URBAN TRANSPORT PUBLIC TRANSPORT STUDY FOR KAJANG – BANDAR BARU BANGI – BANDAR SERI PUTRA – PUTRAJAYA – NILAI CORRIDOR
GROUP MEMBER’S : 1. NORAZUIN BINTI JAWARI 2. NURHAFIZA BINTI MOH HASSIM 3. NORIZZA SYAFIQAH BINTI BAHRIN
P55723 P60144 P65408
INTRODUCTION Malaysia is among the fast growing cities in the world. Malaysia’a vibrant economy and fast forward moving lifestyle has resulted in increased demand for transportation. This includes transportation of people from one place to another and also transportation of goods. Such movement has changed the way people live and influenced in the development of civilization.Transportation exhibit a very close relation to lifestyle, location of activities and etc.Transport sector is an important component of the economy impacting on development and he welfare of populations. Efficient transportation can provide economic and social oppurtunities and benefits that result in positive such as better employment, accesibility to the markets and more. Public transport has contributed in the shaping of town ever since. It growing impact on the economic development of urban areas and its contribution to social inclusion have been widely recognised. Public transportation provides people with mobility and access to employment, community resources, medical care and recreational oppurtunities.Areas with efficient public ransport are economically thriving and can offer location which bring advantages for businesses and individuals to work or live in. Public transportation helps to reduce road congestion and travel times, air pollution and energy and oil consumption which benefit both riders and nonriders.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY The objective of the project has been defined as follows: 1. To study public transport demand and requirement for Kajang – Bangi – Putrajaya -Bandar Seri Putra - Nilai 3. 2. To propose a suitable and sustainable development of public transportation system for Kajang – Bangi – Putrajaya - Bandar Sri Putra - Nilai 3.
Figure 1.1: Area of study Zone
Figure 1.2: Kajang-Bandar Baru Bangi- Putrajaya Study area
Figure 1.3: Bandar Putra Mahkota-Nilai Study area
1.2.1 PUTRAJAYA The garden city of Putrajaya od located at south of Kuala Lumpur and serve as the federal adiministrative centre of Malaysia. it was originally from the city centre itself but however was shifted in 1999 due to the overcrowding and major traffic congestion. Putrajaya was named after the very first prime mininter Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra. The city was situated within the area of Multimedia Super Coridor (MSC) and was planned as the garden and intelligent city. 38% of the total area is reserved for green areas by emphamizing the enhancement of natural landscape. Putrajaya is well connected with highway and major expressway such as: Maju Expressway(MEX) North-South Expressway Central Link (Putrajaya Link) Nearby (Cheras-Kajang Expressway) The 3 main public transport there have here in putrajaya are buses, train and taxis. KLIA Transits provides express rail link (ERL) which provide direct and faster services to go to the airport. Feeder buses were provided in the city which also run in the Cyberjaya since Cyberjaya is located near to Putrajaya. 1.2.2 KAJANG Kajang is located 25km from Kuala Lumpur. It is the district capital of Hulu Langat and has been identified to be as the main residential centre for people who lives in this area. The total area of Kajang is about 9298 hectare. The population in Kajang has increased in the past few years as the city itself benefiting from its second-tier location status as Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya prices move beyond the afforability of ordinary salaried workers.
Kajang is well connected with major highway and express way such as: Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway Cheras-Kajang Expressway(CKE-Grand Saga) North South Highway (NSE) Kajang Seremban Expressway (LEKAS) These are the reasons on an increase of population as it attaracts more people who cannot afford to live in Kuala Lumpur. Other public transport can be find here are buses, mini buses, KTM and not to forget taxis are available here. In fact the government has announce that the public transportation will be improved by building a Mass Rapid Transit where Kajang was included in the ninth station within the area. It was an ongoing project and full operation can be expected to commence in 2016. 1.2.4 BANDAR SERI PUTRA Bandar Seri Putra ( formerly Bandar Putra Mahkota ) is known to many as the Seri Putra is a township in Hulu Langat district, Selangor. Accessible via a dedicated Putra Mahkota Interchange EXIT 213 off the North – South Expressway Southern Route E2. This township is about 23.3 kilometers (30 minutes drive ) from Kuala Lumpur and 35 kilometers from Kuala Lumpur International Airport ( KLIA ).
Figure 1.4: Bandar Putra Mahkota Study area
1.2.5 NILAI 3 Nilai is a town located in Negeri Sembilan. Due to its proximity and connection through the KTM to Kuala Lumpur , Putrajaya and Kuala Lumpur International Airport, it is a rapidly growing town. Development projects can be seen as one drives around Nilai. Four of the Malaysiaâ€™s most well-known colleges and universities are located in Nilai are Nilai University College, INTI International University, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia and Islamic University College of Malaysia. As a result, the town is occupied by students from all over the world. Besides, Nilai has become a popular shopping town with the establishment of several major shopping malls such as Nilai 3 Wholesale Centre, Nilai Square, Mydin, Giant Hypermarket and Tesco Hypermarket.
CURRENT LINKAGE CONNECTING THE STUDY AREA
2.1.1 KTM-Komuter KTM-komuter is one of the most importand public transport that connecting Nilai-Bangi-Kajang.
Figure 1.5: Ktm-komuter Linkage 2.1.2 HIGHWAY 184.108.40.206
North-South Expressway (NSE )
Figure 1.6: North-South Expressway 1
Figure 1.7: North-South Expressway 1 220.127.116.11
Figure 1.8: Kajang Silk 1
Figure 1.9: Kajang Silk connectivities with other highway
18.104.22.168 Cheras-Kajang highway (Grand Saga)
Figure 2.0: Cheras-Kajang highway Grand Saga
Figure 2.1: Lekas highway
Figure 2.2: Lekas highway 2
2.1.3 BUS a.
So far, we have witness few changes that brings a lot of benefit especially for those who are a frequent users for ktm-komuter. With the newly improve ktmkomuter, they now provide more coaches. The seats are spacious and more comfortable. Additional with that, they now provide free wifi services for the customers and not too forget two coaches which are strictly for women. This will be very beneficial for the users. However, they still need to improve on the punctuality and reduce the number of delays. Although additional parking spaces provided nearer to the station, the parking spaces still cannot accomodate a large number of users. Based from our site visit, there are no proper signage provided for KTM Bangi station. This will be very confusing for a first timer. Parking spaces for taxi should be provided at a proper place especially for station in Kajang. This will cause a road congestion especially during peak hour.
Figure 2.3: Ktm-komuter Nilai. Strategic location where situated near to taxi and bus station
Figure 2.4: Ktm-komuter Nilai. More open parking spaces needed
Figure 2.5: Ktm-komuter Bangi. Improper signage location.
Figure 2.6: Ktm-komuter UKM Bandar Baru Bangi.
Figure 2.7: Ktm-komuter UKM Bandar Baru Bangi. The additional parking space are still not enough
Figure 2.8: Ktm-komuter Kajang
Figure 2.9: Newly, improve KTM-komuter coaches
Figure 3.0: Limited seats for passengers especially during peak hour
We also did a site visit in bus station in Nilai. Based on our visit, we find that the location of the terminal is very strategic which is near to the KTM and taxis station.however, our interview with the local customer, they suggest that they should provide buses which travel either to the south or west of Malaysia. The nearest station
either in Terminal 1 or 2 in Seremban or Terminal Bas Bersepadu in Bandar Tasik Selatan. However, they still can use KTM komuter which they can direct go to station either in Seremban or Bandar Tasik Selatan.
Figure 3.1: Bus and Taxi Station Nilai
Figure 3.2: Bus Routes in Nilai
Nilai 3 is well known for its variety of shop. It is popular among Malaysian especially for those who involved in any wedding occasion or any type of â€œâ€˜malay kenduriâ€? . This is not all, those who are looking for household from furniture to curtains will enjoy do a lilttle spending here. However there no proper public transport provided here. The only transportation we find either mini buses or taxi. More people prefer to go with their own car. A proper bus station with a punctual time set will be encourage here.
Figure 3.3: Bus mini services in Nilai 3
Figure 3.4: Bus stops in Nilai 3
Figure 3.5: Exit Bandar Putra Mahkota
Figure 3.6: No public transportation provided within the area.
+ Figure 3.7: Bus Station that connecting both Bandar Baru Bangi and Kajang
Figure 3.8: taxis and car rent stops in Kajang
Figure 3.9: Improper bus stops in Kajang
Figure 4.0: Traffic congestion in kajang town during peak hour
Figure 4.1: Traffic congestion in Bandar Baru Bangi during peak hour
STUDY REQUIREMENT FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT The procedure is shown as figure below and it involved evaluation of existing data from â€œKajian Rancangan Tempatan Kajang, Jilid I & Jilid II, 1998 -2010,
Trip Production and Attraction
Trip Pattern ( O - D )
Modal Choice Model
Forecasting Future Demand of Public Transport
Determine Suitable Public Transport
Proposal for Physical Development and Policy Changes
TRANSPORT MODELING In transport modeling there are consist of four to proposed the suitable transportation which is:
Trip generation -
Determines the frequency of origins or destinations of trips in each zone by trip purpose, as a function of land uses and household demographics, and other socio-economic factors.
Trip distribution -
Matches origins with destinations, often using a gravity model function, equivalent to an entropy maximizing model.
Modal split -
Computes the proportion of trips between each origin and destination that use a particular transportation mode.
Trip assignment -
Allocates trips between an origin and destination by a particular mode to a route.
DATA ANALYSIS – POPULATION FOR EACH ZONE
Bandar Baru Bangi
Bandar Seri Putra
PRODUCTION AND ATTRACTION RATES In this study, the production and attraction rates are used as followed:
ATTRACTION PER 100
PRODUCTION PER 100
sq.m FLOOR AREA
sq.m FLOOR AREA
College / University
PRODUCTION PER UNIT
ATTRACTION PER UNIT
Flat / Low Cost House
Single Storey Link House
Double Storey Link House
Semi - Detached House
PRODUCTION AND ATTRACTION RESIDENTIAL
Bandar Baru Bangi
Bandar Seri Putra
Bandar Baru Bangi
Bandar Seri Putra
ADJUSTED PRODUCTION AND ATTRACTION
Bandar Baru Bangi
Bandar Seri Putra
Bandar Baru Bangi
Bandar Seri Putra
TRIP PATTERN ( O â€“ D ) MATRIX
Kajang Bandar Baru Bangi Putrajaya Bandar Seri Putra
MODAL SPLIT MODEL Decision structure is as figure below:
Bangi Putrajaya Bandar Seri Putra Nilai
Baru Bangi 48722
Kajang Bandar Baru
Bandar Seri Putra
TRIP DISTRIBUTION DIAGRAM
Bandar Baru Bangi
Bandar Seri Putra
POLICY CHANGES AND RECOMENDED ACTION PLAN We proposed few policies that can be introduced and enforced from time to time. This is in line with the implementation of Nilai3- Bandar Sri Putra-Bandar Bukit Mahkota-Bandar Baru Bangi- Kajang transport corridor. It is crucial to developed policies that push for change in lifestyle and behaviour. The policies introduced can reduce the negative impact of negative environmental impacts caused by vehicles and traffic. Researched proved that after the implementation of modal shift from private car to public transport in European City has reduce the air pollution, reduced traffic congestion and have preserved the historical sites (Hiroya Fujimoto).However, for policy to be a success it must be owned and implemented both by the government and stakeholders. The Government’s participatory approach will create greater policy awareness.
PROJECTS Parking Management and Park-and-Ride System
DESCRIPTIONS Public mode remains a greater priority, car parks will be built more at origins, rather than destinations. Parking spaces for cars and motorbikes, and bike racks for cyclists will be located at bus stops frequented by local feeder buses. To maintain a reasonable support, parking spaces at park and ride spaces, parking tickets must be kept at a very minumum and reasonable level in order to maintain a continous support. Providing on real time information on parking space availabity either through sign on the road side or navigation system. Frequent express services is a primary demand in generating characteristic of succesful park-and-ride facilities.minimum service frequencies of 15 minutes are acceptable for major park-andride facilities. A safe and secure environment for patrons, parked vehicles and transit operators is critical to the
succesful of a park-and-ride facility.
Traffic Restraints and Road Pricing
The livelihood and livability of the residential areas are improved through pedestrian –friendly suburban road layout. They allow greater pedestrian accessibility,connectivity and convenience. Sidewalks should be wide enough to accomadate pedestrian, yet not be so wide enough to appear empty most of the time. When there are large pedestrian volumes, traffic calming can be applied at the local roads Urban areas will be classified as traffic restraint zones. Entering motorists will have to pay a fair amount of fee that will be continually adjusted to ensure those who choose to drive can run their errands stress-free. In addition this will give an impact in discouraging private car use, thus reducing traffic congestion. Greater enforcements and restrictions will ensure motorcyclists do not eat up pedestrian spaces Funding given by the government gives funding to local transport services. This is to maintain and improve the infrastructure of the local public transport. In order to ensure this policies to be succesfully implemented, laws should be enforced. Laws such as: Reducing the level of emissions per
Mobility and Traffic Management
Table: Policies to be introduced
vehicle Reducing and maintaining fees of public transport tickets, carpark at a very reasonable prices Ensure that all buses (feeder, inercity and intracity) must use NGV or non-polluting and low emission fuels to minimize pollutant emission to the air. By 2025, aims that more than half of the commuting trips will be made via public transport . This is in line with the implementation of Transportation Demand Management (TDM). Mobility Centers will be set up to coordinate all transportation infrastructure and support systems in the region. This is in order to facilitate the movement of people instead of private vehicles. Providing greater access to service information and more interactive services (timetable information,availability of buses,route changes) Improving road signage and road safety.
Figure 4.2: Park and Ride Facilities
Figure 4.3: Improvement in Parking spaces to reduce road congestion alongside the road
Figure 4.4: Alternatives road for a smoother journey to the city
Figure 4.5: Improvement in Pedetrian path
Figure 4.6: Improvement in Pedetrian path
RECOMMENDED ACTION PLAN
4.1.1 IMPROVING THE SERVICE FREQUENCIES In malaysia, the main reason they refused to use the public transport is due to longer waiting times and number of delays. Increasing the number of vehicles to overcome this problem might increase the frequency of services. However, tere are now facing another problem on how to overcome the extra cost needed. Restudy on the demand and calculate the best routing depend on the situation and devide the vehicle acordingly is needed. This is in order to prevent wasteful spending and at the same time promote efficient services. Hiroya Fujimoto stated in his researched it is necessary to study this issue together with the aforementioned congestion resolving measures 4.1.2 MASS RAPID TRANSIT (MRT) The proposal which was announce in June 2010 and later was approve by the government in December 2010. The project which is expected to be fully operatinal in 2016, where the phase 1a is expected to have more than 400000 users daily and will serve to a population of 1.2 mil. KL MRT is believed to significantly increase and improve existing rail networks and alleviate the severe traffic congestion in the KL city Centre. In addition, it can radically improve and transform Kuala Lumpur poor and inadequate public transportation coverage.It consists of three lines 150km which comprising of tw northeast-southwear radial line and another one cricle line looping around Kuala Lumpur. The total estimated cost was RM 36.6 billion and it the first Mass Rapit Transit and one of the largest megaproject in Malaysia. it is expected to
carry 2 million users, serving over 11% of total travel across Klang Valley and 64% of travel in and out of KL City Centre. It is intergrated with existing KTM Komuter stations both in Sungai Buloh and Kajang and LRT stations either at KL Sentral or Pasar seni and Maluri.
Figure 4.7: Sungai Buloh-Kajang MRT Network Map Sources: http://www.mrt.com.my/MRT-network-map.html
Figure 4.8: Sungai Buloh-Kajang MRT station
Figure 4.9: Sungai Buloh-Kajang MRT station Sources: http://www.mrt.com.my/MRT-network-map.html
Proposed MRT Line: Sungai Buloh- Kajang Line Damansara- Serdang Line Kl City Circle Line
Proposed Intergration Sungai Buloh Station – KTM Komuter KL Sentral Station- RapidKL LRT (Kelana Jaya Line), KLIA Express and KTM Komuter Central Market Station- RapidKL LRT (Kelana Jaya Line), Maluri Station- RapidKL LRT (Ampang Line) Kajang Station- KTM Komuter
4.1.3 RE-MANAGE THE ROAD HIERARCHY Street hierarchy can be classified into four main classification which are:
Collector- the principal traffic conveyor within commercial or residential areas. Where it carries high-traffic volumes . it function to promote free- traffic flow. Arterial- is a high volume strees that conducts traffic between communiites and activity centers and connect communities to major strate and interstate highways. Sub-collector- relatively lower volume street providing passage from collector streets to neighbourhood acsess atreets. It provide frontage and acsess to residential lots but also carry some through traffic Acsess treet- the lowest older streets and usually carry no traffic. Acsess street are the designed to provide acsess from residence to higher –order streets.
The failure in establish an effective hierarchy of roads for the urban road network in Kajang and surrounding will simply lead to the transfer of the existing problems onto other sections of the network following the implementation plan master. -
The capacity of road can be increased by restricting frontage activities when traffic movement functions predominate
The environmental impacts of traffic can be reduced in sensitive areas by the reallocation of traffic
The rate of return on infrastructure development can be minimized by concentrating traffic movements into a limited number of corridors.
Activities which are incompatible with traffic flow can be restricted on routes where traffic movement functions predominate.
The major roads could be used to segregate and contain incompatible land uses. Existing ‘grid-iron’ networks should be restricted to create internally or externally fed-system.
4.1.4 ROAD SAFETY DESIGN –IMPROVING THE OLDER ROADS Older roads can be improved by:
Reduce the need to make complex decisions Reduce the need to perform time-relatedtasks Use design element which match with experinced
Where the main safety principle for road design:
Make tasks traffic simpler by eliminating high-risk condition and circumstances Reduce the chance on human erros whenever decision need to be make Make the road function clear to the road users by introducingfunctional road network hierarchy Increse predictability : road course and behaviour of other road users Increase homogenous road use: prevention of a large differences in vehicle speed mass and direction
THE TRANSPORTATION MASTER PLAN FOR FUTURE DEMAND This master plan acts as a foundation for shaping current and future transportation projects of Nilai3- Bandar Sri Putra-Bandar Bukit Mahkota-Bandar Baru Bangi- Kajang transport corridor. Based on the modelling of future transport demand by year 2035 calculated above, the suitable public transport proposal for corridor of Nilai3- Bandar Sri Putra-Bandar Bukit Mahkota-Bandar Baru BangiKajang are Light Rail Transit (LRT) Monorail & Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
Figure 5.0 : Overall Proposed Alignment of Kajang – Bangi – Putrajaya – Bandar Seri Putra – Nilai 5.1
PROPOSED INTEGRATIONS WITH EXISTING RAIL NETWORK The proposed LRT Monorail and elevated BRT are include multiple corridors that intersect and form a network as this expands travel options for passengers and makes the system as a whole, more viable. In proposed of long term plan LRT Monorail and Elevated BRT, there will be 4 interchange stations to integrate into existing rail networks.
Figure 5.1 : Proposed Integrations with Existing Rail Network
The proposed intergrated stations are Putrajaya Station, integrated with ERL, Kajang Station, integrated with KTM KOMUTER. The proposed Bangi Station will be integrating with LRT Monorail and Elevated BRT and the proposed Nilai Station will be integrated with KTM Komuter.
PUTRAJAYA STATION KLIA ERL INTEGRATED WITH PROPOSED LRT MONORAIL & ELEVATED BRT
KAJANG STATION PROPOSED LRT MONORAIL INTEGRATED WITH PROPOSED ELEVATED BRT
BANGI STATION PROPOSED ELEVATED BRT INTEGRATED WITH PROPOSED LRT MONORAIL
NILAI STATION KTM KOMUTER INTEGRATED WITH PROPOSED LRT MONORAIL
The proposed of long term plan LRT Monorail and Elevated BRT will not significantly increase the current and also to improve public transport with proper transportation planning.
PROPOSED OF LIGHT RAPID TRANSIT (LRT) MONORAIL Map below shown the proposed alignment of LRT Monorail and station also other needs to make sure the better services for the corridor.
Figure 5.2 : LRT Monorail to be proposed to serve corridors of the study area. 5.2.1 LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT (LRT) MONORAIL DESIGN Speed : up to 60km/hr Couches : 2 â€“ 4 couches per train Capacity : up to 40,000 passengers/hr/dir Acceleration / Decelaration : 1.2 m/s2 Rail Width : 1000mm or 1435mm gauge Headway : 120 s Power supply : 750v
Light Rail Transit (LRT) Monorail suitable for radial movement and for high density and high plot ratio area. However, feeder bus services are required from station to surrounding areas. The recommendation spacing between sub-station is 4 to 6 km. There are many requirements must be taken when we considered to implement a good LRT Monorail alignment. a) Relatively smooth and comfortable operation, easy boarding, attractive stations, and easy-to-understand routes and schedules b) Facilities for disabled are functionality
5.2.2 LRT MONORAIL BENEFITS a) High capacity and low space utilization, which capacity up to 40,000 passengers / hour / direction
b) Efficiency of urban patterns: where stations can act as development hubs / nodes, enhancing and increasing the value of land around it c) Safety and reliable d) Avoidance of surface congestion, because it is fully grade separated and exclusive right of way, therefore can avoid any roas congestion thus redusing travel time greatly.
PROPOSED OF ELEVATED BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT) LINE
Map below shown the proposed alignment of elevated BRT and station also other needs to make sure the better services for the corridor.
Figure 5.3 : Elevated Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Putrajaya-Kajang
Figure : The proposed alignment and station of elevated BRT which connects with Putrajaya Station integrated with ERL and Kajang Station, integrated with KTM Komuter. 5.3.1 ELEVATED BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT) DESIGN Distance between Putrajaya â€“ Kajang â€“ Nilai : 29 km. Seats : 60 pass., standees: 25 pass. Travel Time : 50 minutes. Headway : Max.30 minutes. Average of passenger : 23039 pass./day Hours of job : 18 hr. (6:00am-12:00am).
Time of stopping at terminal : Growth Rate :
5 minutes. 1.74%
The alignment selection will be based on the following criterion:
Connection of Putrajaya and Kajang as commercial area and higher education’s institution – which are Universiti Pertanian Malaysia and Universiti Tenaga Nasional
Due to its proximity to various shopping centres and two higher education institutions - which are TARC and UTAR - in the region, the station is usually busy during the weekdays.
Available Right-of-Way (ROW) of major roads
Maximize ridership and passenger demand
Minimize land acquisition and social impact
Interchange with other modes of transport including KTM Commuter, Light Rapid Transit (LRT) Monorail and existing bus routes
Minimum construction period
Figure 5.4 : Elevated BRT to be proposed to serve corridors of the study area. As the entry point to the system, the proposed BRT Stations designed the single most important customer interface, affecting accessibility, reliability, comfort, safety, and security, as well as dwell times and system image.
Figure 5.5 : Elevated BRT Facilities The proposed BRT station is simple stops with basic shelters and intermodal terminals with few amenities such as kiosk and One Customer Center (OCS).
5.3.2 ELEVATED BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT) BENEFITS
Accompanied by complementary land use and zoning policies, BRT systems can encourage compact, pedestrian and transit-friendly developments that are integrated into the surrounding area
Through the use of clean and alternative fuel vehicles and the reduction in automobile traffic and congestion, BRT systems can help achieve air quality and other environmental goals.
LRT MONORAIL For five heavy LRT lines, the estimated cost = RM 50 mil/km From Purtajaya – Bangi – Nilai
= 28 km
= RM 1.4 Billion
ELEVATED BRT For Elevated Bus Rapid Transit
= RM50 mil/km
= 29 km
Total estimated cost
= RM 1.45 Billion
All local government’s planning aimed to get sustainable urban transport of the city. Transport is exists to support the achievement of economic development, urban regeneration and social inclusion and reduced levels of crime and disorder. It can also contribute towards improvements to healt and fitness and raising educational standards. These all factors will contribute to improved quality of life for the people of Kajang. This report is prepared to study the public transport demand and requirement for the corridors of Kajang – Bandar Baru Bangi – Putrajaya – Bandar Seri Putra – Nilai and to derive proposal for the development of a sustainable public transportation system. Based on the study, we agreed that the good solution for this nowadays problem in the corridors is to enlarge the public transportation vehicles functions. We are proposing the implementation of buses as another modal transport in the corridors in order to reduce the traffic congestion and economical. By using the public transport efficiently may give good impact to road capacity.