A book created by the user for the user. P3 Page 1 Courtesy of renowned Web Architect Alex Parry
Contents: ‐ Pg 1 – Front Page Pg 2 – Contents Pg 3 – Introduction Pg 4 – Client Side Pg 5 – Client Side Pg 6 – Server Pg 7 – Security risks and protection Pg 8 – Bibliography
Introduction I have created this E‐Book for the use of the user. It will allow you to have a better insight on what is affecting your internet and how it works. This E‐Book will look at both the server side and user side of web architecture and look at each individual area that will affect the process. Server and user side together is the basis of Web Architecture. Web Architecture in simple is the process in which the internet is sent, received and displayed. It is the process in which the user searches a URL in which the HTTP acts as a client and requests the data off the website, the server then sends the data back to the HTTP. From here the HTML then uses the data received and decodes it into a displayable format. Client requests URL HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) sends and receives the data needed HTML (Hyper Text Mark‐Up Language) decodes the data into a viewable format.
Client There are many things that can affect the client side of web architecture, mostly software and plug‐ in/add‐ons but also the connectivity of the internet provider and the client. Firstly i will cover the software e.g. web browsers aspect of the client side of web architecture. Web browsers can have a major effect as to the speed of the data processed, although other web browsers may be slightly slower, this may be because of the different specs of each individual web browsers, one may be slightly slower as others, but have much higher security so generally all the mainstream web browsers equal out with their own unique aspects which divide them apart. Firefox is among the free web servers available for download via the web. Firefox features high speed and private browsing, anti‐fish and anti malware, and a useful feature called session restore which if the user’s computer unexpectedly turns off, the user can load Firefox back up and resume from where they last were. Firefox would be suitable for organisations who will need to be doing high speed browsing.
Internet Explorer is another free web server available for download via the web, it comes standard on most modern day computers when brought from new and is supported by Microsoft. Internet explorer features renown for high security. Statistics show that Internet Explorer protects itself 2.9 times better than Firefox in protecting against malicious malware. Internet Explorer also features a unique feature which improves the customers privacy so that the information searched is not shared with anyone. Default internet explorer separates the address bar and search bar functions to help ensure that what the user searches remains private. Internet explorer is suitable for those whose security and privacy needs to be implemented to a high standard, therefore internet explorer would help comply with the data protection act 1998.
Opera is a popular free download web server available over the internet which is very popular among personal users across the globe. It is most useful within homes as it’s features as for the convenience of ease of use. Some are the features are such things as the automatic page refresh option. If the employee or user has to view the same page and has to refresh the page to be able to view the updated information on that page, the user can now have settings that can automatically refresh the page every 30 seconds without the need of the user having to go through the operation of physically refreshing the page. It also features crash recovery, your browser crashes and you want
to go back to the sites you were visiting before the crash. In Firefox, you have to go History and open them one by one. Opera automatically saves last session so you'll see the tabs in the same order when you open the browser. Opera is generally a good web server, but has no unique features, it is for that reason for organisations to consider opera for the less required tasks and operations.
Safari is a free downloadable web server provided by apple and comes standard on all Apple Macs. Safari runs at its most potential when being run on an apple Mac but can also be run on Windows. Safari has many unique features such as new advanced web technologies, e.g. Hardware acceleration. Safari supports Hardware acceleration on Mac and PC. With hardware acceleration, safari can tap into graphic processing units to display computing‐intensive graphics and animations. I believe safari is most suitable for users of Macs and not so much windows as there are better web servers that support windows.
As you can see there are a few mainstream web browsers each with their own personal unique features which may determine the speed as to which the internet is download from the server and processed. The upload and download of websites size is determined by the contents of the webpage, most websites have a few images with most texts, images, videos and any sort of plug‐ins tend to be the bulk of the size of the data needed to be downloaded by the HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol), it is then deciphered so that the viewer can read it, this is done by the HTML ( Hyper Text Mark‐up Language ) and clearly, the more data in the webpage, the more that has to be deciphered by the HTML. This obviously affects the speed of the internet for the client. The connectivity that the client has paid for obviously effects the connection speed, it is up to the customer to inform the internet provider of which internet package they want. Hardware is also a major area that can affect the connectivity of the internet, computers with higher specs can generally process tasks better because of the memory and RAM size. The main hardware component that generally determines the speed is the CPU, computers with better and newer CPU ( Central Processing Unit) can process data of online and offline tasks faster and more efficiently. These are the main areas of the client sides Web architectural values.
Server The server side is the area in which the responsibilities and actions are the cause of effects on the internet, effecting speed and quality. The areas that I will cover concerning the server side are the Web server, Mail server and the File server. Web Server A web server is a computer that is connected to the internet which acts as a host to other computers connecting to the server. Obviously the speed and quality of the computer hosting the internet is extremely important as it will have effects on the entire performance of the internet. After the consideration of the hardware, the next procedure that will affect the server side’s performance would be the band width. The band width is the rate of data transfer measured in Bits, often simplified into BPS (Bits per Second). This has a major effect on the HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) as it determines the speed in which the data can be uploaded and downloaded. Executions performed before the page loads obviously has an effect as it makes the computer work hard with multiple operations being requested to be performed. Using bandwidth or the CPU whilst running other operations obviously slows the performance of other operations down as it has to performance multiple tasks at once. Number of hits on the website can also have quite a substation effect, as it creates internet trafficking. For instance if a website provides a services, and by co‐incidence there are many people trying to use it at the same time, depending on the computer system hosting the servers performance, it may not be able to process all the customers data to keep up with the customer demand so therefore the customer will be effected as there will be ‘lag’ within the server. File Types File types are possibly the most common cause of the performance of the web within server and user side. Websites often have images, videos and other animations that add to the data needed to be uploaded and downloaded through the HTTP, more data can have a large effect on the speed of the websites. The different file types are such things as :‐ *Bitmap *Vector * Jpg *Gif *Wav *Mp3 *Avi *Swf
Security risks and protection mechanisms involved in website performance User name User names are possibly the most simple, yet efficient way of allowing individuals with authorisation access, and people without authorisation, denied access. From simple memorable information can keep the general viewer out, but can be easily by passed if an individual views it without the user knowing, or if it is predictable, people can guess. Password Passwords are a very common measure often combined as the second part of a user name, for instance if a user needs access and it needs a username and password, the individual gaining access would have to enter the memorised username, and an encrypted password, making it an a lot more efficient way of protecting a user’s personal areas. Encryptions Encrypted data is such things as when you type in a password and it may appear on the screen such as *****, this just elimated the danger of other people viewing your password by such things as looking over your shoulder or viewing your computer screen. Encryptions can be used for more than passwords. They are commonly found on websites such as online banking where personal information has to be entered. Maintenance/Updates Maintenance and updates are important for the security and protection which affect the performance in the website as if the software the organisation own is not up to date the company will not be able to run to their potential. This can have major effects on how the website is displayed as for example the organisation may not have the correct software to be able to run some of the more up to date files such as flash etc. Maintenance is a key aspect of keeping the organisations network clean from viruses, and keeping software up to date. Antivirus Anti‐virus is the software which keeps the network and software free from viruses and infection. If the main network has a virus, it will be transmitted to every computer through the HTTP causing a major damage to performance. Anti robot Anti‐ robot is not really a necessary thing but is extremely usefull for those companies who rely on customers having their own login accounts as a major part of their online organisation. Robots can create accounts and use the website to do such things as spam or exploit their robot capabilities to gain an advantage over other users. A good example of this would be robots making e‐mail accounts on such websites like ‘hotmail’, they create multiple accounts and use it to advertise to random e‐ mail addresses often gained from third party organisations. SSL SSL is a secure socket layer. This is important as is the standard security technology for establishing an encrypted link between a web server and a browser. This link ensures that all data passed between the web server and browsers remain private.