant in the same direction. Originally, that strip in the middle of the double helical was needed because of the manufacturing process. Eventually the process allowed all teeth to be continuous with no break in the middle. It should be noted that one of the major disadvantages of the helical gear is that it creates thrust along the shaft. This is eliminated by the use of herringbone (double helical) gears. Typical reduction ratios for parallel shaft gears do not exceed 10:1—and are more like 5:1. Table I summarizes the properties of parallel shaft gears.

Fig. 2 The parallel shaft group is the most common gear type.

Spur Gear

Helical Gear

Double Helical


Table I. Properties of Parallel Shaft Gears

Load carried on Tooth length Sound Bearing thrust Motion Load capacity Speed Cost JULY/AUGUST 2011




One tooth Short Noisy No Rolling/sliding Low Low Lowest

Multiple teeth Longer Quieter Yes More sliding Moderate Moderate Higher

Multiple teeth Longest Quietest No Most sliding High High Highest | 9


As illustrated in Fig. 3, the next group of gears, which have shafts at right angles, are divided into intersecting and nonintersecting types. Both bevel and spiral bevel gears have shafts that intersect at the centerline, whereas worm and hypoid gears have non-intersecting shafts with one below the centerline. The properties of right-angle shafts are illustrated in Table II. It should be noted that hypoid gears are used primarily in automotive applications: They’ve replaced spiral bevel gears in differentials, which results in a much more compact arrangement since the shafts can pass each other. They also produce high torque. Lubrication delivery systems Most gears are lubricated by splashing oil from a sump onto the gear teeth and bearings. Achieving the right level/ delivering the correct amount of lubricant is crucial. If the level is too low, you’ll find yourself dealing with lubricant starvation, increased wear, inadequate heat dissipation and foaming. Too much lubricant, on the other hand, may lead to churning, resulting in higher operating temperatures, a decrease in efficiency and greater foaming tendency. Typically, for parallel shaft and bevel gears at normal speed

(1000 fpm- 4000 fpm), the oil level ranges from completely covering the bottom teeth up to three times the depth of the bottom teeth—the most common being twice the depth of the bottom teeth. At very low speeds (< 1000 fpm), the level of immersion can be 3-5 times the tooth depth. Lubrication of worm gears is different. Worm gears come in three designs, each with its own lubrication approach: ■ Worm on top… the oil level is typically one-third of the wheel diameter. ■ Worm on the bottom… the oil level is up to 50% of the worm, which is the center of the meshing zone. ■ Worm at the side… half the wheel is immersed to at least the worm height. It’s best to adhere to what the OEM recommends for oil level during splash lubrication. The above levels are merely general guidelines. Be aware that there is a speed limitation on the use of splash lubrication. Speed is measured in meter/second or feet/minute (fpm) and calculated by multiplying the

Fig. 3. The right-angle shaft gear group is made up of intersecting and non-intersecting types. Bevel Gear

Spiral Bevel Gear

Worm Gear

Hypoid Gear

Table II. Properties of Right-Angle Shaft Gears

Gear Type



Straight Bevel

Economical Low thrust

Low load-carrying ability Low speed Maximum reduction ratio 6:1

Spiral Bevel

Increased load-carrying ability

Axial thrust produced Maximum reduction ratio 6:1


Smooth and quiet High shock-loading capacity Reduction ratios as high as 100:1 Supporting shafts can pass each other

Low efficiency High thrust Run hot (typically 90 F over ambient) High price per horsepower


Compact Moderate load-carrying capacity Reduction ratios as high as 100:1 Supporting shafts can pass each other

Low efficiency Run hot (typically 90 F over ambient) Require strong EP additives Lower speed than spiral bevel



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circumference of the gear (π x diameter). For example, a 12” diameter gear, running at 1000 rpm, will have a speed of 3140 fpm (3.14 x 1 ft x 1000 rpm). With no design changes, a splash-lubrication system can usually operate up to 4000 fpm. By installing baffle plates and oil pockets, the speed can reach 11,000 fpm. At higher speeds, a pressurecirculation system is used. The two major types are dry sump (where the oil is stored outside the gearbox), or wet sump (where the oil is in the gearbox). In a pressure-circulation system, oil is sprayed directly at the teeth contact points. Lubricant selection The most important property for an oil used to lubricate enclosed gears is correct viscosity. The major variable in viscosity selection is the speed of the gears expressed in pitch line velocity, which is defined as speed of the gear in rpm times the circular pitch diameter in inches. The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) publishes viscosity recommendations based on pitch line velocity. Robert Errichello, a world-renowned expert on gear failure analysis, has developed the following simplified formula for determining the correct viscosity to use on enclosed gears:

Viscosity40 = 7000 √ V1

Keep in mind that Table III is only a summary of the most common viscosity grades for enclosed gears: It incorporates the old AGMA system, which has been changed. New tables no longer include the AGMA number. Many gearboxes still reflect the old system where viscosity grades were also expressed as a single digit number. Referring to Table III, we see the outdated AGMA number for ISO 220 gear oil is 5. To purchase the most up-to-date AGMA Classification System chart, go to Once the correct viscosity has been determined, the oil type must be selected. Options include rust and oxidation (R&O) inhibited lubricants, synthetics, extreme pressure (EP) products and compounded oils. Table IV lists the types of oils used on enclosed reducer gearboxes. Table IV. The Most Common Gear Oils for Enclosed Reducer Gearboxes

Gear Type

ISO Viscosity Range

Spur, Helical, Herringbone



Bevel, Spiral Bevel





Compounded PAO PAG




V1 = pitchline velocity of the lowest speed pinion in feet/minute (fpm) fpm = 0.262 x speed (pinion rpm) x pinion diameter (inches) Ambient temperature adjustments: 95 F increase ISO grade by one 122 F increase ISO grade by two

Table IV reflects general guidelines only: There are many exceptions. The following are additional comments on oil selection for reducer gearboxes:

Table III notes the most common viscosities and gear oil types for enclosed gearboxes. Table III. AGMA Gear Oil Viscosity Classification System R&O

32 46 68 100 150 220 320 460 680 1000


460 Comp 680 Comp 1000 Comp

Oil Type

Extreme Pressure (EP)



68 EP 100 EP 150 EP 220 EP 320 EP 460 EP 680 EP 1000 EP

32 S 46 S 68 S 100 S 150 S 220 S 320 S 460 S 680 S 1000 S

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Source: American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA)


■ The most common viscosity grade for both parallel shaft and right-angle intersecting gears is ISO 220 EP. When in doubt about using EP oil, go with it. ■ Worm gears experience high sliding, and the ring gear is typically bronze. EP additives are not recommended because of the additive attack on the yellow metal at high temperatures. ◆ Although new EP additives are less aggressive, in some cases such additives are not activated by the yellow metal and steel contact and serve no purpose in the formulation. ◆ Traditionally, worm gears were lubricated with oils compounded with synthetic animal fat to provide protection during the severe sliding that occurs. JULY/AUGUST 2011


Correct viscosity is the most important property of an oil used in the lubrication of enclosed gears.

◆ PAOs have been successfully used in worm gears by providing protection during severe sliding without the use of EP additives. They also lower the temperature of the box and are completely compatible with mineral oils. ◆ PAGs are the lubricants of choice on new gearboxes as they provide the best efficiency. They’re also used in small, sealed-for-life worm gearboxes. If changing from another type of oil to a PAG, follow proper flushing procedures. PAGs are incompatible with mineral oils and PAOs. ■ Although hypoid gears are used mainly in automotive applications, they do have a few industrial uses. The severe sliding that occurs in these types of gears calls for very aggressive EP additives in high concentrations. Typical EP industrial oils will not provide the necessary protection for hypoid gears. This information is just a start: More details on gear oils can be obtained from product data sheets. NOTE: While a product data sheet provides useful information, the true test of a gear oil is how it works in the system. Adhere to OEM guidelines and consult with your lube supplier for further information. For more info, enter 66 at JULY/AUGUST 2011 | 13


Hypoid gears call for very aggressive EP additives in high concentrations. Typical EP industrial oils won’t work for them. Gear failure modes

The major factors affecting gear life are load, environment, temperature and speed. Wear modes are summarized as follows: 1. Adhesive wear is caused by an inadequate lubricant film under severe boundary-lubrication conditions. This situation may require the use of higher-viscosity oil with an EP additive. Fig. 4. Destructive pitting is caused by surface overload conditions.

2. Abrasive wear is caused by hard particles in the oil gouging the gear teeth. The degree of wear is related to hardness and amount of particles present. Some have the misconception that gear oils don’t need a high cleanliness standard. That is incorrect: Gear oils should be kept as clean as possible. Very clean oil in a gearbox would be 17/15/13. 3. Surface fatigue is material failure caused by repeated surface and sub-surface stresses beyond the endurance limit of the metal that result in surface pitting. ◆ Initial pitting occurs at the pitchline where the lubricant film is very thin, resulting in asperity removal creating a smoother surface. This is perfectly normal and should be no cause for concern.

Fig. 5. Ridging on the side of a deformed gear tooth indicates a condition known as plastic flow, which is caused by severe overload. (This is NOT a lubrication-related condition.)

◆ Normal pitting occurs in the root part of the tooth (dedendum) and usually stabilizes. It occurs primarily when gear loads are close to the maximum and should be watched closely.

Conclusion Gears are an integral part of many manufacturing processes: A failure of a gear can have an enormous impact on production. These components must be lubricated properly and maintained to achieve long life. Oil analysis is an important predictive tool in monitoring gear wear. (This topic will be discussed in a later installment of our series.)

◆ Destructive pitting starts at the pitchline and progresses until the tooth is destroyed and is caused by surface overload conditions. This can be seen in Fig. 4. 4. Plastic flow is the deformation of gear teeth due to severe overload—this condition is NOT lubrication-related. It can be caused by unhardened teeth subjected to heavy loads (particularly shock-loading) causing surface material to be squeezed out at the tips of the teeth, shown in Fig. 5. (The ridging on the side of the tooth indicates plastic flow.) 5. Tooth breakage is primarily caused by severe surface overload, but also could result from severe surface fatigue that significantly weakens the tooth. 14 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & technology

Coming up The next installment in this series discusses the Basic Principles of Fluid Power. Look for it in the September/October issue of LMT.

Ray Thibault is based in Cypress (Houston), TX. An STLECertified Lubrication Specialist and Oil Monitoring Analyst, he conducts extensive training for operations around the world. Telephone: (281) 257-1526; email: For more info, enter 01 at JULY/AUGUST 2011

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As Grand Prize Winner, You Could Win An Expense-Paid Trip To MARTS 2012 and more, including special prizes from the Innovators of Inpro/Seal, Royal Purple and Scalewatcher! More About Our Monthly Winner For June... Reader Dale Westrick made it into the June winner’s circle with his development of an innovative spray-system nozzle assembly for applications ranging from the washing of dairycases to the cleaning of industrial tanks. Westrick notes that this innovation can reduce maintenance for cleaning of nozzles and improve cleaning processes without the need to shut down equipment. If used with cooling-tower sprays, he says it could reduce the amount of regular cleaning.

Announcing Our Monthly Winner For July... Our July winner is a team from Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), led by facilities manager Mike Quinlan. Working with Doc Palmer as a third-party resource, Quinlan and his team innovated their way to more efficient creation of weekly schedules for Sandia’s maintenance planners. Read more about about this monthly winner in the August issue.


All entries have a shot at the Grand Prize and three Category* Awards to be announced in early 2012. Deadline for submissions is December 31, 2011. Four more monthly winners will be announced through the end of the year.

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Scalewatcher North America, Inc. Oxford, PA

Lubricant performance can vary greatly between competing mineral-based and synthetic products. According to the innovators of Royal Purple, since quality differences can significantly impact the cost of operating and maintaining equipment, your lube purchases can’t be effectively managed as a commodity: Lubricant excellence is paramount. The company notes that benefits attainable across a broad population of rotating equipment from upgrading to Royal Purple lubricants include, among other things, energy savings greater than 3%, and a reduction in the need for equipment repair by at least 30%. Although Royal Purple products may cost more per gallon, an operation’s annual cost for lubricants changes little, due to greatly extended drain intervals and the elimination of oil changes associated with equipment repairs. Initiatives to reduce maintenance and improve equipment reliability often are time- and people-intensive. Royal Purple offers substantial improvements and savings simply through replacement of a product you already buy and use. It doesn’t get any easier than this.

Scalewatcher™ is a no-maintenance environmentally friendly descaler that does not change water composition. Scales and stains disappear gradually and completely, without further action required, guaranteed. The Scalewatcher products work by way of magnetic and electric fields and a continuously changing frequency. The process forces dissolved minerals such as calcium and magnesium to crystallize before mineral ions (the cause of hard scale) can settle on surfaces. This stops or reduces new buildup of hard scale, and because the water is better able to dissolve minerals, existing hard-scale layers are softened and eventually disappear. The Scalewatcher technology has been used by more than 250,000 satisfied customers worldwide. These products prevent corrosion in pipework; prevent settlement of zebra mussels in plants using sea or river water for cooling; reduce bacterial counts in cooling systems; cut water and energy bills; extend the life of water-using equipment (especially boilers); can be installed without plant shutdown; are maintenance-free; and last 20+ years.

The innovators of ROYAL PURPLE will provide individual cases of Royal Purple products to the Grand Prize winner and 3 Innovation Category winners.

The innovators of SCALEWATCHER will provide individual water treatment units to the Grand Prize winner and 3 Innovation Category winners.

Categories include innovative devices gizmos and gadgets; innovative processes and procedures; and innovative use of outside resources.

Categories include innovative devices gizmos and gadgets; innovative processes and procedures; and innovative use of outside resources.

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JULY/AUGUST 2011 | 17



Elemental Analysis Make sure this ‘exciting’ methodology is part of your predictive maintenance toolkit.

Jane Alexander, Editor with Ken Bannister and Ray Thibault


n element, in the simplest of terms, can be defined as a pure, naturally occurring chemical substance made up of a single unique type of atom. Elements in an oil can come from additives added to the virgin base stock, as well as from contaminants, wear metals or coolants that have found their way into the lubricant over its life cycle. Analyzing used oil for these known elements can help determine if the lubricant is still fit for use or requires change. Has the original additive package been depleted? Has the lubricant become contaminated and to what extent? Have wear metals begun showing up and are they a problem? 18 | LUBRICATION MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY

Referencing used oil against a virgin oil sample can pinpoint which elements should and should not be present. Combined with an understanding of the industry and service for which the oil is designed (i.e., gearbox, internal combustion engine, hydraulic system, cooling system, etc.), this type of analysis can help detect where the unwanted elements may have originated and, in turn, predict impending mechanical failure. Elemental analysis is done through emission spectrometry. Today, the most commonly performed procedure of this type is atomic emission spectroscopy (AES). This test has been around for approximately 60 years. Originally a tool of the railroad industry for monitoring wear metals in diesel-engine oils, it’s now used on all types of equipment—and is a major component of comprehensive oil-analysis programs. Methodology In AES, the electrons in metal particles are excited into a higher energy state. As they revert to a lower energy state, they release light energy—which is inversely proportional to the wavelength and dependent on the atomic structure of the metal. Each metal will release energy at a specific, identifiable wavelength. The intensity of the light that’s measured relates to the concentration of the metal present in the oil sample and is reported in parts per million (ppm). Based on the spectrum produced by the excited particles (see Fig. 1), and the method used to excite them, up to 75 metallic elements in a lubricant can be identified. Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE) are the two methods used to excite the metal particles. In ICP, the elements are vaporized and excited by injecting a sample diluted with solvent into high-temperature argon plasma. The RDE method utilizes a high-energy electrode spark on a carbon wheel that rotates in the oil sample to excite the metallic elements.






Fig. 1. Excitation of metal particles in an oil sample results in a spectrum that can be used to identify up to 75 elements.



Pb Cu

Sn Pb Sn

Parameters Elemental analysis (i.e., AES) is a powerful test, but not perfect. One of its major drawbacks involves the size limitation of the metallic elements that can be detected. With RDE, the particle sizes detected are no larger than 8-10 microns. The ICP method detects metals no larger than 3-5 microns. Softer metals are easier to excite and can be detected at a higher size range than hard metals. Interestingly, while many labs are moving from RDE to ICP, both methods have advantages. RDE… ■ Detects larger particle sizes. ■ Detects up to 25 metallic elements. ■ No sample dilution is required. ICP… ■ Detects up to 75 metallic elements. ■ Is more accurate at smaller size ranges and used for quality control of additive concentrations in finished lubricants. ■ Newer, automated ICPs run samples faster.

Figure 2 depicts how elemental analysis data is typically documented in an oil-analysis report. It’s segregated into three major groups: Wear, Contaminants and Additives. Conclusion Elemental analysis—in the form of atomic emission spectroscopy—is a valuable predictive maintenance tool. Keep in mind, however, that it does have critical limitations (especially with regard to the size of particles it can pinpoint). While AES can identify early rubbing wear, it is unable to find large particles that lead to catastrophic failure. The lesson? Don’t depend solely on elemental analysis for particle detection. That said, in the September/October issue, we’ll examine Ferrography Testing. LMT This article is based on material from Ken Bannister’s bestselling book, Lubrication for Industry (Industrial Press), and Ray Thibault’s article “Introduction to the Use of Atomic Emission Spectroscopy as a Predictive Maintenance Tool” (pgs 30-35, Lubrication & Fluid Power [now LMT], September/October 2006).

Iron Chromium Nickel Aluminum Copper Lead Tin Silver Silicon Sodium Potassium Molybdenum Boron Magnesium Calcium Barium Phosphorus Zinc







Pb Sn Ag













Fig. 2. Elemental analysis data as produced in a typical oil-analysis report

JULY/AUGUST 2011 | 19


Tough Stuff Hydrex Extreme From Petro-Canada


etro-Canada’s Hydrex Extreme is a premium-quality, high-performance hydraulic fluid designed for use in both mobile and industrial equipment. Starting with a patented HT process that produces 99.9% pure base oils, the product is specially formulated to deliver enhanced oxidation and shear stability and anti-wear protection. According to the manufacturer, Hydrex Extreme helps reduce sludge buildup and harmful varnish deposits and is inherently biodegradable. Petro-Canada Lubricants, Inc. Mississauga, ON

Extreme & Severe Service


Shell Omala S2 G Oil


hell Omala S2 G oil is formulated for extra protection and performance of industrial gears. It offers the type of corrosion protection and water separation capabilities that help keep equipment working efficiently in severe service. Applications include lubrication of enclosed industrial spur and bevel gearboxes in extreme-pressure and highly loaded systems and of bearings and other components in circulating and splashlubricated systems. Shell Lubricants Houston, TX For more info, enter 32 at

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Royal Purple Open Gear Guard XP


pen Gear Guard XP is designed to lubricate open gears and chains subjected to heavy loads in dusty or dirty environments. A thixotrophic lubricant blended with a solvent carrier, it’s easily applied by spraying or brushing and can effectively lubricate at temperatures up to 400 F. Once applied, the carrier film evaporates, leaving a dry, wax-like lubricating film that minimizes collection of dust and other contaminants. The film consists of calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate, both naturally occurring minerals. Royal Purple, Inc. Porter, TX For more info, enter 31 at


Dupont Teflon Severe Service Grease


eflon™ Severe Service Grease from DuPont™ is a multi-functional industrial-grade grease suited for most heavy-duty and industrial applications. DuPont notes the product’s new thickener technology, Overbased Calcium Sulfonate, offers water washout and mechanical stability properties that surpass lithium complex greases. A high dropping point ensures superior retention in high-temperature applications and provides rust and corrosion protection, especially in salt-water and highmoisture environments. DuPont Wilmington, DE For more info, enter 33 at



CRC Extreme Duty Food Grade Grease


RC Extreme Duty Food Grade Grease is a high-performance product for use where incidental contact with food is possible. It excels where resistance to water washout and broad operating temperatures are required. Formulated without heavy metals or undesirable additives, it withstands extreme pressures and corrosion, including salt spray, and retains mechanical stability even in the presence of water. CRC Industries Warminster, PA

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Bel-Ray 1030 Grease


el-Rayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 1030 Grease is a heavy-duty, non-melting, silicone-based product designed for harsh chemical environments. The manufacturer notes that this grease has excellent extreme-pressure, antiwear, thermal-stability and waterproof properties, as well as a useful temperature range from -40 F to 400 F (-40 C to 204 C). The properties of its base materials protect against moisture and corrosion while exhibiting little change throughout the recommended temperature range.

Bel-Ray Co., Inc. Farmingdale, NJ

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Mobil Glygoyle Series Lubricants


obil Glygoyle Series lubricants are fully synthetic gear, bearing and compressor oils developed for use under operating conditions beyond the capabilities of other synthetic and mineral-based products. Low pour points of these PAGs ensure excellent low-temperature fluidity while their formulation provides EP/antiwear protection for critical equipment components, micropitting protection for sensitive gear systems and protection against rust and corrosion. ExxonMobil Corp. Fairfax, VA

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JULY/AUGUST 2011 | 21


The Anatomy Of A Centralized Lubrication System

Dual Line Systems Dropsa’s DM-XOVER sub-base gives customers with existing traditional dual line delivery systems the option to easily switch over to a modular design concept and take advantage of numerous benefits that modularity offers, including reduced risk of contamination and less downtime. There’s no need to change pipe-work or fittings. This drop-in upgrade is supplied with the divider valves preassembled onto the sub-base plate along with a bracket to secure the base.

Ken Bannister Contributing Editor


irst introduced by the Farval Lubrication company, the Dual Line centralized delivery system (also known as a Twin-Line Parallel) was designed to accurately displace and move oil or grease over great distances from a single pumping station to as few as 20 lubrication points and up to many hundreds of points. The system’s heavy-duty construction and use of small-bore piping and tubing made it an ideal choice for automated lubrication in medium- and large-sized industrial equipment typically found in the steel, mining, pulp and paper, power-generation and petrochemical industries.


The Dual Line lubrication system bears many similarities to the Positive Displacement Injector (PDI) or Single Line Parallel system, in that each metering valve—or point—can be set independently or easily adjusted during operation. This unique feature also enables additional injectors (lube points) to be added into the system at a later date, without the need to re-engineer the entire system. How the System Works As its name suggests, the Dual Line system employs two main lubrication lines that run in parallel from the pump to the last lubrication point through a series of lubrication delivery valves. Once the pump is activated, line pressure is built up on the pressure or delivery supply line to fire the lubrication point injectors while simultaneously venting the second return line back through a reversing valve to the reservoir. Dual Line injectors differ from Single Line injectors in that they do not use a spring arrangement to fire and load JULY/AUGUST 2011

the injector. Instead, they employ a dual-acting hydraulic spool valve set up to feed two separate lubrication points (one per each pressure cycle). Once an end-of-line pressure switch signals that a preset line pressure has been reached and all injectors have fired, the system has completed one pressure cycle—or a one-half lubrication cycle. The reversing valve is then actuated to its changeover position to allow the previous venting line to become the new primary pressure line and the process is repeated to complete one full-lubrication cycle. These systems can operate in manual mode with a pullhandle pump, as well as in full automatic mode. Pros & Cons Because Dual Line systems can be used with oil and grease, their engineering is not demanding—and can easily accommodate the addition or reduction of system points after they’ve been installed. As with Single Line systems, the adjustable injectors are easily tampered with and can lead to an over- or underlubrication condition unless they are access-controlled. A pressure-line failure is easily detected through a timeout switch located at the end of line. No secondary-line failure device is available. Users must perform system line integrity checks as part of their PM programs. LMT For more details on centralized lubrication systems, see Ken Bannister’s book, Lubrication For Industry, published by Industrial Press, or contact him directly. Telephone: (519) 469-9173; email:

Delivering innovation and high-performance solutions... Founded in 1946 in Milan, Italy, Dropsa is one of the world’s leading producers of centralized lubrication systems and components. According to Dropsa, as it has for more than 60 years, it continues to innovate in the field of lubrication technology and now offers a wide range of products in the areas of Total Loss Oil, Grease Lubrication, Re-circulating Oil and Air/Oil Lubrication. All of them are backed by a production program catering to “the most diverse lubrication applications, from small machine tools to transfer lines, printing presses, paper machines, steel mills and practically all other sectors of industry.” Based in Sterling Heights, MI, Dropsa USA coordinates the company’s network of distributors and specialist partners in the United States. In addition to maintaining an experienced team to support customers, this facility houses a full-product training center for customers and distributors. For more info, enter 03 at JULY/AUGUST 2011

For more info, enter 65 at For more info, enter 69 at | 23

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Advanced-Pattern-Recognition Condition Monitoring


eneral Physics has integratedadvanced pattern recognition (APR) technology into the Version 10 of its EtaPRO™ Performance and Condition Monitoring System to track equipment health parameters such as shaft vibration and bearing temperatures. The product provides early warning of impending equipment failure by continuously comparing current values to detailed empirical models of “normal” data. General Physics Corp. Amherst, NY For more info, enter 38 at

Attention-Grabbing, Cut-Resistant Safety Gloves


oungstown Glove’s Titan XT™ lined with Kevlar® product is highly visible, cut-resistant and durable. Foam padding and TPR knuckles across the top of the hand protect users from smashes, pinches and cuts due to heavy machinery, power tools and broken glass. The company says the palms on these colorful products exceed Level 3 on the ANSI/ISEA 105-2005 Mechanical ratings for cut resistance. Youngstown Glove Co. Agoura Hills, CA For more info, enter70 at For more info, enter 39 at JULY/AUGUST 2011 | 25


Portable Grease Test Kit


KF’s Grease Test Kit is a portable, user-friendly option for performing bearing grease condition assessments in the field. It lets users who have had no special training collect samples and evaluate for grease consistency, oil-bleeding characteristics and contamination, without harmful chemicals. The kit is equipped with instructions, tools for sampling and testing and guidelines to interpret results. Only 0.5 grams of grease is required to perform all three tests. SKF Lansdale, PA For more info, enter 37 at

Non-Electric, Liquid Drum Vacuum


xair’s compressed air-powered Reversible Drum Vac™ offers an effective way to clean up liquids, including coolants, hydraulic oils, spills, sludge, tramp oil and wastewater. With no moving parts, it provides maintenance-free operation. This system includes a 110-gal. drum with bolt ring and lid, shut-off valve, drum dolly, 10’ vacuum hose, ABS Spill Recovery Kit, aluminum wand, 11” and 24” crevice tools, skimmer tool, 20’ compressed air hose and tool holder. Exair Corp. Cincinnati, OH For more info, enter 38 at

Expanded Line Of Oil-Soluble PAG Synthetic Base Fluids


ow Chemical has added three new ISO viscosity grades to its existing line of UCON™ Oil Soluble Polyalkylene Glycol (OSP) Base Fluids. ISO viscosity grades 320, 460 and 680 now complement the existing ISO viscosity grades 32, 46, 68, 150 and 220. The fluids are used as primary base oils, co-base oils and as additives in automotive and industrial lubricants. They allow formulators to incorporate the advantages of a PAG synthetic base fluid in combination with mineral, synthetic hydrocarbon or other oils. The Dow Chemical Co. Midland, MI

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Electric Heating For Asphalt Pumps


lectric heat is now available on Viking’s Universal Seal series cast iron asphalt pumps. A patent-pending design uses heat cartridges in the head crescent to quickly melt asphalt throughout the casing. Two heat cartridges on the bracket flange behind the rotor ensure sufficient heating in the shaft bushing and stuffingbox. A temperature-control system incorporates a thermocouple and thermowell adapter for mounting in the bracket port and a controller that powers all heat cartridges on the pump. Viking says electric heating can offer a number of advantages over steam, hot oil and electric heat tracing, including lower installation costs, reduced environmental and energy costs, simplified service and improved safety. Viking Pump A Unit of IDEX Corp. Cedar Falls, IA For more info, enter 40 at

Intrinsically Safe, Mercury-Free Thermometer


luke’s 1551A “Stik” thermometer offers accuracy, durability and safety, and they do it all with no mercury. This ATEX- and IECEx-certified unit can be used in environments where potentially explosive gases are present. According to Fluke, the instrument is capable of repeatable accuracy of +0.09 F (± 0.05 C) over its full range from -58 F to 320 F (-50 C to 160 C). Fluke Corp. Everett, WA

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International Maintenance Excellence Conference October 5 to 7

The Experts are in Toronto this Fall IMEC is organized by:

The 2011 International Maintenance Excellence Conference IMEC October 5 to 7 in Toronto, Canada Expand your knowledge in unexpected ways by joining maintenance and asset-management professionals from around the world at the seventh-annual International Maintenance Excellence Conference. IMEC’s two days of keynote presentations and one day of in-depth workshops are presented with academic and industrial perspectives that deliver well-rounded interpretations of modern issues. Hosted by Dr. Andrew Jardine of the University of Toronto’s Centre for Maintenance Optimization & Reliability Engineering and co-produced with Maintenance Technology magazine, IMEC 2011 takes place at the University’s convenient, full-service conference venue located in the heart of beautiful downtown Toronto. Don’t miss this unique, multi-dimensional learning opportunity for maintenance professionals everywhere! Learn more about IMEC at or contact Bill Kiesel at / 847-382-8100, ext. 116

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JULY/AUGUST 2011 | 27


Electric Utility Vehicle For Moving Maintenance Teams


he rugged Polaris Ranger EV LSV can be an efficient means of moving maintenance teams around an operation. Both electric and street-legal, this mid-size utility vehicle boasts a top speed of 25 mph, allwheel-drive and a full 10” of ground clearance. Polaris says that with its 11.7 kWh maximum-power battery pack and threemode system (High, Low and Max), this side-by-side has the longest range in its class (up to 50 miles). Offered as a transportation solution for industries of all types, it can be charged by plugging into a 110V AC outlet. Polaris Industries, Inc. Medina, MN

Explosion-Proof Motors For Hazardous Duty


he XP100 (1-300 hp) motors from Siemens Industry are UL® and CSA listed for gas and dust ignitionproof environments and suitable for Division 1, Class I, Groups C & D, Class II, Groups F & G, hazardous area classifications. Their electrical design meets or exceeds the requirements of the Energy Independence & Security Act of 2007. Siemens Industry, Inc. Atlanta, GA

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7-Step Best Practice Lubrication Program Professional Self-Directed Implementation ToolKit

Tap into your Liquid Gold for less than $20 per day!* Whether you’re looking to increase asset utilization and maintainability, reduce contamination, downtime, energy consumption and/or your carbon footprint, or simply cut your maintenance and operating costs, you’re ready for a 7-Step Best Practice lubrication program! For more information on this “expert in a box” approach to successful lubrication programs, contact ENGTECH Industries at 519.469.9173 or email * Amortized over one year

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1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 PH 847-382-8100 FX 847-304-8603

Specializing In

Machinery Health Personnel PM & PdM Field Service • Mgt • Sales • Hrly

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For rate information on advertising in the Classified Section Contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON: Phone: (480) 396-9585 e-mail:

� Disconnect Switch Rated � Simplifies NFPA 70E compliance • 800.433.7642

Customized, Targeted Lists For Your Marketing Needs Ellen Sandkam


List Services

847-382-8100 x110 / 800-223-3423 x110 /


AL, DC, DE, FL, GA, MD, MS, NC, NJ, PA, SC, VA, WV 1750 Holmes Drive West Chester, PA 19382 610-793-3093; Fax 610-793-3094 JIM HANLEY CT, ME, MA, NH, NY, RI, VT, ON, QC P.O. Box 1059 Osterville, MA 02655 508-428-3331; Fax 508-428-2545 VINCENT LeGENDRE

JULY/AUGUST 2011 Volume 12, No. 4 •




Baldor Electric .............................. 67................... 15 Bel-Ray Company 64..................... 7 Des-Case Corporation ............................ 66................... 13 Dropsa USA Inc ............................. 69................... 23 Engtech Industries 73................... 28 FosteReprints ................... 62..................... 4 Hy-Pro Filtration ............... 65................... 11 IMEC 72................... 27 LubeStarz ........... 77................... 30 NEC Avio Infrared Technologies/SOLTEC 70................... 25 NSK Corporation 61..................... 2 Royal Purple .... 75................... 32 Shell .................. 63..................... 5 SMRP ..... 68................... 21 Strategic Work Systems, Inc. ...................... 71................... 26 Turbomachinery Lab ................................ ................ 76................... 24 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC 74................... 31

Access and enter the circle number of the product in which you are interested, or you can search even deeper and link directly to the advertiser’s Website. Submissions Policy: Lubrication Management &Technology gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. MARCH/APRIL JULY/AUGUST 2011 2011

SALES STAFF OH, KY, TN 135 N. Rocky River Road Berea, OH 44017 440-463-0907; Fax 440-891-1254 JOHN DAVIS

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AR, KS, LA, MO, NM, OK, TX 5930 Royal Lane, Suite E #201 Dallas, TX 75230 972-816-6745; Fax 972-767-4442 GERRY MAYER AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY, AB, BC, MB, SK 3629 N. Sonoran Heights Mesa, AZ 85207 480-396-9585 JERRY PRESTON

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 3629 N. Sonoran Heights Mesa, AZ 85207 480-396-9585 JERRY PRESTON | 29


e b u Meet Our L rz a t S


We love to learn about LMT readers, including what they do in the field of lubrication (and what they like about their jobs)! Here’s what our July/August Lube Star told us:

Mark L. Graham, CLS, CLGS, OMA Title: Technical Services Manager, Lubricants

O’Rourke Petroleum Products, based in Houston, TX Background: Mark has spent a total of 25 years in the

maintenance/lubrication arena (14 of them with O’Rourke, including three years in his current role). After graduating from college, this native of Bandera, TX, coached football and baseball in the public schools for awhile before moving into the solvent and chemical business. Why He Became A Lubrication Professional: Mark’s former employer also carried lubricants

in its line. He eventually found himself drawn to that side of the business and began pursuing both on-the-job and formal training in it. Today, he holds certifications as a CLGS (from NLGI) and as both a CLS and OMA (from STLE). Over the years, he says he’s been very fortunate “to work with and learn from some of the finest individuals in our business.” Mark gives props to John Wagner (of Shell Oil) and Bob Portwood (of Pacer Lubricants) for being tremendous resources in building his lube knowledge and skills. “With all their field experience,” he explains, “they had seen most everything that would or could go wrong. I could not have asked for better mentors.” What He Likes Most About His Work: Mark takes great pride in his work with O’Rourke

e b u L tarz S


Petroleum Products (founded in 1932). As a Shell Alliance Distributor, the company is committed to providing the best products and services in the industry—and Dennis O’Rourke (Owner & CEO), Mushahid Khan (President & COO) and Tony Garcia (GM) expect their organization to provide nothing less than the finest technical support for its customers 24/7/365. As far as his specific duties are concerned, Mark tells us every day Info Company is different. That’s what makes his work so enjoyable, he says. “It pleases me a Contact great dealInfo Here to help people solve their lubrication problems and extend the life of their equipment. Advancing technologies in this industry create a stimulating environment and fuel a continuous learning process for me. I look at it as a win-win all the way around.” Our caps are off to all hardworking Lube Starz, who’ll receive their own baseball caps for making the team. Up for the game? Go to or to tell us about yourself!

Follow the instructions for submitting your own application and photo and you might find your work-related profile in a future LMT issue. We look forward to hearing from you soon!

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30 |




You can’t lose with our


Give Tsubaki Lube-Free LAMBDA Roller Chain a Try. ®

Never take chances with your operation. Get the original and longest-lasting lube-free roller chain working for you. Tsubaki LAMBDA® is your sure bet for long-term operation without additional lubrication. And now you can hit the jackpot with our winning proposal.

For complete details on our


© 2011 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC. All Rights Reserved.




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W O R R Y- F R E E

“...we extended drain intervals from every 15 days to every three months AND reduced engine repairs and replacements.” Luis Garza Kingfisher Marine Most efforts to improve operating efficiency and lower maintenance costs are labor intensive and involve painful cultural changes. Numerous progressive companies have experienced significant cost savings simply by upgrading lubricants. You can learn how by reading the special report ‘Lowest Total Cost of Ownership’. This special report includes extensive case studies that document real-world savings through lubricant upgrades. Get your FREE copy of the ‘Lowest Total Cost of Ownership’ today by calling 866-447-5173 . . .

For more information on Royal Purple, visit today.

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LMT JulAug 2011  

Lubrication Management & Technology July/August 2011 magazine...Achieving Efficiencies Through Practices & Products

LMT JulAug 2011  

Lubrication Management & Technology July/August 2011 magazine...Achieving Efficiencies Through Practices & Products