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American Planl1.ing Association Illinois Chapter Spring

1988 117

Illinois Candidates Best Bet in APA-AICPElections In the old days, at least one or two of AP A's Directors were from Illinois. Today there are none - there are so many Texans on the APA Board, and so many running for it, that we may have to change APA's name to the Texas Planning Association ..

learn more about sound planning practices; * Helping planners when politics threaten their jobs and the existence of whole planning departments; and * Continuing the sound fiscal policies in AP A that put an end to the dues hikes we suffered every three or four years.

Itdoesn't have to be that way. Three superb candidates from Illinois are in the running for two seats on the AP A Board - James Peters for AP A At-large and Janet Muchnik for Region IV - and one on the AICP Commission - Leslie Pollock. Coupled with two mid-westerners seeking the presidencies of AP A Stuart Meck - and AICP - Joseph Flynn, Jr. - we can restore a majority on the AP A Board and AICP Commission dedicated to helping us do our jobs more effectively by:

* Making continuing education more affordable and more accessible by piggy-backing workshops onto chapter and regional conferences rather than relyingjuston the very expensive AICP nationwide workshops; * Building public and political support for sound, ethical planning by helping chapters develop effective lobbying and public relations capabilities, and winning more favorable planning and zoning enabling legislation; * Attracting the elected officials and planning commissioners who have the final say on our professional work into AP A and educating them so they can

APA President-Elect Candidate Stuart Meck (Oxford, Ohio, Planning Director) and AICP Presidential Candidate Joseph Flynn, Jr. (once Detroit's Planning Director) were part of the Board majority (along with myself, Bill Toner, Frank Popper, Dudley Onderdonk, Norm Krumholz, Edith Netter, and others) that initiated APA's current emphasis on state and local lobbying and public relations, ended freqent dues hikes, reduced the size of the Board, tried to move staff not essential to Washington, DC, to APA's Chicago office ($100,000 / annual rent savings), started Job Mart on its way to again being a free part of the basic membership package; and initiated APA's active involvement in housing issues. Stuart and Joe became APA's most effective Directors by bridging the gap between all Board factions. James Peters, running for the At-large APA seat, would bring a broad perspective to the AP A Board, having worked for public planning agencies and consulting firms. Currently Midwest Director of the American Famland Trust, Jim is well-atuned

to the needs of the working planner. When he was Associate Editor of Planning magazine, Jim consistently emphasized publishing practical articles that would help us do our jobs more effectively. If APA is to fully implement its efforts to help local planning programs fend off the efforts of anti-planningpoliticians to eliminate them Gust look at what's been done to the DuPage County Planning Department), we need people on the AP A Board who have beaten such efforts. As a three-term Park Forest Village Trustee, professional planner Janet Muchnik successfully defeated major efforts to eliminate Park Forest's planning functions. Her experience as an elected official (there are none on the Board and she's the only one running) can help AP A become more effective at building respect from other elected officials for our Rodney" I don't get no respect" Dangerfield profession. Janet is currently Director of Economic Development and Community Relations, as well as Acting City Manager of Country Club Hills. We need Leslie Pollock on the AICP Commission if AICP is to become more responsive to the needs of all planners. His years as an Illinois planning consultant have sensitized him to the unique difficulties Illinois planners face. He can help assure that AICP remembers that not all planners enjoy the pleasures of California's or Florida's pro-planning state legislacontinued on page 2


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tion. With your votes for these candidates, you can help build a majority on the APA Board and AICP Commission oriented to the "ordinary 01' planner." Only then willAPAtruly achieve the bright promise of the ASPO-AlP consolidation.

Pending Legislation: Zoning Preemption for the Developmentally Disabled by Brian E. Elliff Joint Degree Student, Master of Urban Planning and Juris Doctorate

Overview The Community Residence Right to Locate Act (H.B. 2611), cur-

Farmall Property Gets New Life by Dale Horneck, Economic Development Finance Coordinator City of R~ck Island What do a bike path, a large industrial building, a small business incubator, and a venture capital fund all have in common? They are all part of a multi-party deal to put the vacant 1,800,000 square feet Farmall building in Rock Island back to productive use. Navistar International Transportation Corporation sold the plant, which was vacated in 1985 and formerly used to manufacture tractors, to the City of Rock Island for $1.00. The property was most recently on the market for $7 million. The city then turned most of the property over to L.R.C. Developer, Inc., a firm headed by two neighboring Moline businessmen. L.R.C. has agreed to invest a minimum of $1 million for immediate renovation of the property and at least an additional $2 million after the first year. Navistar will also spend $760,000 to remove asbestos from the property. The developers will also put all profits back into the project until at least 1.2 million square feet have been occupied. The first tenant for the project is expected to be announced shortly. Also, as a part of the deal, the City agreed to sell an office building on the property to Nomura Enterprise, a rapidly growing Rock Island company, for $600,000 to use its new headquarters. The City will lease 100,000 square feet of space in the main plant for $1.00 for ten years to expand its

as

Spring 1988

existing small busines~ inc~ba~r program. A $500,000 Bulld IlhnOls grant has been committed for this purpose. Nine tenants ~e ov~rflowing the e~isting small busmess mcubator locatIon. As a part of the deal, Navistar also agreed to contribute $75,000 to the City's newly formed venture capital fund. The fund will be used to attract new tenants to the incubator and other parts of the building. The total amount of the fund is expected to be

$500,000. The 82 acre site is located along the banks of the Mississippi River. Navistar has retained the riverfront portion of the project for a routine environmental analysis. When the study is completed, the City will use this land for a public recreation area and a bike path. Riverfront planning for the site and adjoining properties is already underway. The entire site is located within the Rock Island EnterpriseZone. The project was announced at a press conference on March 9, 1988, attended by Governor Thompson; James C. Cotting, Chairman of the Board of Navistar; Mayor Robert Millett of Rock Island; and local developers and officials. Governor Thompson stated, "Yesterday might have been Super Tuesday in the south but today is Super Wednesday for the Quad Cities. " Rock Island City Manager John Phillips commented that the project was "a textbook example of a private-public partnership working together to undertake a project that otherwise wouldn't be possible." One~ hundred fifty jobs are expected to be created by the project in the first year.

rently pending in the Illinois legislature, seeks to preempt all local zoning powers over group homes for developmentally disabled persons(l). Since mid 1970, over 30 states have passed laws with similar objectives(2). These enactments arose due to discriminatory use of local zoning power to exclude developmentally disabled group homes from some residential neighborhoods. Such zoning often resulted from mass protests by neighbors whom local authorities felt pressured to accomodate. Numerous studies suggest that common fears surrounding group homes (decreased land values, safety concerns, increased noise, maintenance of neighborhood character) are largely imaginary(3). H.B. 2611, the proposed Community Residence Right to Locate Act, protects group homes from exclusionary zoning based on these unfounded fears. The bill is designed to make all neighborhoods accessible, thereby promoting normalization for the developmentall y disabled. All local zoning power applicable to these group homes, regardless of purpose, would be replaced by state statutory authority. H.B. 2611 and similar laws in other states raise certain issues of law. Preemption of local zoning authority may conflict with home rule powers granted by the state constitution. The Illinois bill also retroactively invalidates private restrictive covenants against group homes. Such invalidation may theoretically pose violations of the United States Constitution. The legislation requires that no greater restrictions be placed on group homes for the developmentally disabled than those placed on conventional residences. The bill does not apply to homes for criminal elements, alcoholics, substance abusers or those with communicable diseases. All zones which allow single-family residences must also allow "community continued on page 3


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residences" of eight or less. All zones which allow multi-family must also permit group homes of nine to 15. In both situations, such residences may not be located within 1,000 feet of each other. The act would retroactively invalidate any private restrictive covenants which exclude use as a developmentally disabled group home. The bill provides for a grant to communities with a .1 % population of disabled residents. The funds, if appropriated, would provide for needed neighborhood improvements for the disabled. Home rule zoning authority over community residences is specifically preempted.

In Cleburne v, Cleburne Livjng Center. Inc., 105 S.Ct. 3249 (1985), the U.S. Supreme Court struck a city ordinance which required a special permit for developmentally disabled group homes in a multi-family zone. In that case, the city still required a special permit because the residents were mentally disabled. The ordinance was found unconstitutional because no rational basis existed for the permit requirement. A significant part of the opinion stated that mentally handicapped persons were not a suspect class. As a result, judicial review oflaws aimed at developmentally disabled will not be subject to strict scrutiny to determine motive. Laws, for example, which classify based on sex or race are automatically subjeted to heightened scrutiny. In Belle Terre v. BOTas,416 U.S. 1 (1974), the court held constitutional a zoning ordinance which limited the number of unrelated persons who could occupy a household. Applying the rational basis test, the court found sufficient reasons to support the limitation (noise, congestion, ete). Because a rational basis existed, the ordinance survived the constitutional challenge.

If a rational reason existed, perhaps health or safety, the constitutionality of zoning that restrict any non -family units including developmentally disabled would not be barred by Cleburne. In Cleburne, the court viewed the permit requirement there as purely exclusionary because no reasonable justifications were offered. Belle Terre, on the other hand, offers constitutionally adequate, rational reasons to exclude unrelated persons from occupying a single residence. Because they are not a suspect class, Belle Terre type zoning may be enforced against developmentally disabled community residences without due process or equal protection violations. Such zoning when applied solely to exclude the developmentally disabled, however, seems to violate norms of fair public policy. RB. 2611 addresses this problem.

In home rule states which have adopted laws similar to H.B. 2611, a judicial spectrum ranging from total invalidation to complete acceptance has developed. In Ohio, the state Supreme Court has invalidated that statute. In Garcia v. Siffrin Residential Assn., 407 N.E.2d 1389 (1980), the Ohio court refused to recognize developmentally disabled resjdents as a family for zoning purposes. The court held that local zoning power was a police power granted to the municipality by the state constitution. The court further invalidated state statutes which preempted local zoning ordinances prohibiting group homes in residential districts. In Louisiana, the court similarly extracted most of the law's teeth. In City of Kenner v. Normal Life of Louisiana, 483 So.2d 903 (1986), the Louisiana Supreme Court held that a city zoning ordinance was properly interpreted to prohibit cohabitation by more than four unrelated persons. The zoning ordinance was held not to violate that state's equivalent of H.B. 2611. This holding affirmed the ap-

peals court, which had held the state statute was not entitiled to overrule the local unit's Belle Terre type zoning limitation. Thus, the Belle Terre zoning effectively excluded the developmentally disabled residence, despite the state law designed to prevent such a result. More commonly, state courts entertaining litigation over community residence acts will uphold them as constitutional. Typically they hold that the facilities are exempt from local zoning, and that the act does not conflict with constitutional home rule powers (see, Mental Health Association of Union County. Inc. v. City of Elizabeth, 434 A.2d 688 (1981), upholding preemption of local zoning authority). In City of Evanston v. Create. Inc., 421 N.E.2d 196 (1981), the Illinois Supreme Court held that in the absence of express intent, an enactment by the state legislature does not automatically overrule local authority. Because H.B. 2611 contains language of express preemption, it would appear to meet the constitutional requirements for effective limitation of home zoning rule power if passed by a threefifths majority of each House.

The Illinois Community Residence Right to Locate Act would retroactively invalidate private restrictive covenants against group homes. The policy of opening all neighborhoods to developmentally disabled would not thereby be frustrated by private agreement. Other state courts have enforced similar statutory bans against private restrictive covenants, intended to frustrate group homes. In Westwood Homeowners Association v, Tenhoff, 155 Ariz. 229 (1987), the court refused to enforce a restrictive covenant against group use because the covenant was contrary to public policy as set out by the Arizona Development Disabilities Act. By retroactively invalidating continued on page 4


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restrictive covenants, the Illinois act falls in with a minority of states. Of the states which invalidate restrictive covenants, about nine, most do so proactively(4). Invalidation of restrictive covenants which predate the law raises several theoretical questions of constitutionality. The retroactive invalidation could arguably be in violation of the federal constitution Article 1 Section 10 (impairment of contract), and Amendment V (eminent domain/ taking).

Developmentally disabled generally means those suffering from leaming disorders. Conflicts may arise over exactly who may be placed in a community residence facility (see, Greentree Civic Association v. Pignatiello, 333 N.W.2d 350 (1983), holding that the Michigan Adult Foster Care Facility Licensing Act did not prevent placement of mentally ill persons in small group homes). (2) Smith and Jaffee, Siting Group Homes for Developmentally Disabled Persons, 397 Planning Advisory Service 17-19 (1986). (3) id. at 31. (1)

What Can You Do For Planning? The Illinois Chapter of the American Planning Association has the immediate need for volunteers and nominees in the areas of activity listed below. Call or write the board member indicated if you wish to serve in any capacity. (phone numbers and addresses are on the back of Planning News.) Upper Great Lakes Planning Conference Clyde W. Forrest Minority Membership in AP AI Recruitment Jacques A. Gourguechon Outstanding Planning Awards

1988 Judy C. Douglas

Local Initiatives To Catalyze Economic Development by Lynne M. Cunningham, Executive Director, Southeast Chicago Development Commission In 1981, the SoutheastChicago Development Commission, (SCDCom) was established by business and community leaders in the southeast area of Chicago to catalyze economic development in thecommunity. The area had historically been part of the vast steel-making region that stretched from the neighborhood of South Chicago to Gary, Indiana, around the south shore of Lake Michigan. SCDCom has organized an economic development strategy which is based upon the various aspects of the job creation process. This article will describe the tools that the community has utilized to begin to mitigate the effect of economic problems rooted in the national and international economy. The recession of the late 1970s and early 1980s, along with the accompanying structural changes in the steel industry, was especially devastating to the community. The three

major steel mills in the community substantially curtailed operations or shutdown. U.S. Steel (now US X) shut down all of its operation except for a beam mill that employs 900 workers, thus eliminating 9,000 jobs. Wisconsin Steel, once owned by International Harvester (now Navistar) went bankrupt after being sold to an engineering fIrm, throwing 3,500 people out of work overnight. An analysis completed by SCDCom in 1982 showed a 56% loss in the number of jobs available in the area and a 35% unemploymentrate. In the early 1980's economists began to discuss the potential of Enterprise Zone tax incentives to generate economic development. James Fitch, the chairman of a local bank, the South Chicago Savings Bank, saw the concept as a means of sparking the redevelopment of the community. He led the effort to organize SCDCom as a base from which to bring the concept to the forefront of the Illinois General Assembly's legislative agenda. The legislation was passed, and the southeast area was designated as an EnterpriseZonein 1983. TheZonedesignacontinued on page 5

Position Available: Transportation Planner The Pueblo County Department of Planning and Development is seeking applicants for the position of Transportation Planner. The position performs professional level transportation transit planning and analysis work within specifIed contract performance guidelines. This work consists of the research, development, writing, and fInal preparation of the Pueblo County Rural Transit DevelopmentPlan(TDP) within a 12-13 month time frame. Requirements include: Master's Degree in Planning, Economics, Business, Public Administration with signifIcant transportation/ transit planning course work, and 1-2 years of transportation/transit plan-

ning experience. Will consider Bachelor's Degree in planning, economics, business, public administration, engineering, or related field with signifIcant professional experience or direct experience in the lead role preparing a TDP. Salary level: $27,700 on a contract basis, negotiable as a staff position with salary plus fringe benefIts less than or equal to $27,700. Please send resumes to: James E. Spaccamonti, Director, Pueblo County Department of Planning and Development, H20 Court Street, Pueblo, CO 81003-2889 or for more information please telephone (719)545-2424. An Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.


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tion formed a centerpiece for other SCDCom activities. The massive job loss in the community caused us to identify the various components of the job creation and retention process in order to create meaningful economic development programs. First, in order to expand, a business must be experiencing increasing revenues. To expand the potential for growth, SCDCom published a Buyer's Guide which describes the major products manufactured and raw materials purchased by local fIrms. The publication is backed up by staff efforts which coordinate our local program with a city-wide system called Buy Chicago which matches products purchased by large fIrms with those produced by neighborhood fIrms. In a number of cases, local frrms have sought new ideas in order to increase the productivity and profItability of their operations. The Small Business Development Center (SBDC) programs, funded by the Illinois Departement of Commerce and Community Affairs and a number of Chicago foundations, provides the resources needed to match the needs of local frrms with many of the technical assistance providers in Chicago. Our staff discusses the situation with the business owner to identify the nature of the situation and the potential service provider. We then make the referral and follow up with the provider. The service providers have developed training programs for our staff members, enabling us to become more precise in our efforts to make the referrals. Using a wide range of private and public sector programs, SCDCom has been able to secure over $13,000,000 in financing for small businesses. Although our technical fInancial expertise has been important in performing the credit analysis, the critical element of our success is our ability to actually organize the various resources, understand each participant's requirements and self interests, and develop a structure

which enables everyone to participate in a manner which maximizes the potential for a good project from everyone's standpoint. Although the problems are widespread, marketing is still the key to getting the word out about the availability of services. The City of Chicago contracts with us to represent the Local Industrial Retention Initiative (LIRI) program in this community. The LIRI program is an outreach effort which enables us to meet with business owners on a daily basis. We are able to identify problems ranging from internal management issues to needs for public services, and then to make the appropriate referral to one of the staff members or to the City. Although a substantial portion of our effort has been directed towards providing direct economic development service to businesses, we have often been involved in policy debates and formulations which affect the area. We were participants in the City's Task Forces on Steel and Southeast Chicago, Solid Waste Mangement. and First Source Hiring. Our approach in these task forces has been to raise the issues which affect our community, and then urge the development of recommendations which will ameliorate the problems. The fIndings of the Steel Task Force and the Solid Waste Task Force gave us the germ of an idea for a new industrial development in the area. The Steel Task Forcerecommended that a catalytic industrial development having the potential to change the real estate market dynamics in the area be identifIed and pursued. The research conducted for the Solid Waste Task Force unearthed an industry group which was previously unknown to us; companies which utilize recycled materials as a main component of their manufacturing process are developing throughout the country. We also conducted a market study for the illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources which revealed the presence of tremendous amounts of recycled materials in the Chicago

Page 5 area which would be suitable for these emerging manufacturing processes. The synergistic potential of these three factors led us to propose the development of a Resource Recovery Industrial Park (RRIP). The RRIP will be an industrial park anchored by a refuse-derived-fuel waste-to-energy plant. Recyclable materials such as metals, glass, and plastics are mechanically and manually sorted from the municipal solid waste. These materials will be sold to on- or off-site manufacturers. The bulk of the remaining material will be processed into fuel which is burned in dedicated boilers capable of generating steam and electricity which can then be sold to on-site users of Commonwealth Edison. The tenants of the RRIP are expected to be manufacturers which use recycled materials, and users of large volumes of steam. The 130 acre abandoned Wisconsin Steel Mill site has been targeted for the development. SCDCom will develop the project in conjunction with the Fortune 500 company of Combustion Engineering, Inc. The venture will submit a bid to the city for a portion of the municipal waste steam. Once completed, the industrial park is expected to employ 500 employees. Because of its wideranging implications not only for economic development, but also for solid waste management, the Economic Development Commission of Chicago has targeted the RRIP as a potential prototypical development for other areas of the city. SCDCom is one example of how a local community can begin to address its economic situation. By structuring the programs made available by the various levels of government and the private sector, we have been able to develop a program which speaks to needs of existing businesses, as well as create a catalyst for the development of new businesses.

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Creating Incentives Toward Tree Preservation by Pamela J. Richart Planner, Planning Resources Inc. The Rapid growth experienced in the Chicago metropolitan area has provided much sought-after tax benefits for suburban communities. Large parcels of land are frequently cleared of existing vegetation to make way fornew shopping centers, residential developments and office/ research parks. During site plan review, local governments pay close attention to a project's compatibility with surrounding land uses, proposed densities, architectural design, building and parking setbacks, street standards, and landscaping. Often, however, little or no effort is made to save mature trees. If a municipality does not have the necessary ordinance in place to regulate tree removal, a site can be totally cleared of all existing trees to accommodate new development

Mature trees provide a sense of community identity and history. Often, trees which are to be removed for new development are between 100 and 200 years old (which makes them as old or older than any other existing structures in the area). Existingtrees make a significant difference in a community's appearance since they contribute to a sense of "establishment" In addition, mature trees provide shade and temperature modulation, privacy, and air purification as they trap dust, absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen and moisture. Trees provide habitat for song birds and small mammals, and the seasonal changes in texture and color provide interest and variety to the streetscape.

Although newly planted trees can achieve some of the func-

tional objectives of existing vegetation, the size of new trees and their expected growth rates often result in a net loss of functional value relative to the mature vegetation they are replacing. The following table illustrates the value of mature trees in terms of anticipated replacement time (adapted from Graber and Graber, Illinois Natural History Survey Biological Notes #97, 1976): Size 12-inch 12-inch 12-inch 24-inch 24-inch 24-inch

dbh(a) dbh dbh dbh dbh dbh

able project without placing undue hardships or restrictions on a developer.

Before decisions can be made regarding tree preservation, a survey of trees over six inches in caliper, on or immediately adjacent to the site, should be prepared by a qualified

Type Green and White Ash Sugar Maple Bur Oak Green and White Ash Sugar Maple Bur Oak

Approximate Age 55 years 80 years 75 years 75-100 years 100-200 years 175-200 years

------------profussion~Indesignati~which Realistic Approach

to Preservation

A conservative approach to tree preservation can work to the benefit of both a community and developer. A developer is more likely to consider preservation of existing trees if a municipality is willing to permit some flexibility in design standards such as building and parking setbacks, density, street widths, etc. Permitting reduced pavement widths, for example, may allow a residential street to meander between mature oaks or other hardwood trees. Allowing increased density on one portion of a site to maintain a stand of trees in another area, or encouraging shared parking on an adjacent parcel (provided the peak demands are different for the proposed use) rather than removing significant stands of trees for new parking lots, are two examples of how standards can be varied to protect valuable vegetation. The willingness to vary from zoning or subdivision codes in instances where such deviation will not affect the intent of the ordinance, nor create negative impacts upon surrounding properties, can help secure an economically vi-

trees are to be preserved in conjunction with a development proposal, a municipality should consider: I) Replacement time required for trees over six inches in caliper; 2) The health and condition of those trees which are candidates for preservation; 3) The functional values provided by existing trees in terms of screening, shading, esthetics, wildlife habitat, etc.; 4) The developer's commitments to sizes, quantities and types of new plant materials; and 5) The latitude and flexibility provided by applicable zoning regulations. Once this information is in hand, the planning and/or zoning official can work with the developer to determine which trees should be saved, and how zoning or subdivision control standards might be varied if required for tree preservation. Trees which are to be saved, as well as those which are targeted for removal due to structure location, essential grade changes or surface water drainage and utility installation, can be plotted on a topographical map for reference. The location, size and canopy of trees to be preserved should also be included on

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all plans and construction documents. This last step will assure that all contractors are aware of the significance of these trees, and will allow the municipality to verify that proposed grading and engineering of the site does not require tree removal.

At a minimum, a developer should be required to install snow fencing at the periphery of a tree's drip line to protect against root damage during grading and compaction from heavy construction edquipment. It is also desirable to require the identification of areas where crushed limestone or other materials detrimental to the health of a tree would be stored. Placement of such materials within a tree's drip line, or at higher locations where drainage would occur toward the tree,

Position Available: Executive Director Tri-County Regional Planning Commission. Serving the Peoria, Illinois MSA. Request resume from experienced planner and management professionals for the position of executive director. Agency had three executive directors in thirty years. Staff of twenty-six provides comprehensive planning and management services including the delivery of social services. Agency is MPO, CSBG, Recipient, Clearinghouse, etc. Requires a master's degree in planning or public administration and a minimum of ten years of directly related professional experience or equivalent combination to include management, supervision grantsmanship, research, 40,000 depending on qualifications. Letter of application, including resume and references will be accepted until June 1, 1988. Send to: Search Committee, Tri-County Regional Planning Commission, 632 W. Jefferson, Morton, Illinois 61550. Telephone: (309)266-9441. EEO/AA Employer.

Planning News or stand of trees to be preserved, should be prohibited. A plan is, however, only as good as the enforcement procedures. A field supervisor should be assigned to confirm that development of the site complies with all required tree-protection measures.

In drafting a tree preservation ordinance, it is wise to include language that will allow the municipality to secure replacement of any tree, or stand of trees, approved for preservation which are damaged or destroyed during the construction process. Such requirements could include replacement with a tree of an approved species

Page 7 having a caliper not less than the tree destroyed, or with several smaller trees which add up to the caliper of the original tree destroyed. The fact that it is usually less expensive to preserve trees than buy new ones serves as an incentive to save existing trees! A municipality's commitment to tree presrvation, demonstrated by a willingness to work with a developer to achieve preservation through a flexible application of zoning and subdivision controls, is good environmental planning. In addition to the esthetic and environmental benefits realized from saving mature, quality trees, the preservation of an irreplaceable, high value living legacy is something in which a community can take pride!

Decatur's Operation Sparkle & Shine by David A. Clark, Director, Deparment Development. City of Decatur

of Community

Operation Sparkle and Shine has begun its second year in Decatur, Illinois. The program has been put together by the City of Decatur, Community Development Department; the DecatuI/Macon County Clean Community System; and the Decatur Advantage, a private entity related to the Chamber of Commerce. The goals of the program are to foster civic pride, reinforce community consciousness, and to improve the environment. In 1987, the programs centered on Eldorado Street/Route 36, the primary east/west street On a weekend in late April, over four hundred volunteers picked up trash for a seven mile length of the street. Eldorado businesses, including many fast food restaurants, assisted and provided free trash bags, food coupons, drinks, tee shirts, etc. Other businesses also provided assistance for awards and special acknowledgements including breakfast and recognition for garbage haulers and City nuisance and housing inspectors. Garbage haulers vol un-

teered their time to pick up the full trash bags and other larger objects. To provide a lighter side, the April weekend was completed by a prarle schooner commode race sponsored by the local Jaycees. The last event was an awards presentation for participating groups in the weekend activities. Property owners along Eldorado Street were contacted to participate in the cost of the planting of 400 trees. Permission was needed and documented in areas where public right-of-way was narrow and trees were planned for private property. Members of Decatur's Tree Board, a city board that oversees tree planting and promotional activites, and the Clean Commnity System contacted the owners. Steering committee members contacted larger companies. Funds raised were matched by City funds and $33,000 were spent on a landscape contract Trees were selected considering growth conditions and site limitations. Publicity that centered around the Sparkle and Shine weekend was utilized to launch the City's summer painting program. Using CDBG funds, the city offered free paint, up to twenty gallons, to income qualified continued on page 8


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residents in neighborhoods adjacent to Eldorado Street. The paint program progressed through the summer to cover the entire CDBG area. Initially with the Sparkle and Shine Operation, volunteer groups were assembled to paint houses for those who could not paint their own due to age or handicap. The summer program eventually facilitated the painting of338 houses (50 by volunteer groups, the others by owners who could complete the work themselves). Challenges to deliver the fifty volunteer groups were substantial, but well met. A radio station, college fraternities, realtor, food store staff, and a neighborhood tavern

started the work. The tavern challenged other taverns to get involved, then church groups also came forward. City staff, City Council, businesses, youth groups, neighborhood associations, and others rounded out the volunteerroster. Publicity efforts and arm twisting did have to be kept on for the entire summer in order to keep up with the need for volunteer assistance. The paint program replaced a previous approach in which the City had hired staff to paint the houses of low income elderly. With the volunteer method, 338 houses were painted instead of the previous 65 for the same amount of dollars. The $50,000 cost included temporary staff people to run the program.

Spring 1988 During Operation Sparkle and Shine, ten thousand pounds of litter were picked up, the community worked together , the paint program was launched, 400 trees were planted during the spring planting season, and a consciousness for litter control was established that continued throughout the year. In 1988, different streets and neighborhoods are being emphasized as well as "Adopt-A-Spot" format. This approach asks for volunteers to assume maintenance throughout the summer for what otherwise might have been a forgotten area. Building on last year's success, 1988 Sparkle and Shine promises an even more positive effect.

Illinois Legislative Bill Status for Planners DB 1652 (Klemm) (CH.127PAR.46.1 AND NEW PAR. 46.57) Amends the Civil Administration Code. Authorizes the Department of Commerce and Community Affairs to establish and administer a low-interest, revolving loan program for units of local government for construction, rehabilitation and maintenance of infrastructure.

DB 1757 (Churcbill) (CH. 85, NEW PAR. 2107.1) Amends the Open Space and Lands Acquisition and Development Act to authorize certain local governments to impose a charge on all building permits issued for new construction, to be used to finance the acquisition of open space lands in parcels of not less than 10 acres.

DB 2141 (Bowman-ChristensenGiglio-Sbaw-Dannig) (NEW ACl) Creates the Illinois Environmental Cleanup Responsibility Act Imposes conditions on the closure, sale or transfer of certain properties associated with the manufacture, refining, transportation, treatment, storage, handling or disposal of hazardous substances.

HB 3064 (Homer and Slater)

Requires the execution of a cleanup plan approved by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Requires the agency to establish minimum cleanup requirements. Requires owners of such property to obtain a bond sufficient to guarantee implementation of a cleanup plan. Provides that a violation is a business offense punishable by a [me not exceeding $25,000.

(CH. 111 1/2, PAR. 1039.2) Amends the Environmental Protection Act to require that local site appproval for new regional pollution control facilities be ratified by countywide referendum, if the site was annexed by the approving municipality within the preceding five years. Effective immediately.

DB 2726 (Tuerk)

DB 3179 (Parcells)

(CH. 24, NEW PAR. 1-1-11; CH. 34, NEW PAR. 404B; CH. 111 1/2, PAR 1(05) Amends the lllinois Municipal Code, the Counties Act and the Environmental Protection Act. Prohibits the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, the Pollution Control Board and the Department of Energy and Natural Resources from charging inspection or permit fees under the Environmental Protection Act to any unit of local government or school district. Preempts home rule. Prohibits municipalities and counties from charging inspection or permit fees to any unit oflocal government or school district. Excludes in all cases fees for inspections performed solely at the request of the unit of local government or school district.

(CH. 1111/2, PAR 1022.14) Amends the Environmental Protection Act to change the requirements for establishment of a regional garbage transfer station. Removes the 1,000 foot required distance from the proposed facility to the nearest dwelling. Allows conversion of nonregional facilities into regional ones. Makes other changes. Effective immediately.

DB 3186 (Wennlund-Didrickson) (CH. 121, NEW PAR. 6-131) Amends the Illinois Highway Code to permit townships to establish Transportation Impact Districts for which fees may be assessed on real estate . developments within the district.

DB 3351 (O'Connell-Terzich) (CH. III

1/2, PARS. 1003.32 AND continued on page 10


Page 9

Hypermedia Allows Non-Sequential Cross Referencing by Mike Shiffer Master of Urban Planning (1987), Currently Studying toward P hD in Planning It's4:45PM on Friday. Chris has never sat before a computer terminal in his life. He is suddenly faced with the task of accessing detailed plot infonnation for a three square mile redevelopment district before he leaves the office! Erin is the principal of a planning fIrm. The only transportation planner in her fInn has just been made unavailable due to sudden illness. She is faced with a trip generation problem for tomorrow's public hearing. George is a city manager who must view three potential landfIll sites before facing the citizen's group waiting in his office. What can keep all of these people from panicking?

Hypennedia, a tenn coined by Ted Nelson in his book Com12uter

Lili, offers the ability to link text, video, statistics, sound, animation, and graphics together into an easy to use visual fonnat which allows for instant cross referencing of various concepts. Since it allows one to collect, organize, and explore infonnation by associailim, hypermedia mimics the way we organize related ideas in our minds. It differs from traditional relational data bases in that it is set up in a non-linear fonnat which allows for a non-sequential presentation of ideas. Why present ideas in a non-sequential format? The concept of sequential presentation is rooted deep within our thinking. This is evident with the路 books we read, the data we retrieve, and the reports we generate. While this sequential presentation seems to allow for a 'well structured' table of contents there are many reasons for wanting to put forth data in a nonsequential fonnat. First and foremost, the various aspects of urban areas themselves are not sequentially connected. Rather, many of them directly relate to others, (economic development plans, current land use maps, and traffic volume projections, for instance). By electronically tying, (hyperlinking), these aspects together in the non-sequential fonnat of hypennedia, the planner has the ability to rapidly crossreference and compile infonnation concerning any specific issue which may arise. This is not to confuse nonsequential data organization with arbitrary data organization. If fact, the organization of data in a non-sequential fonnat requires a great deal of thought behind where hyperlinks actually belong. The beauty of hypennedia systems is the ability to create new hyperlinks between previously unlinked data at will, (see illustration). Thus, rather than having to go through point (A) to get from point (B) to point (C), you have the potential

to directly access point (C), or any other related point directly from point (B). This takes many of the concepts behind relational data bases several steps further by adding many levels of sophistication. For example, you could instantly view all occurrences of grammar schools in a given area, then view the building condition of each, and from that you could look at surrounding land uses. Until recently, hypennedia has only been accessible by using high-end work stations such as the Sun and Apollo. As the cost of these machines could easily exceed $15,000, hypennedia applications hardly fell within the budget of many municipalities and planning fmns. Last August however, Apple Computer unveiled Bill Atkinson's Hypercard for the Macintosh with a promise to package the software at no charge with all new Macintosh sales. For those fortunate enough to already own a 'Mac', Hypercard can be purchased for less than $50. Thus hypennedia has become available to anyone who could afford a Macintosh, (which rons $1200 and up). This has made hypennedia an economic possibility for many agencies. In fact, many fInns already possess actual hypennedia programming tools, such as Hypercard, but have yet to unlock their potential as planning tools. How useful is hypermedia ning?

to plan-

H ypennedia is so diverse that it can serve many purposes in the planning profession. It can be used to build: infonnation systems, expert systems, and even public presentation systems. One of the potential roles of hypennedia in urban planing would be to link text, statistics, graphics, and maps together into a land use infonnation system. This would allow planners, (such as our friend Chris from the continued on page 10


Spring 1988

Hypermedia opening paragraph), to easily access detailed information about a particular parcel of land and, at the same time, study the impact of other related factors such as transportation, zoning, and the surrounding natural environment All of this could be easily performed by people who may have little or no computing experience. By simply using a pointing device such as a mouse, one would have the option to access site data on the computer screen, press a button which would show the area on a video monitor, and copy related maps and statistics directly from the information system to word processing and desk top publishing documents in a matter of seconds. Other roles of hypermedia in planning include the creation of expert systems which could assist planners, (such as Erin and George), with problems in transportation planning, site feasibility studies, and comprehensive planning, and the creation of Urban Planning course ware for hypermedia learning centers such as that proposed for the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The ability to easily import and export data files between programs like Hypercard and other IBM compatible or Macintosh applications should quell the fears of those who may be worried about compatibility problems between existing data bases and hypermedia systems. In fact, this file transfer capability between the MS-DOS and Macintosh world of computing, not to mention Apple's new UNIX operating system, has largely been responsible for the recent surge in the Macintosh's popularity with corporate America. Prototypes of many of the hypermedia applications for planning are currently under development at the University of Illinois' Urban and Regional Planning Department at Urbana-Champaign.

1039) Amends the Environmental Protection Act to remove the exemption of sanitary districts organized under an act to create sanitary districts and to remove obstructions in the Des Plaines and Illinois Rivers from the prerequisites pertaining to permits for new regional pollution control facilities and from the requirements of acquiring locally required zoning approvals. Includes sludge drying facilites within the definition of the term "regional pollution control facility."

UB 3372 (Kirkland) (NEW AC1) Creates the Municipal Recycling Pilot Project Act to be administered by the Department of Energy and Natural Resources. Provides that the Department shall provide assistance to certain municipalities in the establishment of recycling pilot projects. Permits the Department to make 10 Recycling Pilot Projects Assistance Grants. Requires municipalities to pay 50% of the cost of the recycling project. Effective immediately.

UB 3389 (Breslin-CowIshawKirkland,Currie,Homer,satterthwaite, and Wennlund) (CH. 111 1/2, PARS. 7052, 7053, AND 7057) Amends the Solid Waste Management Act Requires state agencies to consider compost matter in all land maintenance. Directs the Departments of Central Management Services and

Energy and Natural Resources to establish a source separation and collection program for recyclables. Requires the Department of Central Management Services to establish a program for all state agencies to give preference to buying products that are recycled or recyclable, where feasible. Requires Central Management Services to report to the General Assembly on the implementation of such program. Directs the Department of Energy and Natural Resources to study and report on recycling scrap auto tires. Requires the Department of Energy and Natural Resources to report to the Governor and the General Assembly by March 1, 1989, on how industrial and post-consumer waste can be reduced. Directs each state agency to establish a waste reduction program within two years of the amendatory act. Requires a public education program on solid waste management to be established.

SB 1567 (Joyce, Jerome) (CH.lll1/2,PAR.1020;NEWPAR. 1021.2) Amends the Environmental Protection Act Requires all beverage containers to be returnable and to have a refund value of at least 10 cents. Requires the distributor to pay the retail dealer an additional two cents for each container redeemed.

More CU1l'1l'ent!Legis atiol1ll Coming En The Next llssue

Position Available: Solid Waste Management Salary range to $26,545, plus excellent fringe benefits. The McLean County Regional Planning Commission has an immediate opening for a qualified individual to work in the area of solid waste management development including preparation of a needs assessment, preparation of a countywide solid waste management plan, and writing grant applications for the funding of solid waste management activities. A bachelor's or master's

degree or equivalent experience/edu cation in solid waste management engineering, planning, public admini stration, environmental science or re lated field is required. Send cove letter, resume and references to: Ex ecutive Director, McLean Count' Regional Planning Commission, Suite 201,207 W. Jefferson Street, Blom mington, IL 61701. Postmark dead line: May 31, 1988. An Equal Opper tunitv Emolover.


Spring 1988

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Spring 1988 Box 4348 Chicago, IL 60680

Presicknt Steve Aradas, AICP METRA, Department 547 West Jackson Chicago, IL 60606 312/322-8024

of Planning

Vice·President Jacques A. Gourguechon, Principal Consultant Camiros, Ltd. 411 S. Well. Chicago, IL &JfIJ7 312/922-9211

AICP

Sectetary Judy C. Douglas, Planner University of Illinois at U·C Department of UIban and Regional Planning 2002 Winchester Drive Champaign, IL 61821 217/356-8423 Treasurer Joseph H. Abel, AICP Director, Economic Development City of Chicago 200 Forest Glen Ellyn, IL 60137 312f744-9547 Illinois ProfessionlJl Development Officer Clyde W. Forrest, AICP Professor, University of nlinois Department of UIban and Regional Planning 1003 W. Nevada UIbana, IL 61801 217/333-31190 Stluknt Representative Tom Bartnik University of Illinois-Chicago College of Architecture An & UIban Planning School of UIban Planning Policy

Student Represelliative Theresa Hanlage University of Illinois at UIbana·Champaign Department of UIban and Regional Planning 1003 W. Nevada Urbana, IL 61801 217/333-3890 Executive Committee APA· Chicago Melro Secllon Chairman John V. LaMotte Jr., AICP Vice President of Planning Loban Associates 255 Nonh Michigan Ave. Chicago, IL 60601 312/938-4455

Assistant Director Michael Peirceall Director, Community City of Centralia 222 S. Poplar Street Centralia, IL 62801618{533-7623

and Economic Development

Secretary Kim M. Johnson Procurement Specialist SoutheastemlJohn A. Logan Colleges R. 4, College Drive Harrisburg, IL 62946 618/252-6376 Ext. 411 618/985-3741

Vice-Chairman Stephen B. Friedman Manager, Laventho1 & Horwath 300 S. Riverside Plaza, 10th Floor Chicago, IL 60606 312/648-0555 Secretary Paul Borek Director of Industrial Parks Chicago Economic Development 1503 Merchandise Man Chicago, IL 60654 312f744-9550

Director Wayne Anthony Director, Planning and Zoning Department City of Peoria 419 Fulton Street Peoria, IL 61602 309/672-8556

Commission

Treasurer Richard Dunn Director, Economic and Community Village of Arlington Heights 33 S. Arlington Heights Road Arlington Heights, IL 60005 312/253-2340

Development

Treasurer Sandra Andres Economic Development Planner Southwestern Illinois Metropolitan Planning Commission 203 W. Main St. Collinsville, IL 62234 618/344-4250

and Regional

Training Coordinator Ronald 1.. Dickerson Director, Community Development City of Pekin Pekin, IL 61554 309/477-2319 Immidiate Past Director Fred W. Walker Director, South Central Illinois Regional Planning

Executive Committee APA • Greater Illinois Section

and Development

Commission

Marlon County Public Service Building Salem, IL 62881 618/548-4234

rIRST CLASS U. S. POSTACE

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~~AICN Clyde W. rorraat. AICP Editor June Hansen, Copy Editor DeparQant of Urban and aeaiona1 Plannina University of I11inios at Urbana-Chaapaian 1003 West Nevada Urbana, Illinois 61101 217/333-3890

021377

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CHAP 21

CLYDE W FORREST UNIV OF ILL-PROF OF PLNG 1003 W NEVADA URBANA IL

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IL 61820


Illinois Planning News, Spring 1988, Edition