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A Comprehensive Workbook for Proficiency, KPDS, ÜDS and TOEFL

Cesur Öztürk


© Cesur Öztürk All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. First published 1994 Fortieth printing 2012

Baskı Sözkesen Matbaacılık Tic. Ltd. Şti. - ANKARA Tel: (312) 395 21 10 – 395 59 07 Faks: (312) 395 61 07

Kapak Tasarımı Ali ÇELİK

ISBN 978605-5270-35-3

CONTENTS Introduction Acknowledgements Abbreviations


xi xiii xiv



CHAPTER 1: Basic Sentence Structure


I. The Parts of a Sentence A. The Subject B. The Verb C. The Object D. The Complement E. Subject, Object and Complement - Summary Test on Subject and Object Noun Phrases II. Verb Patterns Test on Verb Patterns

1 1 4 5 5 6 7 8 15

CHAPTER 2: Determiners, Nouns and Pronouns


I. Determiners A. General Determiners B. Illustrative Examples on the Uses of Determiners C. Pre-determiners D. Each and Every E. Ordinal Numbers Used as Post-determiners Test on Determiners F. Articles with Common Nouns Test on Articles II. Nouns III. Agreement

CHAPTER 3: Tenses in English The Present Continuous Tense The Simple Present Tense The Simple Past Tense The Past Continuous Tense The Present Perfect Tense The Present Perfect Continuous Tense The Past Perfect Tense The Past Perfect Continuous Tense The Simple Future Tense Going-to Future Will versus Be Going To Future in the Past

17 17 19 20 21 21 22 24 27 28 28

31 31 31 32 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 36 36 iii

The Future Continuous Tense The Future Perfect Tense The Future Perfect Continuous Comparison of Tenses TENSES - Summary Sequence of Tenses Test on Tenses - Set 1 Test on Tenses - Set 2

36 36 37 37 39 40 43 47

CHAPTER 4: Functions of Modal Auxiliaries and Related Words Test on Modals Perfect Infinitives/Modals Referring to Past Time Test on Perfect Infinitives Modals-Time Reference Test on Modal Auxiliaries and Perfect Infinitives

CHAPTER 5: Passive and Causative Constructions I. The Passive Voice Test on The Passive Voice II. The Causative Form Test on the Causative Form III. The Active Voice versus the Passive Voice and the Causative Form Test on Active, Passive and Causative Forms

CHAPTER 6: Gerunds and Infinitives I. Gerunds A. Functions of Gerunds B. Time Reference in Gerunds C. Verbs Followed by the Gerund II. Infinitives A. Uses of Infinitives B. Structures That Are Followed by ‘To’- Infinitive C. Time Reference in Infinitives D. Verbs That Take the Infinitive E. Verbs That Need Special Attention F. Additional Notes on Be+ ‘To’ Infinitive Test on Gerunds and Infinitives - Set 1 Test on Gerunds and Infinitives - Set 2

CHAPTER 7: Adjectives I. Major Adjective Patterns II. Linking Verb + Adjective III. Types of Adjectives IV. Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives iv

51 54 57 58 59 61

64 64 68 70 73 74 75

76 76 76 76 77 78 78 79 80 82 83 84 85 87

89 89 91 92 94

V. Constructions with Comparisons VI. Modification of Comparatives VII. Modification of Superlatives VIII. Compound adjectives of measurement: ‘a five- year old child’ IX. Adjectives ending in ‘-ed’ and ‘-ing’

CHAPTER 8: Adverbs

95 97 97 97 98


I. Sentential Adverbs II. Adverbs of Manner III. Restricting Adverbs IV. Viewpoint Adverbs V. Focusing Adverbs VI. Adverbs of Degree/Intensifiers VII. The Uses of Rather, Quite and Fairly VIII. The Position of Adverbs IX. Frequency Adverbs X. Additional Adverbs and Adverbial Phrases XI. Constructions with Comparisons Test on Adjectives and Adverbs

99 99 99 99 100 100 101 102 103 103 104 104

CHAPTER 9: Relative (Adjective) Clauses


I. Formation of Relative Clauses II. Variations in Defining Clauses III. Non- Defining Clauses IV. Variations in the Use of Non-Defining Clauses V. Reduction of Relative Clauses VI. Additional Notes on Relative Clauses Test on Relative Clauses

CHAPTER 10: Noun Clauses I. Formation of Noun Clauses A. Noun Clauses Which Begin with That B. Noun Clauses Which Begin with Whether and If C. Noun Clauses Which Begin with Question Words II. Functions of Noun Clauses A. Noun Clause as the Subject of a Sentence B. Noun Clause as the Object of a Sentence C. Noun Clause as Adjective Complement D. Noun Clause as Subject Complement E. Noun Clause as an Appositive F. Noun Clause as the Object of a Preposition G. Noun Clause as Indirect Object III. Subordinator as The Subject of a Noun Clause IV. The Position and Function of Noun Clauses A. Noun Clauses with That B. Noun Clauses with Whether C. Noun Clauses with What

108 110 110 111 112 115 117

122 122 122 122 123 124 124 124 124 125 125 125 125 125 126 126 127 128 v

V. -Ever Words in Noun Clauses VI. The Subjunctive Form in Noun Clauses VII. Reduction of Noun Clauses VIII. Summary of Noun Clauses Test On Noun Clauses

CHAPTER 11: -EVER Words and Correlative Conjunctions I. - Ever Words II. Correlative Conjunctions Mini Test on Correlative Conjunctions

CHAPTER 12: Conditions and Wishes I. Conditions Test on Conditions II. Wish Clauses Test on Wishes

CHAPTER 13: Adverbial Clauses Adverbial Clauses of Time Adverbial Clauses of Place Adverbial Clauses of Reason Adverbial Clauses of Direct Contrast Adverbial Clauses of Concessive Contrast Adverbial Clauses of Result Adverbial Clauses of Purpose Adverbial Clauses of Manner Adverbial Clauses of Degree (Proportion) Adverbial Clauses of Condition Adverbial Clauses of Comparison Additional Notes on Adverbial Clauses Adverbial Clauses - Summary Test on Adverbial Clauses

CHAPTER 14: Participles I. Actions That Take Place at the Same Time A. -ING Participle For Active Constructions B. Past participle / - ED Participle (For Passive Constructions) II. Actions That take Place at Different Times Perfect Participle :Having+V3 /Having been+V3 III. Participial Phrase with Its Own Subject IV. Participles- Summary V. Participles Used Idiomatically Test on Participles


128 128 129 130 131

134 134 136 136

137 137 139 140 142

143 143 144 144 144 144 145 145 145 146 146 147 147 149 150

154 154 154 155 156 157 157 158 159 160

CHAPTER 15: Special Difficulties I. Inversion Test on Inversion II. Structural Parallelism Mini Test on Structural Parallelism III. Auxiliary A. and ..., too and so... B. and ..., either and neither... Mini Test on Auxiliary C. Tag Questions Mini Test on Tag Questions IV. The Subjunctive Form Mini Test on the Subjunctive Form

CHAPTER 16: Reduction of Clauses I. Finite Clauses versus Verbless (Reduced) Clauses II. Finite versus Non-Finite (Reduced) Clauses III. Passive Constructions in Finite and Non-Finite Clauses IV. Active Constructions in Finite and Non-Finite Clauses V. Reducing Finite Clauses with Infinitives VI. Additional Notes on Finite and Non-Finite Verbs Test on Finite and Non-Finite Clauses

CHAPTER 17: Sentence Connectors

164 164 166 167 168 169 169 169 169 170 170 171 171

172 173 173 174 175 177 178


Tests on Sentence Connectors


CHAPTER 18: Prepositions, Prepositional Phrases and Idiomatic Expressions


Test on Prepositions Test on Idiomatic Expressions (Intermediate - Advanced)

CHAPTER 19: Sentence Variety I. Structures That Indicate Addition II. Structures of Cause-Effect Relationship III. Structures of Concessive Contrast (Denial of Expectation) IV. Structures of Contrast (Direct Opposition) V. Structures of Similarity VI. Structures That Indicate Purpose VII. Structures That Indicate Result VIII. Structures That Indicate Time IX. Structures That Indicate Condition X. Adverbial Clauses versus Adverbial Phrases XI. Sentence Variety - Summary Test on Sentence Variety and Logical Relations

191 194

196 196 197 199 200 201 202 203 203 203 204 205 208


CHAPTER 20: General Grammar Tests Grammar Test 1 Grammar Test 2 Grammar Test 3 Grammar Test 4 Advanced Grammar Test 1 Advanced Grammar Test 2



210 210 219 228 235 242 249


Diagnostic Test


CHAPTER 1: Recognizing Synonyms


I. Prepositional Phrases II. Verbs Test on Verbs - Set 1 Test on Verbs - Set 2 III. Nouns Test on Nouns IV. Adjectives Test on Adjectives V. Adverbs Test on Adverbs General Tests on Synonyms

CHAPTER 2 : Usage I. Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases A. Prepositions That Follow Verbs Test on Prepositions That Follow Verbs B. Prepositions That Follow Adjectives Test on Prepositions That Follow Adjectives C. Important Prepositional Phrases Test on Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases II. Verbs and Verbals A. Verbs That Take Gerunds and Infinitives Test on Gerunds or Infinitives B. Verb Patterns C. The Passive Voice D. The Causative Form E. Adjectival and Adverbial Participles F. Infinitives Test on Verbs III. Nouns Test on Nouns IV. Adjectives Test on Adjectives V. Adverbs Test on Adverbs General Vocabulary Tests viii

258 259 263 265 267 270 271 274 276 277 279

286 286 286 289 291 293 294 294 296 296 297 298 301 303 303 304 304 308 312 314 317 320 320 322




CHAPTER 1: Recognizing Synonyms


I. Advanced Verbs and Verbals II. Advanced Nouns Test on Advanced Nouns III. Advanced Adjectives Test on Advanced Adjectives IV. Advanced Adverbs Test on Advanced Adverbs General Tests on Synonyms

336 349 351 354 359 362 363 364

CHAPTER 2: Usage I. Prepositions A. Advanced Verbs Followed by Prepositions Test on Advanced Verbs Followed by Prepositions B. Prepositions in Passive Constructions C. Advanced Adjectives Followed by Prepositions Mini Test on Advanced Adjectives Followed by Prepositions D. Nouns Followed by Prepositions II. Advanced Verbs and Verbals Test on Advanced Verbs - Set 1 Test on Advanced Verbs - Set 2 III. Advanced Nouns Test on Advanced Nouns - Set 1 Test on Advanced Nouns - Set 2 IV. Advanced Adjectives Test on Advanced Adjectives V. Advanced Adverbs Test on Advanced Adverbs Advanced Usage Tests

CHAPTER 3: Special Difficulties A. Important Phrasal Verbs Test on Phrasal Verbs - Set 1 Test on Phrasal Verbs - Set 2 B. Words That Are Often Confused Test on Words Which Are Often Confused - Set 1 Test on Words Which Are Often Confused - Set 2 C. Prepositions, Prepositional Phrases Idiomatic Expressions and Conjunctions Test on Idiomatic Expressions D. Guessing Vocabulary Exercises on Guessing Vocabulary Test on Guessing Vocabulary E. Words Used in Different Senses

373 373 373 375 377 378 389 380 381 389 393 395 403 406 409 413 416 418 419

427 427 434 435 437 442 445 448 458 461 462 466 467 ix



CHAPTER 1: Text Organization I. Developmental Paragraphs II. Recognizing the Topic Sentence and Generalizations III. Stated Main Ideas and the Position of the Topic Sentence IV. The Structure of the Topic Sentence and the Main Idea V. Choosing the Best Topic Sentence VI. Recognizing Specific Details VII. Level of Support VIII. Kind of Support

CHAPTER 2: Reading Skills I. Skimming II. Scanning III. Recognizing Paraphrases or Restatements Ways of Paraphrasing / Restating Ideas Tests on Restatements IV. Making Inferences Tests on Inferences V. Identifying the Main Idea A. Exercises on Explicitly Stated Main Idea Tests on Explicitly Stated Main Idea B. Implied Main Idea Tests on Implied Main Idea Additional Tests on Finding the Main Idea Tests on Choosing the Best Title VI. Prediction : What can logically follow?

CHAPTER 3: Organizational Skills I. Unity II. Coherence: Arrangement and Connection of Sentences A. Types of Transitionals B. Clause Formation C. Reference Signals : this, that, these, those, one, ones etc. D. Lexical Devices (=Words)Used to Connect Sentences E. Order - The Arrangement of Sentences Test on Reference Signals Tests on Sentence Connection Tests on Reading Comprehension


SAMPLE TESTS Sample Proficiency Test 1 Sample Proficiency Test 2 KPDS Practice Test

Appendix 1 - Prepositions Appendix 2 - Markers of Basic Relations Appendix 3 - Stems, Prefixes and Suffixes Appendix 4 - Word Forms Appendix 5 - Developing Academic Vocabulary for Exams Appendix 6 - Important Conjunctions


471 471 471 473 474 474 476 477 478 479

480 480 482 483 483 490 496 504 508 508 509 509 510 511 517 520

524 524 526 526 527 528 531 532 533 534 536

556 556 571 587 603 608 610 615 626 634

Introduction This book is intended for intermediate and advanced learners of English who are preparing for examinations in English, such as English proficiency examinations given by Turkish universities, KPDS (Language Proficiency Test for Government Employees) and the TOEFL. It also covers a lot of material which is relevant to Cambridge Proficiency Examinations. While it may be used in a classroom situation to teach grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension, it is basically a self study book. The material in it is so designed that it ensures steady progress towards mastery of English. Its major components are grammar, vocabulary and reading. Major grammatical patterns are dealt with thoroughly, and learners’ ability to recognize these patterns is improved through unit by unit tests aimed at reinforcing the structures taught. While answering test questions, learners may refer to the original examples related to the testing point by means of the page references given in the key to tests. Vocabulary is presented in two parts. Part 2 covers basic academic vocabulary needed for proficiency examinations given at Turkish universities. The vocabulary items included in this part have been selected on the basis of their frequency, range and usefulness. These words have been arranged according to the frequency of occurrence as far as possible. Important words are recycled, i.e., used in different contexts cyclically in subsequent sections to make sure that learners remember what they mean. Part Three contains advanced academic vocabulary. Though the words in this part are, on the whole, less frequent than those presented in Part Two, it is essential to know the meanings of these words in order to understand more advanced texts. Advanced academic words are selected from Time Magazine, CNN, the BBC, and various kinds of academic texts. The vocabulary items presented in Part Three are especially useful for those who are preparing for KPDS, TOEFL and Cambridge Proficiency Examinations. The third chapter of Part Three deals with special difficulties. The most commonly used phrasal verbs, words which are often confused, prepositions, prepositional phrases and important idiomatic expressions as well as words used in different senses are covered in the third chapter. Vocabulary guessing is also covered in this chapter as a separate skill. Reading comprehension is taught systematically by focusing on all the important skills involved in the reading process. Great care is taken to make this complicated process easier for learners. It is hoped that the exercises provided and the suggestions made in the book will facilitate reading comprehension and enable learners to understand and answer reading comprehension questions better. In some texts, important academic words are printed in bold type to draw learners’ attention to them. It is worth noting at this stage that to derive maximum benefit from this book, learners are strongly advised to do wide reading. Reading will reinforce not only


grammar but also vocabulary items presented in this book, making the book more effective than it would otherwise be. Sample tests will give learners a chance to test their linguistic competence. If they discover that they are weak in a certain section, they can study the relevant sections more intensively. The material in the book has been selected with utmost care and is based on a wide range of sources including test books, grammar books, vocabulary books, dictionaries, various academic course books, newspapers, magazines and two major sources of news media, the BBC radio broadcasts and CNN International. The BBC and CNN have been extremely useful in choosing the words to be included in the material. The words which often occur in these two sources as well as in Time and Newsweek magazines have been given prominence in the book. Appendixes contain useful information about words that take prepositions, transitional words, prefixes and suffixes and word forms. A significant part of the material has been tried on students to ensure its validity and reliability. The book has been written in English to help learners to familiarize themselves with the kind of language they are likely to encounter in authentic texts. It is the author’s hope that the book will contribute to English Language Teaching in Turkey. Thanks to the great interest shown by teachers and students alike, the second revised edition of the book proved to be more successful than the first edition, thus giving the author further encouragement and hope for the third and subsequent editions, which have one important advantage over the previous editions. Starting with the third edition, the book contains a detailed grammar index, which greatly facilitates access to a given grammatical point. The author would like to suggest to his readers that they should examine the index carefully to familiarize themselves with the kind of structures presented in the book. Once readers have completed their survey of the material contained in the index, they will be convinced that the book contains examples of more grammatical structures than any other comparable book on the market. One major addition to the fifth and the subsequent editions of the book is the glossary and index, which has been added to the key. With the Turkish equivalents of the words used in the book, the glossary and the index will help learners to overcome the difficulties that they encounter in developing academic vocabulary. If learners examine the glossary carefully, they will see that many important words are recycled throughout the book, making vocabulary development easier. The new edition includes the correction of minor typesetting errors related to coloring certain items. No other changes have been made to the 38th edition. An appendix on lexical items introducing additional academic vocabulary and another appendix on important conjunctions make the book far more useful particularly for advanced learners.


Acknowledgements The idea of writing a book was first suggested to me by my dear friend Lütfi Yalçınkaya, to whom I owe my heartfelt thanks for encouraging me to attempt such an enormous task. I would like to thank Professor Sabri Koç for teaching me how to use a computer, which made it possible for me to design this book and make any necessary changes in it. I’m also grateful to several of my colleagues(namely, Joan Özelçi, Margaret Aktaş, Aysun Velioğlu, Dr. Hamit Togay and Professor Hüsnü Enginarlar), who have read and commented on the linguistic and/or pedagogic aspects of certain parts of the material. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Associate Professor Joshua Bear at the Department of Foreign Language Education at METU, who has made a significant contribution to this book by doing a great deal of proofreading and clarifying troublespots. He has also provided me with extremely useful books, from which I got many good ideas I am most grateful to my colleagues at the Departments of Basic English and Modern Languages at METU for recommending the book to the students of METU and making valuable suggestions for this revised edition. I’m greatly indebted to Füsun Hepdinç, my dear friend from Hacettepe University, and the members of the teaching staff at the School of Foreign Languages of Hacettepe University for recommending this book to their students and using it in their courses. My greatest debt is to Mehmet Ali Erkiner, who has not only made extremely useful suggestions but also given the book a thorough proofreading. It is thanks to his meticulous care and painstaking exactness that the book has taken its present form. Furthermore, he has checked the grammar index with remarkable patience, pointing out errors which might have otherwise gone unnoticed. I wish to extend my thanks to the staff members of Gülhane Military Medical Academy who volunteered to act as a pilot group in testing the effectiveness of the material before the publication of the book. I must say a special thank you to Professor Türker Mirata from the Department of Civil Engineering at METU for his meticulous proofreading and excellent suggestions, which enabled me to correct a great many printing errors which had gone unnoticed in the previous editions. My thanks also go to Neşe Aydoğan for helping me with the typesetting of the material in her spare time. Moreover, I am thankful to İbrahim Yıkılmaz for helping me prepare the book for the new edition. Finally, I would like to express my appreciation to my wife Nuray. Without her support and encouragement, this book would never have been completed. Cesur Öztürk


Abbreviations adj adv cf. conj N NP p. pp. prep pron sb sth v V1 V3 vi vt


adjective adverb compare conjunction noun noun phrase page pages preposition pronoun somebody something verb present form of the verb, as in go, sit, write, play etc. past participle form of the verb, as in written, seen, stolen, gone, etc. intransitive verb, as in go, come sleep, walk, swim etc. transitive verb, as in see, find, clean, paint, eat, drink, etc.

building skills for proficiency 16 sayfa