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CopyrightŠ 2013 by WernChing . T All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. First Published in 2013 Printed in Singapore


Contents Chapter

1

The Introduction

1

2

The Personality Disorder

3

3

The Case of John

7

4

The OCPD

11

5

The Associated Traits

31

6

The Causes

37

7

The OCPD vs OCD

43

8

The Test

47

9

The Numbers

51

10

The Solution

55

The Bibliography

57


Chapter

1

The Introduction

1


The Introduction Personality-disordered people are not uncommon in our neighborhoods, workplaces, schools, or even out homes. They include individuals who are persistently paranoid, obsessivecompulsive, antisocial or overly dependent. Most of them do not realise the hardships they create for themselves and their families. This publication is an introductory guide for those who live and work around personality-disordered people and for general readers seeking more information about the disorders.


2

Chapter

The Personality Disorder

3


The Personality Disorder Personality disorder refers to a class of personality types and enduring behaviours associated with significant distress or disability, which appear to deviate from social expectations particularly in relating to other humans. The word ‘personality’ refers to the pattern of thoughts, feelings and behaviour that makes each of us the individuals that we are. We don’t always think, feel and behave in

Generally speaking, personality

exactly the same way. It depends on

doesn’t change very much, but it

the situation we are in, the people

does develop as we go through

with us, and many other things. But

different experiences in life, and as

mostly we do tend to behave in

our circumstances change. We mature

fairly predictable ways, and can be

with time, and our thinking, feelings

described, accordingly, as shy, selfish,

and behaviour all change depending

lively, and so on. We each have a set

on our circumstances.

of these patterns, and this set makes up our personality.

We are usually flexible enough to learn from past experiences and to change our behaviour to cope with life more effectively.


“

I always felt different from others and had no sense of belonging anywhere. My life was always chaotic as were my feelings – never consistent or stable, but changeable and unpredictable. I felt like an outcast of society, undeserving of anything and secretly yearned for a better way of life, but not knowing how to achieve it and lacking confidence that I could change.

�

5


However, if you have a personality disorder, you are likely to find this more difficult. Your patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving are more difficult to change and you will have a more limited range of emotions, attitudes and behaviours with which to cope with everyday life. This can lead to distress for you or for other people. If you have a personality disorder, you may find that your beliefs and attitudes are different from most other people’s. They may find your behaviour

Personality disorders usually become

unusual, unexpected and may find it

noticeable in adolescence or early

difficult to spend time with you. This,

adulthood, but sometimes start in

of course, can make you feel very

childhood. They can make it difficult

hurt and insecure; you may end up

for one to start and keep friendships

avoiding the company of others.

or other relationships, and one may find it hard to work effectively with

The diagnosis applies if you have

others. They may find other people

personality difficulties which affect

very scary, and feel very alienated

all aspects of your life, all the time,

and alone.

and make life difficult for you and for those around you. The diagnosis

However, with the right help, everyone

does not include personality changes

can learn to understand other people

caused by a life event such as a

better, and cope better with social

traumatic incident, or physical injury.

situations and relationships with other people. Working in groups of people with similar problems can be very helpful too.


Chapter

3

The Case of John

7


The Case of John John woke to the classical music channel on his alarm clock/radio at 5.45am. He rises at 5.45am every workday, Monday to Friday. John neatly folds the blankets and pulls the

After his normal two eggs, bacon,

thread barren quilt over the bed. He

toast, and second cup of coffee, the

follows his normal routine ; making

parts of the news that meet with his

a pot of coffee, carefully measuring

opinions and standards has been read

out the coffee grounds, sliding a table

and then he dresses for work. Every

knife across the measuring spoon

square inch of John’s closet is full with

to the exact amount, and pours the

clothing and shoes. John routinely

exact volume of cold water from the

gains weight and then goes on crash

refrigerator in the coffee maker.

diets. His closet is full of clothing of varying sizes and most are very old.

As the coffee maker brews the coffee,

The styles are a decade or more old,

John shaves and showers, and adorns

but John knows his weight will rise

his robe at exactly the moment

and fall again, and leisure suits will

the coffee maker beeps the end of

again become the rage.

the brewing cycle. Before he pours himself a cup, he peeks through the

John’s apartment looks like a

apartment door peephole, unlocks a

Skinner maze with stacks of books,

number of deadbolts, opens the door,

magazines, and  newspapers not only

and retrieves the morning paper. He

filling every nook and cranny, but also

stares in contempt at the headline

dividing the room into paths. The

announcing today’s expected protest

paths are also lined with worthless

favoring abortion rights.

items that John cannot seem to part with. In anticipation of a “rainy day” circumstance, he saves everything that may conceivably have value to him later. He is also miser with his money.


John is employed as an accounting clerk with a large bank in the financial district of his metropolitan community. John does not own a car because of the expense. He can afford to own a car, he just prefers to take the metro bus and save the money. He considers a car an unnecessary expense, one that would better be preserved for a time when he will really need the money. John catches the same bus every day and expresses his displeasure to the driver if he is late to his bus stop. Very concerned about his timely arrival at work, John revised his morning schedule a year ago in order to catch an earlier bus and be assured of arriving before the 8am workday begins. There is no time clock to punch, but work rules are just that, work rules, and must be adhered to. He never leaves before the end of the scheduled workday, never exceeds his hour lunch and two 15-minute breaks. John is always the first one to arrive at the office and he mutters his discontent with those employees that arrive late. He will never confront them and would never report them to his supervisor, but he does grunt his discontent as they arrive late, socialize with each other, grab a cup of coffee, and do not settle down to work to work until 8.30. Despite the stacks of old reports and accounting textbooks stacked in his cubicle, everything else appears in order. His pencils are the same length and carefully sharpened. John favors working alone and his productivity is very high, which results in positive performance evaluations and incremental raises. He does, however, not work well in groups.

9


Assigned to a work group under the

John maintains a rigid set of

direction of another colleague, the

standards or rules, values, ethics,

group miserably fails to accomplish

and morality that controls every

their mission. John destroys the

aspect of his life. He is intolerant of

performance of the group activity by

the behaviors and opinions of others

rigid adherence to rules, regulations,

who do not demonstrate or verbalize

and repetitive revisions.

values, etc., similar to his own. This inflexibility reduces the pool of

In those situations in which John

potential friends and acquaintances.

is assigned group leadership

John either rejects them outright or

responsibility, he is hesitant, in fact,

his inflexible views alienate him from

reluctant to delegate responsibility

others. John has difficulty finding

to other group members. John’s

female companions to date because

overwhelming perfectionism drives

he cannot locate women with values

his work group colleagues “crazy”,

similar to his. Whenever John has

but they all recognize that the

found women to date, he invariably

assignment will be completed in a

scared them away because of his

timely fashion and the work product

inflexibility and need to control

will be excellent. Rather than argue

the relationship.

with John, they let him do all of the work, staying over late at night

John is afflicted with

and on weekends while the other

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality

work group members socialize and

Disorder (OCPD).

enjoy their leisure lives. John would rather sacrifice leisure time and work

The American Psychiatric

excessively. Consequently, John has

Association (APA) indicates that “the

few friends and little if any social life.

essential feature of the ObsessiveCompulsive Personality Disorder is a preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. This pattern begins by early adulthood and is present in a variety of contexts”.


4

Chapter

The Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

11


The OCPD The Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder or Anankastic Personality Disorder is a condition characterized by a chronic preoccupation with rules, orderliness, and control. This disorder is only diagnosed when these behaviors become persistent and disabling. The individual with this disorder often becomes upset when control is lost.

The individual then either emotionally withdraws from these situations, or becomes very angry. The individual usually expresses affection in a highly controlled or stilted fashion and may be very uncomfortable in the presence of others who are emotionally expressive. The person often has difficulty expressing tender feelings, and rarely pays compliments.


The American Psychiatric Association (APA) delineates the diagnostic criteria of the obsessivecompulsive personality disorder (OCPD) as follows : A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency, beginning by early childhood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following.

IT’S ALL UNDER CONTROL . 13


Extreme Left-Brainer Preoccupied with details, rules, lists, orders, organization, or schedules to the extent that shows the major point of the activity is lost. Persons afflicted with OCPD obsess over trivial details to the point that the objective of the activity is lost in the process. Utilizing rules, points of order, and meticulous job descriptions results to the disadvantage of the work group. They become so consumed with the process set forth by the OCPD person that the work objective is never accomplished. This criterion is also obvious in social situations. The objective of a family union is the joy and delight of getting along, nearly forgotten relatives together to share time, reminisce, and catch up on each other’s lives. When an OCPD person assumes the responsibility of organizing the reunion, the disordered person creates extensive details, rules, planned events, and timeframes. The obsessive adherence to the rules and schedule frustrates and angers family members. The organizing family member is so intent on controlling the situation and demanding that everyone have a “good time”, they order people around and do not allow for flexibility in the day’s activities. Others’ opinions fall upon deaf ears and the anticipated joyful event is ruined.


left brain

left left bra in bra in le ft br left brain ai n

le ft br ai n

left brain n ai br ft le

left brain right brain

15


Invasive Perfectionism Showing the perfectionism that interferes with task completion (e.g. is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly strict standards are not met). Many corporations utilize team-building exercise as attempts to increase productivity in the workplace. Some corporations institute new management philosophies to encourage their employee’s personal vested interest in increasing the corporation’s productivity and profit. However, reluctant to share profit with the employees, some corporations suggest that a “grass-root” movement to create a vision statements, goals, and objectives will be more effective. Workgroups are assigned with the goal of writing mission statements, etc. These workgroups are absolutely doomed to fail if a person afflicted with OCPD is assigned to the group. These individuals are perfectionists and are excessively checking and double-checking all of the potential instructions to follow, the OCPD personality follows the rules in exact detail with no room for flexibility and authenticity in thought. The only final product is the anger and frustration of the other team members and management.


RIGHT

Wrong

“

My standards are the standards that everyone should go by because I am right and they are wrong. I expect others to work as hard as I do to match those standards. If they fail, I get upset and complain. I quit on people easily if they keep on failing to match my standards.

�

17


Unhealthy Productivity Is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity). This is an interesting criterion to consider. It must be carefully examined in the light of the individual and his or her career orientation. It is inappropriate to indicate a diagnosis of OCPD to the fresh out of law school attorney working in a private film. The culture of law film may have an expectation of 60 to 80 hours of work per week for associates. This overwork may appear as obsessive and compulsive and society may even label the attorney as a “workaholic.” In reality, he or she probably would prefer to be spending time with family and friends or being engaged in leisure activity. The diagnosis is also inaccurate for those persons who must work all available overtime or two jobs to meet the economic needs of their family. Likewise, it is an inaccurate diagnosis for the person who really loves their work and finds great pleasure in working over leisure activities. While many find “play” enjoyable, there are many who find “work” more intrinsically valuable. Therefore, the defining characteristics that meet the criterion is that the person works all of the time, does not like the work, and excludes himself from family, friends, and activities that they do enjoy.


a Workc holi An excellent example of this criterion is the

excessive cleaning of the garage floor to the detriment to their opportunity to play, and disciplining their child for walking on it with muddy shoes. When these individuals do play, they do so with excessive attention to details and rules. The game of golf is not a pleasurable event for the other three persons in his foursome. He is constantly thinking about his form and is explicit about the Professional Golf Tours (PGA) rules. “Mulligans� are not allowed and kicking your ball away from the base of a tree is tantamount to criminal conduct. There is no such thing as a friendly fun round of golf.

Normal working hours

19


Extreme Steadfastness Is overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification). This criterion is often difficult to understand. This criterion is not suggesting that a person who abides by all of the laws of the land is afflicted with OCPD. The criterion defines persons who accept and follows all rules of conduct without question. Whether the rules are formally established in the criminal code, Monopoly board game printed rules, or moral standards accepted or indoctrinated, the afflicted person follows them explicitly. There are numerous examples which help to understand the excessive nature of this behavior. If their work schedule dictates that they will be at the office from 8am to 5pm with an hour lunch break, the afflicted person will be there before 8, take exactly a 1-hour lunch, and not leave before 5pm, even if they spent 3 hours working at home the night before. Their strict adherence to rules affects others as well. The OCPD person will judge the behavior of others and often negatively influence his relationship with colleagues. These persons do not consider mitigating circumstances or allow for flexibility. They are rigid in adherence to the perceived expectations.


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Ba th in g

ng ni ea Cl W or ki ng

Dining

Dining

ng ki or W

Dining

No rigid routine

21


Hoarding Unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value. Stacks of old newspapers, balls of bits of string, and the last of each roll of aluminum foil are hoarded by the person afflicted with OPCD. They do not fail to discard the items because they are lazy ; they believe that they may have use for them in the future. It is not uncommon for the person to have difficulty moving through their room because of the accumulation of worthless items. The American Psychiatric Association considers this criterion definitive in the diagnosis of OCPD.

Yours


Mine Hoarding

Hoarding

Hoarding Hoarding

HOARDING

HOARDING Hoarding Hoarding Hoarding

HOARdING Hoarding

Hoarding

Hoarding

Hoarding

23


Rule Rigidity Is reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things. The person afflicted with OCPD cannot collaborate with others. They are capable of working with others in group activities, but only if all of the members of the group follow his or her rules and expectations explicitly. They demand that the work be completed exactly as they dictate. This is not limited to the world of work. The OCPD father who is teaching his son to fish will demand that he follows his instructions explicitly, even down to threading the worm on the hook. The afflicted person will demonstrate anger to the other person when the instructions are not followed explicitly. The youth who fails to follow the instructions of the OCPD basketball coach may have to run extra laps or shoot 100 free throws until he can demonstrate the coaches’ instructed technique. Creative thinking is not encouraged; it is penalized.


Norm al OCPD 25


Miserly Adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes. Money is viewed in the same fashion as accumulated worthless items; it is not spent, but hoarded. The person afflicted with OCPD has his or her own view of necessities of life. Clothing that may be old and outdated still has utility and should be worn rather than spending money on new clothing. Clothing is handed down from one child to another. Shoes are still functional until the soles fall off, and many can be glued back on. The defining characteristics of this criterion is that money for purchase is available, but the OCPD person hoards it in contemplation of the inevitable “rainy day,� when it will be really needed to survive.


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27


Resistance to Change Shows rigidity and stubbornness. Persons afflicted with OCPD are inflexible, reluctant to change. They have their opinion and strictly adhere to them. Their inability to see the world through the eyes of another precipitates alienation and distress. Work, play and life “in general� must be played out to their expectations. This criterion is observed in all the previous criteria and is a defining characteristic.


There is no margin for negotiation.

29


Etiology & Intervention The key to understanding any disoder lies in its causes. It is most common that persons afflicted with OCPD have been more nurtured in an environment with a dominant person afflicted with the disorder. The American Psychiatric Association indicates that males are diagnosed at double the rate of females, which lends credibility of an increased predisposition to develop the disorder in a family dominated by a person afflicted with OCPD. The disorder generally manifests in late adolescence and young adulthood, and is considered chronic and lifelong. The rigidity and stubbornness characteristic of the disorder reduces the possibility of successful therapeutic intervention.


Chapter

5

The Associated Traits

31


The Associated Traits These descriptions are offered in the hope that non-personality-disordered family members, caregivers and loved-ones might recognise some similarities to their own situation and discover that they are not alone.

“Always and “Never” Statements - “Always” & “Never” Statements are declarations containing the words “always” or “never”. They are commonly used but rarely true. Anger - People who suffer from personality disorders often feel a sense of unresolved anger and a heightened or exaggerated perception that they have been wronged, invalidated, neglected or abused. Avoidance - Avoidance is the practice of withdrawing from relationships with other people as a defensive measure to reduce the risk of rejection, accountability, criticism or exposure. Blaming - Blaming is the practice of identifying a person or people responsible for creating a problem, rather than identifying ways of dealing with the problem. Catastrophising - Catastrophising is the habit of automatically assuming a “worst case scenario” and inappropriately characterizing minor or moderate problems or issues as catastrophic events.


Circular Conversations - Circular Conversations are arguments which go on almost endlessly, repeating the same patterns with no real resolution. Denial - Denial is the practice of believing or imagining that some painful or traumatic circumstance, event or memory does not exist or did not happen. Depression - When you feel sadder than you think you should, for longer than you think you should - but still can’t seem to break out of it - that’s depression. People who suffer from personality disorders are often also diagnosed with depression resulting from mistreatment at the hands of others, low selfworth and the results of their own poor choices.

NA never

always

33


Entitlement - Entitlement or a ‘Sense of Entitlement’ is an unrealistic, unmerited or inappropriate expectation of favorable living conditions and favorable treatment at the hands of others. Hysteria - Hysteria is inappropriate over-reaction to bad news or disappointments, which diverts attention away from the problem and towards the person who is having the reaction. Manipulation - Manipulation is the practice of baiting an individual or group of individuals into a certain response or reaction pattern for the purpose of achieving a hidden personal goal. Mood Swings - Mood swings are unpredictable, rapid, dramatic emotional cycles which cannot be explained by changes in external circumstances. No-Win Situations - No-Win Scenarios and LoseLose Scenarios are situations commonly created by people who suffer from personality disorders where they present two bad options to someone close to them and pressure them into choosing between the two. This usually leaves the non-personalitydisordered person with a “damned if you do and damned if you don’t” feeling. Panic Attacks - Panic Attacks are short intense episodes of fear or anxiety, often accompanied by physical symptoms, such as hyperventilating, shaking, sweating and chills.


Passive-Aggressive Behaviour - Passive Aggressive behaviour is the expression of negative feelings, resentment, and aggression in an unassertive, passive way (such as through procrastination and stubbornness). Perfectionism - Perfectionism (Maladaptive form) is the practice of holding oneself or others hostage to an unrealistic, unattainable or unsustainable standard of organization, order, or accomplishment in one particular area of living, while sometimes neglecting common standards of organization, order or accomplishment in other areas of living. Projection - Projection is the act of attributing one’s own feelings or traits onto another person and imagining or believing that the other person has those same feelings or traits. Push-Pull - Push-Pull, is a chronic pattern of sabotaging and re-establishing closeness in a primary relationship without appropriate (or apparent) cause or reason.

35


Ranking and Comparing - Ranking is the practice of drawing unnecessary and inappropriate comparisons between individuals or groups for the purpose of raising one’s own self-esteem or lowering someone else’s sense of self-worth relative to a peer group. Selective Amnesia - Selective Memory and Selective Amnesia is the use of memory, or a lack of memory, which is selective to the point of reinforcing a bias, belief or desired outcome. Sabotage - Sabotage is the spontaneous disruption of calm or status quo in order to serve a personal interest, provoke a conflict or draw attention. Splitting - Splitting is a psychological term used to describe the practice of thinking about people and situations in extremes and regarding them as completely “good” or “bad”. Thought Policing - Thought Policing is any process of trying to question, control, or unduly influence another person’s thoughts or feelings. Triggers - Triggers are small, insignificant or minor actions, statements or events that produce a dramatic or inappropriate response. Tunnel Vision - Tunnel Vision is the habit or tendency to only see or focus on a single priority while neglecting or ignoring other important priorities.


6

Chapter The Causes

37


The Causes There is a great deal of research about personality disorders suggesting that a number of different interacting factors are involved. Family circumstances There is some evidence to suggest that family circumstances can make

Genetics and inheritance

you vulnerable to personality disorder. OCPD has been linked to anti-social behaviour in childhood, which could

Some elements of our personality

be the result of high levels of stress,

are inherited. People are born with

friends and family problems. These

different temperaments; for example,

might include your parents not

babies vary in how sociable they are,

giving you enough warmth, intimacy,

in the intensity of their reactions, and

consistency or appropriate discipline

in the length of their attention span.

and supervision.

Some experts believe that inheritance may play a relatively big part in the

Experiences like these can make you

development of obsessive-compulsive

vulnerable to personality disorder.

personality disorder (OCPD), and that there may also be a genetic link between personality disorders and certain other mental health problems.


Trauma Repeated childhood traumas may lead to personality disorder. This is not to say that everyone who experiences a traumatic situation will develop these problems, just that it might leave someone more vulnerable. It’s been suggested that early and severe trauma, in particular, can cause personality difficulties. However, the way you and others around you reacted and dealt with it, and the support and care you received, will have made a lot of difference.

There is no doubt that personality disorder is, in part, a creation of the society we live in and the way we live in it. –   Emergence

39


Why is the diagnosis so controversial? You can feel labelled and insulted The term ‘personality disorder’ can sound very judgemental. Your personality is the core of your self, and to be told it is ‘disordered’ is very upsetting and undermining. Many of these diagnostic labels have been used in a way that stigmatises people. Labelling people as ‘dependent’ and ‘inadequate’ can be insulting and hurtful.

It can be mistakenly diagnosed Many survivors of domestic violence or child abuse have been mistakenly diagnosed with a personality disorder because they developed persistent and wide-ranging post-traumatic symptoms, which were misread as part of their basic personality.


Diagnoses of mental health problems feel personal in a way that physical health problems don’t. And no diagnosis feels more personal than that of a personality disorder. – Clare Allan, The Guardian

It is sometimes associated with crime

It is suggested that about 10 percent of the general population have a personality disorder, and most of these people have not committed any crime. However, at least 50 percent of criminals have a diagnosis of personality disorder.

41


Are these people dangerous? Studies have shed some light on a gamut of personality disorders which, depending on its severity, may cause some problems. Despite the negative stories that often appear in the press, most people diagnosed with a personality disorder are not violent. If violence does occur, it tends to involve people diagnosed with ASPD. If you have a personality disorder, especially a borderline or paranoid personality disorder, you are much more likely to harm yourself than others. People who have a diagnosis of a personality disorder and are also considered to pose a serious risk of harm to others or have committed a violent crime may be described as having ‘dangerous and severe personality disorder’. This is not a clinical diagnosis, but a term introduced by a government consultation paper in 1999. Such people were identified as needing to be detained for treatment under the Mental Health Act 1983 (as amended in 2007), in spite of the fact that no successful treatment for dangerousness existed. Various treatment programmes have been put in place, and more are being developed.


7

Chapter

The OCPD vs OCD

43


The OCPD vs OCD With certain similarities shared between the two disorders, it is easy to confuse the two. There is a clinical difference between obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OPCD) and the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). They are two distinctively different disorders and commonplace language usage of obsessive compulsive does not differentiate between the disorders. OCD is described as “recurrent obsessions or compulsions that are severe enough to be time consuming, cause marked distress or significant impairment”. Striking examples of this disorder may include obsessing over cleanliness and, consequently, compulsively washing one’s hands 100 times a day ; obsessing over the media’s continual discussion of child sexual predators, and consequently, refusing to allow your children to leave the house. The characteristics of OCPD are observed and characteristics of a number of other disorders as well as cultural practices, economic circumstances, and situation emotional impairment, and therefore caution is requisite to an accurate diagnosis. A diagnosis of OCPD should be considered especially when hoarding is extreme (e.g. accumulated stacks of worthless objects present a fire hazard and make it difficult for others to walk through the house).


Repetition vs Impracticability

ngechangec gecha han n a h gec c e g h n a

ocpd

gechange gechan cha n han g ech gec an

nge change gecha cha n a ng h c e ech g an

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ocd ocdocd ocdocdocd ocdocdocdocd ocdocdocdocdocd 45


OCPD vs OCD OCPD is a personality disorder. It’s

OCD is an anxiety disorder. It’s about

more about personality traits and

brain chemistry that won’t allow the

perceptions.

brain to stop.

OCPD involves being unsatisfied

OCD involves repetition compulsion,

and stubborn. People with OCPD

which can manifest many different

have difficulty letting go and

ways. Some common examples are:

accepting the imperfections in life

checking things too many times,

and people. They have difficulty

counting things, obsessions about

being open and flexible, and

cleanliness, hair-pulling, and repetitive

problems with appreciating the

unwanted thoughts.

“big picture” as much as details.

OCPD is not treatable with

OCD is often helped by medication

medication, but is moderately

and/or therapy.

treatable with therapy.


Chapter The Test

8 47


The Test Each statement below can be rated on a scale of 1 to 4 of how much you (and/or a loved one) feel the statement applies.

1

None or a little of the time

2

Some of the time

3

Good part of the time

4

All of the time


1.

I prefer things to be done my way.

2. I am critical of people who don’t live up to my standards or expectations. 3. I stick to my principles, no matter what. 4. I am upset by changes in the environment or the behavior of people. 5. I am meticulous and fussy about my possessions. 6. I get upset if I don’t finish a task. 7. I insist on full value for everything I purchase. 8. I like everything I do to be perfect. 9. I follow an exact routine for everyday tasks. 10. I do things precisely to the last detail. 11. I get tense when my day’s schedule is upset. 12. I plan my time so that I won’t be late. 13. It bothers me when my surroundings are not clean and tidy. 14. I make lists for my activities. 15. I think that I worry about minor aches and pains. 16. I like to be prepared for any emergency. 17. I am strict about fulfilling every one of my obligations. 18. I think that I expect worthy moral standards in others. 19. I am badly shaken when someone takes advantage of me. 20. I get upset when people do not replace things exactly as I left them. 21. I keep used or old things because they might still be useful. 22. I think that I am sexually inhibited. 23. I find myself working rather than relaxing. 24. I prefer being a private person. 25. I like to budget myself carefully and live on a cash and carry basis.

49


The Result Most people fall in the middle band between about 50 and 75, but anywhere above 70 means you’re having a problem! It’s important to get other people who know you well to share in this rating – it can be illuminating and even fun!

25 - 45 46 - 55 56 - 70

Not uptight Usefully OCPD

Moderately OCPD

70

OCPD Positive


9

Chapter

The Numbers

51


The Numbers

DO YOU KNOW? OCPD is diagnosed in twice as many men as women


How many people have personality disorder? According to a 2007 study, 9.1% of the US population (about 1 in 11 people) meet the criteria for a personality disorder. Two previous smaller surveys have estimated the percentage between 9.0% and 15.7%.

How many people have ocpd? 2.4% of people in the United States is estimated to have OCPD. Many people have OCPD traits without having the fully diagnosed personality disorder.

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Comorbidity between OPCD & other personality disorders ... Paranoid

59%

Avoidant

Schizoid

40% Borderline

67%

63% 49%

Schizotypal

Dependent

80%

Anti-Social

45%


Chapter The Solution

10 55


The Solution If your friend or relative has a diagnosis of personality disorder, it’s important to emphasise the positive aspects of their personality, and to make the most of their strengths and abilities. A diagnosis of personality disorder doesn’t stop someone being

They may need your encouragement

like-able, intelligent, highly motivated

to change their behaviour. For

or creative.

instance, alcohol, drugs or abusive relationships can only add to

Good information is crucial. If your

problems. Don’t be judgemental

friend or relative would find it helpful,

or tell them they are ‘immature’ or

you could be involved in discussions

‘inadequate’, or ‘attention-seeking’

with mental health professionals,

or ‘making bad choices’: everybody

when they are explaining diagnoses

behaves immaturely or inadequately

and treatment approaches to them.

at times, and we all make mistakes.

You could act as their advocate and speak up and support them, ensuring

You can try to help identify

they are getting the answers they

situations that bring out the best

need from professional services.

or worst in, them and follow up on this. For example, even if they are uncomfortable with being close to people and ill at ease in company, they may be much more relaxed and lose their inhibitions when they are discussing a subject that really interests them. So helping or encouraging them to joining a particular society, club or further education class may be a way they can learn to enjoy company.


The Bibliography

57


The Bibliography Books Duane L., D. (2007). Understanding personality disorders: An introduction. United States of America : Praeger Publishers. David J., R. (2005). Field guide to personality disorders : A companion to disordered personalities. (2nd ed.). United States of America : Rapid Psychler Press. Bruce M. Hyman, C. P. The ocd workbook : Your guide to breaking free from obsessive-compulsive disorder.


Websites Mind. (2013). Understanding personality disorders. Retrieved from http://www.mind.org.uk/mental_health_a-z/8028_understanding_personality_ disorders Out of the FOG. (2007-2013). Characteristics & traits. Retrieved from http://outofthefog.net/Disorders/OCPD.html Out of the FOG. (2007-2013). Comorbidity between personality disorders. Retrieved from http://outofthefog.net/Statistics.html Jasmin, E. (2010, December 12). Cammer’s test for ocpd. Retrieved from http://www.psychforums.com/obsessive-compulsive-personality/topic57651. html International OCD Foundation (IOCDF). (2010). Obsessive compulsive personality disorder (ocpd). Retrieved from http://www.ocfoundation.org/uploadedFiles/MainContent/Find_Help/OCPD Fact Sheet.pdf Light. (2011, September 21). Ocd vs ocpd. Retrieved from http://lightshouse.org/lights-blog/ocpd-vs-ocd#axzz2IcXeZKre

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