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COSMETICINGREDIENTS

COMEDOGENICITY AND SKINCARE FORMULATIONS By Jacine Greenwood

WHEN WORKING with acne-prone skin the issue of accessing appropriate ingredients becomes important, particularly because certain ingredients may contribute, or aggravate the condition. Jacine Greenwood is known within the industry as a cosmetic ingredient expert. In this article she presents research findings on cosmetic formulations and comedogenesis. Comedogenicity refers to the ability of a cosmetic, or an ingredient to cause the formation of microcomedones, scaling

inside the follicle and hyperkeratosis. It is of relevance to the skin therapist when treating acne clients. If the client continues to use comedogenic products or ingredients, the clearance of acne is inhibited and often will not improve. In the majority of instances when a therapist, or client has asked for advice regarding failure to clear acne, in 99% of the time it is because they are unknowingly using comedogenic cosmetics. The term “acne cosmetica” was coined by doctors Kligman and Mills. Comedogenicity is a process that takes months to form. There are two types of acne cosmetica. The first, is true aggravation of acne in which the formation of comedones is promoted — ­ a process that develops slowly over many months. The second, is that of the folliculitis in which chemical irritation of the follicular epithelium by the cosmetic product is attended by inflammatory pustules and papules that develop within a relatively short time. This inflammatory reaction has usually been included under the rubric of comedogenesis, but is not truly representative of it. The term acnegenesis was developed to be representative of the inflammatory reaction involved. Acnegenicity explains the reason why some clients experience breakouts after having a facial. This can be due to potential irritation of cosmetics as well as irritation from extraction or treatment.

COMEDOGENICITY TESTING The original comedogenicity testing was conducted on animals, specifically rabbit ears by dermatologist and coinventor of Retin-A Dr James Fulton. Rabbit ears where used to determine comedogenicity, comparing whether they were able to be achieved within 3-4 weeks, versus months. Further studies on comedogenicity however, revealed that the rabbit ear was much more sensitive than human skin and that the results100 were not necessarily accurate. The rabbit ear model is known as a non-histological model. 95

A further study done on comedogenicity testing on humans 75 found that moderately to strongly comedogenic ingredients in the rabbit ear have been found to be capable of inducing blackheads in the human model. Substances that are only weakly25comedogenic in the rabbit ear are most likely safe with the exception of acne-prone skins. Dr Fulton concluded that while weak comedogenicity is not an issue for normal 5 skin, they are a concern for acne prone skin. However, it is 0 advisable to avoid all comedogenic ingredients if possible.

APJ 82 Bitmap in CEO Report Mar17 Friday, 15 September 2017 3:32:07 PM

Profile for APAN - Aesthetics Practitioners Advisory Network

APJ Vol 38 2018  

Aesthetics Practitioners Journal Volume 38 Spring 2018 - The official publication of the Aesthetics Practitioners Advisory Network (APAN)

APJ Vol 38 2018  

Aesthetics Practitioners Journal Volume 38 Spring 2018 - The official publication of the Aesthetics Practitioners Advisory Network (APAN)

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