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WORLD TOWN PLANNING DAY 2007

NATIONAL CONVENTION Town And Country Planning - 50 Years 21 & 22 November 2007 Pusat Dagangan Dunia Putra (PWTC) Kuala Lumpur

Convention Proceedings


CONTENTS

Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Objectives Programme

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Convention KEYNOTE ADDRESS By Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd. Fadzil Hj. Mohd Khir Director General, Federal Department of Town and Country Planning

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SESSION 1: TOWN PLANNING EVOLUTION SINCE 1957 Paper 1 “The Evaluation of Town and Country Planning in Malaysia from Mat Salleh’s Points of View” By: Professor Emeritus Michael J. Bruton Department of City And Regional Planning, Cardiff University, U.K Paper Summary

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Paper 2 “The Evaluation of Infrastructure Planning and Development in Malaysia 1957 Onwards: Lessons Learnt” By: Ir. Selvarayagam s/o P. Nagalingam Deputy Director General III, Department of Public Works

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Paper 3 “Impact of Planning and Development on the Environment and Natural Resources and Its Correlation to Natural Disasters” By: Y. Bhg. Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh Mohd Nor Council Member of Malaysian Nature Society (MNS) Paper Summary

70

Panel Discussion Questions and Answers on Session 1 Topic: “Has Planning and Development Post Merdeka Done More Harm Than Good for the Country?” Chairman: Mdm. Norliza Hashim President Malaysian Institute of Planners (MIP)

90

SESSION 2: CURRENT PLANNING ISSUES Paper 4 “Town Planning and Conservation; What Needs to Be Done?” By: Y.Bhg. Tan Sri Dato’ Seri (Dr.) Ahmad Sarji Abdul Hamid President Badan Warisan Malaysia Paper Summary

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NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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CONTENTS

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Paper 5 “Planning with the People, Between the Facts and Fiction, an Inevitable Course of Actions” By: Mr. Derek John Fernandez PJK Advocate & Solicitor of High Court of Malaya Paper Summary

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Paper 6 “Community Participation in Post Tsunami Aceh: Lessons Learnt from Disaster Management” By: Ar. Azman Zainon Abidin Department of Architecture, UiTM Perak, EXCO MERCY, Malaysia Paper Summary

138

Paper 7 “Forwarding Gender Equation in Urban Governance and Planning” By: Ms. Maria Chin Abdullah Executive Director Women’s Development Collective Paper Summary

182

Panel Discussion Questions and Answers on Session 2 Topic: “Non Compliance and Low Understanding of the Development Planning Mechanism Have Been Contributory to Planning Pitfalls in The County. Do You Agree and If Yes What Needs To Be Done?” Chairman: Y.Bhg Dato’ Zainuddin Muhammad Former Director General, Federal Department Of Town and Country Planning (1993-2001)

208

SESSION 3: FUTURE PLANNING AND CHALLENGES Paper 8 “Marrying Corporate Ideals with Good Urban Planning Practice: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Other Means” By: Y.Bhg. Dato’ Abd Wahab Maskan CEO Guthrie Paper Summary

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FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

Paper 9 “Towards a More Cultured Society: Town Planning from an Artist Point of View” By: Y.Bhg. Dato’ Faridah Merican Executive Producer, the Actors Studio, BSC Paper Summary

238

Paper 10 “Sustainable Business Practices - The Corporate Commitment” By: Mr. Chew Seng Choon Chairman Technical Committee, Business Council for Sustainable Development Malaysia Paper Summary

246

Paper 11 “Emerging New Trends Affecting the Physical Landscape of the Nation, Future Shocks a la Malaysia” By: Y.Bhg. Dato’ Jailani Johari Senior Director State Planning Division, Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission. Paper Summary

266

Panel Discussion Questions and Answers on Session 3 Topic: “Good Urban Planning Requires Strong Political Will. Are We There Yet or How Do We Cope with Future Physical Planning Demands?” Chairman: Y.Bhg. Dato’ Ghazali Dato’ Yusuff Exco Member Sustainable Business Council

282

CLOSING SPEECH AND RESOLUTION

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ANNEX List of Participants Organising Committee Convention Photos

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NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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CONVENTION PROCEEDINGS OBJECTIVES The objectives of the 2007 World Town Planning Day Convention are: • To educate all levels of communities about planning and its contribution in the development of the country, especially in the building of cities and settlements; • To provide a beneficial platform for planners to gain experience and to promote better planning quality in the country; and • To honour and recognise the efforts of significant people involved in the planning process and their contribution towards creating quality neighbourhoods and settlements.

PROGRAMME 20 November 2007 (Tuesday) 02.00 pm – 07.00 pm

Hotel check in at The Legend Hotel, Jalan Putra, Kuala Lumpur

DAY ONE – 21 November 2007 (Wednesday)

VENUE

1st Session: Town Planning Evolution Since 1957 08.00 am – 09.00 am

Registration at Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC)

09.00 am – 09.30 am

Keynote Address by Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd Fadzil Hj. Mohd. Khir – Director General, Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Peninsular Malaysia

09.30 am – 10.00 am

Visit to Exhibition planEX 07

10.00 am – 10.30 am

Tea Break

10.30 am – 10.50 am

Paper 1: “The Evolution of Town Planning in Malaysia from a Mat Salleh’s Point of View” By: Prof. Emeritus Michael J Bruton – Department of City & Regional Planning, Cardiff University, U.K

10.50 am – 11.20 am

Paper 2: “The Evolution of Infrastructure Planning and Development in Malaysia 1957 Onwards: Lesson Learnt” By: Department of Public Works

11.20 am – 11.50 am

Paper 3: “ Impact of Planning and Development on The Environment and Natural Resources and its Correlation to Natural Disasters” By: Y. Bhg. Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh Mohd Nor – Council Members of Malaysian Nature Society (MNS)

11.50 am – 12.45 am

Panel Discussion Topic: “Has Planning and Development Post Merdeka Done More Harm Than Good for The Country? Moderator: Madam Norliza Hashim – President Malaysian Institute of Planners (IMP)

12.45 pm

Lunch

2nd Session: Current Planning Issues

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02.30 pm – 02.55 pm

Paper 4: “Town Planning And Conservation; What Needs To Be Done” By: Y. Bhg. Tan Sri Dato’ Seri (Dr.) Ahmad Sarji Abdul Hamid – President Badan Warisan

02.55 pm – 03.20 pm

Paper 5: “Planning With The People, Between Facts And Fiction. An Inevitable Course Of Actions” By: Mr. Derek Fernandez – Planning Advocacy and Activist

03.20 pm – 03.45 pm

Paper 6: Community Participation In Post Tsunami Aceh: Lessons Learnt From Disaster Management By: AR. Azman Zainon Abidin – Head of Operations Indonesia. MERCY

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

Foyer Dewan Tun Husain Onn Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC)

Dewan Tun Dr. Ismail B Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC)


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

03.45 pm – 04.10 pm

Paper 7: Forwarding Gender Quality in Urban Governance and Planning: Hopes and Aspirations By: Miss Maria Chin Abdullah – Executive Director Women’s Development Collective (NGO)

04.10 pm – 05.00 pm

Panel Discussion Topic: Non Compliance And Low Understanding Of The Development Planning Mechanism Have Been Contributory To Planning Pitfalls In The Country. Do You Agree And If Yes What Needs To Be Done? Moderator: Y. Bhg. Dato’ Zainuddin Muhammad – Former Director General Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia (1993-2001)

05.00 pm

Tea Break

World Town Planning Day Dinner

VENUE

08.00 pm – 11.00 pm

Hilton Kuala Lumpur

World Town Planning Day Dinner Guest of Honour, YB minister of Housing and Local Government

DAY TWO – 27 November 2007 (Thursday) Launching of World Town Planning Day and World Habitat Day 2007

VENUE

07.30 am – 08.00 am

Participants leave for KLCC (Transport will be provided)

08.30 am – 08.50 am

Arrival of Guest

08.50 am

Arrival of Y.B Dato’ Seri Ong Ka Ting – Minister of Housing and Local Government

Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre (KLCC)

Doa Recitation Speech by Y. Bhg. Datuk Eddy Chen Lok Loi – Deputy President, ESROPH Malaysia Speech by UNDP Representative Speech by Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd Fadzil Hj. Mohd. Khir – Director General, Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Peninsular Malaysia Keynote Address by YB Dato’ Seri Ong Ka Ting – Minister of Housing and Local Government Launching of World Town Planning Day and World Habitat Day 2007 – Award Presentation for National Ideas Competition on Safe Cities 10.15 am – 10.45 am

Tea Break

11.00 am – 11.30 am

Participants return to PWTC (Transport will be provided)

12.30 pm

Lunch

Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC)

3 rd Session – Future Planning and Challenges 02.00 p – 02.25 pm

VENUE

Paper 8: “Marrying Corporate Ideals With Good Urban Planning Practice: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) And Other Means” By: Y. Bhg. Dato’ Abd Wahab Maskan – CEO Guthrie

Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC)

02.25 pm – 02.50 pm

Paper 9: “Toward A Cultured Society: Town Planning From An Artists Point Of View” By: Y. Bhg. Dato’ Faridah Merican – The Actor Studio, BSC Jalan Maarof, Kuala Lumpur

02.50 pm – 03.15 pm

Paper 10: “Sustainable Business Practices, The Corporate’s Commitment By: Mr. Chew Seng Choon – Chairman Technical Committee, Business Council Sustainable Development

03.15 pm – 03.40 pm

Paper 11: “Emerging New Trends Affecting The Physical Landscape Of The Nation. Future Shocks A La Malaysia” By: Y. Bhg. Dato’ Jailani Johari – Senior Director State Planning Department, Malaysia Communications and Multimedia Commission

03.40 pm – 04.30 pm

Panel Discussion Topic: Good Urban Planning Requires Strong Political Will. Are We There Yet Or How Do We Cope With Future Physical Planning Demonds? Moderator: Y. Bhg. Dato’ Ghazali Dato’ Yusuff – Exco Member Sustainable Business Council

04.30 pm

Closing Remarks

04.45 pm – 05.00 pm

Tea Break End of Convention For future information on programme, please call:

Mdm Tee Szu Fong Tel: 03 2699 2148 Fax: 03 2694 7824 Email: tee@townplan.gov.my

Mdm Noor Azuwa Kushairi Tel: 03 2699 2180 Fax: 03 2694 7824 Email: azuwa@townplan.gov.my

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Keynote Address


TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd Fadzil b. Haji Mohd Khir DIRECTOR-GENER AL FEDER AL OF DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING


KEYNOTE ADDRESS Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim. Assalamualaikum wbt and a very good morning, Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, 1. Alhamdulillah, all praise and glory for Allah SWT, for it is his blessings and guidance that we are gathered here today. It is always a pleasure for me to first of all welcome you to this World Town Planning Day National Convention which is organized in conjunction with the World Town Planning Day 2007 celebration. A special welcome to all the speakers, thank you for joining us today, despite your busy schedule I am sure. 2. This year’s theme Town and Country Planning: 50 Years has been aptly chosen, as Malaysia just celebrated the golden anniversary of its independence last 31 August, and indeed it was the biggest celebration the country had witnessed for half a century. So this morning I will share with you my thoughts on 50 years of planning Peninsular Malaysia.

BEFORE INDEPENDENCE 3. Town Planning has a relatively long history in Malaysia. It was imported from England as early as 1921, with Charles Compton Reade from South Australia as the first government town planner. Subsequently the first town planning department was opened in Kuala Lumpur in January 1921. The first town planning legislation - the Town Planning Enactment was drafted in 1923, which among the provisions allowed the Sanitary Board to set up its own organization to include the running of the planning aspects. 4. The early planning focus mainly on settlement areas along the riverbanks, where lands were fertile and the rivers were used as transport network. Later, settlements began to organically appear around the hub of economic activities - around the tin mines and the outskirts of rubber estates for instance. Kuala Lumpur and Sungai Lembing in Pahang are classic examples of towns that grew out of tin mining activities, while Lunas in Kedah is now an emerging heritage town whose history can be traced back to rubber planting activities. 5. At the time of independence, Malaysia had four distinct ethnic groups - the Malays, Chinese, Indians and Others, all living separately by the different employment behaviour. With most Malays being farmers and fishermen lived in the village with little or no planning input. The town areas are mostly populated by the Chinese whom are the tin miners and shopkeepers. The Indians who were mostly rubber tappers lived in estates that were are planned by the estate owners. 6. The First and Second Malaya Plans were introduced and implemented under British rule and adopted a laissez-faire attitude towards protecting British interests in Malaya. These two socio-economic Malaya Plans were aimed at guiding the development of social services, national resources, utilities, trade and industry. The economic base was then primarily production of that rubber and tin. 7. Land use zoning was mainly prepared on small and adhoc basis for human settlements. In

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FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

1924, the layout of the first town planned based on the Garden City principles was prepared for Kuala Kubu Bharu. 8. The Town Planning Enactment 1923 was later incorporated in the Sanitary Boards Enactment CAP 137 and was later renamed as Town Boards Enactment. Part 1X was merely an optional duty on the local government enabling them to prepare General Town Plans which were essentially zoning plans showing major permitted land uses. In line with this, activities of the Town Planning Department were also widened to encompass all Town Boards and Municipal areas in the then Malayan Union, while the Federal Town Planning Department maintained its role as the advisor to the Federal Government on planning matters. Subsequently three regional offices in Johor Baru, Ipoh and Penang were set up between 1955 and 1956 while Kuala Lumpur remained as the Federal Head Office covering the state Selangor, N. Sembilan and Pahang. 9. The main concern of development then was mainly to create new villages and new towns, as well as to open up new land schemes. The reasons behind these developments were to ensure security - as the country was facing communist insurgency. 10. In relation to urbanization, in 1954, Petaling Jaya became one of the earliest comprehensively planned new town developed by the British as an answer to the problem of over crowding in Kuala Lumpur and to function as a satellite town. Here, planning concepts from Britain such as Garden City and neighbourhood unit were adapted and implemented by the Department’s town planners in preparing the layout plans.

THE 60s INHERITANCE Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, 11. After the Independence, the planning service was placed under the Concurrent List of the Federal Constitution, making it the responsibility of both the Federal and State Governments. The Planning Department was then restructured through the setting up of the State Town and Country Planning Departments (STCPD) throughout Peninsular Malaysia. 12. the First Malaysia Plan 1966-70 was also introduced to achieve integration of the peoples, to improve the standard of living and to provide employment opportunities and basic amenities among others. CAP 137 was still used for development control purposes, while the ‘blue print zoning plan’ was still used as a guide. Interim development plan was prepared for the urban areas. The need to exercise town planning was mainly to exert proper control and curb ribbon development that was so apparent along the major roads. As such in the early days, the focus of planning was to control physical development in a proper manner. During this time also the Parliament House, the National Indoor Stadium and other facilities were planned and built. 13. For the rural areas, the focus was to improve regional imbalances by creating Felda settlements plus the rubber estates for creation of jobs. Other existing rural settlements were upgraded and more land schemes emerged, in tandem with objectives the National Plan at that to upgrade the standard of living of the rural people. For the record, the first FELDA scheme in Malaysia started in 1958 in Lurah Bilut, Bentong Pahang.

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KEYNOTE ADDRESS THE 70s - MOULDING ERA Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, 14. The New Economic Policy (NEP) was launched in the 70s under the Second Malaysia Plan (1970-1975). The essence of this policy is to pursue ‘growth with equity’ through a twopronged strategy namely, to eradicate poverty irrespective of race, and to restructure the society. The Economic has moved from agriculture to industrial base with Penang was the first free trade zone for the manufacture of electric and electronic products. The NEP has set the mould for the nation. 15. The urban development highlights the integration of the people through the improvement of the social, economic and physical development. The seventies also proved to be a more progressive decade. Several agencies were established to help boost the urban and rural sectors. Among them are the Urban Development Authority (UDA) and several Regional Development Authorities (RDAs). This era marked the beginning of large planned settlements. UDA was responsible to develop townships, public housing, and commercial centres, among others. Some of it’s noted works are Puduraya Transport Terminal Kampung Attap shophouses, Dayabumi Complex, Pertama Complex, and Taman Tun Dr. Ismail township. The private sector continued in their in providing adequate houses for the people. 16. Five RDAs were established in the 70s which are JENGKA, DARA, KEJORA, KETENGAH and KESEDAR. The main objectives of these RDAs were to plan and develop rural new towns to improve the economic and regional imbalances in their regions. The TCPD was involved in preparing layout plans for the RDAs. The concept involved planning for human settlement and their employment areas with the provision of basic amenities such as schools, commercial, industrial area and recreational facilities.

THE 80s - NEW PLANNING ERA Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, 17. This is the beginning of the new planning era - the Malaysian way. Malaysia has ventured into heavy industries, It started with the establishment of Petronas, from a home-based company to a full-fledged oil and gas multinational rank which is one of the countries biggest achievements. The formulation of Heavy Industry Policy in 1980 and the Industrial Master Plan 1 in 1986, later resulted in the formation of Perwaja and Proton. There was a clear focus on the private sector as being the engine of growth. 18. National mega infrastructure development projects took place during this decade. The North-South Highway which is the longest expressway in Malaysia with a total length of 966km linked many major cities and towns in Western Peninsular Malaysia, Penang Bridge which is one of the architecture wonders of Penang connecting the island and the mainland rank as the longest bridge in Asia and fifth largest in the world, and the East-West Highway,

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FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

linking the east and the west of Peninsular running between Jeli in Kelantan and Grik in Perak. 19. Having seen limited success with the development of new towns by the RDAs, in 1986, rural planning was inclined toward in-situ development approach with identification of Rural Growth Centres (RGC) or Pusat Pertumbuhan Desa (PPD) in Peninsular Malaysia, for the Ministry of Rural Development (KPLB). These RGCs are the lowest hierarchy of settlement in the overall urbanization schemes, and they were meant to function as the centre for public facilities, services and low order goods, as trading and transport hubs, as well as a stimulus for urban development. Some of the kampungs identified as PPD were Kg. Soi in Kuantan and Kg. Sungai Rusa in Pulau Pinang. 20. The Town And Country Planning Bill was enacted by the Parliament as The Town and Country Planning Act 1976 (TCPA or Act 172). Generally this Act introduced a uniform system of law and regulation for town and country planning in Peninsular Malaysia. It aims to ensure the proper control and regulation of town and country planning in local authority areas. From 1978 onwards began the adoption and enforcement of the TCPA by various states in the Peninsular. Under the provision of this Act, development plan system in this country covers two main stages that are structure plan and local plan. By the fourth Malaysia Plan, marked the beginning of a series of development plans prepared in accordance with TCPA 1976 by TCPD and in cooperation with local authorities. The structure and locals prepared were mainly for urban areas. The first Structure Plan was prepared for Seremban and a Local Plan for Tampoi/Larkin/Kempas. 21. In terms of urban development, there is a need for a well functioning public urban realm for meetings and encounters among the people of all ages, acquaintances, friends and even strangers. This requires the existence of multi-functional public places. Furthermore the public places must have appropriate human scale architecture and mixed land use of shops and homes, outdoor café and restaurants. The urban development during this time have multi-dimensional function such as city for business, financial, administration and recreation for better living environment. Landscape became an important component in city planning by then.

THE 90s - SETTING UP BASE FOR THE FUTURE Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, 22. The 90s also marked the start of Vision 2020, an idea mooted under the leadership of Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad. Vision 2020 is a 30-year target to achieve a fully developed nation. The National Development Policy which replaced NEP in preparing for the new millennium emphasised and focused on sustaining the economic growth and to achieve further structural transformation through science and technology, research and development, and by increasing productivity and efficiency. 23. During the 90s, nations worldwide were faced with increased globalization, particularly economic liberalization plus the impact of ICT advancement. These in many ways have changed the way we think, plan, govern, do business - indeed, changed the ways of life, and how they live, work and play.

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KEYNOTE ADDRESS 24. As planning challenges become more complicated locally and globally, so as the planning approach which have shifted to planning for sustainability. In response to this, the planning fraternity has adopted a more integrated and comprehensive planning approach through the Integrated Planning and Resource Management System (IPRMS). This is an approach where physical planning and resource utilization are integrated vertically and horizontally i.e that is between and within sectors at all three levels of government. Distinguished guest, ladies and gentlemen, 25. In 1991, Peninsular Malaysia had 7.7 million urban population, of which around 1.2 million were in Kuala Lumpur. The capital city being just 243 sq. km in size was congested with urban development, hence triggering the idea to relocate Federal Government Administrative agencies to a greenfield area, and by doing so strengthening Kuala Lumpur’s role as the business and financial hub of the country 26. The role of planners increased and became very important with the development of Multimedia Super Corridor, Putrajaya and other large scale projects. A modern and vibrant township Putrajaya was founded in 1995, located south of Kuala Lumpur. This wellplanned city is an attractive amalgamation of an administrative center with commercial, residential areas with parks, lakes and wetlands. Putrajaya development is a successful application of the Total Planning Doctrine. At the same time, the Malaysian government conceptualized and formed the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC), creating Cyberjaya as the hub of MSC now dubbed the world’s intelligent city and premier hub for Information and Communication Technology (ICT). As it turned out, Putrajaya sits in the middle of MSC, and next to Cyberjaya, all in all emitting a very good synergy between them. In the regional context, these landmark developments automatically extended Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur’s de facto boundary to the south, creating a Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Region of around 4,000 sq. km today. Distinguished guest, ladies and gentlemen, 27. The 90s also showcased a number of world class infrastructure in Malaysia with the development of the LRT and the KTM Commuter to alleviate the problems of traffic congestion in Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Region. The Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) presented a distinctive example of a beautiful and functional airport with state-ofthe-art architecture serving as the regional hub for air travel. Today, futuristic creations such as the Petronas Twin Towers in KLCC which is the tallest twin building is among a must-visit by foreign tourists especially in Kuala Lumpur. All the above demonstrate the drive for development as evident across the country.

2000s – SUSTAINING AND MOVING FORWARD Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, 28. Malaysia has made significant strides in nation building, in developing its economy and in improving the quality of life of its people. The path towards 2020 will be fraught with 12

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

challenges and difficulties as the local and global socio-economic landscapes continue to involve in other to option the highest level of performance and the maksimum impact from the country national development affords, as in the Ninth Malaysia Plan, national mission identifies five key thrust for Malaysia. • First: To move the economy up the value chain • Second: To raise the capacity for knowledge and innovation and nurture ‘first class mentality’ • Third: To address persistent socio-economic inequalities constructively and productively • Fourth: To improve the standard and sustainability of quality of life • Fifth: To strengthen the institutional and implementation capacity 29. As we ushered into this era, the nation has progressed so well. To date, the TCPD with the cooperation of local authorities has undertaken the preparation of 117 Structure Plans and 201 Local Plans which are in various stages of preparation. Now that most areas have been covered by some kind of plans, we will now have to monitor and review all these plans. Through consultation and collaboration with all stakeholders, plans are now being prepared in an integrated and holistic manner - focusing on quality and practicality. 30. The TCPD to date, has also produced 41 Physical Planning and Development Guidelines to guide those involved in property planning and development. Nevertheless, I admit some of these guidelines are due for review to suit to present needs and requirements. 31. Finally, this year at least three very interesting developments have taken place. Firstly, in the pursuit of improving the government delivery system, the one stop centre (OSC) was formed at the local Authority under the purview of Ministry Of Housing And Local Government. This exercise is to help enforce fast-track approval by Local Authorities. Secondly, in line with the Ninth Malaysia Plan several regional growth corridors have been formed for and are set for implementation namely The Iskandar Development Region (IDR), the Northern Corridor Economic Region (NCER) and the Eastern Corridor Economic Region (ECER). These three corridors will constitute the biggest physical development in the nation in at least the next decade, and the nation is eagerly waiting to share the wealth created by these corridors. Various operational plans along with numerous local plans and special area plan will supplement those projects identified in those regional plan and country will see greater growth. Distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen,

ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 32. However despite the holistic and comprehensive development plans being prepared, environmental degradation, traffic congestion and poor public transportation, urban sprawl and encroachment into environmentally sensitive areas, lack of clear direction on the preservation and conservation of national heritage social problem etc. continue to nag us. The question is, is it due to non conformity or lack of implementation due to limited resources or conflicts of interest among states or implementation agencies or development targets/strategies are wrongly formulated or our profit overrule social obligations? 33. As a way forward, perhaps the solutions would still be in the National Urbanisation Policy NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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KEYNOTE ADDRESS

34.

35. 36.

37.

38.

39.

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which provides the basis for development. The NUP which was launched in 2006 outlines the following thrust; (a) Towards an efficient and sustainable urbanization. (b) Development of a resilient, dynamic & competitive urban economy. (c) Towards an integrated & efficient urban transportation system. (d) Provide quality urban services, infrastructure & utility. (e) Create a conducive urban living environment with district identity. (f) Effective urban governance. Urban development should have a clear guidance on the direction of future expansion so as to accommodate an orderly and manageable development. Urban development should be implemented as smart growth with emphasis on redevelopment while preserving green areas for recreational purpose, conserving environmentally sensitive area and preventing encroachment into agricultural area. To sustain the development would also include the new need for disaster planning with frequent occurrences of disasters and threats of global warming. Sustainability also means it is important to identify the economic strength for the urban centre and to provide its urban dwellers with appropriate work. Surely we want to see a progressive nation enjoying a high quality of life, therefore the provision of infrastructure and utility should fulfil the demand of the population and supporting the growth of the urban economy as well as contribute to the competitiveness of the any city. Services such supply of electricity, telecommunications and solid waste disposal need to be improved so as to ensure sustainability and cost-efficiency of maintenance. An efficient and comprehensive transportation system is vital to address the problems of congestion policy which promotes the use of an integrated public transportation system that is effective, reliable, user friendly and affordable will elevate the well being of urban centres and will enhance the competitiveness of an urban centre. Society today is concerned with comfortable, user-friendly living environment with facilities for social interaction. As urban population increases, the urban environment should be planned and managed as a more attractive place for living, working and recreation. Major public amenities such as school and recreational areas should be adequately provided at suitable locations for use by all group of urban population. An effective urban governance system should be established to administer urban growth and development at various levels particularly at the local authority level. The Local Authority, as the main agency responsible for urban management, needs to update the administration and management systems to optimize its revenue. The use of innovative approach and technology is warranted in order for the Local Authority to meet the demand of urban dwellers. Planning in future will have to involve all sectors of the community which have the stake in the area through collaborative synergy, strategic alliance or smart partnership, involving not only government organisations but also private sector organisation, NGOS and CBOS including disadvantaged groups. The youth and also civil society only by then there will support and involvement and will render the governance to be more effective. As in the previous year, I would like to take this opportunity to announce the result of MURNInet 2007. For this year assessment, out of 40 cities and towns 5 are considered sustainable, which has scores more than 80 percent. The rest are moderate.

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

CONCLUDING REMARKS Distinguished guest, ladies and gentlemen, 40. The planning service has indeed matured alongside with the outstanding growth of the nation. Our Nation has developed from a tin and rubber-producing country to an industrial and Knowledge based economy and from rural based settlement to modern Twin-Towers. The success achieved largely comes from the joint efforts from all quarters including Town Planners. Undoubtedly we have encountered and will be confronted with more complex issues and challenges in future planning and development internally and globally. In our strive to achieve developed status and a sustainable prosperous country in the next 50 years will definitely need the participation, consultation, collaboration and partnership with all involve and stakeholders so as to harness planning development which can be implemented and accepted by all. 41. Lastly, I hope you will make the most of this year’s World Town Planning Day National Convention. Please ensure your participation in the forthcoming paper presentations that will cover Town Planning Evolution since 1957, Current Planning Issues and Future Planning and Challenges. 42. With that, I thank you for your attention and wish you all a productive and enjoyable conference.

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Session 1


Paper 1 “The Evaluation of Town and Planning in Malaysia from Mat Salleh’s Points of View” Prof Emeritus Michael J. Bruton Paper 2 “The Evolution Of Infrastructure Planning And Development In Malaysia 1957 Onwards - Lessons Learnt” Ir. Selvanayagam s/o P. Nagalingam (Paper Was Not Presented and Discussed) Paper 3 “Impact of Planning and Development on the Environment and Natural Resources and its Correlation to Natural Disasters” Y. Bhg. Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh Mohd. Nor Panel Discussion Questions and Answers “Has Planning and Development Post Merdeka Done More Harm Than Good for the Country?” Mdm. Norliza Hashim

TOWN PLANNING EVOLUTION SINCE 1957


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Paper 1


THE EVALUATION OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING IN MALAYSIA FROM MAT SALLEH’S POINTS OF VIEW

Professor Emeritus Michael J. Bruton DEPARTMENT OF CITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING CARDIFF UNIVERSITY, U.K.


PAPER 1 CURRICULUM VITAE

PROFESSOR MICHAEL J. BRUTON CBE Address : 14 Queen Anne Square, Cardiff, CF 10 3 ED Telephone : 0222 373121 Status : Married, two daughters (30 and 27 both married) QUALIFICATIONS: BA MSc (Eng) DIC Dip TP FRTPI FCIT MIHT 1961 BA (Hons 2/1) Geography with Geology 1964 Diploma in Town Planning 1965 MSc (Eng) 1965 DIC (Transport Planning) 1964 Member Royal Town Planning Institute 1968 Member Institution Highways and Transport 1978 Member Chartered Institute of Transport 1980 Fellow Chartered Institute of Transport 1982

1995 1996 1999

Fellow Royal Town Planning Institute

Commander of British Empire Fellow University of Wales College of Cardiff Emeritus Professor Cardiff University

PESENT SITUATION: Retired CAREER HISTORY: • Michael J. Bruton CBE; Professor Emeritus, Cardiff University • Academic and professional qualifications in Town Planning, Transport and Geography. Appointed Commander of the British Empire for services to Cardiff University 1993 • Practised for 8 years as a Town Planner in local government in England and Scotland – London County Council; Lanarkshire County Council and Buckinghamshire County Council • Entered academia with Strathclyde University, then to Oxford Brookes University; University of Central England and finally UWIST/Cardiff University as Head of Department of City and Regional Planning before becoming Deputy Principal and Registrar • Served as planning representative on the University Grants Committee and chaired the Built Environment Research Assessment Committee on two occasions. • Member of the Editorial Board of Habitat International; joint editor of The Natural and Built Environment Series. • Research interests focus on Local Planning in Practice and Planning Practice in Developing Countries, particularly Malaysia and China • Interest in Malaysia and the Malaysian planning system originally stimulated by students from Malaysia who attended the post graduate course in Town Planning at UWIST in Cardiff, then re-enforced by periods as external examiner at UTM and USM and research

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Malaysia: The Planning Of A Nation

visits funded by the Leverhulme Foundation (1980) and Cardiff University (2000, 2004 and 2006). I have followed the development and success of the Malaysian planning system with interest and am in the process of finalising a book on the subject. More recently involved with planning in China advising the China Academy of Urban Planning and Design on planning problems in Zhuhai, Shenzen, Tianjin and Jilin. MAJOR PUBLICATIONS: (from a list of over 100 include) Introduction to Transportation Planning, Hutchinsons, London. (3 editions in UK 1970, 1975, and 1985 pp290) Also published in Japanese, Portuguese, and Spanish Spirit and Purpose of Planning, Hutchinsons, London. (2 editions in UK 1974 and 1984 pp 208) Local Planning in Practice, Hutchinsons, London. 1986; pp452 (with D J Nicholson) Public Participation, Local Planning and Conflicts of Interest, Policy and Politics, Vol 8 No 1980; pp 423-442 The Malaysian Planning System: A Review, Third World Planning Review Vol 4 No 4 November 1982; pp 315-334 Peninsular Malaysia - Resolving Conflicts between Economic and Social Goals, Cities, May 1985; pp 3-17 Social and Economic Development: The Historical Framework; Proceedings of the Fifteenth Association of Commonwealth Universities Conference Swansea 1993, pp 187-197 Shenzhen: coping with uncertainties in planning; Habitat International 29 (2005) pp227-243 M. J. Bruton 20 March 2007

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PAPER 1 MALAYSIA: THE PLANNING OF A NATION By: Professor Emeritus Michael J. Bruton Cardiff University, U.K.

1

INTRODUCTION

This paper reviews briefly the operation of the Malaysian planning system in the 50 years since independence in 1957. However to form a balanced view on the level of success achieved by that system it is essential that account be taken of the nature of the planning process and the problems that Malaysia has faced since 1957.

2

THE NATURE OF PLANNING

People in general regard planning as a simple, common sense activity which is “ …a process for determining appropriate future action through a sequence of choices” (Davidoff and Reiner 1973 p11). In reality it is a complicated and difficult process for the reasons that; Public policy problems are complex and highly inter-related. For example in 1998 land use development in Kuala Lumpur was related amongst other things to • the state of the Malaysian economy • the efforts of financial speculators to exploit the potential financial advantages of devaluing the M$ • the corporate failures associated with this speculation • private investment and the financial services on offer in Malaysia, especially the nonperforming loans in the banking sector • globalization • International Monetary Fund policies and attitudes • the state of the economies in other countries in South East Asia., as well as the actions of the Federal Government and City Hall KL. Attempts to solve a particular public policy problem can have unintended consequences in other areas. For example the repeal of the Malaysian Rent Control Act 1966 has had both intended and unintended consequences for central George Town in Penang. Whilst the intended objective of securing more private investment into properties in the area that had been allowed to decay because of the imposition of rent controls has begun to succeed, the unintended consequences of repealing the rent act have been a • movement of people out of the area because they cannot afford the increased rent • need for the state to provide low cost housing for the displaced population • reduction in spending power in the area to support retail and other services

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• •

consequent closure of some of these businesses and a reduction in the opening hours of those businesses that remain reduction in the number of tourists visiting the area because of the reduction in services offered and the lack of vibrancy in the area.

These unintended consequences are changing the character of central George Town and will continue to change its nature in ways not anticipated by the ‘law makers’ unless positive proposals to redress the situation are implemented. Uncertainty is endemic in planning for the future. Indeed the only certain thing we know about the future is that it is uncertain. Public policy is concerned with the distribution or redistribution of resources. As a consequence conflicts of interest arise in reaching public policy planning decisions and then implementing them, and such decisions are inevitably political. Thomas (1999 p27) puts this point succinctly “....the scope, content and direction of planning are shaped by political struggles at various spatial scales in which the protagonists arise from the conflicts of interest endemic in a capitalist society.” Thus conflict resolution is an integral part of the public policy planning and implementation process. In practice conflict resolution for the public sector invariably involves some form of bargaining to ‘buy off’ the opponents to the proposals in the plan or in some instances the use of power is used to produce a resolution. Plans are rarely carried out according to plan. Since the 1970s there has been an acknowledgement that many of the measures for change introduced through the policy planning process have in practice achieved relatively little by way of fundamental or lasting change. For example; • In the USA the work of Pressman and Wildavsky (1973) first highlighted this problem. • Failures of implementation in urban regeneration, land development, employment, control of pollution and industrial restructuring were identified in Britain in the 1970s by Solesbury (1981) • A seminar in January 2007 reviewing the first three years of the current Malaysian Prime Ministers period in office found that ‘ policies formulated for the betterment of the people failed to bring benefits to the target group.’ (New Straits Times 2007b p1). It would seem that, in the words of Barrett and Fudge,(1981 p 3) “There is now a general recognition that ‘Government either seems unable to put its policy into effect as intended, or finds that its intentions and actions have unexpected or counterproductive outcomes which create new problems.”

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PAPER 1 A number of factors can be put forward to account for this failure to achieve perfect implementation, including • the adoption of a ‘top down’ managerial approach which treats the implementation of policy as separate from policy formulation • inadequate resources • the policy is a bad policy • the multiplicity of agencies involved in the process • the complexity and difficulty of co-coordinating the multiplicity of tasks • inadequate, or even a lack of, communication • policy ambiguities • conflicts of interest between the policy makers and the implementers. Indeed one of the major difficulties in securing successful implementation is that of obtaining compliance where a policy or a programme is to be implemented by agencies whose interests do not necessarily coincide with those of the policy makers.

3

PUBLIC POLICY PROBLEMS FACING MALAYSIA 1957-2007

At Independence in 1957 the British left Peninsular Malaysia (PM) with • a problematic and divided ethnic structure consisting of the – indigenous Malays (Bumiputeras), who worked primarily in agriculture and the administration of the non Federated Malay States – Chinese, who had been attracted to PM to work in the tin industry but who also dominated business, and – Indians, who had been encouraged to migrate to PM to work in the rubber industry and the British civil service, but who were also dominant in the retail trade • an imbalanced concentration of urban development and infrastructure on the west of the peninsula, where the Chinese and Indian population was also concentrated, and a poorer, agricultural eastern region where the Malay population was dominant • an economy that was based on the production of primary products to support the British economy – tin, rubber and timber • a federal constitution which has been sufficiently robust to withstand the creation of the Federation of Malaysia through the addition of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore and the subsequent withdrawal of Singapore from that Federation • inadequate and outdated town and country planning and local government structures Since Independence PM has introduced a new local government structure and developed a well established, hierarchical planning system that has evolved and adapted to changing circumstances and has dealt successfully with a range of complex problems deriving from • significant population growth – from approximately 10.8m in 1970 to 23.3m in 2000, of which 18.3m lived in Peninsular Malaysia • a major redistribution of population - approximately 70% of the population was rural at independence in 1957; today approximately 70% of the population is urban • significant social change, in its efforts to eliminate poverty, to remove the association of economic employment with race and to cope with the inherent tensions between the three 24

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• • •

4

main ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia – the Malays, the Chinese and the Indians the need to grow the economy to support population growth; population redistribution and the associated urbanization and the social changes sought the need to adapt to the changing economic and political conditions in the wider world the impact on the environment of population growth, urbanization and economic development.

THE PLANNING SYSTEM IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

Table 1 shows the hierarchical planning structure that has developed in PM since Independence. Vision or Political Reality At the top of the hierarchy are the ‘vision statements’ which represent the political reality within which the lower order plans were/are produced. These statements have changed with time as follows • Pre Independence 1947-57, provided by the British Colonial Office with its concern to support the British economy • The Old Economic Policy 1958-70, which was largely ‘laissez faire’ and concerned to produce plans for economic development • Post 1971, the New Economic Policy 1971-90, the National Development Policy 1991-2000 and the National Vision Policy 2001-2010, which, in conjunction with their supporting Outline Perspective Plans, redefined and updated development in Malaysian terms to promote – national unity; – the eradication of poverty; – the restructuring of society so that employment is not associated with race, and – the redressing of regional economic and social imbalances. These social changes were and are to be resourced from rapid and sustained economic growth. National Planning At the next level down sit the national plans which between 1947 and 1970 were crude plans for economic development. Following the race riots of 1969 these five yearly development plans (the Malaysia Plans) have been concerned to secure social change at the same time as promoting economic growth. They have worked within the framework provided by NEP/NDP/ NVP and the supporting OPPs, and set out in some detail the policies and proposals to be adopted for each five year period. Generally those policies for which the federal government has a constitutional responsibility are implemented in accordance with the plan; e.g. transport proposals such as the construction of the North-South Highway; the construction of the first Penang Bridge and the second bridge linking Johor with Singapore. However, there are other policies, such as industrial development, where the states through their constitutional responsibility for land tend to promote industrial development in a way that does not always accord with policies in the Malaysia Plans or does not take account of what is happening in other states. NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 1 The Second to the Ninth Malaysia plans have adopted a consistent definition of development which involves social restructuring resourced through economic growth. but at the same time have adapted their policies to take account of changing world conditions. For example the federal government recognised in the late 1980s and early 1990s that the rapid and sustained economic growth needed to support these redistributive policies could only be achieved if the plans adapted to privatisation and globalisation. The early Malaysia Plans (Second, Third and Fourth) were largely public sector driven, with central government intervention in the marketplace through for example directives and incentives for industrial location and relocation; urban development/redevelopment to improve the position of the Bumiputeras in society.

Table 1: Malaya/Malaysia: Hierarchy Of Planning Levels 1947-2010 Plan Content

1947-57

1958-70

1971-90

1991-2000

2001-2010

The Vision or Political Reality

British Colonial Office

OEP

NEP OPP1

NDP OPP2

NVP OPP#

Planning at The National Level

Plans for Economic Development

Development Plans Malaysia Plans 1-5

Development Plans Malaysia Plans 6-7

Development Plans Malaysia Plans 8-9

Plans for Economic Development

National Physical Plan Planning at The Regional Level

??

SEDC (wef 1966)

Regional Plans/ Studies

Land Use Planning

TBE Master Plans

TBE Master Plans Regional Plans/ Studies

SEDCs

SEDCs

SEDCs

RDAs

RDAs

RDAs

Regional Plans/Studies

Klang Valley

Klang Valley

TBE Master Plans Regional Plans/ Studies Structure Plans/Local Plans for Local Auths

3 Regional Growth Conurbations TBE Master Plan

Structure Plans For State

Structure Plans/Local Plans for Local Auths.

Local Plans for Local Auths

Note: SEDCs – State Economic Development Corporations; RDAs – Regional Development Authorities TBE – Town Board Enactment 1939; OEP-Old Economics Policy

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This emphasis changed with the Fifth Malaysia Plan which promoted • a greater involvement of the private sector in securing social and economic change • a reduced role for government in the process • human resource development and a culture of efficiency • the development of IT industries and R and D. These policies were consolidated in the Sixth Malaysia Plan. The Seventh Malaysia Plan introduced further changes in economic policy in response to global and regional competition with the introduction of policies to develop a knowledge based economy requiring (a) an enhancement of the value-added of all productive activities through the use of knowledge and (b) the creation of new knowledge intensive industries. The increased use of knowledge coupled with a better skilled workforce was also intended to contribute to improved productivity whilst the use of ICT and e-commerce was to facilitate the establishment of an efficient and up-to-date information system to support trade and investment. Such changes were essential if Malaysia was to remain competitive and are a testimony to the competence of the planners and the leadership provided by the politicians. Regional and Rural Development An inherited and imbalanced spatial and ethnic distribution of wealth has been a long standing development issue in Malaysia and since independence serious attempts have been made to redress these imbalances. The racial riots of 1969 confirmed these social and economic differentials as a dominant political issue to be addressed as part of national and state planning. During the period of NEP the Malaysia Plans promoted • regional economic growth targets which the states sought to achieve through the work of the State Economic Development Corporations (SEDCs) and • the preparation and implementation of large scale rural and regional development strategies through, for example, the work of FELDA and the RDAs, particularly in the less developed states of Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, Pahang and in those rural areas of Johor. Inevitably these policies and programmes changed in emphasis over time as the nature of the problem and the context within which it was set changed. During NEP the policies and programmes to redress regional and ethnic imbalances aimed to • reduce excessive rural - urban migration, especially to the already congested core regions such as Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley • revive and strengthen agricultural and industrial development in the poorer regions, particularly through the strategy of ‘in situ’ rural development • redirect new development and growth to the less developed regions of the country • urbanise and industrialise rural and agricultural areas • resettle and rehabilitate selective frontier areas • place greater emphasis on integrating urban growth with the overall national regional development and growth centre strategy. (Mat 1983)

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PAPER 1 Large scale land development schemes to open up new land for agriculture were introduced by agencies such as FELDA; large scale resettlement schemes involving the creation of new urban settlements, and associated new land development schemes were introduced by the RDAs such as DARA, and JENGKA; rural urbanisation programmes were introduced in parallel with industrial dispersion policies to ‘group’ existing villages to form urban nuclei; considerable effort was put into providing water, electricity and social services in rural areas. Despite these efforts by the end of NEP it was apparent that the land and settlement development schemes and the policy for industrial dispersal were not meeting their targets and the strategy moved away from a concern with large scale land development projects towards promoting an orderly hierarchical pattern of urban development. Under the National Development Policy (NDP) a new two pronged regional and urban development strategy was introduced in an effort to redress regional imbalances by • moving jobs to the people through the development of urban growth centres within the disadvantaged regions of the country in an attempt to keep the rural - urban migrants within the region and • moving people to where the jobs were, through the orderly development of areas such as the Klang Valley, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Penang and Johor. At the same time • a strategy of developing specialised industrial estates in key locations such as Kulim in Kedah was introduced and • the efforts of the RDAs were redirected to focus on improving the agricultural productivity and managerial practices of existing settlers through human resource development. Effectively a new direction for rural and regional development was introduced involving self help and greater involvement of the rural population. The New Vision Policy (NVP) through the Eighth and Ninth Malaysia plans re-emphasises the need to reduce ethnic and regional imbalances through a continuation of the same general policies. i.e. diversifying the economic structure of the less developed states, improving and expanding access to basic amenities such as health, education, piped water and electricity; improving infrastructure facilities such as telecommunications; regrouping rural communities into small townships to facilitate the provision of the facilities demanded by a modern economy. In addition to these targeted attempts to redress regional imbalances, the states, since the 1960s, have more generally contributed to the resolution of this problem by promoting economic development in their areas through • ad hoc ‘regional’ development plans, generally produced in the 1970s as ‘stop gap’ measures, e.g. Penang and Johor and • the state-wide development plans produced by the SEDCs concerned with the provision of infrastructure and the carrying out of industrial and commercial ventures. Although not explicitly part of the programme to redress regional imbalances they have over 28

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time contributed significantly to attempts to resolve this problem by fostering economic growth and guiding physical development, which in turn has contributed to the rural-urban migration of the Malays. The development of economic planning in Penang since the mid 1960s is a good example of how these ad hoc plans and state development plans can contribute to the development of the economy of the states and contribute to the resolution of the regional imbalances problem. Facing what was seen as an economic crisis with the loss of free port status; high unemployment and significant outward migration Penang addressed these issues in the master plan produced by Munro in 1964, which proposed that • industrial development in future should focus on the export sector and • new developments should concentrate on the mainland adjacent to the port of Butterworth. These ideas were amplified through the work of Nathan (1970) who also proposed the development of international tourism in the state. Later (unpublished) work by the Penang Development Corporation (SEDC) consolidated these policies and proposals, whilst the more recent economic development plans - Penang into the 21st Century (1991) (PSDP1) and the Second Strategic Development Plan for Penang (2000) (PSDP2) - introduced and subsequently further developed for the state the policies and proposals needed to bring developments in Penang into line with national policies. Munro and Nathan explicitly put forward proposals for physical development; the state economic development plans implicitly guided physical development on the ground using the ideas of Munro and Nathan. There has been a long term consistency in the development of the strategic policies for economic and physical growth in Penang which has seen the state • weather the economic and social impact of the loss of free port status • develop into a multi-national manufacturing and an international tourist centre and more recently • begin the transformation into an R and D and knowledge based economy. The basic ideas of Munro and Nathan in promoting physical development on the mainland have been followed to an extent not imagined at the time they put those ideas forward. Over the period 1971 – 2005 in the context of privatisation, globalisation and the development of IT, the rural and regional development projects and policies in Malaysia have moved from a concern with large land development schemes and associated growth centre developments to a locally based, decentralised approach to rural economic development and growth which draws as much on local human resource based initiatives as federal government input. The federal government is fully aware of the sensitivity of attempting to change rural and regional development policies. Targeted attempts to redress regional imbalances are a clear sign to the public that government is taking the issue seriously so although the original justification for the RDAs no longer exists they will continue in being to carry out a new role that emphasises agricultural productivity and management, the provision of services and human resource development. At the same time the development of growth centres and the implementation of 'rural urbanisation' policies will also feature as a part of the policy to improve social and economic conditions in the rural areas NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 1 Town and Country Planning Within the strategic hierarchical firework provided by, at the top, the political reality (NEP/NDP/ NVP/NM), then the perspective plans followed by the Malaysia Plans, the town and country planning system should, in theory, occupy the next level down in the hierarchy, with a brief to translate the requirement created by policies for social and economic change into demands for land e.g. land for housing and associated social and welfare facilities; land for industry; communication links and so on. Regrettably the establishment of this hierarchical relationship in a way that allows it to function smoothly, has not been completely successful for a number of reasons. Initially, in 1971, • local government and therefore the local planning authority coverage of the country were patchy with the result that consistency of approach was not possible. • the town and country planning system was outdated and based on static master plans that were not capable of operating in the flexible and speedy way required by the Malaysia Plans that are produced for five yearly periods. The introduction of the structure plan/local plan system through the Town and Country Planning Act 1976 and the reform of local government introduced by the Local Government 1976 was intended to overcome these failings but these efforts were not successful for the reasons that • the concept of strategic planning was not fully understood • no attempt was made to adapt the structure and local plan system to PM with its federal constitution • the local planning authorities established under the Town and Country Planning Act 1976 were too small in area to produce effective structure plans • complete coverage of PM by the Town and Country Planning Act 1976 and the Local Government Act 1976 was not achieved until the late 1980s, effectively leaving the static Town Board Enactment master plans as the legal town and country planning instrument. More fundamentally, the constitutional responsibility of the states for the implementation of town and country planning policies and for land, account for the unhappy hierarchical relationship between the Malaysia Plans and the town and country planning system. Understandably each state has been and is concerned to secure the best possible outcome for itself from the national development process, but the persistent over estimation by all states of the population growth and inward investment they individually could expect to attract from the 'national pot', has led to unnecessary, duplicated and wasted investment into, for example, industrial estates. Indeed, when the combined population forecasts of the 97 structure plans for PM in the late 1990s exceeded 100m when the actual population in 2000 was 22.2m and expected to increase to 26.04m by 2005, it was inevitable that the federal government would sooner or later reform the system. This pressure for reform was compounded by technical deficiencies in the 1976 system at the state level. Despite the FDTCP fulfilling its role effectively in providing the • necessary legislation to ensure uniformity of policy and • technical advice and guidance to the states and local planning authorities

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The states and local planning authorities complicated the relationship between the Malaysia Plans and the land use planning system by producing structure plans that • were not strategic • within the same state related to different time periods so that it was difficult to appreciate what was expected to happen at any one time • contained policies that were less than specific and did not obviously relate to the area for which they had been produced • were delayed in being gazetted so that local authorities were often without a statutory plan whilst the politicians worked to the plan that had been produced but ignored that plan when it suited them • absorbed an enormous amount of professional and administrative time within the states where they were produced and at the federal level where they had to be examined and approved Similarly local plans were • produced in significant numbers but not gazetted because of the inflexibility of operating a local plan once it had been gazetted • largely zoning plans that had more in common with the master plan system established by the Town Board Enactment, which perpetuated the inflexibility of the old system. Within this system a cumbersome and bureaucratic development control process was operated which delayed the implementation of development and encouraged a culture amongst potential developers of paying ‘speed money’ to facilitate the process. Unease had been implicitly expressed by the federal government at the problems of securing a sensible working relationship between the Malaysia Plans and the town and country planning system at state level in the • Third Malaysia Plan 1976-80, when a physical development strategy was outlined for the Northern, Eastern, Central and Southern regions (Prime Ministers Department 1976, p212214) • Fifth Malaysia Plan 1986-90, when reference was made to the production of a National Spatial Plan and a National Urbanisation Policy (Prime Ministers Department 1986, p18586) and • Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005 when the production of a National Physical Plan (NPP) and a National Urbanisation Policy (NUP) were proposed. This unease eventually led to the introduction of reforms to the town and country planning system through what at first sight appears to be an innocuous amendment to the Town and Country planning Act 1976. In reality the reforms were a combination of radical change and sensible amendments to existing legislation. The radical changes include the provision for the • federal government to have executive authority over the control and regulation of aspects of the town and country planning system • production of a National Physical Plan (NPP), which effectively adds another level in the strategic hierarchy between the Malaysia Plans and the structure plans • establishment of the National Physical Planning Council to oversee the production of the NPP and advise the federal and state governments on the implementation of development NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 1 •

NPP to serve as a framework within which the lower-level structure and local plans are to be produced.

The sensible amendments relate to the • introduction of state wide structure plans by the state director of town and country planning • allocation of the responsibility to the state for the control of all development in its area • introduction of local authority wide local plans which have to be submitted to the state planning committee for approval. All states had adopted the 2001 Amendment Act by the end of 2005. If these reforms are implemented sensibly and systematically then the hierarchical relationship between the Malaysia Plans and the town country planning system should become more harmonious, with the state wide structure plans being more directly related to the needs of the Malaysia Plans through the NPP. This new relationship however imposes a significant responsibility on the NPPC and the DGFDTCP as the Secretary to the council, to monitor and, if necessary, control the content of the state wide structure plans to ensure that they accord with the proposals in the NPP. This is not going to be an easy task as anecdotal evidence suggests that the first state wide structure plans prepared under the new legislation consist of a 'stitching together' of the previous local planning authority based structure plans. It seems that • strategic planning as a concept is not fully understood, which is surprising given the existence of perfectly sound strategic plans in Johor (the Johor Operational Master Plan 1996) and Penang (Penang into the 21st Century) • the importance of the strategic hierarchical approach where the level above (NPP in this case) constraints the level below (state wide structure plans) It is interesting to note that since the 2001 reforms were introduced the federal government has introduced an innovative new measure to deal with the planning and implementation of development in the three Regional Growth Conurbations established in the Ninth Malaysia Plan. By act of parliament three regional development authorities are to be established to produce comprehensive development plans for their region (CDP), covering physical, economic, social, commercial and regulatory plans. A major government linked private company is to be given the responsibility in each region for producing and overseeing the implementation of these comprenhensive development plans. One company was appointed by the Ninth Malaysia Plan (Khazanah Nasional); the other two were appointed by Cabinet decision. To date the South Johor Economic Region (SJER) has been set up by act of parliament and the CDP for the area has been produced by Khazanah Nasional. The plan demonstrates an innovative approach to plan making in that following the identification of the main strategic trusts to be adopted in developing the region the plan then adopts a sophisticated zoning system, reminiscent of the old Town Board Enactment master plans, to control implementation of development. Some might argue that this is a retrograde and reactionary step away from

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the so called flexibility of the structure and local plan system. An alternative view is that it is a radical and worthwhile attempt to minimize the lengthy, bureaucratic, cumbersome and costly development control process with a system that can easily be understood by inward investors and which gives a very clear indication of whether or not their development proposals are likely to be acceptable. Such a system, which gives investors certainty, will be welcomed by them. The principle of this approach adopted by the federal government is not altogether new. From the 1990s the federal government began to use ‘special projects’ as a means of ensuring quick and effective development on the ground of major projects. In effect the town and country planning system was bypassed at state level with, for example, the decision to develop KLIA being taken in Cabinet; the decision to build the new administrative capital of Putrajaya being decided through an act of parliament. Both projects were conceived, planned and built in a very short time for such major projects, and the lessons learned by the federal government have undoubtedly informed subsequent changes to the planning system introduced after the reforms of 2001. Given the difficulties of securing a land use planning system that reflects accurately the needs of the policies for social and economic change set out in the Malaysia Plans it was inevitable that the federal government would seek alternative ways of solving the problem. Whilst the RDAs were not entirely successful in achieving their objectives they did point to a way of by-passing the town and country planning system in a way that respected federal/ state responsibilities. i.e. through an act of Parliament. Experience with KLIA and Putrajaya can only have reinforced the benefits of adopting such an approach and the proposals for dealing with the Regional Growth Conurbations will be studied with great interest. To date the federal government has been fully respectful of Johor’s rights and responsibilities, involving it centrally in the management of SJER, and there is every indication that it will continue in this way with Johor and the other states involved with the Northern and Eastern Growth Conurbations. If this initiative is successful then it could have knock-on effects for the planning and development of other areas in the country. This in turn will have implications for the FDTCP in that there will be a need to review what sort of planning system is needed for those parts of the country outwith the ‘special’ areas.

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CONCLUSIONS: PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

Public sector planning is a process that is concerned to make things happen that would not otherwise happen if left to the free play of market forces. It is future oriented, in that it attempts to devise strategies which lead to desired end states, and thus uncertainty is endemic to all planning activities. It is concerned to bring about social, economic and spatial change by influencing the activities of firms, households and people through a mixture of guidance, regulation and incentives. Invariably it deals with a range of complex, inter-related problems. It is re-distributive in that it allocates resources in an effort to implement the chosen strategies. As a consequence it is inherently political involving conflicts of interest between those who ‘win’ and those who ‘lose’ through the application of re-distributive policies. As a process it is highly complex.

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PAPER 1 At the same time the process is further complicated by the fact that • the areas of major concern for public policy planning change with time as social, economic and political priorities change, and. • the general public sees planning as a relatively straightforward activity involving little more than the application of common sense, and as a consequence are unforgiving when, inevitably, planning fails to deliver all that it appears to promise. In the real world the implementation of policies for social, economic and physical change can have intended and unintended consequences and policy intentions can be reshaped in the process of implementation as a consequence of • changing circumstances • inadequacies in the process of implementation • the implementing agency having a different agenda to the policy making body. To cope with uncertainty the world of business adopts a contingency approach where different problems require different solutions. Christensen (1985) similarly advocates the adoption of such an approach to public policy planning on the grounds that “Planning processes can be understood as contingent because they are not pre-determined, but depend instead on problem conditions” (p.66). Strategic planning is another approach towards managing change in the social, economic and physical environment through a hierarchical system of management and control which can also incorporate elements of the contingency approach. Within this hierarchy of levels of policy formulation, each level of planning performs a strategic function for the level below and conversely is constrained by the strategic planning of the level above. This allows the relationships between policy options to be pursued separately at each level, but within a framework which provides an explicit means of handling the vertical relationships between them. The Malaysian planning system operates within such a hierarchical framework, with at the top of the hierarchy • the current setting of national objectives and policies for social, economic and physical change through the National Vision Policy (NVP); the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3), the associated Malaysia Plans and the National Physical Plan (NPP) • the development of regional plans and policies through, at different times, the state economic development plans, and more recently the plans for the Regional Growth Conurbations established in the NPP and the state-wide structure plans • the production of local spatial plans for local authority-wide areas which translate the more general land use proposals of the higher order plans into detailed land use development proposals. Each level in the hierarchy should in theory work within the framework established by the level above. The organizational framework represented by the theoretical view of strategic planning implies that the process is logical and straightforward and that technical analysis, reasoned argument and clear direction will deal with complexity. However in reality the process 34

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• • • •

involves people and their value systems no one approach is applicable in every situation conflict rather than consensus is a more likely component of the process and public policy decisions are inevitably political

All of which are complicating factors for implementation. Yet successful implementation of policies and proposals for change is almost certainly the most important aspect of the public policy process. Since the 1970s there has been an acknowledgement that many of the measures for change introduced through the public policy planning process have in practice achieved far less than the plan proposals aimed for. It would seem that • plans are rarely carried out according to plan • Government either seems unable to put its policy into effect as intended, or finds that its intentions and actions have unexpected or counter-productive outcomes which create new problems. In some situations policy is not implemented as intended (non-implementation) because • the resources available are inadequate and/or • those involved in implementing policies or proposals have been either unconvinced about the value of the policies, and/or uncooperative and/or inefficient, or • their best efforts could not overcome obstacles to effective implementation over which they had little or no control. In other situations (unsuccessful implementation) policies are implemented as intended but nonetheless the policy fails to produce the required results. The reasons for such a failure can be attributed to • bad execution, where the policies have been ineffectively administered • bad policy, which is based on inadequate information, poor reasoning or unrealistic assumptions or • bad luck, where external circumstances prevent the policy from being implemented Formulating policy and implementing that policy should not be separate operations – they should be part of the same process. The way in which policies are implemented influences the actual policy outcome; the probability of successful implementation can be increased if thought is given at the policy design stage to potential problems of implementation. Yet governments generally tend to favour a managerial, top down approach which treats the implementation of policy as separate from policy formulation where policy comes in at the top; is translated into operating instructions and is handed down to the implementers at the bottom of the hierarchy. Inevitably what happens on the ground often falls a long way short of the original aspirations for a number of reasons which are invariably inter-related including • inadequate resources • the policy is a bad policy • the multiplicity of agencies involved in the process • the complexity and difficulty of co-coordinating the multiplicity of tasks • inadequate, or even a lack of, communication • policy ambiguities NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 1 •

conflicts of interest and lack of compliance between the policy makers and the implementers.

Indeed one of the major difficulties in securing successful implementation is that of obtaining compliance where a policy or a programme is to be implemented by agencies whose interests do not necessarily coincide with those of the policy makers. (Barrett and Fudge 1981 p18-19) Thus the planning and implementation process is far from straightforward. It has to deal with • complex, inter-related problems, the proposed solutions to which invariably have unintended consequences • uncertainty, which varies with the nature of the problem being addressed and therefore require different policy approaches • conflicts of interest arising out of the distributive and redistributive nature of the process • problems of implementation deriving from the ‘top down’, hierarchical system of planning and management favoured by governments. Against this theoretical background it is surprising that plans for social and economic change in Malaysia have achieved so much in such a relatively short period of time In seeking to restructure society; redress regional and ethnic social and economic imbalances and at the same time achieve sustained and rapid economic growth it is evident that in Malaysia these issues are inter-related in a complex way. e.g. Without economic growth it is not possible to achieve the desired social restructuring, and/or the reshaping of the regional and ethnic distribution of wealth; regional imbalances are integrally linked with ethnic issues which compound the complexities; the achievement of sustained economic growth is dependent on wider global relationships and how Malaysia adapts to the changing outside world. More local land use level examples illustrate the same point. e.g. the operation of the • commercial property market in KL in the late 1990s was inter-related with the state of the economies in South East Asia, the impact of speculation on the value of the M$, the private investment services on offer in Malaysia, the non-performing loans in the banking sector in Malaysia, International Monetary Fund policies as well as the land use development policies operated by City Hall in KL. • land use planning system and the complexities of implementing proposals for urbanisation where there are significant inter- relationships between the location of economic growth, employment and residential development which in turn have inter-relationships with demands for movement. At the same time these complex inter-relationships are further complicated by the fact that these problems change with time as the social, economic and political priorities of the government of the day change. e.g. post 1957 the concern in Malaya was to develop an economy that would be competitive in the wider world and be less dependent on Britain, through a commercial laissez faire approach; post 1971 the concern was to grow a competitive economy at the same time as eliminating poverty and restructuring society through direct government involvement; post 1986 the role of central government in achieving social and economic change was reduced whilst the contribution of the private sector became much

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more significant; post 1996 the full impact of globalisation was anticipated and the concern became one of stimulating a knowledge based, value added economy through the efforts of the private sector, facilitated by government providing an environment conducive to this type of development, to resource the social changes sought. These changes have had significant knock-on effects for manufacturing, education and training, investment, development and government. Further complexities arise from the inter-relationships between the federal government and the states, which derives from the allocation of responsibilities between these two bodies by the Constitution. In the context of concerns to achieve fundamental social change at the same time as growing the economy, these inter-relationships give rise to problems of dependency relationships and securing compliance between the wishes of the federal government and the aspirations of the states. This can often result in non-implementation or unsuccessful implementation of the proposals put forward by the federal government and has been a particular problem in relation to proposals • to accommodate the population growth anticipated in the Malaysia Plans, with states assuming a far greater population growth for their area than is realistic • the development of land for industrial purposes, with the states again assuming a far greater proportion of this growth for their area than is realistic and • environmental matters such as de-forestation. The states invariably put their interests above the national interest as represented by policies in the Malaysia Plans, and use their constitutional powers over land to implement developments that often ran counter to the policies and proposals in the Malaysia Plans. Given (a) that ‘ Implementation of the NPP is the responsibility of all federal and state agencies.’ (Federal Department of Town and Country Planning 2005a p6-1) and (b) the extensive and complex range of dependency relationships involved, the complexities of securing successful implementation of the policies and proposals contained in the NPP are daunting. If a much higher level of successful implementation is to be achieved then ways need to be found to (a) reduce dependency relationships and (b) secure greater compliance. Within the federal government the work of the Implementation Co-ordination Unit (ICU) is particularly important in ensuring that the dependency relationships between the multiplicity of federal government departments and agencies do not impede the implementation of major policies and programme in the Malaysia Plans. However the ICU has little control over the states with regard to those issues that are designated as ‘state matters’ under the constitution and inevitably problems do arise in these situations. In this context the work of the three Regional Growth Conurbation authorities will be carefully scrutinized to determine the extent to which this new ‘experimental’ approach to planning and implementing development overcomes the problems associated with achieving successful implementation. At a more general level the federal government has attempted to deal with the problems of complexity and dependency relationships through the adoption of a strategic/hierarchical framework for planning and the implementation with at the top the • Vision statements/political reality (NEP etc) followed by the

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PAPER 1 • •

Outline Perspective Plans followed by the Malaysia Plans.

This arrangement has operated very successfully within the area of responsibility of the federal government since 1971 and through the different strategic levels clearly establishes the political commitment to the changes sought; the broad policy objectives and resource implications and the detailed policy, programme and resource proposals. Implicitly it is assumed that this hierarchy is continued within the states, with at the next level the • SEDC economic plans, working within the constraints of the Malaysia Plans, followed by the • structure plan system, which translates the state proposals for social and economic change into demands for land, followed by the • local plans system, which establishes the location and more detailed aspects of the consequential physical development. It is at the state level where the system breaks down. There is a general but not complete conformity between the Malaysian Plans and the SEDC economic development plans, primarily because federal government monies are forthcoming for development initiatives that accord with the Malaysia Plan policies. It is at the physical development level that problems begin. Structure Plan population and industrial development targets are over-estimated by the states and as a consequence unrealistic land allocations are made and often developed. Deforestation, with consequential environmental degradation, is pursued vigourously despite the concerns of the Malaysia Plans with sustainability and the environment.. There is a serious mismatch between the Malaysia Plan proposals for the country as a whole and the cumulative state proposals. Within this strategic/hierarchical framework there is evidence to suggest that the federal government has reacted to uncertainty and acted contingently by adopting Christensen’s (1985) experimental contingency approach for situations where there is agreement on the ends to be achieved but uncertainty as to how to achieve those ends. e.g. in proposing • greater involvement of the private sector in economic development post 1986 and after it became evident that the direct involvement of federal government was not proving as successful as was originally intended • the establishment of a knowledge economy, when it became apparent that competition from countries such as India, China, and Vietnam threatened the manufacturing and export basis of the Malaysian economy • to deal with the impact of the South East Asian financial crisis in 1998 when the M$ was pegged to the US$ and internal financial support mechanisms for the companies affected were put in place. At the time of the introduction of these new policies they were experimental in that it was not known whether they would work. Privatisation has worked; the policies for handling the financial crisis worked; it looks as if the development of the value added knowledge economy will also work. 38

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Similarly • the introduction by the Municipal Council of Penang Island in 1996 of a development control policy based on the British ‘Use Classes Order’ can be considered an experimental response to cope with the uncertainties resulting from the absence of gazetted local plans. Given that the principles of this approach have been adopted by the CDP for SJER it can be assumed that the experiment worked • when the experimental large scale land development and rural urbanisation programmes introduced in the early days of NEP were found not to be working as intended and the impact of privatisation, globalisation and rural-urban migration began to be felt, the policy was modified experimentally to become more human resource based and managerial in emphasis. Indeed, there is evidence to suggest that a contingent approach has been a continuing feature of the Malaysian planning system e.g. • in dealing with uncertainty in the planning and implementation of development in Penang, Munro took ‘best’ and ‘worst’ case scenarios for economic development; PSDP1 and 2 did not formulate targets for change in specific terms but left those targets open-ended, thereby allowing scope for modification. • the Johor Operational Masterplan is more explicit in dealing with contingency by linking policy implementation to annual budgets and review and therefore building in the capacity to amend policy and implementation. There is evidence of the exercise of power in the operation of the Malaysian planning system. e.g.In Penang neither Munro’s nor Nathan’s plans were acceptable to the politicians at local and national levels. If adopted these plans would have inhibited the activities of local politicians in manipulating the land use system. Nationally their adoption would have put pressure on the federal government in its attempts to establish an acceptable land use planning system. As a result power was exercised and neither plan was adopted, although many of the ideas contained in those plans were ‘cherry picked’ in later plans for Penang. Similarly the issue of translating the socio-economic policies and proposals for change in the Malaysia Plans into realistic land use development proposals has been the subject of a power struggle between the federal government and the states. The Fifth Malaysia Plan proposed to introduce a National Physical Plan which would resolve this issue but the proposal never materialised, presumably as a result of opposition from the states as the proposal threatened their power in connection with matters relating to land. Inevitably this issue resurfaced again in the Eighth Malaysia Plan, and on this occasion radical reform to the town and country planning system was implemented through the Town and Country Planning Act 2001. The power of the federal government prevailed. The federal government has attempted to remove as much uncertainty as possible from a number of land use planning and implementation issues by using its power to reduce the uncertainties associated with a number of projects e.g. in developing KLIA the federal government used its power through Cabinet to impose a decision on the Selangor and Melaka state governments to locate the new airport at Sepang. Similarly in connection with Putrajaya the federal government used its power through an act of parliament to impose a decision on NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 1 the Selangor state government to locate the new administrative capital midway between KL and KLIA. At the same time these decisions created conditions for successful implementation by reducing the dependency relations in the approval and implementation process. In taking these actions the federal government acted contingently and removed as much uncertainty as possible from both situations, and set the development process in Christiansen’s ‘programming category’ of agreed goal and known technology. A slightly different approach has been adopted by the federal government in its handling of the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC). Here it has • in part used its power and acted unilaterally in planning and implementing strategic projects that are key to the success of the MSC - KLIA, KLCC/Petronas Towers, Putrajaya - and is resourcing the IT/multimedia infrastructure and • in part has persuaded the five local authorities involved in the area – of the benefits to be derived from successfully implementing MSC and – to undertake their formal role in producing and controlling the implementation of local plans and proposals for associated residential, industrial and recreational development. e.g. a local plan for Airport City. In many ways this is understandable in that while broad agreement has been reached between the federal government, local authorities and the private sector on the goal to be achieved by the MSC the means of achieving that goal are by no means certain. Thus in Christiansen’s terms an experimental approach has been adopted in attempting to secure the change sought through the implementation of experimental development projects that are seen to be key in attracting the type of IT/multimedia developments sought by the MSC. e.g. Cyberjaya is being constructed as a privately funded initiative to develop Malaysia’s multimedia industry in a world class living and working environment; new aviation linked industries are being introduced in the Airport City; Putrajaya has been developed as an intelligent city. These projects are key to the success of MSC. If the experimental MSC does not work then these ‘trigger’ projects can stand alone. Under this arrangement the dependency relationships which can so bedevil successful implementation are almost self-contained. Perhaps the most interesting new initiative on the part of the federal government, involving the use of power and addressing contingency, has been its decision to establish by acts of parliament single authorities linked to private companies to plan and implement policies and proposals for socio-economic and physical development of the three Regional Growth Conurbations. If the way in which SJER is operating is to be the model for the other two Regional Growth Conurbations then the federal government is clearly intent on removing as much uncertainty as possible from the development processes in those areas by • producing the strategic plan for the area • using a zoning approach to development control within the area as opposed to the more flexible approach associated that the structure plan/local plan system and • establishing a single authority for overseeing the development process, including the implementation of development control.

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If this project succeeds it is likely that similar initiatives will be introduced for other projects, as and when necessary, with profound consequences for the town and country planning system. The proposals for planning and managing change in SJER also accentuate the complex interrelated nature of the problems faced by the public sector in its efforts to implement socioeconomic change. On the one hand the federal government is concerned to ensure that socioeconomic change in the region is implemented through a centrally controlled organisation (IRDA) which if successful will inevitably usurp some of the powers of Johor state in relation to land and town and country planning. At the same time the IRDA is required to preserve the constitutional rights of Johor on land and town and country planning matters. It is the intention of the federal government that by adopting these radical administrative and executive reforms for the key economic development regions in PM uncertainty will be reduced and dependency relationships minimised. These reforms should also ensure that • the socio- economic goals set for these regions in the Malaysia Plans should be "followed through" either through the work of the ‘special authority or project’ system or through the structure and local plans produced at state and local authority levels • the over optimistic estimates of economic growth at state level should be curtailed • there is greater control of those developments that might despoil the physical environment However the use of special executive powers through Cabinet or act of parliament for ‘special projects’, whilst improving the chances of successful implementation, places a question mark over the long term role of the structure and local plan system. The future of the planning system in PM is uncertain, but no more uncertain than it has been in the past. The indications are that the federal government fully understands the • complexities of the problems facing it • complex nature of the planning and the implementation process • need to adopt a contingent approach in dealing with uncertainty and dependency relationships. It is also conscious of the need to tread carefully in its attempts, for the right reasons, to secure more federal control over matters that constitutionally are in the hands of the states. It will be interesting to see how the system develops over the next ten years. Looking back over the period since the introduction of the new economic policy (1971-2000) the • economy grew at 6.7% pa during NEP and 7% pa during NDP – an impressively high rate of growth • economy was transformed from a predominantly manufacturing base to a knowledge/HiTech based economy, with the private sector latterly taking a more central role in the process • incidence of poverty was significantly reduced from 49.3% in 1970 to 8.1% in 1999 • needs of an additional 12.8 m people were accommodated between 1970-2000 – homes, jobs, education, health and welfare

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PAPER 1 • • •

a major redistribution of population took place - approximately 70% of the population was rural at Independence in 1957; today approximately 70% of the population is urban pressures of urbanisation arising from rural-urban migration and natural increase in the Greater Kuala Lumpur region, Johor, Penang and Perak were accommodated significant improvements were made to the delivery to rural areas of urban services such as water, electricity, health, education and housing in an attempt to redress regional imbalances

These are significant achievements which have been continued during the period of the Eighth and Ninth Malaysia Plans 2001-2010 and indicate quite clearly the efficacy of the national development planning system to anticipate economic developments and to adjust to unforeseen circumstances. Despite the complication of having to operate within a federal structure of government since independence in 1957 the nation has developed from a third world country to a position where it can justifiably aspire to ‘fully developed’ status, however that might be defined.

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REFERENCES •

Barrett S and Fudge C (1981) Examining the policy-action relationship in Barrett S and Fudge C (1981) Policy and Action: Essays on the Implementation of Public Policy; Methuen, London.

Christensen, K.S (1985) Coping with Uncertainty in Planning; Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol 51, No 1 pp 63-73

Davidoff P and Reiner T A (1973) A choice theory of planning in Faludi A (1973) A Reader in Planning Theory; Pergamon, Oxford.

Mat J (1983) Regional Development in West Malaysia: A Comparative Study of JENGKA, DARA and KETENGAH; INTAN, Kuala Lumpur.

New Straits Times (2007) Tracking the Countries Future; 5th January, p1

Pressman J L and Wildavsky A (1984) Implementation 3rd ed, Berkeley, University of California Press

Solesbury W (1981) Strategic Planning: metaphor or method; Policy and Politics 9 (4) pp 419-437

Thomas, Huw (1999) Planning and the Planning Profession, in Greed C Social Town Planning, Routledge, pp 15-28 London.

M. J. Bruton School of City and Regional Planning, Cardiff University, U.K. 5th October 2007

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PAPER 1

The Evolution of Town and Country Planning in Malaysia Professor M J Bruton Cardiff University

Introduction  

44

Full paper circulated Reviews development of the overall planning system in Malaysia Presentation deals with the evolution of Town and Country Planning as part of the overall system Mat Salleh point of view

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Malaysia: The Planning Of A Nation

Planning Problems at Independence 1957 

Imbalanced economic and social structure • •

 

Poverty 3rd World economy • •

Regionally Ethnically

production of primary products support the British economy – tin, rubber and timber

Inadequate and outdated town and country planning and local government structures

Planning Problems post 1957     

National unity and social change Significant population growth Major redistribution of population The need to grow the economy The need to adapt to the changing economic and political conditions in the wider world Environmental issues arising from •

population growth, urbanization and economic development.

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Administrative Problems post 1957 

States responsible for land and implementation of TCP

Number of LPAs (90+)

No Federal involvement in implementation of TCP

Nature of Planning    

Complex and highly inter-related. Unintended consequences Uncertainty is endemic Public policy involves the distribution and/or redistribution of resources • •

46

conflicts of interest/political bargaining

Plans are rarely carried out according to plan.

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Malaysia: The Planning Of A Nation

Overview The Vision or Political

British Colonial

Reality

OEP

Office

Planning at the National Level

Plans for

NEP

NDP

NVP

OPP1

OPP2

OPP3

Plans for

Development Plans

Development Plans

Development Plans

Economic

Economic

Malaysia Plans 1-5

Malaysia Plans 6-7

Malaysia Plans 8-9

Development

Development

National Physical Plan

Planning at the Regional

??

SEDCs (wef1966)

SEDCs

SEDCs

SEDCs

RDAs

RDAs

RDAs

Regional Plans

Regional Plans

Kelang Valley

/Studies

/Studies

Level

Kelang Valley 3 Regional Growth Conurbations

Land Use Planning

TBE Master Plans

TBE Master Plans

TBE Master Plans

Regional Plans

Regional Plans

/Studies

/Studies

TBE Master Plans Structure Plans for States

Structure Plans/

Structure Plans/

Local Plans for

Local Plans for

Local Plans for

Local Auths.

Local Auths.

Local Auths.

Table 1.9 Malaya/Malaysia : Hierarchy of Planning Levels 1947-2010 Note : SEDCs - State Economic Development Corporations; RDAs-Regional Development Authorities TBE_Town Board Enactment 1939; OEP-Old Economic Policy

Evolution of Town and Country Planning : Town Board Enactment 

Town Board Enactment highly influential in TCP • • • • •

Reade TBE 1923; revised 1927 1929 Part IX Sanitary Board Enactment 1939 Part IX Town Board Enactment of FMS 1949 applied to Penang and Melaka Plan showing zones for different land uses; density of development; communications Static, inflexible Master Plans

Only repealed when states adopted 1976 TCP Act •

Complete coverage of PM late 1980s

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PAPER 1

Town and Country Planning Act 1976  

Inadequacies of TBE Structure Plan/Local Plan system Town and Country Planning Act 1976 Borrowed from UK

• •

Local Government Act 1976 90+ LPAs

New system

Involved enormous administrative effort Was technically deficient  SPs not strategic/uniform/different time periods same state LPs produced but not Gazetted Bureaucratic DC system

• •

• •

Federal Government unease - 3MP, 5Mp, 8MP

Reform of the System : 1 

Radical change and sensible amendments 2001 Sensible amendments • • •

Radical change • • •

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Statewide SPs LPA wide LPs State responsible for control of all development Federal Government executive responsibility NPP framework for lower level plans – SP; LP NPPC to approve NPP and advise state governments on implementation

Implementation

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Malaysia: The Planning Of A Nation

Reform of the System : 2 

Regional Growth Conurbations 9MP • •

Act of Parliament/Cabinet decision CDP incorporating physical, social, economic, commercial and regulatory plans Private Company

Special Projects • • •

RDAs KLIA Putrajaya

South Johor Economic Region : 1  

Khazanah Nasional Plan combines strategic planning and elements of TBE with zoning • •

Zoning very sophisticated Provide certainty for inward investors

Concerns to respect federal involvement in state responsibilities

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PAPER 1

South Johor Economic Region : 2

South Johor Economic Region : 3

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Malaysia: The Planning Of A Nation

Where Next ?

Northern and Eastern Regional Growth Conurbations Greater Kuala Lumpur conurbation?

Implications for

• •

Federal/state responsibilities Application of TCP system outwith conurbations

Malaysian system to deal with Malaysian problems designed by Malaysians

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PAPER 1 PAPER SUMMARY 1

INTRODUCTION

2

MAIN POINTS

The paper presenter gave an overview about the development of the overall planning system in Malaysia. The evolution of Town and Country Planning was presented. Planning problems during the Independence (1957) has actually influenced the evolution of town and country planning in this country. a. Public policy issues are complex and highly inter-related and amongst other things include: i. Malaysia inherited an imbalanced economic and social structure regionally and ethnically (race was identified with employment); ii. Poverty and state of the Malaysian economy; and iii. Inadequate and outdated town and country planning and local government systems. b. Planning issues that emerged after 1957 had significantly contributed to improve the planning system. Hierarchical planning system was introduced to deal with changes and complex problems arose and focus was given to address the followings: i. The problem of national unity and social change; ii. Significant increase in population growth (1970-10.8m, 2000-23.3m); iii. Major distribution of population since independence (70% rural, 30% urban), (today 30% rural, 70% urban); iv. The need to boost the economy; v. The need to adapt to the changing economic and political conditions in the wider world, e.g. privatisation, globalisation, hi-tech revolution and knowledge economy had been introduced; and vi. Concerns with environmental issues arising from population growth, urbanisation and economic development. c. Administrative Issues faced after post independence – Three (3) major problems highlighted were: i. States responsible for land and implementation of Town Country Planning, have impeded the efforts of federal government to transform the social and economic development of the country as a whole; ii. The problem which has impeded the Town Country Planning department is the decision in the Local Government Act 1976 to make Local Planning Authority responsible for planning in their area. These were generally very small areas and difficult to produce a strategic plans for those areas; and iii. The lack of the federal involvement in implementation of Town Country Planning. d. Nature of Planning–It is not a simple and general common sense process but in reality it is: i. Complex and highly inter-related; ii. Inevitably in planning, policy introduced in one area has resulted in unintended 52

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consequences in another area, the repeal of the Rent Act in 1956 has had significant unintended consequences in Georgetown for e.g. by repealing of the Rent Act in the effort to generate more income, the result is large populations have to move out because they could not afford to pay the increased rent. That place pressure for the State to provide additional affordable housing to the population, it also reduced the amount of money that was circulating in the Georgetown area to support for small restaurants, stalls, businesses, as that money-reduced businesses were closed and the attraction for central of Georgetown as a vibrant tourist attraction was also reduced; iii. Uncertainty is endemic in planning, we do not know what the future holds; iv. Public policy involves the distribution and/or redistribution of resources as a result conflicts of interest/political arise and people tend to have a bargaining process and finally;and v. Plans are rarely carried out accordingly. And these need to be articulated clearly in Malaysia because a lot of complains about policies introduced have not been implemented. e. Evolution of town and country planning: Town Board Enactment i. Town Board Enactment (TBE) highly influential in town country planning; ii. Reade TBE 1923; revised 1927; iii. 1929 Part IX Sanitary Board Enactment; iv. 1939 Part IX Town Board Enactment of FMS; v. 1949 applied to Penang and Melaka; vi. Plan showing zones for different land uses; density of development; communications; and vii. Static, inflexible Master Plans. The above acts were only repealed when states adopted the 1976 Town Country Planning Act. f.

Due to the inadequacies of the Town Board Enactment Town and Country Planning Act 1976 was introduced and actually was borrowed from the United Kingdom incorporating Structure Plan, Local Plan and development control system. This was intended to overcome previous failings but it was unsuccessful for the reasons that: i. The concept of strategic planning was not fully understood; ii. No attempt was made to adapt the structure and local plan system to Peninsular Malaysia with its federal constitution; iii. The LPA’s established under the TCP act 1976 were too small in area to produce effective structure plans. The system was technically deficient because it is not possible to produce strategic plans for small areas. The plans were too uniform in format and appeared to be similar for various states /whereas it was done at a different time periods; iv. creation of more than 90 local planning authorities for which structure plans and local plans will have to be produced; NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 1 v.

little thought of having more than 90 local planning authorities because the implication on these creation of local planning authorities will have the implications on problems in human resource/man power where there was minimal support from qualified town planners; vi. absorbed an enormous amount of professional and administrative effort within the states where they were produced and at the federal level where they had to be examined and approved; and vii. Local plan produced was delayed in being gazetted so that local authorities were often without a statutory plan whilst the politicians worked to the plan that had been produced but ignored that plan when it did not suit them. g. Federal government had released: 3rd Malaysia Plan, 5th Malaysian Plan and 8th Malaysian Plan. Implicitly expressed by the federal government are the problems of securing a sensible working relationship between the Malaysia Plans and town and country planning system at state level in that: i. Federal government to have executive authority over the control and regulation of aspects of the town and country planning system; ii. Production of the National Physical Plan (NPP). This adds another level in the hierarchy between Malaysia Plan and the Structure Plans; and iii. Establishment of National Physical Planning Council (NPPC) to oversee the production of the NPP and advise the federal and state governments on the implementation of development. h. Reform of the system Radical change and sensible amendments in 2001 to the Town and Country Planning 1976 Act, and the introduction of radical change have resulted in: i. Introduction of state wide structure plans by state director of town and country planning; ii. Allocation of the responsibility to the state for the control of all developments; iii. Introduction of local authority wide local plans which have to be submitted to the state planning committee for approval; iv. Town and Country Planning Department (TCPD) to fulfil requirement decision of local government act to make local authorities responsible of their area; v. Difficulties of Federal Government intervention in town and country planning matters at state level; vi. There is the NPPC to approve NPP and advise state governments on implementation; and vii. The Director General of TCP has been given the significant responsibility. If implemented sensibly, it should improve the contribution of town and country planning to national development planning, but some states were merely going to stitch together the Structure Plans. However, if that were to happen that would not achieve the sort of change that is needed.

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Malaysia: The Planning Of A Nation

i.

Introduction of three (3) Regional Growth Conurbations (RGC) established in the 9 th Malaysia Plan by act of parliament. Three RDCs were established to: i. produce comprehensive development plans for their regions; ii. cover physical, economic, social, commercial and regulatory plans; and iii. link with major private companies so as they can be given the responsibilities in each region.

3

CONCLUSION

There were shortcomings in the way we inherited the British planning system, particularly in the way the first generation of Structure plans were prepared by too many Local Planning Authorities which lacked professional and technical support. Such shortcomings include: a. The nature of planning is complex and highly inter-related; b. Federal government have difficulties in implementing the policies and proposals; c. The areas of major concern for public policy planning change with time as social, economic and political priorities change; and d. The organisational framework at present implies that the process is logical and straightforward and that technical analysis reasoned argument will deal with complexity, but in reality the process involves: i. People and their value system; ii. No one approach is applicable in every situation; iii. Rather than conflict, consensus is a more likely component of the process; and iv. Public policy decisions are inevitable political. Therefore, the paper presenter suggested that the public needs to be educated about the plan to ensure its success. Development is redefined. During the NEP period some changes were made in relation to the development of town planning in Malaysia. Radical changes include giving the federal government some powers on town and country planning at federal level. For example, the state of Selangor has produced a strategic plan to implement policies stated in the National Physical Plan. The state recognises the power of federal government on the implementation of the project at local level. It was only in the 8th Malaysia Plan after the amendment to the 2001 TCP Act, that significant improvement to the system was made and the above became a reality. There are significant achievements which have been continued during the period of the 8th and 9 th Malaysian Plans and indicate quite clearly the efficacy of the national development planning system to anticipate economic developments and to adjust to unforeseen circumstances. Despite complications of having to operate within a federal structure of government since independence in 1957, the nation has developed from a third world country to a position where it can justifiably aspire to fully developed status, however, that might be defined.

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Paper 2


THE EVOLUTION OF INFR ASTRUCTURE PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA 1957 ONWARDS – LESSONS LEARNT (Paper Was Not Presented And Discussed)

Ir. Selvanayagam s/o P. Nagalingam DEPUTY DIRECTOR-GENER AL III PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT, MALAYSIA


PAPER 2 CURRICULUM VITAE

IR. P.N. SELVANAGAM S/O P. NAGALINGAM Ir. P.N Selvanagam is the Director General III of the Public Works Department, Malaysia. He is a professional member of the Institute of Engineers (P.E. MIEM) and the Board of Engineers Malaysia. He started his career as the Structural Design Engineer of the Public Works Department in 1975 and involved in the preparation of structural drawings for restorative and rehabilitative works. He also reviewed structural designs prepared by contemporary engineers during his tenure at the Structural unit, PWD HQ Kuala Lumpur. He worked as a district engineer in Mersing, Johor in 1977-1978 and supervised the implementation and construction of buildings, roads and water supply projects for the area. Ir. P.N Selvanagam was then posted to the National Housing Department in 1978-1980 as the executive engineer. He assisted in the coordination, liaisoning and planning with the architects, state governments and local authorities on low cost housing requirements. He also carried out detailed structural, sewerage, plumbing and civil works design together with the preparation of construction drawings. In September 1980, IR. P.N. Selvanagam served as the director of engineering at the Department of Civil Aviation (DCA) and was involved in the setting up of engineering division of the department. He was given the task to carry out a medium scale development works (projects) together with airport development works and developed engineering expertise in the area of airport planning and design. Ir. P.N Selvanagam also served as the Senior Assistant Director for the Kementerian Pertahanan and involved in the civil and structural designs for security related government ministries in Malaysia. He was later appointed as the Director of Research and Development Branch of PWD on the 1st November 2004 and was given the responsibility to plan and formulate strategies for human competence development in the area of civil engineering. Ir. P.N Selvanagam graduated from the University of Malaya (B.E. (Hons), and University of Melbourne (Master in Engineering Science (M.Eng.Sc.) specializing in Geotechnical and Structural Engineering. He is also certiďŹ ed as lead auditor for ISO 9000 Quality Systems.

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FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


The Evolution Of Infrastructure Planning And Development In Malaysia 1957 Onwards – Lessons Learnt

THE EVOLUTION OF INFRASTRUCTURE PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA 1957 ONWARDS – LESSONS LEARNT By: Ir. Selvanayagam s/o P. Nagalingam Deputy Director-General III Public Works Department, Malaysia

1

INTRODUCTION

On 31st August 1957, Malaya gained independence from the British. The political changes of the independence Of Malaya brought little effect on the Public Works Department (PWD) Malaysia. For more than 100 years, Public Works Department (PWD) Malaysia touched many aspects of the nation’s life. The organization at Headquarters was divided into a number of specialist branches, each Branch Head be responsible to Director for administration and execution of all works connected with his branch whether it was carried out by state organization or directly by Federal Headquarters We had provided infrastructure and conducive environment for living, working, playing, and praying. We built roads as a means of communications, and they have been the main catalyst in the socio-economic development of the country. PWD is also responsible for the construction and maintenance of all public water supplies in the Federation with the exception of the supplies serving Penang and Malacca which is maintained by the City and Municipal authorities respectively. We supplied safe water and had contributed in building a healthy and progressive nation. Architecture has been playing a major role in our nation building. Some buildings have been accepted as important landmarks in our country and have enriched the Malaysian architectural heritage. We are proud to have contributed significantly in this development.

2

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES (NDP) & STRATEGIES

National development planning is deliberate, comprehensive time-specific effort, initiated and sustained by the Central Government for the purpose of creating and maintaining conditions that will accelerate economic growth and social development in the country under the purview of Economic Planning Unit (EPU). National development in Malaysia has its origins in the first Five-Year Development Plan which was introduced in 1955. Since then we have reached the 9 th Malaysian Plan, each with objectives consistent with the changing requirements of the Malaysian socio-political-economic situation. The National Development policy (NDP) served as an extension of the New Economic policy (NEP) and was launched on the 17th June 1991. The primary objective of this policy is to enhance our racial unity so that it could strengthen our social and politic stability. This will ensure our economy to develop without hindrance from social and political instability. The National Development policy is a strategy to make Malaysia an advance nation in all aspects: social justice, values, ethics and morality, quality of life, political stability government administration and economy and as well as national solidarity. NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 2 Objectives The objective of NDP during the period of the Outline Perspective Plan 2 (OPP2) is to attain a balanced development in order to establish a more united and just society. Building upon the on-going thrust of the NEP in eradicating poverty and restructuring society, the NDP will encompass the following critical aspects: • Creating equality between economic development and distribution of wealth. • Eliminate social and economic inequality among the people of Malaysia. • Ensure balanced development among the main economic sectors so that there is optimum growth. • National integration must be encouraged and increased so that social and economic in equality among the urban and rural area can be minimized. • To build a society that is progressive so that all the people can live peacefully besides possessing positive social and spiritual values and are proud of the country. • Make science and technology an important aspect in the development of our country’s socio-economy. Policy

Period

Objectives

Malaya Plan 1

1956-1960

• •

Reduce rural poverty Diversify economic activities

Malaya Plan 2

1961-1965

Emphasize on large-scale development

Malaysia Plan 1

1966-1970

Large-scale development covering all sectors of the economy

Malaysia Plan 2 to Malaysia Plan 5

1971-1990 OPP1

• •

Eradicate poverty Restructure society

Malaysia Plan 6 to Malaysia Plan 7

1991-2000 OPP2

• •

Eradicate poverty among the poorest Faster growth of a trading and industrialized Bumiputera society Foster development of a united society

• Malaysia Plan 8 to Malaysia Plan 9

2001-2010 OPP3

• • • • • • • •

60

Pursuit of sound economic management & ensuring prudent fiscal and monitory policies Strengthen and streamline strategies & program to ensure balanced participation within the ethnic and income groups. Expand usage of ICT To move the economy up the value chain To raise capacity for knowledge and innovation and nurture ‘first class mentality’. To address persistent socio-economic inequalities constructively & productively To improve the standard & sustainability of quality of life To strengthen the institutional and implementation capacity

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


The Evolution Of Infrastructure Planning And Development In Malaysia 1957 Onwards – Lessons Learnt

The experience of socioeconomic development under the OPP1 has shown that nation building is a complex task. Despite commendable performance in achieving the two-pronged strategy of eradicating poverty and restructuring society under the NEP, the scope for further efforts towards accomplishing this strategy is still considerable. The OPP2 and OPP3 is build upon these accomplishments to further foster the achievement of the overriding objective of national unity. The overall thrust of the NDP is balanced development within the framework of rapid growth with equity in order to establish a more united and just society. The NDP will seek to maximize economic growth through policies which will allow for the free play of the market mechanism and the active participation of the private sector in the spirit of Malaysia Incorporated. Whilst the major source of growth will be through the expansion of the private sector, the role of the Government and public sector agencies will continue to be necessary under the NDP to effectively implement the distributional objectives as well as bring about widespread improvements in living standards and quality of life. This role, however, must be undertaken within the context of prudent management of resources so that the public sector will contribute to the financial and economic stability of the economy.

Overview to Vision 2020 “ By the year 2020, Malaysia can be a developed nation, with a confident Malaysian society, infused by strong moral and ethical values, living in a society that is democratic, liberal and tolerant, caring, economically just and equitable, progressive and prosperous, and in full possession of an economy that is competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient.” That is the Vision 2020. It contains thoughts on the future course of our nation and how we should go about to attain the objective of developing Malaysia into an industrialized country and also broad policies encompassing various aspects and outline some measures that should be in place in the shorter term so that the foundations can be laid for the long journey towards the ultimate objective. It stresses on a balance growth with emphasis on wealth creation and high quality life by the year 2020. Malaysia aims to be a united nation that is fully developed in all aspects – economically, socially, spiritually, psychologically and culturally. The vision identifies nine challenges that have to be overcome before the vision can be achieved. One of the objectives in National Physical Planning is to rationalise spatial planning for economic efficiency and global competitiveness. In order to sustain high level of investments of around 7.0% per annum necessary to achieve developed nation status by 2020 the country must economically efficient and globally competitive over the plan period of Vision 2020. From the physical planning perspective it would involve the creation of a quality living environment with an integrated and efficient infrastructure. The status of the developed country can be achieved by means of excellent infrastructure, buildings, residential, industrial parks, recreational areas, and other facilities. Therefore, the PWD is becoming a major catalyst to achieving Vision 2020. NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 2 3

ENABLING ENVIRONMENT FOR PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION – i.e. Public-Private Partnership (PPP)

Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) became important to meet the growing demand for infrastructure services as available funding from traditional sources fell short of needs. PPPs became attractive to the government as this arrangement may not require immediate cash spending and relief from the cost of design and construction. To promote PPPs the government has established a few national and sectoral policies and among those as listed below: Malaysia Incorporated The Malaysia Incorporated concept was first announced in 1983 and it represents a new way of approaching the task of national development. The necessity for the Malaysia Incorporated arose when there were public and private sector that failed to cooperate in terms of the organization’s objectives and goals and the lack of communications between the two sectors. Both sectors will reap benefit through such cooperation in the form of higher profit and growth for the private sector and higher revenue collected for the government. To operationalise this concept, several mechanisms were established: • Deregulation of cumbersome bureaucratic rules and regulations; • Improving the delivery system; • Institutionalizing the consultative machinery between the public and private sectors; • Establishing smart partnership programmes in nation building efforts between the private and public sectors; • Pursuing privatization. The main objective of Malaysia Incorporated is that private and the government should work closely together in a manner where both of these sectors will gain benefits from this cooperation. As a result of all measures taken, numerous administrative improvements in the delivery of services from the public to the private sector have been introduced including one-stop centers for licensing, reduction of procession procedures, setting up of better service counters for queries and problems and etc. Based on the responses and consequent initiatives by both the public and the private sectors within the ambit of Malaysia Incorporated, it is undeniable that the intersectoral collaborative mechanism has contributed to the economic success of Malaysia. A productive public-private sector partnership will take us a long way toward becoming a fully developed nation by year 2020. Look East-policy This policy is designed to emulate the ways of the developed countries in the East such as Japan and South Korea. The secret of the Japanese success and its remarkable development lies in its labour ethics, morale and management capability. The ‘Look East’ was a frame work for learning from successful Japanese and South Koreans, and adapting some of the applicable values into Malaysian needs. The main objective of this policy is to increase the quality of management among the workers

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The Evolution Of Infrastructure Planning And Development In Malaysia 1957 Onwards – Lessons Learnt

as well as creating a community with good value and positive working ethics with the aim of accelerating Malaysia’s development. PWD have benefited a lot from this policy in improving our technical knowledge in engineering technology and construction management. It has also changed our way of thinking in planning and implementing infrastructure works in this country. Design & Build Contract Although various forms of contracts are available now to implement government projects but each type of contracts have its own merits. The type of contract selected and used to implement the named project is based own certain characteristic of the project itself e.g. complexity of the project, cost and time frame and etc. Design & Build contract is where PWD appoints a successful contractor named by Ministry of Finance to design and construct the said project. Partnership Models The most suitable model should be selected taking into account country’s political, legal and socio-cultural circumstances and the financial and technical features of the projects and sectors concerned. Clear policy guidelines of the government are necessary on type of partnerships for different types of projects. Some type pf PPPs models are very complex. Attention may be placed on more practical forms of private participation aimed at increasing the efficiency of existing assets through improved operation and modernization. (Partnerships Models Diagram refer Appendix C)

4

FINANCING OF INFRASTRUCTURE

Risks and Opportunities for 9MP Projects Funded through PFIs Given the fiscal constraints faced the government and the large financing requirements to implement the 9MP, the government has promoted the concept of private financing initiatives (PFI). The PFI is being introduced in the 9MP to offer more opportunities for private sector participation, particularly the ‘Bumiputeras’, while safeguarding consumer interests and enhancing economic efficiency and productivity, in • management, operations and maintenance to improve the delivery of infrastructure facilities and public services, which include education and training; • development of infrastructure and utilities; and • privatised projects and entities. The PFI involves several or all of the following elements as elaborated in the 9MP document: • transfer to the private sector the responsibility to finance and manage a package of capital investment and services including the construction, management, maintenance, refurbishment and replacement of public sector asset such as buildings, infrastructure, equipment and other facilities, which creates a stand alone business. • creation of asset and delivery of a service by the private sector to the public sector client

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PAPER 2

• • • • •

with clear output specifications, maintenance, performance indicators and distribution of risks. payment to the private sector will be in the form of lease rental charges, corresponding to the level, quality and timeliness of the service provision throughout the concession period. lease rental payment is structured to guarantee a total return to the concessionaire’s capital investment expenditures including financing cost repayment and profit to investment. asset and facilities will be transferred to the public sector at the end of the concession period. long term financing schemes established through local financial institutions, including the Employees Provident Fund. prospective companies must furnish evidence of technical and management expertise and have access to capital, including having a minimum paid-up capital of RM250,000 when proposing a project and provide documentary proof of financial support within 12 months upon signing of an agreement. project viability and sustainability will be based upon optimal distribution of risks between the public and private sectors with the government continuing to facilitate project implementation, particularly through legislation and land cost support while the private sector's capability will be utilized in managing risks associated with design, construction, operations and maintenance.

Challenges Investor risk aversion deterring investors from investing in certain projects that are not highly rated can put a damper on investment activity and does pose a risk to the financing of these projects through this method. That is why it is imperative that any risks that are apparent given the nature of the project should be mitigated as early on as the structuring of the terms of debt issuance so as to obtain an adequate rating. As mentioned earlier, the Malaysian bond market is maturing gradually, consequently certain features such as the investor risk aversion and lack of avenues for investors who wish to trade their securities (secondary market) will be less of an impediment to investment activity in the long run. There is also the notion of insufficient private funds in the domestic market to satisfy all infrastructure needs of the economy. Thus, there have been on-going efforts to seek Official Development Assistance (ODA) and to attract foreign fund inflow into the capital market or through equity stakes in infrastructure projects, in order to expand the supply of funds. More transparency in the tender process is required in order to boost investor confidence to increase their participation in these Government-Linked infrastructure projects. This uncertainty or level of imperfect information can pose challenges in raising finance. Thus, credible concessionaires would be a good signal to the market of the viability of the project. In all infrastructure projects, there are always risks concerned with the stability of the sector in which the infrastructure project is positioned in, which need to be accounted for. If sufficient covenants and credit support mechanisms are put in place in the terms of finance structuring and in any legal aspects of the contract, then most of this risk should be satisfactorily mitigated.

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The Evolution Of Infrastructure Planning And Development In Malaysia 1957 Onwards – Lessons Learnt

Diagram below shows: Risks and Opportunities for 9MP projects to be financed under PFI CHALLENGES

OPPORTUNITIES

Investor risk aversion Use of Islamic-Type financing structures

Under-developed capital market Illiquid secondary market Lack of domestic investment funds and the challenge to raise level offoreign participation

Insufficient transparency in tender process Sector-specific market challenges

Under-developed capital market

Avenues for foreign financing through multilateral organizations

Less burden on Government budgets in terms of development expenditure Higher level of private participation in terms of economic activity as well as financing

Opportunities Islamic Financing is no longer a niche product in our market but has become widely used and is seen to be well-suited for infrastructure financing. Certain structures such as the “Istisna” are especially ideal for projects that have construction risk which is one of the main characteristics of infrastructure financing. There is an ample opportunity for project sponsors to tap into this market for funding especially from the pool of ‘Petro’-dollars coming in from Arab nations. Furthermore, other foreign sources of financing should see this sector as one that is a stable investment with potentially high returns. Risk can be mitigated by working through or in collaboration with multilateral agencies such as JBIC and MIGA. The Government is no longer the sole bearer of risk with regards to the implementation of these infrastructure projects when they become open to Private Financing Initiatives; thus this will also relieve pressure on the Government budget and allocation of funds may be allocated to other areas that generate higher marginal social benefits to society. Finally, greater participation by private entities both through direct financing or the actual implementation of projects will create greater economic activity in terms of private investment and accelerate economic growth and income across the economy. This is turn will maximize returns to investors. Hence, the investment in infrastructure projects not only creates opportunities through the direct returns that can be derived from them, but also the security and robustness of these returns to investors through the multiplier effects that they create.

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PAPER 2 Forward Commitment (Deferred Payment) Some government projects are implemented with forward commitment to the contractor to undertake and execute projects which are urgently to be implemented. The contractor agrees to undertake the governments offer to the turnkey design, build & deferred payment schemes. There are only limited contractor with good financing record and reputable cash flow to execute this kind of schemes. Poor planning and the selection of contractor will jeopardise the whole scheme. Among the projects that was proposed for turnkey deferred payment scheme is as listed below: • South Johor Expressway • Lingkaran Kinrara Petaling Jaya

5

MEGA PROJECTS OF INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT

PWD have been involved and played a major role in selective mega projects like: • Kuala Lumpur International Airport • CIQ Complex at Tg.Pelepas.Johor. • Gerbang Selatan CIQ Complex, Johor. • Hospital Sg.Buloh. Selangor. • Terengganu International Airport Terminal • ‘Masjid Wilayah’ Kuala Lumpur. • ‘Kompleks Mahkamah Jalan Duta’ Kuala Lumpur. • East Coast Highway (Kuantan-Terengganu/Kelantan)

6

GOVERNMENT COMMITMENT AND SUPPORT

The Public Works Department was formed with the objective of developing infrastructure works and public utilities to meet the needs of the nation. With emergence of the private construction firms in the country, the PWD started to employ outside contractors to undertake the construction works. In turn, the PWD focuses more on the planning, design, project management and maintenance roles of these development projects. Generally, the PWD of Malaysia’s existing activities are social in nature, by advising the Government on the implementation of development projects; and planning, designing and supervising construction projects of the various government ministries and agencies, government departments and statutory bodies. As a government agency, PWD is the lead technical and implementation agency that was entrusted by the government to play an important role in providing infrastructure works in the process of nation building.

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The Evolution Of Infrastructure Planning And Development In Malaysia 1957 Onwards – Lessons Learnt

7

LESSONS LEARNT

Privatization Program Malaysia’s privatization program which began in 1983, has been praised by some, while others have been less impressed. The return of privatized Indah Water Konsortium Sdn. Bhd.(IWK) infrastructure after seven years to government hands after it had been relinquished to the private sector. Right from the beginning the privatized national sewerage scheme was plagued with controversy from the selection of a concession company, charge structure and performance to ownership changes. The award of the infrastructure facility was made in the absence of competition. The change structure accepted by the government was never revealed completely to the public. Inefficiencies and management blunders aggravated public sentiment. The change of ownership three times in as many years gave the impression of industrialists out to make quick money at the expense of public welfare. Despite copious government assistant, IWK the concession holder become feasible as an independent operating company. It provides salutary lessons of what to avoid when structuring a privatization company. Today, IWK a national sewerage company wholly owned by the Minister of Finance Incorporated, is responsible for providing sewerage services to almost 20 million users, operating and maintaining over 9,100 public sewerage treatment plants and 16,000 km networks of sewerage pipelines, and providing scheduled desludging services to over 400,000 individual septic tanks in Malaysia since 1994. Following the poor performance and planning of the privatization program, similarly there are also failures of infrastructure projects due to poor planning and implementation. Among these projects most were eventually handed back to PWD for remedial measures and completion of the project. Direct Negotiation Contract One of the major lessons learnt is thru the problems of MATRADE building. Problem of MATRADE building began with direct negotiation decision by the government. Problems that plagued the Malaysian External Trade Corporation (MATRADE) building began after the Finance Ministry decided to award the construction contract through direct negotiation to a particular contractor in 1994. The project, originally estimated to cost RM167 million and was supposed to be completed in 1997 but it was finally completed only in 2005. The delays and repairs have increased the cost to RM287.5 million. Monitoring Projects Through Project Management Consultant (PMC) Under the 8th Malaysian Plan (2001-2005), the Education Ministry of Malaysia has implemented School Computer Laboratory construction in all the states in Malaysia. It is and urgent project needed to be implemented fast and requested the Finance Ministry to engage PMCs to conduct the exercise in 1999. Project Management consultants from the private sector were appointed and placed directly under the Project Director from the Education Ministry. Private sector PMCs were engaged to give their technical advice to the appointed design & build contractors by the Finance Ministry.

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PAPER 2 A lot of problems were faced by the Education Ministry during the implementation of these projects. The project was delayed and also a lot of defects were discovered after the buildings were completed and handed over to the client. Finance Ministry terminated the services provided by the PMCs sometime early 2003 when a lot of problem were faced by the client. Among those reasons contribute to the failure of the PMCs were as follows: • Late payment to the contractors by PMCs and the problem with unresolved variation orders. • To many projects but only managed by four appointed PMCs by the government. • There is no sufficient technical personal in PMCs organization. The number (ratio) of technical staff is not balance with the number of projects managed by each PMC. There is also no technical staff with some PMC organization. • PMCs appointed don’ have the experience to manage projects at this scale. • PMCs which were appointed don’t have any liability directly to the client. • The professional fees paid to PMCs were very costly but the staffing were to little to manage all projects given to them. PWD was instructed to step in and look into these problems by the government. In east coast alone, PWD found 574 out of 600 laboratories was not safe to be occupied. This was only discovered after two years it was handed over to the client. PWD have taken immediate remedial measures to rectify and prevent from any mishaps happening. Strategies for Infrastructure Development • Some key issues (Lessons Learnt) Shortfall after every 5 years Malaysian Plan Reasons: – Brief formulation was not well coordinated – Insufficient allocation for infrastructure works – Unsuitable sites for projects – PWD have never been involved in the initial planning stage – Poor coordination at implementation stage •

Improvements On Project Planning & Implementation (Change In Direction) Reasons: – Involvement at a very early stage with clients with brief formulation and planning strategies on implementation – Project Monitoring And Reporting: SKALA system (Refer Appendix A) – Site Monitoring: I- Supervision (Refer Appendix B) – Quality management and control: SPK (ISO 9001)

The PWD places very strong emphasis on project monitoring to ensure that project infrastructure planning and development is implemented in tandem with the objectives as well as strategies of the National Development Policy and the Five-Year Development Plans. By doing so, PWD is able to identify and remedy any failure or delay in the implementation of the program/project, thus saving project cost. 68

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The Evolution Of Infrastructure Planning And Development In Malaysia 1957 Onwards – Lessons Learnt

The project monitoring identifies and remedies failures and delays in the implementation of the development activities and measures the physical and monetary performance against the achievement of the objectives. A good monitoring system also ensures accountability and transparency on the part of implementing agencies (PWD), provides an avenue for remedial actions and ensures that programs and projects are implemented as scheduled, within specified cost.

8

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Planning may be thought of as a process for determining appropriate future action through a sequence of choices. To make these choices under uncertain conditions, planners need to collect comprehensive information about the past, the present and the future. In discussing the relationship between planning and information, it can be argued, that planning can be perceived as gathering information to reduce uncertainty. Hence, planning practice depends heavily on the availability and quality of information. Moreover, the quality of planning and its decision process can be substantially improved when the required information is handled appropriately and efficiently. Clearly than the effective planning requires descriptive, predictive and prescriptive information input (Webster 1993; 1994). As planning is always oriented towards the future, forecasting becomes a necessary part of it. Following through the planning process, planners attempt to understand and define current issues, foresee future developments, and propose feasible plans based on available information. PWD can play an important role as a partner in this process of planning by providing valuable technical information in decision making. Successful and effective implementation of projects undertaken by PWD also needs cooperation from all parties involved. PWD would also like to be involved and be a contributing partner in the planning and decision making at the highest level/central agencies. Effective communication between government agencies at this level is crucial in achieving our set vision, mission and strategy. There are challenges for us to resolve in the future. We must be customer focus in implementing projects since our clients are more sophisticated than before and they really know what are their needs and requirements. Greeneries, pollution and environmental issues have to be considered in the planning and during implementation stage. REFERENCES • • •

Economic Planning Unit (Prime Minister’s Department), 2006. Ninth Malaysia Plan. Estache, A. and AnaGoicoechea, 2005. A “Research” Database on Infrastructure Economic Performance,” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3643, June 2005. Lee, Cassey, 2004. Competition Policy in Malaysia

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Paper 3


IMPACT OF PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND NATUR AL RESOURCES AND ITS CORRELATION TO NATUR AL DISASTERS

Y. Bhg Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh Mohd. Nor COUNCIL MEMBER OF MALAYSIA NATURE SOCIETY (MNS)


PAPER 3 CURRICULUM VITAE

DATO’ SERI DR. SALLEH MOHD. NOR Born in Negeri Sembilan in 1940, Salleh had his early education in Sekolah Rendah Kebangsaan Inas, Tuanku Muhammad School, Kuala Pilah and the Royal Military College, Port Dickson. He then obtained a B.Sc. Forestry at Adelaide University and a Diploma in Forestry from the Australian Forestry School, Canberra on a Colombo Plan scholarship in 1964. He joined the Forestry Department, Peninsular Malaysia where he rose to head the Forest Inventory Unit and was responsible for the first national forest inventory. He then pursued a Diploma in Photo Interpretation at The International Center for Aerial Survey and Earth Sciences in Delft, Holland in 1969, and later a M.Sc. and Ph.D. at Michigan State University in 1974 and 1977 in Forest Inventory and Forest Management respectively. In 1994, he followed a three month Advanced Management Program at Harvard Business School, USA. He also followed a course in Forest law at the Police College in Kuala Kubu Bahru. In 1977, he was appointed the Director of the Forest Research Institute (FRI) Kepong and when it became a statutory body as the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM) in 1985, Salleh became its first Director General, until he retired in 1995. He was an Adjunct Professor at University Putra Malaysia from 1994 until 1996 and an Adjunct Professor at University Malaysia Sabah from 2001 until 2004. Salleh is active in many organizations both locally and internationally, notably as President of the Malaysian Nature Society 1978 to 2006, and President of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) from 1991 to 1995. He was the first President of IUFRO from outside Europe and North America in 100 years history of IUFRO. He was also a member of the inaugural Malaysian Human Rights Commission (SUHAKAM) from April 2000 to 2002. Internationally, he is a member of the Board of Forest Trends. He was a member of the Malaysian Business Council and the Second National Economic Consultative Council (MAPEN II). He has been a member of the National Environment Quality Council since 1995. He is also a member of the Advisory Committees of the National Science Center, the National Planetarium and the National Park, and the Programme Advisory Committee and Editorial Committee of the Malaysian Palm Oil Board. He had been active internationally and had been founder Chairman of the Asia Pacific Association of Forest Research Institutions (APAFRI), member of the Panel of Eminent Experts on Ethics in Food and Agricultural of FAO (2000), the Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel of the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), the inaugural Chairman of the IUCN East Asia Group on the Sustainable Use Initiative, member of the inaugural Board of Trustees of the International Network on Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR), member of the inaugural board of the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Chairman of the FAO High- Level - Panel of External Experts on Forestry (1998) and a member of the Independent Panel to review the Tropical Forestry Action Plan (TFAP) in 1998.

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He was appointed Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Kolej University Terengganu (KUT) on 1st April 2001, which later became University College of Science and Technology (KUSTEM) and now known as University Malaysia Terengganu (UMT). His term as Chairman ended at the end of March 2007. During the period under his Chairmanship, he oversaw the transition of that Institution into a full-fledged University, together with changes in the faculties and curricula. Salleh was awarded the D.S.N.S. by the Yang DiPertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan (1989), the Inaugural Langkawi Award (1991), the Third World Network of Scientific Organisation Award (1991), the National Science Award (1993), the Asean Achievement Award for Environment (1995), a P.J.N. from the Yang Di-Pertuan Agong in 2002, and a D.S.M.Z by the Sultan of Terengganu (2005), and a S.P.M.P. with the title “ Dato’ Seri” from the Sultan of Perak (2006). He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate Degree from University Kebangsaan Malaysia (1992) and the University of Aberdeen (1993). He was made an Honorary Member of the American Society of Foresters (1991) and IUFRO (1999) and a Fellow of the Malaysian Scientific Association in 2005. He was elected as Inaugural Chairman of Malaysian Bio Organization (MBIO) from 2003 until 2006. He was elected an Inaugural Fellow, past Vice President and currently Secretary-General of the Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM). He was elected a Senior Fellow of ASM in April 2004 and entitled to use the title “Academician” and a life long modest honorarium. He is also active in a number of other Non – Government Organization. He has been a member of the Yayasan DiRaja Sultan Mizan (Sultan Mizan Royal Foundation) since its formation in 1st May 2005 with the Yang DiPertuan Agung as its Chairman. Salleh was elected as its Deputy Chairman in 2006. Under the Foundation, Salleh is responsible for establishing a Botanical Garden in Terengganu. Since the 1st July 2007, he was appointed the Chief Executive Officer of the World Endurance Championship 2007 – 2008, which the Foundation has been given the honour to organize by the International Equestrian Federation, including organizing the Trial Run, the Sultan’s Cup Terengganu Endur ance Challenge 2007, in November 2007. He also manages a contract R&D Company on plant biotechnology and a forestry consultancy business in forest inventory and sustainable management of forests. He is passionate on the environment and regularly gives talks and lectures on conservation. He is happily married to Datin Seri Habibah Alias and are blessed with three children and five grandchildren. Suite 5.05, No: 338 Jln Tuanku Abd. Rahman 50100 Kuala Lumpur sallehmn123@yahoo.com

Tel: 603 2692-7605, 7619, 7725 Fax 03 2692 7737 tropfor@streamyx.com

30th October 2007

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PAPER 3

IMPACT OF PLANNING and DEVELOPMENT on The ENVIRONMENT and Natural Resources and Its Correlation to Natural Disasters.

By: Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh M ohd. N or

OUR ENVIRONMENT

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OUR NATURAL RESOURCES

Water

AIR

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PAPER 3

SUNSHINE

FOREST TREES AND PLANTS

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ENERGY CONSUMPTION: “A Necessary Evil?”

DEVELOPMENT - Concrete Jungles - Traffic Jams - Psychological Problems

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PAPER 3

LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY - Loss of Ecosystems - Coastal Erosion

FLOODS 78

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Malaysia: The Planning Of A Nation

SOIL EROSION  Siltation Of Rivers and Oceans

WHICH ROAD WILL WE TAKE?

WHERE WILL IT LED TO? NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 3 The Transportation System Effects

(SUSTAINABILITY)

“ ALL ARE INTERELATED.”

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IMPACT :  Floods

INDIA UNPRECEDENTED MOONSOON RAIN IN 30 YEARS

TOURISM IN DISARAY DUE TO BAD WEATHER

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PAPER 3

IN UNITED STATES Millions of Bees Die - Are Electromagnetic Signals To Blame?

THE EFFECTS ON CROP PRODUCTION AND FOOD SUPPLY

CHALLENGES • • • •

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LAND TENURE FUNDS RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Malaysia: The Planning Of A Nation

A RICH MANS DREAM INBALANCE OF RESOURCES

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PAPER 3 DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN MALAYSIA

IS IT PLANNING AFTER DEVELOPMENT 84

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EFFECTS

DEPRECIATION OF PROPERTY IN VALUE

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PAPER 3 Kota Damansara Urban

More than 50% of the flood mitigation pond will be reclaimed for the humongous project.

DO WE NEED THIS? DAMANSARA INDAH 86

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PUTRAJAYA

ENJOY THE FURTURE BENEFITS OF GOOD FORWARD

DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

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PAPER 3

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PAPER SUMMARY 1

INTRODUCTION

The paper presenter gave an overview about sustainable development and the role of town planners in the development and the conservation of the environment. He talked about saving the natural resources and focus was given to the following: a. Natural resources are scarce, and form part and parcel of environmental planning which should consider all its components (natural forest, high land areas, coastal areas, etc.); b. Planners have to plan and predict as the saying: ‘fools look for tomorrow, wise men think of today’; and c. Water, air, sunshine and forest including trees and plant should be conserved.

2

MAIN POINTS

3

CONCLUSION

a. Energy consumption “A Necessary Evil?”; b. Planners should be looking at alternative source of energy which includes solar, winds, bio mass that we have to plan for. All this calls for good planning and implementable policy; c. Development has created concrete jungles, traffic jams and psychological problems in urban areas; d. Lack of parking spaces; e. Implementation havoc; f. Poor enforcement, for example parking lots are occupied by food stalls and ‘pasar malam’. g. Loss of Biodiversity; h. Disruption to eco-systems; i. Coastal erosion; j. Flood; k. Soil Erosion including siltation of river and oceans; l. No coordination of transportation system; m. Development and environment are all inter related. Planning should not be done in isolation; n. Climate changes environment, for example tourism disarray due to bad weather; o. Challenges/opportunities: i. Land tenure; ii. Funds; iii. Research (make a strong arm, must be proactive, and well managed); and iv. Technology. p. Planning of wealth and natural resources-participatory planning is very important and much needed. A good example is the Putrajaya Development where political will has made it happened. Collect data that are relevant, timely and useful to do research for good forward planning. Listen to the voice of all stakeholders including the local people. These Malaysian perspectives are the real issues that we face every day. We cannot do planning in isolation, as planning is very much inter-related. NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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Panel Discussion Questions And Answers


HAS PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT POST MERDEK A DONE MORE HARM THAN GOOD FOR THE COUNTRY?

Chairman: Madam Norliza Hashim PRESIDENT MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNER (MIP)


QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS HAS PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT POST MERDEKA DONE MORE HARM THAN GOOD FOR THE COUNTRY? Chairman: In this panel discussion we are going to discuss about how: planning and development have evolved over the last 50 years since Merdeka. Has it done more harm, or has it done more good? So, after listening to Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh you must be wondering whether; have we done anything right? But, before that, when we listen to Professor Bruton, we heard of some good views, as well as the emerging of a new and our own Malaysian Planning system. This is the topic that we are going to discuss today and I hope that at the end of this panel discussion we are able to wrap up some form of perspective on these. Are we there? Have we done more harm? Is there more to be done? What is it? So, the provoking note by Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh just now should set the tone for the discussion. I believe because there is a lot of things which I am sure has hit directly to some of us in this room, so you could defend yourself, if you want. Whatever discussion is being done in this room is being taken in very most positive manner. This is for the well and good of our profession, as a whole and for planning profession in this country. Let us start by discussing and looking at this last 50 years, let us flash back whatever years you are in, may it be in 70’s era, 80’s era, or 90’s era, let us look back and discuss. Can we celebrate? Or, are we far from celebrating? This is world town planning day, you are supposed to celebrate. Let us think, and I open the discussion to the floor, where are we? Just some thoughts, let us discuss on this for five minutes or so. Any views from the floor?

Tuan Haji Lokman (MPS): Thank you Madam Chairman. Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh I would like to congratulate you, on your comments, it is a very sincere comment. I think Madam Norliza should tell Dato’ who are the decision makers? Actually, we planners are only draughtsmen, do you agree my friends? Please do not talk about this matter in front of us, there is no point. We are planners and not the decision makers. We are draughtsmen and do not blame planners too much and do not say that planning make decisions, because we are just following orders “saya yang menurut perintah”. So, please change your way of thinking. If the planners think that the decision was not right then the planner should stand by what they know was right. WE MUST CHANGE!

Chairman: Tn Hj. is a very strong voice in this planning friend that we have. Dato’ Seri do you want to respond? Haji Salleh: Yes sure. Thank you Tn. Hj. for that very constructive comments. “Siapa makan cili dia yang terasa pedas”. Agreed with you. We blame the politician. But we always use that as an excuse.

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Whose problem, is it politician? Come on, we are Professionals, stand by our professional ethics. Tell them what we need to do. If they do it, it is their problem. We must have the guts to tell them what is right. And I have done that my whole life. I have told political masters, “Sir, that is wrong”, I told Yg Berhormat Dato’ Lim Kheng Yaik in post cabinet meetings. He said, “Salleh, why do you have to always object?” I said, “if I do not object, than I should not be here in this meeting, if I am here to be saying yes sir, than look for somebody else. I said “I am not a yes-man, I am a professional. If you are wrong, I say you are wrong, and I justify why you are wrong. Many of us have no guts to say that. That is our problem. We must have the guts to tell them, but do it nicely. We must respect our political masters. But if we do not do it, who is going to do it? Do not be a yes-man ‘yang menurut perintah’ but of course ‘yang menurut perintah’, does not mean if you are ask to jump, you jump! No! You are professionals, there are rules to guide you. Good management is how far you can bend the rules without breaking them. And I have done that, I have bend rules but I have never broken them. But if you bend the rules, they (politician) cannot ‘touch’ you. The minister asked me, “Salleh, why you did that?” “Sir, I did that because of these reasons...” “Sir, I did not break the rules, did I? Have courage to do it. Do not only follow orders blindly. You might as well ask the office boy to sit in your position. You are professionals my friend, act as one!”

Chairman: I think Dato’ is very strong on that, and I agree that we are professional, we have the opportunity to change. I was told that there are 500 of us here and I belief three quarter of this room are planners which is quite a lot in numbers and there are probably another 500 to 600 planners outside. Therefore, there is a lot of power to put together to make a difference. Hajjah Norasiah: Thank you very much, Madam Chairman. Assalamualaikum and good morning. So, I have experienced hearing the panel discussion up to now. Based on the panel discussion, planners have done more harm than good. Well, I do not think so. This is because, when you plan, you have objectives and vision. How can you fail? Along the process a lot of things have to be integrated, then we have to make adjustments, adaptation and make decision. I think we have to accept the fact that planning has done a lot more to the country. For example, we have more facilities, universities, commercial development, housing-public housing, community development that improve the standard of living. Before and during British time, we have only government quarters for the British officers but not houses for the public. However after independence, we have good planning policies to provide housing for the poor in order to eradicate poverty. We have good plans and national policies that guide us all along to achieve what is good for us. So I think, generally planning and development does more good than harm. I do not like to use the word ‘harm’; I do not know how we define ‘harm’? When you say ‘harm’, you mean you are creating something that will be destructive to another person or resources? But I do not think that there is such thing as harm. I would say that there will be some kind of lessons in some ways, like if we carry out development, we change and scan the environment. We realised that the public need infrastructure to live. What do you want?

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS What are our priorities? Do you to keep the trees? Or do you want to provide an environment for the population that keeps on growing, because this is basic needs of the population. They need homes, places to work, good transportation to take them to places; it is just a question of what kind or decision of the type of transportation that is required at that time. During the British time you already have established the road and the railway and the type of development. And we continue with that, so in a way after Merdeka we do not make much changes. But it is only recently, after 2000 when we started to have new policies and new vision that we started to make changes. However, there are still certain things that have not changed which is quite sad. That is why our Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh is very unhappy. As Dato’ Seri said “if you are a real regulator you need to have certain principles”. That means, as a professional you do things with principles, do not let go of the principles. Do not ‘sell’ your principles, you can bend but not break the principles. So, I think in certain areas we probably need to relook into, to reevaluate ourselves, where our failures are? Is it the mechanism, is it the planning or is it the planners themselves who have certain weaknesses in carrying out the planning development process? Thank you.

Ishak Ariffin: Thank you Madam Chairman. I would like to get the views from both speakers, as I regard both of them as my ‘Sifu’ because Professor Bruton was my lecturer then, and Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh was with me in WWF and I learnt a lot from both of them. But I think I need them to reconvince me now because I still cannot figure out where town planners stand in environmental planning. The reason is I need to know is there any difference between land use planning and environmental planning. This is because when we do land use planning, we take in to account the environment, we do environmental assessment. Unfortunately now, the Department Of Environment says that Town planners do not have the right qualification to be registered as EIA consultant in this country. Town planners can only register as land use planning specialist. Now I just cannot figure out how town planners, being not qualified to do environment but at the same time people are blaming Town Planners for all the problems they have with environment. Thank you. Chairman: Thank you Ishak. I think Ishak brought up a very important issue and so did Pn. Nora, because when you talk about this particular topic, we have been involved so much even though Dato’ said environment is not in our agenda and is not in our vocabulary. Actually, over the years we have considered environment in our vocabulary, in our text, our glossaries, it is there and it is going to stay. But this is something what Ishak has raised and has just developed recently over the last 6-7 months and again the finger keeps pointing at us. We are being told that we cannot be responsible for this. May be Prof Bruton can enlighten us with his views on this. Prof Bruton: Thank you. Planning is as you know, is concern to make things happen and would not happen if left to free market forces. It is distributive and redistributive. Therefore, there are conflicts of interest. Thus, it is inevitably political, political with the ‘capital P’ and political with ‘small p’. The achievements that Malaysia has achieved since independence are significant but they reflect the political priorities of the time. Environment has not been a priority until the last Six-Seventh Malaysia Plan. The environment is beginning to come on to the agenda now as 94

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Has Planning and Development Post Merdeka Done More Harm Than Good For The Country?

a priority. As professionals, we should be pressing for prioritising environmental matters because it is very serious problems which can get worse and quite counterproductive to have professional demarcation dispute as to who is responsible for what I suspected, town planner has something to answer for here because for many years they pushed for the introduction of Town Planning Act. Town planning, whatever we may think, is not a professional. Architect is a professional because they design building stand-up; the engineers can point to the need to have a professional standing structure, building materials. Planning, you do not have a planning qualification to be competent at planning. Planners have to understand how the economic works, political system works, legal system works, but do not have to have MIP or RITPI, etc to be able to work as a planner. I suspect that because the planner got to build or act when other people are looking to protect their areas of interest and I think it is going to be counterproductive. I suspect if environment is made a political priority than politician is the one who make sure it comes on to the agenda and ensure it addresses in a way is in the best interest of the country.

Chairman: I think before Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh gave his views, most of the issues that we discussed are inter related. I like to put forward another thought to you all on a very same issue that we are talking here. Now we have seen some of the slides on the natural disasters, like floods and all that. Some of the pictures are not of Malaysia, I think. Anyway, but definitely when we look at some of these natural disasters and going back to the environment again as the fingers keep pointing to us now, are these the results of bad planning, bad decision making, or a result of bad implementation? I think this is something we need to measure. Why does this happen? And in the beginning, when it all started because like when Pn. Nora and Dato’ KP noted we have very strong policies and framework put before us, but we still have failures on the ground, so people in the room, you are from various level, there are students, academician, planners from Local Planning Authority, from the private sectors, please say your views, what you think about this? Are these the plans that we prepared over the years? Is it at the decision making, or is it at the implementation level we are failing? We need to assess this, somewhere before and may be that sustainability thing that we are evaluating in MURNInet should also look at this as one of the elements. Derek Fernandez: To answer your question, from my experience, it is not the plan that planners made. That is not the issue; the issue obviously would be the interference in the planning process which is the main problem. The number of the closed door workshop relating to planning and National Land Code and when nobody is looking and listening or it’s a free discussion, most people say that political interference in the planning processes is the number one cause of these problems. I am not saying that there are some deficiencies among planners in terms of giving, following the law, the right to be heard, but this seems to be the number one problem and it is not planners’ fault per say but certainly, if you call yourself a professional we will not take instructions which are wrong in the law but saying no, we are not going do it. Even if it is your boss or people up there, it is very difficult to adapt in your working environment but, if you are to do something which is against the law and violation, than it is abuse of power. It is quite clear and it is a crime in this country and you should not be made to do things that are wrong. Planner has the criteria, guidelines and there is departure from the criteria and guidelines. You must put some NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS reservation that you do not agree. And later this afternoon, if you do come to my talk-in my talk, highland towers case is going to be an issue where that I told Drainage Department that there is a problems with the water nevertheless, approval was given. Is not the planners or the plan but it is the political interference in these process and something must be done. Thank you.

Chairman: I hope the claps are not because someone else has to take the blame. This is because it still boils down to us also, as professionals Datin Mac Coy–EPSM: Thank you very much Madam Chairman for this opportunity. I think the correlation between the environment and planning is so crucial. 21st century is the time that we have experience the changes that occur to the planet is something very serious and very challenging. We all know about global warming now because suddenly the world is awaken up although the track of global warming has been known for a long time. In 1992, the whole world gather at Rio to work out the blue print for development in the 21st century and that turns sustainable development to Rio. The point of sustainable development that it is meant to be ecologically environmentally sustainable because by 1992 we already knew that the part of the development that was being charted up to them was not sustainable. Environmentalist and the rest are like divided by a glass wall. It is hard to get all the community and profession on board and those professions who involve in built environment are so crucial to the future of the planet. In the World Environment Forum Vancouver in 2006 the future of the planet will depend on how cities are developed, because it is a place we stress on natural environment. So, I appeal to planners and other professions in built environment that we should really go back to basic and look at the principles in Agenda 21 and treat them as the underlying basis for your profession. Thank you. Chairman: As mentioned there is no real wall actually, but I guess that is how we feel as on every day basis tend to go on living on our own, doing our own things a lot of times. Somehow may be, as result of the inheritance system that we have obtained over the years’ we are segmented; the way we think or the way our government. is structured. In a lot of countries where the planning and the environment department is one, they do not really have a ministry that looks into just planning and but actually is the Ministry of Environment and Planning is one of those departments in the Environment Ministry. There should be a paradigm shift in the way we approach planning. It is not that we have not done or we have done anything at all, but maybe the policies now have to be more action-oriented and whatever development plans that we are preparing, needs to be more pro-active towards how we can achieve it at ground zero. So, Dato’ your views on this? Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh: Thank you Madam Chairman. But first let me congratulate Pn. Hjh. Nora, I cannot disagree with you. Over the past 50 years planning has done a lot of good things in this country but the implication of the development to the environment has often been forgotten. You have done a marvellous job. The fact that you have achieved so much for the last 50 years is a credit to you and I congratulate sincerely from the bottom of my heart. The Director General, right up to all the officers. 96

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Regarding to what En. Ishak comments it is not mutually exclusive. Planning and environment is part and parcel of the whole integrated system. Answering to Mr. Derek I agreed with him that professional have to give professional advice because that is where professionalism comes in. Avoid certain pitfalls. Global warming is a natural phenomenon but the human being has made it so fast, that it is unusual. Climate changes, but the issue is the rate of change is getting phenomenally worried worrying. The Algore book, “That Inconvenience Truth tells it all. Natural causes but human activities worsened the situation. Planner is to predict and plan for the future and planners must have the courage to do that, based on your professional evaluation.

Chairman: Thank you Dato’ Sri I do not really know whether we have answered the questions posed by the organisers of the seminar. One last answer is from the floor is moving forward. Now I think it is about moving on, no more pointing fingers. How do we move on from now? What do we do? What else do we want for planning to be relevant? The young planners or the ones who have seen it all. Yes please!. Sara Mydin (University Malaya): According to sustainable development it says that there is no need for enough parking space because if we were to have enough parking spaces we have to use a lot of land for that. We will have to bulldoze a lot of trees and little spaces to provide parking space. So there is no need for enough parking spaces and for me, I think It is good to know that we do not have enough parking spaces and it is good to know that people park on the road. We are using the spaces for pasar malam, we are reusing it for other activities. In these issues there is inconsistence of wants by all the people that we have to serve not only the politicians but rather the people who lives in the cities. It is good looking towards the future if this tussle for more parking spaces means more traffic congestion. There is the need for planners and other professions to rethink how we should develop our urban areas for the future. En. Jamil: Assalamualaikum and a good morning, I have not seen it all but I belong to the sunset group, we heard from two Salleh one from a Mat Salleh, and one from Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh. After 50 years it is time for us to sit back and take stop, not in the intention to find fault. Definitely not. The main intention is let us talk, because we might talk but we never communicate. Have we talk enough, have we talk to the right people, have our planning take into consideration all stakeholders. We need to move forward not to find fault and what we should do now and take into consideration of other stakeholder’s point of view, take it in a positive light. As a professional, we must be brave enough to listen. Pn. Norasiah: I am the old town planner, who loves her country. As you grow older you have to think for the next generation. I agree with Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh’s view. Before we were talking about development in the different context i.e. economic development. Now, we have to take into account that environment is very important because we have use a lot of the environment; natural resources are environment, water is part of the environment. In Islam if we pollute the water we are considered as zalim and this is not accepted because it is a source for all human NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS kind and non human kind. It is our duty as a human being to assess these aspects. Planner has to look at different dimension what are actually our duty as human kind whatever you are, politician, ordinary person, planner, you have to make sure this duty needs to be done. Land use and environment are inter related, in preparing development plans i.e. RS, RT, RTD what is important is that land use that make environment is the land use that you are talking about and environment is considered as the land use. Thank you.

Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh: Pn. Sara’s comment on parking spaces is considered as skewed logic with due regard to her. You know, when we open Maidin Superstore in Terengganu on the opening day of Maidin, people had 4 hours of traffic jam, despite the fact that there is a big parking space. Agreed with En Jamil’s point of view that planners need to think out of the box, talking and communicating. On Pn. Nora views remind me to what Mahatma Ghandi said that we have not inherited this earth from our grandparents, we are borrowing it from our grandchildren. We will get the blame for not taking care of our environment.

Chairman: Thank you, Dato’ Sri. Now, looking back at our topic-planning do more harm than good. Like En Jamil said, when after listening all the views from the floor and from the stage here. I do not think I can conclude everything. But my worry is that after we walk out from this room, we forget about this last half an hour provoking views and some thought that can bring us forward. Because you must remember that most of us here are planners. But even though to those of you who are not planners, I think planning and development effect everyone. What Proffesor Bruton said that you do not need planning qualification to do planning. Some profession would love to hear that statement. Every day as we sit here decision is being made. Each decision made involved in a way or another planning. Why I say this, is because planning is a wide subject matter, it is not only deal with environment it deals with social, the people and economic aspect because that is what we have to do all the time to balance everything. Even though most of the time, it is always interfered by politic or bad decision making, the role of planners is very important. In MIP this is what we ask our planners to do, is to be more professional, in doing their day-day work. And that means, wherever we are, for me in the private sector, how do we do that? For some of you in the government, how do you carry that duty? For those in the academia how do you handle and share this with our future planners? So, we have a role to play everyone of us! But more worrying to me is how we interpret planning? How we interpret sustainability? Today alone, when I am just listening to a lot of people there is some little confusion on sustainability and what it means. It is a very big word but Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh have made it simple just now and he is putting quotation from Mahatma Ghandi which is very true. But in trying to translate that on a day-to-day decision making, this is where a lot of errors are found. Well this is my personal opinion. That is what maybe, Sarah is trying to say it out but did not put it well in her words. She is trying to actually relate to the element of sustainability, on how cities evolve and how you 98

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Has Planning and Development Post Merdeka Done More Harm Than Good For The Country?

actually make sure, that is parking that you want, or green that you want? Is it the people place making that you want or the forest that you want. So, these balancing act that we do all the time will one way or another caught some harm along the way but if the benefit that we do give more bad to people and to us, than maybe it is something that we have to pay for, the interest that we have to pay. So, I am not sure, but I do hope that this last 2 hours at least, it just tell me and Dato’ Fadhil that so much work needs to be done. But not by me alone but to everyone. As KP must be worried, I am worried as a President of the Institute of Planners there is a lot of things that need to be done. But, I hope that we should carry this together, is not just us it is all of us and the NGO’s voice that we hear today. I think it is very important, the support for planning is definitely there. I am glad that planning is very much relevant but it is more relevant when looking it at a holistic manner-a more integrated manner because the purpose we are here is again, for the society and for the planet earth. Thank you very much.

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Session 2


Paper 4 “Town Planning And Conservation: What Needs To Be Done?” Tan Sri Dato’ Seri (Dr.) Ahmad Sarji B. Abdul Hamid Paper 5 “Planning With The People, Between Facts And Fiction, An Inevitable Course Of Action” Mr. Derek Fernandez Paper 6 “Community Participation In Post Tsunami Aceh: Lessons Learnt From Disaster Management (Civil Society Role In Disaster)” Ar. Azman B. Zainon Abidin Paper 7 “Forwarding Gender Equation In Urban Governance And Planning” MS. Maria Chin Abdullah Panel Discussion Questions and Answers “Non Compliance and Low Understanding of the Development Planning Mechanism Have Been Contributory to Planning Pitfalls in The Country. Do you Agree and if Yes What Needs to be Done?” Y. Bhg Dato’ Zainuddin Muhammad

CURRENT PLANNING ISSUES


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Paper 4


TOWN PLANNING AND CONSERVATION; WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE?

Y. Bhg Tan Sri Dato’ Seri (Dr.) Ahmad Sarji B. Abdul Hamid PRESIDENT BADAN WARISAN Malaysia


PAPER 4 CURRICULUM VITAE

TAN SRI DATO’ SERI (DR) AHMAD SARJI B. ABDUL HAMID AHMAD SARJI bin Abdul Hamid was born in Tapah, Perak, on 16 September 1938. He graduated from the University of Malaya (B.A. (Hons)), the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, Netherland (Diploma in Public Administration) and Harvard University, United States of America (Master in Public Administration). He received honorary (i) Doctor of Science (Management) from Universiti Utara Malaysia, (ii) Doctor of Business Administration from Nottingham-Trent University, United Kingdom, (iii) Doctor of Letters from Universiti Malaysia Sarawak and (iv) Doctor in Management from the International Islamic University, Malaysia. During his 35 years in Government Services, he had occupied senior positions at the District level, as District Officer, and at the State level, as Assistant State Secretary. At the Federal Government level, he had served as the Deputy Director-General of the public Service Department; Deputy Director General of the Economic Planning Unit, both at the Prime Minister’s Department; Director General of the Farmers’ Organisation Authority (Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang); Director-General and Deputy Chairman of the Council of Trust for the Indigenous People (MARA); Secretary-General, Ministry of Trade and Industry, and Chairman of the Malaysia Industrial Development Authority (MIDA). In 1990, he was appointed to the most senior position in the government service, as the Chief Secretary to the Government, and, concurrently, Secretary to Cabinet and Head of the Civil Service until his retirement in 1996. In 1999, he was appointed by the government as Chairman of the National Economic Consultative Council II (MAPEN II). He is presently, the Chairman of Permodalan Nasional Berhad (PNB), Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia (IKIM), and several public listed companies such as Sime Darby Berhad, Golden Hope Plantations Berhad, Petaling Garden Berhad and NCB Holdings Berhad (Northport). He is also the Pro-Chancellor of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Universiti Tun Abdul Razak, a Governor of the Asian Institute of Management (AIM), Philippines, a member of the Board of Trustees of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, England, JointDirector of the Malaysian Commonwealth Studies Centre at Cambridge University, Chairman of the Editorial Advisory Board of the Encyclopedia of Malaysia, President of Heritage of Malaysia Trust, President of Malaysia Federation of Lawn Bowls and Asia Bowls and Vice President of the Malay Cricket Association of Malaysia. In addition, he is also active in various other associations of sports, alumni associations and academic. Ahmad Sarji was awarded “Director of the Year” by the Malaysian Institute of Directors and “Tokoh Maal Hijrah” by the Government of Malaysia respectively, in 1999. He has authored a few books, including “The Chief Secretary to the Government, Malaysia (1996)”, and with James Harding “P. Ramlee: The Bright Star” (2002). Ahmad Sarji is married to Puan Sri Datin Seri Sagiyah Salikin and they have five children.

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Town Planning And Conservation; What Needs To Be Done?

TOWN PLANNING AND CONSERVATION: WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE? By: Tan Sri Dato’ Seri (Dr.) Ahmad Sarji b. Abdul Hamid Presiden Badan Warisan Malaysia 1. I would like to thank Jabatan Perancang Bandar dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia for giving me this opportunity to address today’s session on the subject: “Town Planning and Conservation: What needs to be done?” 2. In simple terms, Town Planning is an exercise to correlate the development of urban land, commercial, residential, industrial, rural and open spaces, with the development of physical facilities such as buildings, roads and highways, parks and recreational areas, etc. which falls under the jurisdiction of an urban authority, in order to create an environment which is sustainable and provides a good quality of life. A sustainable town planning plan incorporates certain key elements – good streetscapes, green lungs, cultural life, good commercial facilities, residential neighbourhoods which are safe and clean – together with the preservation of heritage and historic zones. 3. What does ‘heritage’ really mean? The American Heritage Dictionary defines heritage as: (i) property that is or can be inherited; a inheritance. (ii) something that is passed down from preceding generations; a tradition. (iii) the status acquired by a person through birth; a birthright; a heritage of affluence and social position. 4. Why is it necessary to ensure that our built heritage is conserved and preserved? I believe this is because buildings tell the story of the people who lived and worked in them, and the streets tell us about the life of the city, town or neighbourhood. You will all remember that the Rent Control Act was passed after World War II to maintain rents at the same price as had prevailed before the war in order to ensure affordable housing. In the event, because the Act failed to cover sub-tenancies, the actual impact of the Act was quite different from what was intended. In practice what happened was that tenants paid to their landlords the pre-war rent that was well below the market rate, and the tenants then made a profit by sub-letting the premises at the real market rate. As a result, landlords lost out and therefore declined to maintain or upgrade their properties, which consequently deteriorated over the years. The Act was repealed in the year 2000. 5. In 1992, the Ministry of Housing and Local Government with the help of Badan Warisan Malaysia, commissioned Professor Malcolm Grant of the University of Cambridge, England, to prepare a report on the controls that should be introduced after the repeal of the Act to ensure the preservation of Malaysia’s urban architectural heritage. His report recommended among other things, that, in urban areas, conservation areas be identified and established, and in such areas there should be clear restrictions on what NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 4 kind of rehabilitation could be permitted. At the same time, to encourage rapid and appropriate rehabilitation, the report recommended that tax benefits should be made available to owners of outstanding properties in conservation areas, but only for a limited period, thus focusing restoration efforts in terms of both time and place. Finally, the report recommended that heritage legislation should be formulated to protect the built environment after the tax-break period had expired. Regrettably, the recommendations were never acted upon. 6. In 2001, after the Rent Control Act had been repealed, Badan Warisan Malaysia again invited Professor Grant to undertake a study on what changes should be made to existing legislation to protect Malaysia’s built heritage. In September 2001, taking off from Professor Grant’s report, Badan Warisan Malaysia submitted what was in effect a “Private Member’s Bill” to the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, proposing the promulgation of new legislation to give Federal, State and Local Governments the powers to protect heritage through the introduction of new and fresh ideas such as zoning of historic areas and heritage enclaves, the creation of buffer zones and the introduction of fiscal incentives for private owners of heritage buildings to encourage restoration rather than demolition. The Town and Country Planning Act which received its first reading in Parliament in November 2003. Finally we had succeeded in ensuring that to disregard heritage was a “crime”. 7. However, the Government went one step further by the promulgation of the National Heritage Act 2005 which is: “An Act to provide for the conservation and preservation of National Heritage, natural heritage, tangible and intangible heritage, underwater cultural heritage, treasure trove and for related matters.” Unlike the Antiquities Act 1976, this Act does not limit heritage to properties of 100 years and above, and as there is no “age” specified, for example, all the old towns built by the British should be preserved as heritage. Land comes under the purview of the State Governments and while the law represents the creation of conservation areas and the gazetting of heritage buildings and sites, there have been many concerns expressed, including by the very custodians of the law, that the creation of conservation areas under the new law might infringe the constitutional rights of building owners as it might prevent them from maximising their property values. Our view is that since State Governments can designate specific areas for specific purposes (such as for housing and light industrial), the creation of conservation areas would not infringe constitutional rights. The implementation of the National Heritage Act 2005 requires consultative mechanism in the light of the separate jurisdictional powers of the Federal, State and local authorities. 8. Decision-making about local plans and the designation of conservation areas is in theory already transparent. Such plans are well publicised from an early stage and made available for public scrutiny. Briefings are also given to NGOs, community representatives, etc. However, since the public is generally apathetic, one challenge is to increase public concern and participation. When public does respond, there can be problems: • • 106

The public often does not really understand what a local plan is about; Members of focus groups are given too little time in advance to study the plans;

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town Planning And Conservation; What Needs To Be Done?

• • •

Public responses are often automatically treated as complaints, creating a confrontational environment; There is little subsequent communication back to the public; Communication back to the public often only occurs after a decision has been made;

In short, the process is in place, but the management of it can be much improved. 9. But there remains the danger of the inadequate level of understanding of heritage among officers involved in town planning. This lack of knowledge also involves those agencies responsible for the actual repair and rehabilitation of heritage properties. Decisions on the “heritage worthiness” of a building, or a site, are often made by people who are not qualified or who do not have the experience and oftentimes, the consultants hired by such authorities are themselves not well-versed in heritage. Clearly, some recent incidents demonstrate that there is a need for co-ordination between all relevant authorities. A point in fact is the case of the “Bok House” demolition where the criteria for listing buildings and the progress of designation as a heritage building or site was unclear, and did not involve the public point of view. 10. If a revised version of the 2003 Amendment to the Town and Country Planning Act is accepted, it would empower local authorities in conservation matters. The designation of all properties or sites would then be a shared responsibility, with the new heritage authority at the federal level. Local authorities would then be involved in producing heritage conservation guidelines for owners/developers and in ensuring these guidelines are met according to good practice standards. 11. The way forward is for the Town and Country Planning Department and all the Local Authorities to work together with the Department of Heritage at the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Heritage. This is not just a matter of co-ordination of efforts, there must be systems put into place and institutionalized. We have already seen the evidence of the loss of so much of our fragile heritage where gaps exist, for example, in the controversies surrounding buildings including the Coliseum, Loke Mansion, Pudu Jail and areas such as Federal Hill and the Bukit Kiara Park. Action has often been precipitated by NGOs including Badan Warisan Malaysia and members of the public through the press, and all these should be seen to assist rather than as a challenge or criticism. There should be public hearings because this will help educate the public and the authorities and because this also helps raise public awareness of heritage. 12. Under the Constitution, the powers of land usage remains under the Town and Country Planning Act. We must revisit the present legal framework if our heritage cities and towns are to be protected. We need to ensure that the declaration of heritage is not arbitrary. For example, what are the conditions under which compulsory acquisition of heritage building take place? What about the nomination by members of the public for a building to be listed as heritage? 13. In order to overcome the reluctance of owners to have their buildings listed as ‘heritage’, there is a good case for the provision of financial incentives by way of income tax breaks, NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 4 the granting of pioneer status and the provision of grants and low, or no-interest, loans for heritage preservation and conservation activities. 14. In the preservation of the streetscape or heritage enclaves, we should take a new course – leasing the properties for long periods, instead of selling them outright. The biding process should be open to investors in the country and abroad. The period suggested is a 50-year lease, and the government needs to ensure that these properties are protected when the lease term expires, and this needs to happen before anything is signed. We should not sign away our architectural jewels. 15. Former colonial houses, government buildings, police stations and schools for example, can be remade into funky enclaves for the creative set. Through this adaptive re-use the arts have the potential to transform old properties into vibrant and exciting enclaves where artists and the public can interact and appreciate the buildings, history and artworks together. We have the old Railway Administration Building, the KL Railway Station, the KL Majestic Hotel, the Ipoh General Post Office and other fine buildings which could be leased for artistic, cultural and business purposes, subject of course, to proper conservation and preservation guidelines. If we accept these recommendations, we will have a strong basis on which to ensure our heritage towns and enclaves are protected for the present and future generations.

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Town Planning And Conservation; What Needs To Be Done?

���������������� �������������� ��������������������� by Tan Sri Dato’ Seri (Dr) Ahmad Sarji bin Abdul Hamid President, Badan Warisan Malaysia

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TOWN PLANNING •

An exercise to correlate the development of urban land with the development of physical facilities in order to create an environment which is sustainable and provides a good quality of life. Key elements include: • Good streetscapes • Green lungs • Cultural life • Good commercial facilities • Residential Neighbourhoods which are safe and clean • Preservation of heritage and historic zones

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PAPER 4 HERITAGE: WHAT DOES IT MEAN? AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY 1. property that is or can be inherited; an inheritance. 2. something that is passed down from preceding generations; a tradition. 3. the status acquired by a person through birth; a birthright; a heritage of affluence and social position.

HERITAGE LEGISLATION IN MALAYSIA: ITS ROOTS RENT CONTROL ACT – repealed in 2000 1992 Report by Prof Malcolm Grant on controls to be introduced after repeal of Rent Control Act 2001 “Private Member’s Bill” submitted by Badan Warisan Malaysia to Ministry of Housing and Local Government 2003 Amendment to Town and Country Planning Act

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Town Planning And Conservation; What Needs To Be Done?

NATIONAL HERITAGE ACT 2005 “An Act to provide for the conservation and preservation of National Heritage, natural heritage, tangible and intangible heritage, underwater cultural heritage, treasure trove and for related matters.” Land remains under the purview of State Governments Concerns that the creation of conservation areas might infringe constitutional rights of building owners

PLANNING & PUBLIC REPRESENTATION Public participation and consultation in planning process Need to increase public concern and understanding Communication and feedback to those participating in the process Need to improve management of process

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PAPER 4 INADEQUATE KNOWLEDGE OF HERITAGE

Lack of knowledge among: • • •

Officers involved in town planning Agencies responsible for repair and rehabilitation of heritage properties Consultants not well-versed in heritage

Need for co-ordination between relevant authorities The case of the Bok House

THE WAY FORWARD Town and Country Planning Department and Local Authorities to work together with the Department of Heritage at the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Heritage Public hearings to help educate public and authorities Revisit the present legal framework Need to ensure declaration of heritage not arbitrary Provision of financial incentives

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Town Planning And Conservation; What Needs To Be Done?

RECOMMENDATIONS Leasing of properties for long periods instead of selling them outright Open to investors in the country and abroad Remake heritage buildings into funky enclaves for the creative set Proper conservation and preservation guidelines

Thank You UNESCO: “Our cultural identity is forged in the environment in which we live”

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PAPER 4 PAPER SUMMARY 1

NTRODUCTION

Town Planning is an exercise to correlate development of urban land with the development of physical facilities in order to create an environment which is sustainable and provides a good quality of life. Key elements of a good environment include: • Good streetscapes; • Green lungs; • Culture life; • Good commercial facilities; • Residential neighbourhoods which are safe and clear; and • Preservation of heritage and historic zones. Heritage can be an inheritance, a tradition or a birthright, a heritage of affluence and social position. The American Heritage Dictionary defines heritage as: a. Property that is or can be inherited; an inheritance; b. Something that is passed down from preceding generations; a tradition; and c. The status acquired by a person through birth; a birthright; a heritage of affluence and social position.

2

MAIN POINTS

a. Why conserve? i. It is necessary to ensure that our built heritage is conserved and preserved because streets and buildings tell us about the life of the city, town or neighbourhood and the people who live there. ii. Heritage Legislation In Malaysia: • The Rent Control Act maintained rents and condition of Pre-War buildings. After repeal in 2000 buildings deteriorated; • Malcom Grant, commissioned in 1992 by Ministry of Housing and Local Government (MHLG) prepared a report that recommended conservation areas be identified, tax benefits to encourage rapid and appropriate rehabilitation be made available, and heritage legislation be formulated; • In 2001, after repeal of Rent Control Act Grant was invited again to study what changes should be made to existing legislation to protect Malaysian’s built heritage; • In September 2001, “Private Member’s Bill” was submitted to Ministry of Housing and Local Government proposing new legislation to give Federal, State and Local Government the powers to protect heritage; and • This was followed by 2003 amendment to Town and Country Act but was later rescinded with the passing of the National Heritage Act 2005 under the Ministry of Arts, Culture and Heritage. 114

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Town Planning And Conservation; What Needs To Be Done?

iii. Planning and Public Representation: • Public participation and consultation is needed in planning process; • Need to increase public concern and understanding; • Need for communication and feedback to those participating in the process; and • Need to improve management of process. iv.

v.

3

Inadequate Knowledge of Heritage: • Lack of knowledge among: − Officers involved in town planning; − Agencies responsible for repair and rehabilitation of heritage properties; and − Consultants not well-versed in heritage. • Need for co-ordination between relevant authorities; • The case of the Bok House. The Way Forward: • Town and Country Planning Department and Local Authorities to work together with the Department of Heritage at the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Heritage; • Public hearings to help educate public and authorities; • Revisit the present legal framework; • Need to ensure declaration of heritage not arbitrary; and • Provision of financial incentives.

CONCLUSION

In the preservation of the streetscape or heritage enclaves, a new course should be taken by: a. Leasing of properties for long periods instead of selling them outright; b. Open to investors in the country and abroad; c. Remake heritage buildings into funky enclaves for the creative set; and d. Proper conservation and preservation guidelines.

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Paper 5


PLANNING WITH THE PEOPLE, BETWEEN FACTS AND FICTION, AN INEVITABLE COURSE OF ACTIONS

Mr. Derek Fernandez PLANNING ADVOCACY AND ACTIVIST


PAPER 5 CURRICULUM VITAE

DEREK FERNANDEZ Derek Fernandez is an Advocate & Solicitor of the High Court of Malaya and a Barrister & Solicitor of Supreme Court of Victoria, Australia. He specializes in Public Administrative Law, Local Government and Planning Law. He is presently the legal advisor to 42 Residents’ Association in the Klang Valley, The National House Buyer Association and various NGOs’. He is a trainer for Malaysian Nature Society and legal advisor to several Members of Parliament and State Assemblyman. He is the Chairman of the Joint Action Committee for Bukit Gasing as well as the Chairman in various working groups set up by the State Government in relation to Town and Country Planning and Land Law. He was directly involved in the preparation of the State Structure Plan for Selangor and the Structure Plan for the Daerah Petaling and the Local Plan for Petaling Jaya where he represented thousands of residents. He also contributes articles to the local newspapers such as The New Straits Times and The Sun on areas of public interest. He also conducted various seminars on Local Government Law and Planning Law for professional associations, residents and members of the public. Mr. Derek has conducted various public seminars such as Parti Gerakan ‘White Coffee Talk’ in June 2007 and presented a paper on ‘Residents Expectations of Local Government’ for Majlis Bandaraya Petaling Jaya’s 1st year Anniversary in June 2007. 15th November 2007

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Planning With The People, Between Facts And Fiction, An Inevitable Course Of Actions

“PLANNING WITH THE PEOPLE, BETWEEN THE FACTS AND FICTION, AN INEVITABLE COURSE OF ACTION (Part 2) PREPARED BY: DEREK JOHN FERNANDEZ PJK B.Sc., LLB (Hons) Monash ADVOCATE & SOLICITOR OF HIGH COURT OF MALAYA Copyright of Derek John Fernandez All rights reserved. No part of this publication, notes or material material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means including photocopying and recording, without the written written permission of the copyright holder mentioned above.

 “PLANNING WITH THE PEOPLE, BETWEEN THE FACTS AND FICTION, AN INEVITABLE COURSE OF ACTION THE HEART OF THE PROBLEM, A CLASH BETWEEN LAND LAWS AND PLANNING LAWS

At Common Law, it can be argued that using the principals of statutory statutory interpretation, that section 108 of the NLC is restricted to byby-laws or restriction imposed by any local authority or planning authority i.e. the source source of the restriction must be by the local or planning authority. Here if there is a potential conflict, the source of the restriction is imposed not by a planning planning authority but a subsequent Act of Parliament i.e. TPCA enacted under Article 76 of the Federal Constitution (which NCL was also enacted under Article 76. This restriction cannot be breached by purporting to change categories of land use on land land title using the provisions of the NLC. Therefore, under the general rules of statutory statutory interpretation, when an Act enacts something in general terms and and afterwards another act on a particular subject introduces in express terms special restrictions on that subject, then the rule of construction demands that the provisions in the subsequent particular legislation should prevail and the provisions provisions of the earlier legislation deemed curtailed or restricted to the extent of its inconsistency. Another rule of construction which is relevant to the present enquiry is expressed in the maxim generalia specialibus non derogant, derogant, which means that when there is a conflict between a general and special provision, the latter shall shall prevail.

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PAPER 5 See: i)

Director of Customs, Federal Territory v. Ler Cheng Chye (Liquidator of Castwell Sdn Bhd, In Liquidation) [1995] 2 MLJ 600;

ii)

Luggage Distributors (M) Sdn Bhd, v. Tan Hor Teng & Anor [1995] 1 MLJ 719;

iii)

Loy Chin Hei v. Public Prosecutor [1982] 1 MLJ 31.

Furthermore, Section 58 of the TCPA allows the National Physical Planning Council (which was chaired by Prime Minister) to make rules rules under the Act which will prevail over any inconsistent rule of state state authority; Section 58 of TCPA: S.58 1(b) : “If any rule made by the State Authority is inconsistent with a rule made by the Council [National Physical Planning Council], the the rule made by the Council shall prevail over the rule made by the State State Authority and the rule made by the State Authority shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.” void.”

6.0

120

Brief case study of current issues in planning of public interest

1.

BUKIT GASING (GREEN LUNG)

2.

BUKIT CAHAYA

3.

SUNGAI BULOH (FOREST RESERVE)

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Planning With The People, Between Facts And Fiction, An Inevitable Course Of Actions

Bukit Gasing is perhaps the most unique green lung in the country country and probably beyond for the simple reason it is a secondary forest found found in the heart of Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya.

The History of Bukit Gasing is well known and documented. In the 90’ 90’s, a group of residents comprising of 4 persons started a campaign with huge huge public support to get the Selangor Government not to degazette some 93.2 acres on the Selangor side for development. Extensive efforts culminated in protection be accorded to the 93.2 acres in the form of retaining the green lung lung gazette, incorporation of the protection of Bukit Gasing in the policy of the Structure Plan Daerah Petaling dan Sebahagian Daerah Klang and ultimately incorporation incorporation of the Bukit Gasing forest park into the Rancangan Tempatan Petaling Jaya 1.

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PAPER 5 The Bukit Gasing park is now managed by MPPJ in consultation with with the Selangor Government, Malaysian Nature Society, Friends of Bukit Bukit Gasing and the World Wildlife Fund. Despite this, the survival of of this green lung which houses a wide variety of birds, plants and animals animals is constantly threaten by activities by the Kuala Lumpur side because because the survival of the 93.2 acres is the dependant upon the existence of of the 289 acres of green lung of the Kuala Lumpur side. Because of the steep hill slopes, water catch man areas and oxygen generation capabilities DBKL had always in principal agreed that the green lung on its side be preserved because Kuala Lumpur has a gross shortage of green lung. Nevertheless as always numerous attempts had been made to damage the green lung by hill slopes development and pieces pieces of land were alienated out to the developers gradually eating into into the green lung. The public and environmentalist tried to resist the damage with varying degree of success. Finally, a huge effort was made on 18.4.2002 to get a firm commitment from Datuk Bandar Kuala Lumpur to gazette and protect the 289 acres on the Kuala Lumpur side and and if necessary to acquire back those pockets of land that already alienated alienated out and furthermore to strictly to enforce hill slope guidelines in view of many land slides being experienced in the area and Klang Valley in general. This efforts was received the support from Selangor Government which IS A EXTREAMLY COMMENDABLE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFORT ON THEIR PART.

The people’ people’s efforts culminated on 7.5.2002 when the Datuk Bandar Kuala Lumpur announced on National Television that the whole area will be protected and gazetted. The public was overjoyed. It was understood understood that whatever was alienated out would be taken back to form part of the the green lung for Bukit Gasing.

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Subsequently, Wilayah Persekutuan went through the process of preparing preparing the Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020 (gazetted on 16.8.2004) in accordance accordance with the Federal Territory (Planning) Act 1982 and incorporated the Mayor Mayor’’s promise and the residents wished in relation to the Bukit Gasing green lung lung and the strict control of the hill slopes development in accordance with the Federal Federal guidelines as part of the macro planning policies for Kuala Lumpur.

The Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020 reserves the status of the Kuala Lumpur side as a green lung/green area. It should be noted that under the Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020, Kuala Lumpur has only 6.5% of open space which is very short of the 10% public open space minimum amount required for sustainable development. This figure of 6.5% is inclusive inclusive of the 289 acres in Bukit Gasing.

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PAPER 5 Even the area surrounding the Green Area of Bukit Gasing has been designated as Stable Area in the KL Structure Plan 2020 which is define as “..areas with established development and activities, in which minimal changes in development development are anticipated over the plan period i.e up to year 2020.” 2020.”

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“..Rivers shall be used as connecting corridors to maintain the integrity integrity and connectivity of forest ecosystems. Structure Plans and Local Plans shall incorporate the concept of using the rivers and forests as as the backbone for developing the country’ country’s network of linear recreational areas and for maintaining ecological balance.” balance.”

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NATIONAL PHYSICAL PLAN NPP 1111- The conurbations shall be planned and developed as integrated regions vii.

“..In delineating city limits, land shall be provided in between individuals cities and towns which shall be set aside from development. Such land shall form a green belt, and, if deem necessary, legislation may be enacted to provide for the creation, maintenance and control of green belts.

x.

“..The development control of lands designated as PAA and ESA shall be enforced in the green belts. Generally, development in the green belts shall be restricted to the use of land for recreational purposes, and the suitable type of recreational activities should depend on the type and sensitivity of the area.

xi.

“..Land conversion and development applications shall be assessed on the basis of a sequential test to minimize speculative development.

KL STRUCTURE PLAN 2020 •

Green areas generally covered with natural or planted vegetation, vegetation, consist of open spaces, recreational areas, utility and infrastructure infrastructure corridors, buffer zones, forest reserves, agriculture areas, cemeteries, nurseries, shrubs and residential compounds. Green areas in the City should create quality amenities to the people people with the following functions: 1. Enhancing the environment quality - Helps generate flora and fauna biodiversity to create sustainable living environment. - Improves the air quality. - Produces cooling effect. - Reduces surface runrun-off. - Represents natural heritage for future generation. To take out 40% would kill the whole ecology of green lung.

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PAPER 5

After the Structure Plan was passed the public was awaiting the gazetting of the 289 acres which had been promised to be completed by end of 2004. it was thus a shock to the public when on the 18.6.2005, the Federal Territories Territories Minister Tan Sri Mohd Isa Abdul Samad during an environmental seminar said that 40% of the land under the Kuala Lumpur City Hall would be developed developed while the rest would be gazetted as a green area. He also said that that hill slopes will be developed because of shortage of land.

Comments: How is it possible for the Federal Territories Minister to make such statements in contradiction to the clear promise of the Former Mayor to the people? people? How is it possible for the Federal Territories Minister to make such statements in contradiction to the policies in the Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020 which he had signed? Presently there is insufficient green areas in Kuala Lumpur which which has only 6.5% of green areas from a minimum of 10% required for sustainable development. development. The Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020 talks about a world class city and it is certainly certainly not one with 6.5% green areas only. In relation to shortage of land the structure plan has dealt with with this issue and other planning issues. Who benefits from cutting of hills and building on slopes especially especially when the areas are not suitable for development the Structure Plan has identified this this important characteristic of green areas all of which the 289 acres of Bukit Gasing green lung does? The proposal to develop a part of the KL side of the Bukit Gasing for purposes other than public recreation may be a contradiction National Physical Plan and inconsistent with the statement of Datuk Bandar. (The Sun, 6th July 2005; The Malay Mail, 6th July 2005)

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The Bukit Cahaya fiasco needs no introduction. The face of Prime Minister says it all. The brief facts are as follows: On 19th February 2005, a local newspaper had frontfront-paged the ecological damage done to the 1,200 hectare forested area on the northern fringe fringe of what was once envisioned as the world’ world’s largest agricultural park. Subsequently reports revealed that the virgin jungle, under the jurisdiction of the Shah Alam Municipal Council, had been divided among 39 developers developers for housing projects, some of which included the construction of luxury bungalows. A stop work order issued on Feb 19 put a halt to the development, but it was also learnt that 14 developers had earlier earlier carried out work without obtaining approval, while nine others who had obtained obtained only planning approval had nevertheless, begun felling trees and flattening the terrain. The move drew criticism from Prime Minister Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi who reprimanded the developers who carried out ‘haphazard development’ development’. He said that the Cabinet had decided that all State governments should monitor housing developers to ensure they they did not simply chop down trees but instead, make them part of the landscape. landscape. The Housing and Local Government Minister Datuk Ong Ka Ting said developers found guilty of damaging the environment would be required required to pay compensation to the affected parties. (Malay Mail: 1 March 2005)

2.

The Menteri Besar when summoned for an explanation stated that the land was outside the gazetted park as it was degazetted by the previous administration and the Shah Alam Council not him is fully responsible for the approval. (See New Sunday Times: 6 March 2005)

3.

The Developers subsequently fined, one of whom was PKNS. The Federal Government had requested the park to handed over to Federal Government for protection but subsequently certain parties were unhappy with this and the plans were shelved. Work continues in this area.

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PAPER 5 Comments 1.

How was the land degazetted without a public inquiry?

Under the National Land Code (NLC) the power to degazette a public reserve such as this land is contained in section 62 of the NLC. Section 62: Power of reservation of State Land (1) The State Authority may by notification in the Gazette reserve any State land for any public purpose. (2) Any notification gazetted under subsub-section (1) shallshall(a) describe the reserved land; (b) describe the purpose for which the land is reserved; (c) designate the officer for the time being having the control of the reserved land; (d) be conclusive evidence that the land so described is reserved for a public purpose.

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(3)

Copies of any such notification shall be published in accordance with the provisions of section 433.

(4)

Without prejudice to the provisions of any other written law for the time being in force, reserved land shall not bebe(a)

disposed of by the State Authority except to the extent permitted by, and in accordance with the provisions of, section 63 and Chapters 2,3 and 4 of this Part, or

(b)

used for any purpose other than for which it is reserved except in pursuance of a disposition made by virtue of any of those provisions.

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


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ď ą

Section 64 : Revocation of reservation

(1)

The reservation of any land for a public purpose (whether effected under this act or the provisions of any law in force at any time before the commencement thereof) may, subject to subsub-section (2), be revoked by the State Authority at any time, either as respects the whole of the land or as respects any part or parts thereof.

(2) Where it is proposed to revoke any reservation in pursuance of subsub-section (1), notice of the proposal shall be published in the Gazette together with details of a time and place at which an enquiry will be held with respect thereto by the State Director; and the State AuthorityAuthority-

(a)

shall not revoke the reservation until it has considered a report by the State Director setting out the nature of any objections to the proposal received by him at the enquiry, and his observations thereon and on the proposal generally, but

(b)

may thereafter revoke the reservation, either in accordance with proposal as published, or in accordance with the proposal modified in such respects as the State Authority may consider necessary or desirable.

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PAPER 5 (3) Copies of any notice published under subsub-section (2) shall be published in accordance with the provisions of section 433. (4) Any lease of reserved land subsisting at the time the reservation is revoked under this section shall continue in force notwithstanding the revocation. 

Section 24: Conduct of enquiry Every enquiry shall be conducted as nearly as may be in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter.

Section 27: Notice of enquiry

Before holding any enquiry, the Land Administrator shallshall(a) publish in such manner as he may consider appropriate in the circumstances of the case, a notice thereof in Forms 2A; and (b) serve on every person or body who is to his knowledge interested in the subject matter thereof a copy of that notice, to which shall be appended the additional notice set out in he supplement to that Form.

 Section 433: Publication of certain notices and notifications Any provisions of this Act requiring a copy of a notification affecting land to be published in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be construed as requiring a copy of the notice notice or notification to bebe(a) affixed in a conspicuous positionposition(i) on the land and on the Penghulu’ Penghulu’s office or Balai in the area in which the land is situated; and (ii) in that area, on such courtcourt-houses and mosques (if any) and in such markets and other public places (if any) as the State Director thinks fit; and (b) where the State Authority considers that publication in a newspaper is desirable, published in such newspapers circulating in the State as the State Director thinks fit.

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 Section 5: Interpretation “Reserved land” land” means land for the time being reserved for a public purpose in accordance with the provisions of section 62 or or any previous land law; “State land” land” means all land in the State (including so much of the bed of any river, and of the foreshore and bed of the sea, as is within the territories of the State or the limits of territorial waters) other thanthan(a) alienated land; (b) reserved land; (c) mining land; (d) any land which, under the provisions of any law relating to forests (whether passed before or after the commencement of this Act) is for the time being reserved forest.

How did the Shah Alam City Council (MBSA) approve the projects when it contradicts with the Structure Plan for the area being the the Rancangan Struktur Daerah Petaling Dan Sebahagian Daerah Klang (Gazetted on 15.2.1996)?

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PAPER 5 The justification by the Menteri Besar of Selangor for cutting of hills in the area has been reported in the New Sunday Times dated 6.3. 2005: “…If “…If we do not allow hills to be cut, the quotas for 30 per cent low low--cost houses, 20 per cent mediummedium-low cost and 20 per cent mediummedium- high cost houses will not be met” met”

Can you reconcile this statement with the official stated policies policies of the Selangor Government in the Rancangan Struktur Daerah Petaling dan dan Sebahagian Daerah Klang that development other than recreation development in hill areas is not encouraged? What about the “ghost towns” towns” in Bukit Beruntung dan Lembah Beringin crying for occupants?

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Why wasn’ wasn’t a local plan prepared for the area or a special area action plan prepared for the area which was a legal requirement since 1986 (Part III Town & Country Planning Act 1976)? The Local Authority is legally obliged under section 12(8) TCPA to ensure that the policies in the Structure Plan are implemented. Therefore is it arguable that the land being developed in Bukit Cahaya is still legally forest reserve and the process of degazetting and changing zoning not done in accordance of law. This may mean that any titles issued if may not be valid. There are a lot of outstanding questions which may have significant legal implications that go far beyond mere fines on errant Developers.

3.

SUNGAI BULOH (FOREST RESERVE) The Sungai Buloh Forest originally, is part of the oldest reserve in the country established in 1898. In the early 90s, due to constant constant development pressure, 4,000 acres was degazetted for the purposes of mixedmixed-residential development. But 1,000 acres was set aside for the National Botanical Garden after much public outcry. outcry. Yet today, what remains of that glorious forest is a mere 857.2 acres, with no Botanical Garden in sight. The 857.2 acres was gazetted under PU 77 1994 as a land reserve for public purpose of of a Botanical garden by the State Secretary of Selangor. Residential and housing projects in the area were sold on the representations in coloured brochures and plans that the area would have a Botanical gardens. Furthermore the residents are committed committed to saving the forest and have obtained support from the UNDPUNDP-GEF Small Grants Programme for two projects amounting to RM 388,600 in total to achieve their objectives, by developing the Forest Community Park which is run and managed by local residents in cooperation with local authorities.

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PAPER 5 Between 21.5.2002 to 29.1.2005, ongoing meeting and discussions between the residents, MPPJ and State Assemblymen in relation to the Botanical Garden took place together with objections made against any development in the area and input provided for the purposes of the formulation of a local plan under the Town & Country Planning Act 1976. Unknown to the residents and without notice on the 9.9.2004, 145.373 acres (58.83 hectares) was degazetted. In this case, not under the previous administration but under the present administration. The residents only discovered this on April 2005. Totally dismayed and angry, the residents threaten threaten legal action against the State Government resulting in the State Government allegedly promising to revoke the degazettement as reported in the Star Metro on 2.4.2005 and then 5 days later in the New Straits Times dated 7.4.2005, the Menteri Besar was quoted as he can not promise conservation of the area. Presently the future of this area and the status of the degazettement degazettement in limbo and there is a real danger unless immediate action is taken taken developers could move in, cut trees, clear the area and the saga of Bukit Cahaya be repeated. Once again, alienation of these lands take place and special joint ventures may entered into to arm the the Developers with legal rights to the land.

Comments: 1.

How was the land degazetted without a public inquiry? The National Land Code 1965 requires a public inquiry inquiry to be held and notification to member of the public of their right to object be given. The 9 Sept 2004 gazette claims to have given such notice but no resident had received any notification or seen any notice. Furthermore the Friends of Kota Damansara were on record as objecting but were never called for a hearing.

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How did the Selangor State Government degazette on 9.9.2004 part of the forest reserve when it contradicts the Structure Plan for the area area being the Rancangan Struktur Daerah Petaling Dan Sebahagian Daerah Klang (Gazetted on 15.2.1996)? (Note Policy GT5 requires a 10% of public public open space for all developments and this area is part of that 10%)

Why wasn’ wasn’t a local plan prepared for the area or a special area action plan prepared for the area which was a legal requirement since 1986 1986 (Part III Town & Country Planning Act 1976)? The Local Authority is legally obliged under section 12(8) TCPA to ensure that the policies policies in the Structure Plan are implemented. Why despite the report in Star Metro dated 2.4.2005 stating that the Selangor Government will revoke the plans for development at green green lung and therefore revoke the gazette dated 9.9.2004 nothing has been done? Despite the Prime Minister express directive that all open spaces spaces to be gazetted and all green lungs to be protected, not only the open spaces and green lungs are gazetted as required but existing forest reserves reserves and green lungs are being degazetted. Therefore is it arguable that the degazettement part of the Sungai Sungai Buloh forest reserve is illegal and action is needed to be taken immediately to avoid the attempt to alienate and develop the land. land. This land is potential of Bukit Cahaya in the making.

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PAPER 5 PAPER SUMMARY 1

INTRODUCTION

2

MAIN POINTS

Instead of just referring to the notes given as seminar material Mr. Fernandez began his presentation by showing a DVD entitled “Twelve Eleven” which is a 20-minute documentary revisiting the Highland Towers tragedy which happened on 11 December, 1993 at Hillview Garden in Ulu Klang, Selangor. The documentary was made by KOMAS (Pusat Komuniti Masyarakat) and has won a number of awards. He then stressed that: • Planning with the people is it fact or fiction? It is a bit of both depending on the situation; and • Planning affects people so directly; poor planning can result in loss of human lives and loss of property, therefore the responsibility of a town planner is very great indeed. a. Most disasters are man-made. If planning regulations were followed, 95% of tragedies could have been avoided; b. The unfortunate outcome of the Highland Towers tragedy was that even though the Local Authority (LA) approved the project, the LA was not held liable; c. People died here–someone caused their deaths. However, the Local Authority just “washed their hands off” the case; d. There was failure to follow guidelines and rules. The LA should have been held accountable. The whole issue of non-compliance should have been looked into, and as a matter of public policy, people should have been sacked for not following proper procedures or guidelines; e. There was some issue with the natural drainage system, that there was a diversion of the course of some natural waterway. The project should have been stopped until the drainage problem was solved but this was disregarded; f. So it seems no one is accountable. Life has very little value; g. Later there was also another landslide at Kg. Pasir, another area in the vicinity. The Government seemed not to have taken any action to monitor the area; h. The issue is that there are guidelines on hill slope development such as development is not allowed on slopes with angles 35 degrees or more. The guidelines also specify where development can take place and what should be done and what cannot be done; i. However, clients find it costly to follow all the requirements of the guidelines. They have a budget and if the engineer cannot provide a design within the budget they find another engineer who can cut costs; j. Something is wrong. The LA is the approving authority and must be held liable and not hide behind certain sections of the law; k. In the past the LA councillors were elected so that they would be accountable and responsible to the public. If they fail, the public will not vote for them in the next election. However, they have now removed the elections but they have forgotten to amend legislation related to accountability to ensure that the rate payer is protected;

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l. m. n. o. p.

3

The aim of the documentary is not to blame but to learn from mistakes. However, worse is yet to come. A number of projects are in the pipeline. Same mistakes are made over and over again; Planners give planning approval and development order, whether in Selangor or Kuala Lumpur. They should be very careful by learning from mistakes; Some issues are important. Planners wonder who should take the blame, as political interference sometimes prevent them from doing their job; Biggest challenge is to resolve the apparent conflicts between the National Land Code (NLC) and the Town and Country Planning (TPCA) Act and the Federal Territory Act; and Planners find that for land titles, the land use as granted under the National Land Code is still being used as the instrument of planning. The planner has to approve based on the stated land use on the title, such as ‘commercial’ even though the Local Plan shows that it is for ‘car park’ or ‘recreational’.

CONCLUSION

a. Under the Federal Constitution, land use planning is both a federal and state matter which is governed by the Town and Country Planning Act, whereas land is a State matter governed by the National Land Code; b. So there are two legislations under the Federal Constitution – one, a new legislation which is more specific on land use planning, and the other, an old legislation which is more general; c. Under statutory interpretation, if there is a conflict between the TCPA and the NLC, the TCPA takes priority; d. If this is so, it means that if the land use granted on the land title is ‘commercial’ but the Local Plan designates the land for ‘playground’ or ‘car park’, then the Local Plan prevails. The owner can then apply for compensation for being deprived of the use of his land. This issue is one of the biggest problems in planning; e. On planning guidelines, the standards on density are intended as the maximum figure and do not imply that development in an area must achieve that maximum density. However, there is inconsistent application of the guidelines, so there is a need for better dialogue with the people to ensure better understanding of the application of the standards; f. In Kuala Lumpur there is a huge problem. There is no Local Plan and it is only now that local plan is being prepared. Previously we have a situation of ad hoc planning. There is no provision for public participation except for change of use and change of density. However on other issues such as hill-slope safety where a lot of technical problems are involved, there is no right to object; and g. So there are two messages here: • Firstly, the density guidelines indicate the maximum density allowable; and • Secondly, if there is conflict between the Town and Country Planning Act and the National Land Code, the Town and Country Planning Act take precedence.

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Paper 6


COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN POST TSUNAMI ACEH: LESSONS LEARNT FROM DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Ar. Azman Zainon Abidin DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE, UiTM PER AK EXCO MERCY MALAYSIA


PAPER 6 CURRICULUM VITAE

AR. AZMAN ZAINON ABIDIN Exco member and Head of Technical Advisory Team of MERCY. He is a lecturer by profession at the University Technology Mara (UiTM) and the principal of Azman Zainon Abidin Architect. Ar. Azman has also been working in various architectural ďŹ rms in Kuala Lumpur. His involvement in disaster management and volunteering works started since 2005, after the Indian Ocean Tsunami incident. Ar. Azman experience in humanitarian works includes: 1. Humanitarian works in Aceh, Indonesia (2005-2007): IDP Camp Management, Food Distribution and Reconstruction works of 18 building projects such as Core House, Nursing College, Community Health Centres, Orphanage Centres, Pharmacy College, Tsunami Learning Resource Centre etc. (Tsunami) 2. Humanitarian works in Nias, Indonesia (2005-to date): Reconstruction works of Gunungsitoli General Hospital (on-going project) and 2 nos. of Community Health Centres. (Earthquake) 3. Humanitarian works in Yogjakarta, Indonesia (2006): Reconstruction works of Community Health Centre in Dlingo. (Earthquake) 4. Humanitarian works in Johor (2006-2007): Distribution of hygiene kits to Pagoh, Kota Tinggi and Segamat. (Flood) 5. Humanitarian works in Bagh, Pakistan (2006-to date): Reconstruction works of District Health OfďŹ ce. (Earthquake).

A. TRAINING: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

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Volunteers Induction Programme by Mercy Malaysia in Taiping, Perak; Basic Life Support by Mercy Malaysia in Ipoh, Perak; Basic Mission Training by Mercy Malaysia and Pasukan Gerak Am in Sungai Petani, Kedah; Advanced Mission Training by Mercy Malaysia and UNDAC in Hulu Kinta, Perak; Total Disaster Risk Management by Asian Disaster Risk Response Network in Kuala Lumpur; Community Based Disaster Management by Mercy Malaysia and Kyoto University of Japan in Batu Pahat, Johor. Total Disaster Risk Management by Asian Disaster Risk Response Network in Kuala Lumpur. Community Based Disaster Management by Mercy Malaysia and Kyoto University of Japan in Kuala Lumpur; and, SPHERE in Humanitarian Practice by RedR India in Kuala Lumpur.

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Community Participation In Post Tsunami Aceh: Lessons Learnt From Disaster Management (Civil Society Role In Disaster)

B. CONFERENCE/SEMINAR/WORKSHOP: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Aceh Shelter Workgroup by BRR and UNDP in Aceh Indonesia; Hospital Workgroup by BRR, UNICEF and WHO in Nias, Indonesia; Post Disaster Reconstruction of Indian Ocean Tsunami Experience in, Colombo Sri Lanka; Disaster Risk Reduction: Learning from Tsunami Experience by Asian Disaster Risk Response Network in USM, Penang; 5. Meninjau Kinerja Ketekniksipilan Dalam Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi Aceh di Universitas Syiah (UNSYIAH) Kuala, Banda Aceh, Indonesia; 6. Rebuilding Safer Aceh Workshop by Asian Disaster Risk Reduction Network in Aceh, Indonesia; and, 7. Earthquake and Reconstruction Works in Pakistan by JICA and Erathquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Agency in Islamabad, Pakistan.

C. PAPER PRESENTATIONS: 1. Design and Damaged Assessment of the Existing Gunung Sitoli General Hospital and Proposed Rebuilding Programme in Nias, Indonesia; 2. Program Kemanusiaan, Rehabilitasi & Rekonstruksi di Aceh in UiTM Perak; 3. Safe Building in Disaster Area, 1st Construction Industry Research Achievement International Conference, in PWTC, Kuala Lumpur; 4. Mercy Malaysia and Humanitarian Works, Kelab Kledang, in Ipoh, Perak; 5. Involvement of Construction Expertise in Humanitarian Works, Institute Surveyors of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 6. Disaster, Sphere Standards and Code of Conduct for Humanitarian Workers, Pejabat Belia Negeri Perak, in Taiping Perak. 7. Shelter Projects in Aceh, Pertubuhan Aktek Malaysia Architectural Students Camp, in UIAM, Gombak, Selangor; and. 8. Post Tsunami Learning Experience in Aceh and Nias, Post Disaster Reconstruction of Indian Ocean Tsunami Experience in Colombo, Sri Lanka. 29 th Oct 2007

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PAPER 6

Abstract

COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN POST TSUNAMI ACEH: LESSONS LEARNT FROM DISASTER MANAGEMENT (CIVIL SOCIETY ROLE IN DISASTER) The tsunami of 26 December 2004 that has devastated many coastal regions of the Indian Ocean had prompted many Government and Non-Government Agencies to look into alternative ways to respond to emergency relief efforts. One way is to adopt the role of civil society in disaster to create awareness, knowledge and thus lead to direct involvement in disaster risk management efforts. This paper focuses on three main issues that MERCY Malaysia took into consideration in formulating a workable praxis to have civil society involvement in disaster awareness in all phases with a common goal to reduce risk. The first was by critically examining the roles of the community that were directly or indirectly connected before any interventions were done. The second was to establish the most appropriate systems and solutions to build a prepared community, and finally to educate the public on the above-mentioned issues into a holistic concept of Total Disaster Risk Management in order to create a responsive community. By conducting a post-occupancy evaluation of the completed batch of MERCY Malaysia’s effort in disaster relief in Aceh, would enable us to rectify ways of incorporating and improving relief efforts succinctly to a particular locality in the context of preparedness for disaster in Malaysia.

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Community Participation In Post Tsunami Aceh: Lessons Learnt From Disaster Management (Civil Society Role In Disaster)

COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN POST TSUNAMI ACEH: LESSONS LEARNT FROM DISASTER MANAGEMENT (CIVIL SOCIETY ROLE IN DISASTER) By: Ar. Azman b. Zainon Abidin Department of Architecture, UiTM Perak EXCO MERCY Malaysia

INTRODUCTION MERCY Malaysia is committed to analyze, research and propose effective means of disaster management enabling people of local communities to protect themselves against disaster and its destruction caused. The objective of this paper is to achieve an understanding for the public in becoming a prepared and responsive community through a comparative study of the effectiveness of grass – roots projects and programs and at the same time, suggest policies, guidelines and training inputs for each community to secure its role in the preparedness of disaster. The tragic events of December 26 2004 had caused MERCY Malaysia to answer the call to help rebuild Aceh, and at the same time educate the public in disaster preparedness. MERCY Malaysia is promoting a series of disaster preparedness safety initiatives such as the Total Disaster Risk Management (TDRM) concept as well as a derivative of such applied in Aceh cities and communities with the cooperation of various project partners. TDRM focused on disaster risk as a global education, promoting link partners and activities in all phases with a common goal to reduce risk in disaster cases. This paper hopes to examine what has been achieved so far and what needs to be improved within contextual references made from the efforts of MERCY Malaysia’s relief works in Aceh and Nias for a better understanding in promoting civil society role in disaster in Malaysia. Even before the tsunami struck, millions of people in the affected areas were living in conditions of poverty unimaginable to most people in Malaysia. In Aceh province of Indonesia, the security of lives, possessions, and infrastructure had been threatened by several years of armed conflict. According to the government’s own statistics1, in 2002, nearly 48.5 percent of the population had no access to clean water, 36.2 percent children under the age of five were undernourished, and 38 percent of the population had no access to health facilities. And things were getting worse: the poverty rate doubled from 14.7 percent in 1999 to 29.8 percent in 2002. These problems created inferiority among societies, with lack of educational values and knowledge being spread to them, there is no feel of urgency in anticipating disaster and being prepared for it. The main problem with providing this disaster related information and an understanding is due to the massive destruction and, to a lesser extent, in the establishment of networks and ways of spreading information. Disaster related information would be rapidly disseminated worldwide by establishment of networks, and accordingly, communications NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 6 among information users as well as their efforts and activities to promote disaster related information is becoming increasingly important in this age of international cooperation. We believe that the most effective tool for spreading this information is that of defining the role of the communities involved. The emphasis is not the search outside the legitimate of the networks but with the notion that within our cultural practices and lifestyles itself resides a unique and particular mode of participation and actions. The idea focuses on the basic concept of community roles, which are prevention, preparedness, response and recover. Furthermore, when the effort of promoting the importance of public roles is seen in a cultural context, it provides a new sense of direction to educate them in the development of the abovementioned values.

ROLES OF COMMUNITIES Whenever discourses and relief efforts were done on the impacts of disaster on a community, stakeholders and all role players are also experiencing an awareness to find suitable solutions and approaches to enable the communities to participate at all stages by redirecting and reorganizing their life towards the norm of humanity. Community roles can be worked out with establishing rights to prevent, to prepare, to response and to recover, even in the most settled of societies. In the marginal communities of the tsunami victims in Aceh province, the quest for these rights are not being well handed over, experientially or educationally. In Aceh, MERCY Malaysia has been: 1. Lobbying the incorporation of information on disaster preparedness by distributing ‘Anda dan Tsunami’ leaflets, promoting the story of ‘Inamura No Hi’ through a seminar directed to teachers and educators, and by organizing cultural events such as theatre and dance to incorporate knowledge sharing that is culturally related to the community and society; 2. Working on public information of Disaster Preparedness and promoting the importance of civil society role in disaster by conducting workshops and seminars. These include a workshop in promoting the concept of ‘Risk Reduction from Earthquakes by Having Safe Buildings’. The workshop focused on the usage of adequate technology and implementation of anti-seismic building construction technology by sharing knowledge on safe buildings and houses, as well as incorporating the expertise of locals in all projects and programs (engineers, architects, builders, students, and others); 3. Actively managing the IDP Camp Site of Desa Weu Raya in Lhoknga, Aceh Besar. The IDP Camp Site has been home for more than 200 families affected by the tsunami until September 2006. Community meetings were held to have active involvement from the villagers in resolving resettlement issues, site land surveying, camp and shelter setting up, house concepts and designs, spatial planning of the newly planned village including evacuation routes and educating them in promoting safe and sound building standards; and, 4. Promoting programs to enhance human safety and security by incorporating safer construction practices into the reconstruction process, through training sessions and workshops. By conducting training courses on disaster mitigation, spreading information and recognizing civil societies’ role in the process of reconstructing their nation, can be done efficiently and will become more sustainable. 144

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A major purpose was to encourage the experts and the public to work together throughout projects and programs, and to work in detail and at depth in their field of responsibilities. It is clear that the role of community is very important, and being the end-user who will live with and experiencing real situations, their ideas and thoughts, as well experience is very much needed to enable the technical implementer (i.e. MERCY Malaysia) to understand their needs. Unquestionably, there is a strong and growing interest worldwide amongst the educational and formal circles through the use of multi- or inter-disciplinary approaches in solving problems of broad and important scope. The recent emphasis on earthquake and tsunami related problems have raised the vital necessity of integrated approaches from various disciplines and most importantly involvement from the public. With these efforts done, a two-fold objective was successfully achieved. First is the mass spreading of knowledge and information to the society on the importance of disaster preparedness through field experience’, and second is the direct participation from the society involved with all programs and intervention done. A well prepared community is born, and a community who fully understands the typology of hazards and its prevention, preparedness, response and recovery networks neutralizes the past and is hereby free from being conditioned by specific methods and models and concentrate instead on the inventive transformation of new models and approaches of society role in disaster management which respond to a new and the particular demand of existing context.

PREPARED COMMUNITY During the two workshops on safe building practice that were organized both in Aceh and Malaysia, it was observed that a certain group of the society is already well informed and alert on the importance of disaster preparedness. But it was also observed that this practice has only a small, and surely insufficient or even negligible input, guidance, and analysis by the nontechnological fields. The result is that disaster preparedness programs and actions are being organized, planned, supervised and carried out, in most cases by a certain level of society (architects, engineers, planners, and other technical field related personals) without proper consideration of related social and ‘human’ aspects, and that serious errors, deficiencies, and failures leads to a non-prepared community. It is assumed that clear communication, spreading of information through media, and directions of research in education and knowledge sharing will influence strongly what will actually happen in the future on field. MERCY Malaysia, through its experience in disaster management and reconstruction programs in Aceh and Nias tried to identify what is needed in preparing a prepared community. Some innovations are needed in field, research, administrational and management works to provide backgrounds for team of specialists to work together effectively with the community, in a coordinated manner on the complex problems of disaster. The approach must be inter-disciplinary, to blend and integrate all related fields. It must involve plans and program courses applied to real problems, such as what we have been practicing in Aceh since 2004.

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PAPER 6 Research, well knowledge spreading programs, as well as education, must be multidisciplinary and related closely with the communities’ culture, social, politic and economy background. Specialists must be able to understand each other, each other’s literature and most importantly, the communities they are working with. Finally, we must develop new leaders who are specialists in a specific field and at the same time sufficiently knowledgeable about the approaches and problems of other pertinent disciplines to be able to work effectively with the society at large. There are unique strains on working with the community in several parts of the tsunami-hit areas. In some places where the numbers of affected people that we encountered are still holding to strong principles in very traditional ways of lifestyles, MERCY Malaysia and its partners have to find roles in advising and educating them on the best practices of disaster preparedness and safe construction. From previous experiences, we try to ensure that the voices of tsunami-affected people are heard by having: 1. Bi-weekly meetings with villagers, community leaders, religious leaders, authorities and other NGOs, discussing issues of spatial ordering, various post-disaster management initiatives, and various issues related to reconstruction and rehabilitation; 2. On site discussions with each beneficiary (house owner) in determining their own plot of land, house positioning, boundaries, nearest escape routes, and to make sure all beneficiaries are well informed on the designated mitigation plans, safe areas, escape routes, disaster management zones and ways of informing each other for alertness; 3. Promoting effective disaster mitigation, focusing on key elements of self-help, cooperation and education through activities such as: (a) research projects; (b) training and capacity building; (c) a series of international workshops; and (d) advisory services; 4. Discussion that leads to a development of prevention and mitigation plans. From the plans, we have produced a comprehensive escape routes plans for the village of Desa Weu Raya, designed clear signage and iconographic symbols to lead the escape routes, and have made clear guidelines on what should be done whenever a disaster alert information is being spread and known before, during, and after a disaster; and. 5. Other emergency management activities, which are to be discussed in detail in the following paragraphs. Among other activities conducted have been the implementations of field project in the affected disaster areas of Aceh and Nias. For the reconstruction of Desa Weu Raya in Lhoknga, Aceh Besar, demographic surveys were planned and conducted. The totally devastated village is to be relocated to make way for the reconstruction of their houses at their original lands. The survey makes available some alternative approaches for the relocation. The fairly extensive early works in identifying and collecting data from the community called to explain and discuss the survey, which covers among many other things such items as skills available for self-help, preferences of the future occupants for designs and plans, problems they foresee, and their own suggestions for solving problems. Relocation works were done after agreements were achieved between MERCY Malaysia and the beneficiaries. Community leaders were elected to facilitate programs and to participate with the community while works are being self-help concept was widely applied, right from the beginning works of site clearance, identifying temporary Internally Displaced Person (IDP) 146

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tents location, and construction of basic public facilities, which include community center, health center, kindergarten, work space for community administration, praying areas, and water and sanitation facilities. Tents were specially designed to response to the local context of weather, social lifestyles, cultural practice and other humanity implications. The tents were also designed to be easily transported and assembled by the community. Basic trainings on self-help were given by specialists in the fields of mental and physical health, nutrition, psychology, education, and capacity building. All thoughts that were offered involved public opinion and speculation. As a first step, it would seem appropriate for us to plan programs to bring experts and the public closer together, so we can better understand each other’s concepts, approaches, needs, and problems, and so we can work together cooperatively – instead of separately – with effectiveness for the benefit of the end users, which is the community. Every layer of the society should understand support roles and responsibilities. Decision makers and practitioners from non-governmental organizations including women’s and children organizations, community-based organizations, and all level of government; intergovernmental and multilateral organizations, professionals, academician, students, local authorities, parliamentarians, and community representatives should attend the understanding in being prepared and being able in managing disaster related plans, problems, and solutions. By having networking events and programs, an intimate venue for practical interaction and exchange may be worked out. The aims are to build knowledge, strengthen partnerships, creating new ones, and providing platforms for sharing novel ideas and practices. Support roles and responsibilities can be divided into two: (a) direct support; and (b) non-direct support. In Aceh, as elsewhere, MERCY Malaysia and the local communities have worked together to produce the best approach in problem solving. Most agencies working within the shelter working group are not complacent about the progress of the shelter operation in Aceh by the end of 20052. But, by having good support roles from communities, we successfully completed our batch of houses by September 2005, and were the first to relocate a whole village from their temporary shelter (IDP camp) to their new houses. This effort would not have been achieved without support from the villagers themselves, directly or indirectly. In the case of Desa Weu Raya, construction started of with the appointment of few villagers as community coordinator. Their main role is to ensure good coordination between MERCY Malaysia and the community. These community coordinators will become the focal point for other villagers to get information, and to have their voices heard. On the part of civil administrations, there were still gaps in their understanding of their duties and responsibilities. Better leadership and coordination is still needed from civil bureaucracies, NGO and other agencies, as well from the public. Emergency recovery plan and the continuation of the plan is also another important process in disaster management in preparing a community that is living in risk. The forcible removal of IDPs into barracks and relocation houses inevitably generates social tension. In isolated instances, NGOs and authorities have been compelled to recognize the tenancy rights of IDPs NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 6 after nearly all means to avoid confrontation, jealousy, and social illness have been exhausted. Relief works and interventions should seek for a recovery plan that secure universal human rights and provide shelter, water, food, health, education, hope and freedom for all. It has been MERCY Malaysia’s intention and belief that a sustainable recovery plan could provide the framework for the fulfillment of these basic human rights. The belief underpins our approach in providing relief works for the disaster victims: by preparing a clear guideline dedicated to the community in terms of emergency recovery plan and the continuation of the plan. After three months of preparatory works, MERCY Malaysia proposed its housing and resettlement schemes for the conurbation in March 2005, as well as a clear guideline for us in being prepared for other disaster and emergency cases. The plan is an important document both because of its approach to the critical shelter needs and, in a wider context, because it marks a radical departure from the static regulations and blue prints prepared previously, which were produced without deep understanding on local context, disaster typologies, and lack of flexibilities, and were so frequently produced, and as almost regularly shelved. The plan scheme as a whole is an indicative, practical-oriented proposal rather than a definitive emergency plan based on statutory map governing land control, space requirements and other essentially concerned with political decision-making, with planning and implementation, seen as a single, continuous process which ideally integrated the flexibility of respecting and suiting contextual elements of a place and disaster. The effectiveness of the emergency recovery plan that was developed from the Aceh experience was put into test when the Pakistan earthquake happened. The first team that was sent to Pakistan applied guidelines from the plan, and it was proven to be easier and more efficient to be well prepared and fully understand each roles, responsibilities and strength.

RESPONSIVE COMMUNITY One way to establish a responsive community is to have a community that fully understands their role and is well prepared. After the two elements can be fully applied and implemented, it is suggested that these two approaches are to be practiced in developing a responsive community. 1. Interactive Community Process Plan The key objective of this process plan is to formulate what have been discussed and applied in the usage of the prevention, preparedness, responsive and recovery concept. Within this process plan, which will improve public awareness on the importance of preparedness and participation, as well as education strategies, it is hoped that the strengthening of emergency networks can be successfully achieved. This process plan is a blueprint on what have been formulated before, and is an improvisation from previous experience. The process plan will act as a manual that is more flexible in its approach and public-friendly. This is due to its formulating process that includes direct public participation, ideas, suggestions, and involvement. This community plan must 148

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be developed from the understanding of other communities’ and agencies’ roles and responsibilities, and in return will improve the understanding. A sufficient and effective process plan is a comprehensive plan that includes: a) Emergency communication; b) Public warning and alert guidelines; and. c) Planning guidelines (spatial planning, disaster management planning, operational arrangement planning). 2. Risk Mitigation Plan This plan works with the inherent dynamism of the people involved in the community process plan. Risk mitigation plan helps in: a) Determining authorities’ plans and statutory; b) Establishing planning committee; and, c) Developing a comprehensive emergency management systems and flows. Determination of authorities’ plans will reduce problems in any intervention planned by agencies. Problems that will occur later on can be minimized by fully understanding what are the ruling and standard requirements of the local authority. In Aceh and Nias, the government has set up the Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Body (BRR – Badan Rekonstruksi dan Rehabilitasi) to help, facilitate, manage and control all works and intervention planned and done in reconstructing Aceh after the tsunami. This body also monitors all agencies activities, disbursement of fund, work progress, and project status. This is to coordinate all projects and programs and to ensure no overlapping will happen, and is also part of the government effort to eliminate bureaucracy and corruption. However, no early preparation and anticipation before the disaster had caused the body to fail in performing well in achieving its objectives. BRR was formed three months after the disaster, and everything need to be learned, improvised, and put into test while the real working situation requires a well-prepared plan and systems. MERCY Malaysia would like to strongly suggest to all Malaysian, private agencies and the government to develop a comprehensive plan of its own and must be put on test to be well prepared in any disaster condition. Establishment of planning committee needs to be formed and well analyzed. Anticipation and analysis of any hazards and disaster that might occur, resources availability, and determination responsibilities must be prepared early to overcome any complications in the future. Japan is a good example in providing and preparing a well prepared, knowledgeable and responsive community. The setting up of disaster preparedness bodies such as the Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC) in Kobe and the United Nations Centre for Regional Planning (UNCRD) in Hyogo are proof of the Japanese readiness and preparedness in disaster condition. The promotion of earthquake safety initiatives such as the Global Earthquake Safety Initiative (GESI) and the implementation of a concept called Sustainability in Community-Based Disaster Management (CBDM) help in reducing complications in disaster and hazard situations.

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PAPER 6 MERCY Malaysia has worked with agencies such as the Asian Disaster Reduction and Response Network (ADRRN), National Society for Earthquake Technology, Nepal (NSET) and ADRC in promoting the importance of disaster preparedness and disaster management. The concept of Total Disaster Risk Management (TDRM) and Community Base Disaster Management (CBDM) are widely applied in all MERCY Malaysia’s activities. However, these efforts are not enough if participation from others, importantly, the civil society is not available. In developing efficient emergency management systems, all plans that have been developed need to be properly documented for future review and reference. All plans applied must be analyzed again to ensure its effectiveness and workability in responding to a wider global context. Tests have to be done in a practical manner by organizing workshops, forums, simulations, trainings and networking with other inter-related agencies. Public participation is a must to fully understand needs and in responding to it. An overall review on the systems and plans will produce new improvised results, which will help in producing a well-prepared society in disaster and other acute cases.

CONCLUSION Priorities for action shall be outlined in order to guide states, organizations, and other actors at all levels in designing and planning their approach to disaster risk reduction: 1. Make disaster risk reduction a priority (Collaboration is Key) Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation. Strong national and local commitment is required to save lives and livelihood threatened by natural hazards. Natural hazards must be taken into account in public and private sector decision-making in the same way that environmental and social impact assessments are currently required. Countries must therefore develop or modify policies, laws and organizational arrangements, as well as plans, programmes, and projects, to integrate disaster risk reduction. They must also allocate sufficient resources to support and maintain them. This includes: a) Creating effective, multi-sector national platforms to provide policy guidance and to coordinate activities; b) Integrating disaster risk reduction into development policies and planning, such as Poverty Reduction Strategies; and, c) Ensuring community participation, so that local needs are met. 2. Know the risks and take action (Early warning saves lives) Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks; and enhance early warning. To reduce their vulnerability to natural hazards, countries and communities must know the risks that they face, and take actions based on their knowledge. Understanding risk requires investment in scientific, technical and institutional capabilities to observe, record, 150

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research, analyse, forecast, model and map natural hazards. Tools need to be developed and disseminated: statistically information about disaster events, risk maps, disaster vulnerability and risk indicators are essential. Most importantly, countries need to use this knowledge to develop effective early warning systems, appropriately adapted to the unique circumstances of the people at risk. Early warning is widely accepted as a crucial component of disaster risk reduction. When effective early warning systems provide information about a hazard to a vulnerable population, and plans are in place to take action, thousands of lives can be saved. 3. Build understanding and awareness (Local knowledge is critical for disaster reduction) Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels. Disaster can be reduced substantially if people are well informed about measures they can take to reduce vulnerability – and if they are motivated to act. Key activities to increase awareness of disaster prevention include: a) Providing relevant information on disaster risks and means of protection, especially for citizens in high-risk areas; b) Strengthening networks and promoting dialogue and cooperation among disaster experts, technical and scientific specialist, planners and other stakeholders; c) Including risk reduction subject matter in formal, non-formal, and information education and training activities; d) Developing and strengthening community-based disaster risk management programmes; and, e) Working with the media in disaster risk reduction awareness activities. 4. Reduce risk (Building resilience protects communities) Reduce the underlying risk factors. Vulnerability to natural hazards is increased in many ways, such as: a) Locating communities in hazard-prone areas, such as flood plains; b) Destroying forests and wetlands, thereby harming the capacity of the environment to withstand hazards; c) Building public facilities and housing unable to withstand the impact of hazards; and, d) Not having social and financial safety mechanism in place. Countries can be build resilience to disasters by investing in simple, well-known measures to reduce risk and vulnerability. Disaster can be reduced by applying relevant building standards to protect infrastructure, such as schools, hospitals and homes. Vulnerable buildings can be retrofitted to a higher degree of safety. Protecting precious ecosystems, such as coral reefs and mangrove forests, allow them to act as natural storm barriers. Effective insurance and micro-finance initiatives can help to transfer risks and provide additional resources. 5. Be prepared and ready to act (Disaster preparedness takes practice) Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels. NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 6 Being prepared, including conducting risk assessments, before investing in development at all levels of society will enable people to become more resilient to natural hazards. Preparedness involves many types of activities, including: a) The development and regular testing of contingency plans; b) The establishment of emergency funds to support preparedness, response and recovery activities; c) The development of coordinated regional approaches for effective disaster response; and, d) Continuous dialogue between response agencies, planners and policy-makers, and development organizations. Regular disaster preparedness exercises, including evacuation drills, also are key to ensuring rapid and effective disaster response. Effective preparedness plans and organization also help to cope with the many small and medium-sized disasters that repeatedly occur in so many communities. Natural hazards cannot be prevented, but it is possible to reduce their impacts by reducing the vulnerability of people and their livelihoods. REFERENCES 1

2

‘Indonesian Human Development Report 2004. The Economics of Democracy: Financing Human Development in Indonesia’, BPS-Statistics Indonesia, BAPPENAS and UNDP Morris, Eric (2005) UN Recovery coordinator for Aceh. ‘A Place to Stay, A Place to Live’, Challenges in Providing Shelter in India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka after the Tsunami, Oxfam International BIBLIOGRAPHY

Becker, W.S. (1994), Rebuilding for the Future – A Guide to Sustainable Redevelopment for Disaster-Affected Communities, U.S. Department of Energy, Disaster Planning, SMART Communities Network, accessed on 25th August 2006 www.smartcommunitiesnetwork.com Disaster Planning, SMART Communities Network, New Richmond, Ohio: An Amendment to the Floodplain Regulations – Regulating the Construction of Elevated Structures, Ordinance 199625, Disaster Planning, SMART Communities Network, accessed on 25th August 2006 www.smartcommunitiesnetwork.com Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Agency for Aceh – Nias (2006) Nias One Year After The Earthquake: Turning Challenges into Opportunities (BRR NAD – Nias, Indonesia) American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), (1990) Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures (ASCE 7-88). New York: ASCE.

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Razani. R (1979) Criteria for Seismic Design of Low Cost Housing (Pergamon Press, The East West Center, New York, USA Zainonabidin, A (2007) Safe Building in Disaster Area: A Case Study of Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Projects in Aceh and Nias, paper presented for 1st Construction Industry Research Achievement International Conference, PWTC Kuala Lumpur Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik (MKS) Scale (1964) Earthquakes Manual for Designers and Builders (NSET-Nepal, 2002) Gray, W. A. (1990) Strong Association Between West African Rainfall and U. S. Landfall of Intense Hurricanes, article from Science 249: 1251-1256. Jon K. A., (Nov. 1996) Hurricane Damage to Residential Structures: Risk and Mitigation, research working paper for Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center Institute of Behavioral Science University of Colorado, Disaster Planning, SMART Communities Network, accessed on 25th August 2006 www.smartcommunitiesnetwork.com MERCY, (2005) Building Homes For A Community At Risk: Sharing The Experience Of Mercy Malaysia’s Core House Project In Aceh, unpublished summary report, MERCY Malaysia. Pilkey, Orrin H., Sr.; Walter D.Pilkey; Orrin H. Pilkey, Jr.; and William J. Neal. (1981) Coastal Design: A Guide for Builders, Planners, and Home Owners. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

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PAPER 6 CIVIL SOCIETY ROLE IN DISASTER COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN POST TSUNAMI ACEH: LESSONS LEARNT FROM DISASTER MANAGEMENT

21-22 NOV 2007 PWTC, K.LUMPUR

WORLD TOWN PLANNING DAY INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION INTRODUCTION ROLES OF COMMUNITIES PREPARED COMMUNITY RESPONSIVE COMMUNITY CONCLUSION

BY:

AZMAN ZAINONABIDIN

>LECTURER, UiTM PERAK >EXCO MERCY MALAYSIA >PROFESSIONAL ARCHITECT

INTRODUCTION MERCY Malaysia is committed to analyze, research and propose effective means of disaster management enabling people of local communities to protect themselves against disaster and its destruction caused. The OBJECTIVE: To achieve an understanding for the public in becoming a prepared and responsive community through a comparative study of the effectiveness of grass – roots projects and programmes and at the same time, suggest policies, guidelines and training inputs for each community to secure its role in the preparedness of disaster.

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INTRODUCTION • TO REBUILD • TO EDUCATE THE PUBLIC ON DISASTER PREPAREDNESS

“TOTAL DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT”

TDRM PERSPECTIVE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE Links activities in all phases with a common goal to reduce risk

INTRODUCTION

STATISTIC IN ACEH (2002):

48.5% of the population had no access to clean water • 36.2% children under the age of five were undernourished • 38.0% of the population had no access to health facilities. •

The poverty rate doubled from 14.7% in 1999 to 29.8% in 2002. The main problem with providing this disaster related information and an understanding is due to the massive destruction and, to a lesser extent, in the establishment of networks and ways of spreading information.

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PAPER 6

When the effort of promoting the importance of public roles is seen in a cultural context, it provides a new sense of direction to educate them in the development of the values.

Community roles can be worked out with establishing rights to prevent, to prepare, to response and to recover

ROLES OF COMMUNITIES

ROLES OF COMMUNITIES 1. Lobbying the incorporation of information on disaster preparedness by distributing ‘Anda dan Tsunami’ leaflets, promoting the story of ‘Inamura No Hi’ through a seminar directed to teachers and educators, and by organizing cultural events such as theatre and dance to incorporate knowledge sharing that is culturally related to the community and society;

Tsunami & Earthquake Poster

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ROLES OF COMMUNITIES 2. Working on public information of Disaster Preparedness an promoting the importance of civil society role in disaster by conducting workshops and seminars. These include a workshop in promoting the concept of ‘Risk Reduction from Earthquakes by Having Safe Buildings’.

CONSTRUCTION OF MODEL HOUSE by using Nepal Seismic Resistance Design, 19 April 2005

ROLES OFACEH COMMUNITIES REBUILDING A SAFER WORKSHOP - ADRRN

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PAPER 6 ROLES OF COMMUNITIES 3. Actively managing the IDP Camp Site of Desa Weu Raya in Lhoknga, Aceh Besar. The IDP Camp Site has been home for more than 200 families affected by the tsunami until September 2006.

ROLES OF COMMUNITIES

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ROLES OF COMMUNITIES 4. Promoting programs to enhance human safety and security by incorporating safer construction practices into the reconstruction process, through training sessions and workshops.

ROLES OFACEH COMMUNITIES REBUILDING A SAFER WORKSHOP - ADRRN

Building with seismic resistant structure

Conventional RC structure

SHAKE TABLE EARTHQUAKE SIMULATION TEST

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PAPER 6 ROLES OF COMMUNITIES With these efforts done, a two-fold objective was successfully achieved. First is the mass spreading of knowledge and

information to the society on the importance of disaster preparedness through field experience, and second is the direct participation from the society involved with all programs and intervention done. A well prepared community

is born, and a community who fully understands the typology of hazards and its prevention, preparedness, response and recovery networks neutralizes the past and is hereby free from being conditioned by specific methods and models and concentrate instead on the inventive transformation of new models and approaches of society role in disaster management which respond to a new and the particular demand of existing context.

During the two workshops on safe building practice that were organized both in Aceh and Malaysia, it was observed that a certain group of the society is already well informed and alert on the importance of disaster preparedness.

PREPARED COMMUNITY

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PREPARED COMMUNITY

THE APPROACH: INTER-DISCIPLINARY OF ALL RELATED FIELDS PLANS & PROGRAM COURSES APPLIED TO REAL SITUATIONS/PROBLEMS MUST RELATE TO COMMUNITIES’ CULTURE, SOCIAL, POLITIC & ECONOMIC BACKGROUND DEVELOP NEW LEADERS WHO ARE SPECIALISTS IN SPECIFIC FIELD

PREPARED COMMUNITY Bi-weekly meetings with villagers, community leaders, religious leaders, authorities and other NGOs, discussing issues of spatial ordering, various post-disaster management initiatives, and various issues related to reconstruction and rehabilitation;

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PAPER 6 PREPARED COMMUNITY On site discussions with each beneficiary (house owner) in determining their own plot of land, house positioning, boundaries, nearest escape routes, and to make sure all beneficiaries are well informed on the designated mitigation plans, safe areas, escape routes, disaster management zones and ways of informing each other for alertness;

PREPARED COMMUNITY Promoting effective disaster mitigation, focusing on key elements of selfhelp, cooperation and education through activities such as: (a) research

projects; (b) training and capacity building; (c) a series of international workshops; and (d) advisory services;

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PREPARED COMMUNITY

ESCAPE ROUTE SIGN AT DESA WEU RAYA

PREPARED COMMUNITY Other emergency management activities which have been conducted in Aceh, especially on field projects. For the reconstruction of Desa Weu Raya in Lhoknga, Aceh Besar, demographic surveys were planned and conducted. The totally devastated village is to be relocated to make way for the reconstruction of their houses at their original lands. The survey makes available some alternative approaches for the relocation.

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PAPER 6 PREPARED COMMUNITY

Site clearance of Desa Weu Raya

PREPARED COMMUNITY •

164

Identifying temporary Internally Displaced Person (IDP)

tents location

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PREPARED COMMUNITY •

Construction of basic public facilities:

Community center

Praying Area

Health center

Kindergarten

Water and Sanitation Facilities

PREPARED COMMUNITY Tents were specially designed to response

to the local context of weather, social lifestyles, cultural practice and other humanity implications.

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PAPER 6 PREPARED COMMUNITY

PREPARED COMMUNITY Basic trainings on self-help were given by specialists in

the fields of mental and physical health, nutrition, psychology, education, and capacity building.

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PREPARED COMMUNITY Every layer of the society should understand support roles and responsibilities.

The aims are to build knowledge, strengthen partnerships, creating new ones, and providing platforms for sharing novel ideas and practices.

PREPARED COMMUNITY

By having good support roles from communities, Mercy Malaysia has successfully completed our batch of houses by September 2005, and were the first to relocate a whole village from their temporary shelter (IDP camp) to their new houses��

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PAPER 6

One way to establish a responsive community is to have a community that fully understands their role and is well prepared. After the two elements can be fully applied and implemented, it is suggested that these two approaches are to be practiced in developing a responsive community.

RESPONSIVE COMMUNITY

RESPONSIVE COMMUNITY

1. INTERACTIVE COMMUNITY PROCESS PLAN 2. RISK MITIGATION PLAN

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RESPONSIVE COMMUNITY INTERACTIVE COMMUNITY PROCESS PLAN The key objective is to formulate the usage of the

prevention, preparedness, responsive and recovery concept.

This process plan: 1. 2. 3.

Will improve public awareness on the importance of preparedness and participation.

Education strategies. Strengthening of emergency networks.

RESPONSIVE COMMUNITY INTERACTIVE COMMUNITY PROCESS PLAN The process plan will act as a manual that is more flexible in its approach and public-friendly. This community plan must be developed from the understanding of other communities’ and agencies’ roles and responsibilities, and in return will improve the understanding. • • •

Emergency communication; Public warning and alert guidelines; and. Planning guidelines

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PAPER 6 RESPONSIVE COMMUNITY RISK MITIGATION PLAN This plan works with the inherent dynamism of the people involved in the community process plan. Risk mitigation plan helps in: • • •

Determining authorities’ plans and statutory Establishing planning committee Developing a comprehensive emergency management systems and flows.

RESPONSIVE COMMUNITY Determination of authorities’ plans & statutory: In Aceh and Nias, the government has set up the Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Body (BRR): To help, facilitate, manage and control all works and intervention planned and done in reconstructing Aceh after the tsunami. To monitor all agencies activities, disbursement of fund, work progress, and project status. To coordinate all projects and programs and to ensure no overlapping will happen, and is also part of the government effort to eliminate bureaucracy and corruption. 170

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RESPONSIVE COMMUNITY

Establishing Planning Committee:

Establishment of planning committee needs to be formed and well analyzed. Anticipation and analysis of any hazards and disaster that might occur, resources availability, and determination responsibilities must be prepared early to overcome any complications in the future. Japan is a good example in providing and preparing a well prepared, knowledgeable and responsive community. Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC) United Nations Centre for Regional Planning (UNCRD) Global Earthquake Safety Initiative (GESI) Community-Based Disaster Management (CBDM)

RESPONSIVE COMMUNITY

Asian Disaster Reduction and Response Network (ADRRN) National Society for Earthquake Technology, Nepal (NSET)

TDRM CBDM However, these efforts are not enough if participation from others, importantly, the civil society is not available.

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PAPER 6 RESPONSIVE COMMUNITY Developing a comprehensive emergency management: All plans need to be documented for future review and reference. All plans must be analyzed to ensure its effectiveness and workability in responding to a wider global context. Tests have to be done in a practical manner. Public participation is a must. An overall review on the systems and plans will produce new improvised results, which will help in producing a well-prepared society in disaster and other acute casesďż˝

CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION

Priorities for action shall be outlined in order to guide states, organizations, and other actors at all levels in designing and planning their approach to disaster risk reduction.

CONCLUSION Make Disaster Risk Reduction a Priority

(Collaboration is Key)

Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation.

Creating multi-sector national platforms to provide policy guidance and to coordinate activities; Integrating disaster risk reduction into development policies and planning; Ensuring community participation.

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PAPER 6 CONCLUSION Make Disaster Risk Reduction a Priority

(Collaboration is Key)

“ Everyone has a responsibility for disaster risk reduction. Strong partnerships between government agencies, the private sectors, civil society organisations are essential to truly develop a culture of risk reduction, and to integrate

disaster risk reduction into policies and planning ”

Mr. Jacky R.Randimbiarison, National Platform Coordinator, Madagascar

CONCLUSION Know the Risks and Take Action

(Early Warning Saves Lives) Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks – and enhance early warning.

Tools need to de developed and disseminated. Countries need to develop effective warning systems, appropriately adapted to the unique circumstances of people at risk.

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CONCLUSION Know the Risks and Take Action

(Early Warning Saves Lives)

Advanced warnings mean the difference between life and death. Cuba is one of the best-prepared countries in the Caribbean for the hurricane season. The early warning system through the national media has proven its effectiveness. During 2004, when Hurricane Charley hit, 70,000 houses were severely damaged and four people were killed. When Hurricane Ivan struck the following month, over 2 million people were evacuated. No

killed.

one was

CONCLUSION Build Understanding and Awareness

(Local Knowledge is Critical for Disaster Reduction) Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels. • • • • •

Provides relevant information on disaster risks & means of protection; Strengthening networks & promoting dialogue with all parties; Formal & informal education in disaster risk reduction; Develop community-based disaster risk management programmes; Working with media in disaster risk reduction awareness.

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PAPER 6 CONCLUSION Build Understanding and Awareness

(Local Knowledge is Critical for Disaster Reduction)

“ In 1907 a tsunami already happened here in Simeulue, and so our Grandmothers always gave us the following advice: If an earthquake

comes, we must go and look at the beach; if the sea is at low tide, the tsunami will be coming and we must look for higher ground ”

Mr. Darmili Bhupati of Simeulue Island, Sumatera, Indonesia

CONCLUSION Reduce Risk

(Building Resilience Protects Communities) Reduce the underlying risk factors.

Disaster can be reduced by applying relevant building standards to protect critical infrastructure, such as SCHOOLS, HOSPITALS & HOMES . Vulnerable buildings can be RETROFITTED to a higher degree of safety.

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CONCLUSION

Reduce Risk

(Building Resilience Protects Communities)

In Bam, Iran, more than 30,000 people were killed when an earthquake struck the city on 26 December 2003. A major factor contributing to the high death toll was mainly on the unsafe structures.

“ The house KILLED the PEOPLE, NOT the EARTHQUAKE ” Ir. Mohamed Rahimnejad Civil Engineer, Iran

CONCLUSION Be Prepared and Ready to Act

(Disaster Preparedness Takes Practice) Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels.

• • • •

Regular TESTING of contingency plan; Establishment of EMERGENCY FUNDS; COORDINATED REGIONAL APPROACHES for effective disaster response; CONTINUOS DIALOGUE between all parties.

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PAPER 6 CONCLUSION Be Prepared and Ready to Act

(Disaster Preparedness Takes Practice)

Japan prides itself in being well-prepared for earthquakes. On Disaster Prevention Day held in Japan every year, many people all across the country participate in disaster preparedness drills, involving both emergency workers and general public.

DISASTER HAZARD CAN BE ESTIMATED BUT NOT MITIGATED HOWEVER DISASTER RISK CAN BE MITIGATED BY HAVING A PREPARED & RESPONSIVE COMMUNITIES

THANK YOU AZMAN ZAINONABIDIN MERCY Malaysia Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak 178

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PAPER SUMMARY 1

INTRODUCTION

MERCY Malaysia is committed to analyse, research and propose effective means of disaster management enabling people of local communities to protect themselves against disaster and its destruction caused. The objectives of this paper are to: a. achieve an understanding for the public in becoming a prepared and responsive community; and b. suggest policies, guidelines and training inputs for each community to secure its role in the preparedness of disaster.

2

MAIN POINTS

Three main issues were taken into consideration by MERCY Malaysia in formulating a workable praxis to have civil society involvement in disaster awareness: • The roles of the community that were directly or indirectly connected before any interventions were done; • The most appropriate systems and solutions to build a prepared community; and • The education of the public on a holistic concept of total disaster risk management in order to create a responsive community. a. Roles of Communities Community roles can be worked out by establishing rights to prevent, to prepare, to respond and to recover. In Aceh, MERCY Malaysia has been: i. Lobbying the incorporation of information on disaster preparedness by distributing ‘Anda dan Tsunami’ leaflets; ii. Working on public information of Disaster Preparedness and promoting the importance of civil society role in disaster by conducting workshops and seminars; iii. Actively managing the IDP Camp Site of Desa Weu Raya in Lhoknga, Aceh Besar; and iv. Promoting programs to enhance human safety and security. With these efforts done, a two-fold objective was successfully achieved i.e.: i. The mass spreading of knowledge and information to the society on the importance of disaster preparedness through field experience; and ii. The direct participation of the society involved with all programmes and intervention done. b. Prepared Community During the two workshops on safe building practice, in Acheh and Malaysia it was observed that a certain group of the society is already well informed and alert on the importance of disaster preparedness. MERCY Malaysia tried to identify what is needed in preparing a prepared community. Teams of specialist should work effectively with the community. The approach must: i. Be inter-disciplinary integrating all related fields; ii. Involve plans and program courses applied to real situations or problems; NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 6 iii. Relate to communities’ culture, social, politic and economic background; and v. Develop new leaders who are specialists in specific field. MERCY Malaysia is trying to ensure that the voices of tsunami-affected people are heard by having: i. Bi-weekly meetings with villagers, community leaders, religious leaders, authorities and other NGOs, discussing issues of spatial ordering, various postdisaster management initiatives, and various issues related to reconstruction and rehabilitation; ii. On-site discussions with each beneficiary (house owner) in determining their own plot of land, house positioning, boundaries, nearest escape routes, and to make sure all beneficiaries are well informed on the designated mitigation plans, safe areas, escape routes, disaster management zones and ways of informing each other for alertness; iii. Promoting effective disaster mitigation, focusing on key elements of self-help, cooperation and education through activities such as: • Research projects; • Training and capacity building; • A series of international workshops; and • Advisory services. iv. Other emergency management activities which have been conducted in Aceh, especially on field projects. c. Responsive Community Two approaches are to be practiced in developing a responsive community: i. Interactive Community Process Plan. The key objective is to formulate the usage of the prevention, preparedness, responsive and recovery concept. This process plan is a comprehensive plan that includes: • Emergency communication; • Public warning and alert guidelines; and • Planning guidelines (spatial planning, disaster management planning, operational arrangement planning). ii. Risk Mitigation Plan. This plan works with the inherent dynamism of the people involved in the community process plan. Risk mitigation plan helps in: • Determining authorities’ plans and statutes; • Establishing planning committee; and • Developing a comprehensive emergency management systems and flows.

3

CONCLUSION

Priorities for action shall be outlined in order to guide states, organisations, and other actors at all levels in designing and planning their approach to disaster risk reduction: a. Make Disaster Risk Reduction a Priority (Collaboration is Key) Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation. 180

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This includes: i. Creating multi-sector national platforms to provide policy guidance and to coordinate activities; ii. Integrating disaster risk reduction into development policies and planning; and iii. Ensuring community participation. b. Know the Risks and Take Action (Early Warning Saves Lives) Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks – and enhance early warning. Tools need to be developed and disseminated and countries need to develop effective warning systems, appropriately adapted to the unique circumstances of people at risk. c. Build Understanding and Awareness (Local Knowledge is Critical for Disaster Reduction) Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels. Key activities to increase awareness of disaster prevention include: • Providing relevant information on disaster risks and means of protection; • Strengthening networks & promoting dialogue with all parties; • Formal and informal education in disaster risk reduction; • Develop community-based disaster risk management programmes;and • Working with media in disaster risk reduction awareness. d. Reduce Risk (Building Resilience Protects Communities) Reduce the underlying risk factors. Disaster can be reduced by applying relevant building standards to protect critical infrastructure, such as schools, hospitals and homes. Vulnerability to natural hazards is increased in many ways, such as: • Locating communities in hazard-prone areas, such as flood plains; • Destroying forests and wetlands, thereby harming the capacity of the environment to withstand hazards; • Building public facilities and housing unable to withstand the impact of hazards; and • Not having social and financial safety mechanism in place. e.

Be Prepared and Ready to Act (Disaster Preparedness Takes Practice) Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels. Preparedness involves many types of activities, including: • regular testing of contingency plan; • establishment of emergency funds; • coordinated regional approaches for effective disaster response; and • continuous dialogue between all parties. Disaster hazard can be estimated but not mitigated. However, disaster risk can be mitigated by having a prepared and responsive community.

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Paper 7


FORWARDING GENDER EQUATION IN URBAN GOVERNANCE AND PLANNING

Ms. Maria Chin Abdullah EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR WOMEN DEVELOPMENT COLLECTIVE ORGANISATION


PAPER 7 CURRICULUM VITAE

MARIA CHIN ABDULLAH Executive Director of the Women’s Development Collective Organization (MDC, a nongovernment organization). She has more than 20 years of training experience in democracy and development, with special focus on feminism, women’s rights, human rights, governance, young women’s leadership, participatory democracy and development. Other issues include women and media, violence against women and empowerment programmes for civil societies. Maria is active in advocacy and mainstreaming of women’s rights and development into national policies and legislations at government institutions. She possess more than ten years of experience in consultancy and analytical research, especially in programme development and implementation, evaluation and monitoring of NGOs’ work and research in women’s rights. She is actively involve in capacity building for the women’s movement and the civil society in promoting women’s and human rights issues since 1985.She possess senior management, personnel and administrative skills, proposal writing for funding, and develop fund raising activities. Maria has wide experience in coordination, training, education and research programmes for WDC. She is responsible for the development of training themes and modules; capacity building for two coalitions, namely Women Organising Network and the Women’s Agenda for Change. She established and strengthened networks with NGOs and government agencies; and management of the WDC office. She coordinates, develop and source funding for WDC. One of her achievements includes obtaining an award from the European Union fund for a total amount of RM3 million for years 2005-2007 for three organisations, i.e. Women’s Development Collective (WDC), All Women’s Action Society (AWAM) and Women’s Center for Change (WCC), Penang. Maria holds a Bachelor of Science in Applied Economics from North East London Polytechnic, London, U.K (now renamed as University of East London) and Master of Science in Urban Development Planning from University College, London, U.K. 31st Oct 2007

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FORWARDING GENDER EQUATION IN URBAN GOVERNANCE AND PLANNING By: Maria Chin Abdullah Executive Director Women’s Development Collective

INTRODUCTION Good urban governance is characterised by transparency and accountability and the ability to provide a level playing field for private and civil society sectors to participate. These principles of enablement (inclusiveness), participation, non-discrimination, and due process are clearly spelled out in the Habitat Agenda. They were reaffirmed in the United Nations Millennium Declaration in 2000, and again in the United Nations Declaration on Cities and Other Human Settlements in the New Millennium, in 2001. Closely related to the issues of accountability and transparency is to have equitable participation of women and men in urban governance. It is essential to recognise that Urban Life is for Everyone. The structure of urban space, due to its social structure, often poses more difficult challenges for residents with lower mobility. These include children, older people, people with disabilities and women. People in these and similar categories have become marginalised. The paper focuses on women’s active involvement in community-based activities and to assess if they are included into top-level decision making processes. The different ways in which women and men participate in and benefit from urban governance are significantly shaped by gender constructions and socialisation.

WHY GENDER IN URBAN GOVERNANCE? Chapter 13 of the Ninth Malaysia Plan (2006-2010) states that the government is committed to strengthen national machinery and institutional capacity for the advancement of women through “efforts …undertaken to meet the 30% quota for women in decision making positions in the public sector” (NMP: 293). It also states that training will be provided to members of state and parliamentary constituency levels “to enhance their effectiveness in programme formulation and implementation as well as resolving issues confronting women at the grassroots” (NMP:293). The Malaysian Government also made an international commitment to the Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) by being it signatory in 1995. Women’s involvement is further supported in the Charter on Local Democracy and Governance for Local Authorities of the All Petaling Jaya Pro-Action Committee (APPAC) (Refer to Appendix 1). Women’s participation in local councils is a strategic step to increase the participation of women in the democratic decision-making process. Their low representation in local councils NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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PAPER 7 translates into a lack of access to decision-making. As a result, women’s issues and concerns are not addressed. Many of the issues decided by local councils directly affect women in their day-to-day living: from the use of public transport and amenities to schools for children. In the 2004 elections,1 only 23 women were elected. They make up a mere 10.5 per cent of the 219 Members of Parliament. Only 32 out of 505 State Assembly members are women. This comes to a very low 6.3 per cent. Women constitute an average of 10 per cent of local councils.2 The Prime Minister summed it up in his comments on why there are few women in the decision making process: “There appear to be elements within our society who are uncomfortable with the advancement of women. They try to obstruct the progress of women through barriers and strictures legitimised in the name of religion or culture… It is not the religious principle or cultural value they cite which is the problem. It is the way in which it is misinterpreted and misapplied that causes problems for women, and by extension, for society.”3 Incorporating gender-sensitive into urban governance contributes towards better urban management and planning of resources. Participation and civic engagement are critical determinants of good governance, a concept that addresses issues of social equity and political legitimacy and not merely the efficient management of infrastructure and services. The different ways in which women and men participate in and benefit from urban governance are significantly shaped by prevailing constructions of gender, whose norms, expectations and institutional expressions constrain women’s access to the social and economic, thus political, resources of the city. According to the Asian Women and Shelter Network and the Urban Governance, an initiative of UNDP (2005), asserts that “a gender-sensitive approach to urban governance has two principal objectives: • to increase women's participation in urban development • to foster gender-awareness and competence among both women and men in the political arena and planning processes.” In short, for a sustainable human development it has to be not just pro-people or peoplecentered, but also to be owned by people - and half of that people are women. Given that women experience and use the urban environment in different ways from men, they have different priorities in terms of services and infrastructure, for example with regard to transport, housing and basic urban services.

FINDINGS FROM MONITORING ISSUES RELATED TO LOCAL GOVERNANCE From 2005 to 2006, the Women’s Development Collective monitored the commitment of local councils to issues of urban governance with a particular focus on whether women’s participation had been part of urban planning. The response was low which reflects that there is still a long way to go in forwarding Agenda 21 at local council levels.

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A total of 706 comments in the media were documented regarding the performance of Local Councils. The selection of the key issues, its sub-issues and parameters was guided by a consultation with civil society and the guidelines in the WDC Information Pack, “Forwarding Women’s Rights and Democracy”. The key areas monitored were on issues of accountability and transparency; the operations of the Local Councils in terms of greater representation from civil society, and women’s participation in Local Councils. The findings are as follows:

Women’s Participation For both years 2005-6, there were no commentaries from the local authorities 4 and government on: • reserving 30% quota for women; • training for women; and • increasing women appointees. This indicates that this topic was not a priority issue of the elected and appointed representatives

Accountability and Transparency Chart 1: Parameters for LCE Year 2005 ���� ������������������� � �������������

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Chart 1 shows us the frequency of the local council issues covered in the newspaper between the years 2005 and year 2006 respectively. It showed that: • the percentage of commentaries on Issues of Accountability and Transparency has increased from 68% to 88% • the percentage of commentaries on the actions taken by local councils has reduced from 32% to 12% • the most obvious reason of the drastic increase of the commentary is due to the actions taken by civil society and the public to raise local community issues. • however, there is little responses from the local authorities as issues were not raised by residents do not appear to be fully discussed at local council meetings. • women’s participation did not appear in both years.

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PAPER 7 Perceptions on Accountability and Transparency of Local Councils Chart 2: Issues of Accountability and Transparency (Year 2005) ����� ����������������������������� � ����������������������������������� � ���������������������

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Chart 3: Issues of Accountability and Transparency (Year 2006) ����� ����������������������������� � ����������������������������������� � ����������������������

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Chart 2 and Chart 3 indicates comments documented on transparency and accountability, including accountability of local council budgets. Residents have consistently raised about their involvement in the decision-making processes. There was an increase documented to request for greater transparency in the local council budgets, as the percentage increased from 26% to 37%. The number of monitored commentary to ask for more residents’ participation has increased from 48 to 192. There was no specific mention of women’s issues at local council in both years.

Some of the issues of transparency and accountability were as follows: i. Councils tend to take longer time to respond to the public complaints.5 Action Taken: The President of Subang Jaya Municipal Council, Mohd Arif Abdul Rahman

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said that it was important for the council to be transparent and inform residents.6 Some local councils, e.g. Majlis Perbandaran Ampang Jaya7, took actions in response to complaints from the public by reducing the assessment rates. ii. Majlis Perbandaran Selayang was asked to justify a study trip to Mauritius; the grooming course for DBKL was scrutinised; Datuk Zakaria’s appointment as a councillor in Klang was revoked. Actions Taken: In 2005 the local government did provide any explanation on the above issues. The Prime Minister did expressed that action will be taken against Klang Municipal councillor Datuk Zakaria Deros who illegally built his house without obtaining the council’s permission.8 Eventually it was not the federal and state government who took action but it was left to his political party, UMNO, to advise him to resign as a councillor. iii. In their quest to rescind the increase in assessment rates, Petaling Jaya residents requested to see the accounts of the then Majlis Perbandaran Petaling Jaya (MPPJ, now Majlis Bandaraya Petaling Jaya). Actions Taken: MPPJ refused to present detail accounts as it claimed that the Local Government Act 1976 states that it is not mandatory for detailed accounts to be publicly presented by local authorities. There was no support for the residents’ request from the Ministries. However, there have been responses from other quarters. In 2005, Judge Datuk Alizatul Khair Osman Khairuddin said that residents’ opinions should be viewed as a genuine platform for people to voice their opinions.9 However, decisions made at local councils are still not fully translated and disseminated to involve the community.10 The Public Accounts Committee chairperson, Datuk Shahrir Abdul Samad, expressed his disapproval on the abuse of funds by the MPS in their study tour to Maritius11, and by DBKL in conducting a grooming course.12 On the other hand, although YAB Prime Minister expressed that local authorities can crack down on developers who flout hill slope development regulations, neither the developer nor the local authority took responsibility for the landslide in Ulu Kelang.13 In 2006, grants from the Federal government to local authorities have increased by almost 200 per cent14 from previous years. However, the commentaries showed that local authorities were losing huge amounts of money through mismanagement and lack of enforcement, transparency and accountability on the part of the decision makers. Actions taken by residents and civil society groups did make some impact in the push for democracy and good governance within the local councils. Some examples of “successful” actions were: • MPPJ and the Selangor state government cancelled the proposal for the privatisation of billboards in Petaling Jaya and Selangor • The Selangor state government decided not to proceed with enforcing only one pest control consortium

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PAPER 7 When asked, the local residents from five urban towns responded that there is need to bring back the election of councillors as it was perceived as one of the solution to resolve issues of accountability and transparency and to increase citizens’ participation in selecting their representatives at local councils. While there were many calls for local council elections, including the recommendation in the Athi Nahappan Report,15 they were not accepted.16 One of the reasons given (by State Local Government Minister, Michael Manyin) was that the costs involved in carrying out local council elections.17

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The above are some of the issues which were monitored by the WDC report cards for 2005 and 2006. The Report Cards indicate that local councils still need to make more effort to overcome the public’s trust and innovate new ways to be more inclusive of residents’ involvement. As for taking up women’s issues and their involvement in local council decision making processes, as mentioned, there was no comments documented. Commitment of the government may have been made in the Ninth Malaysia Plan to increase women’s participation to 30% but on the ground, it appears that gender insensitivity still exists. Nonetheless, reforms are urgently needed to promote the principles of democracy and good governance with full participation from the citizens. More needs to be done to increase women’s representation to 30 per cent, a temporary measure which is in line with the Ninth Malaysia Plan and also CEDAW. The needs of the marginalised community must be represented at the councils. There must be a higher duty of care demanded from the third tier of government, which has the closest impact on the everyday lives of all citizens. Below are some recommendations that can be considered by the Prime Minister, Malaysia, Ministries of Housing and Local Government and Women, Family and Community Development:

Immediate actions: 1. Advocate for greater women’s participation • Lobby relevant parties to have more women appointed into local councils. This way, when local council elections are reinstated, there will be an available pool of women with relevant experience to stand as candidates. This will also show the younger generation that women are capable of occupying decision-making positions. 2. Strengthen the 30% women’s quota as a form of temporary affirmative action • Ensure that women are appointed into political posts. • This is in line with Article 4(1) of CEDAW, which calls for governments to adopt temporary special measures to accelerate de facto equality between women and men.

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3. Encourage political parties to undertake special measures to provide funding for women candidates. 4. Amend the Local Government Act 1976 to enable local council elections. • Lobby relevant authorities, such as, Members of Parliament, the Minister of Housing and Local Government, and the Minister of Women, Family and Community Development. 5. Conduct campaigns with Residents’ Associations, NGOs and the public. • Raise awareness on the importance of bringing back local council elections, which should lead to sustainable development and better living conditions for all. The larger goals of accountability and transparency would also benefit society as a whole. 6. Appoint members of sectoral or special interest groups to the local councils. • Ensure that there is greater community representation, including that of women.

Long term actions: 7.

Restore Local Council Elections.

8. Develop and conduct training programmes. • Increase the political and management skills of women and other disadvantaged groups to equip them for elected office.

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PAPER 7 APPENDIX 1 CHARTER ON LOCAL DEMOCRACY AND GOVERNANCE FOR LOCAL AUTHORITIES We, as concerned Residents’ Associations (RAs), Rukun Tetangga (RT) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), strongly believe that local democracy should be reintroduced into the political system. Local Authorities form the third tier in our federal structure and provide the closest link between the government and its rakyat.18 As one of the main foundations of democracy, the Local Authorities need to safeguard and realise the principles of participatory democracy, rule of law, and the protection of human rights in their governance. It is, therefore, the duty and responsibility of Local Authorities to: i.

Protect, respect and provide opportunities for the rakyat to exercise their rights through consultation, participation and representation through local elections;

ii. Create an enabling environment in which the rights of the rakyat can be realised through transparent and accountable processes, which includes transforming legislative, budgetary, judicial and other areas to ensure substantive delivery of services; and iii. Acknowledge, value and respond to the diverse rights, interests and concerns of the rakyat. The Charter on Local Democracy and Governance sets out eight (8) guiding principles and standards on good practice for strong and accountable Local Authorities. 1. Constitutional and rights-based legal framework for local democracy Legal and constitutional recognition, within a rights-based framework, is important to secure and protect local democracy. a)

Review and amend where necessary all legislations governing Local Authorities so as to increase transparency, abolish corruption, enhance public participation, ensure accountability, prevent immunity for offenders and end malpractices.

2. Local democracy through free and fair election The rakyat should be enabled to elect their local representatives in conditions of political freedom, including a free and fair election that is conducted with full integrity according to international standards.

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a) b)

Amend Section 15 (1) and (2) of the Local Government Act, 1976 (Act 171) to reinstate elections to Local Authorities. Review and amend other laws related to elections to promote free and fair election.

3. Participatory democratic processes Create, nurture and develop opportunities to enable the rakyat to participate actively and effectively so that their overall needs and concerns are met. a) b) c)

Comply with and implement Local Agenda 21 effectively to achieve its intended goals. Impartial consultation and dialogue with the rakyat prior to decision-making processes which will affect the rakyat. Educate and mobilise the rakyat to promote sustainable development ie an enabling environment which places rakyat at the centre of the development process and creates an enabling environment in which all rakyat can enjoy a long, healthy and creative life.

4. Accountability at Local Authorities Local Authorities need to be accountable to the rakyat they serve while operating within the legal and policy framework of other spheres of government. a)

b)

Establish effective regulatory and monitoring mechanisms to provide safeguards against corruption, mismanagement and the inappropriate use of resources by Local Authorities, politicians and officials. Such mechanisms will ensure that resources are used in the best interests of the rakyat. Review and amend as necessary any related legislation which govern Local Authorities, particularly Section 95 of the Street, Drainage and Building Act which exempts local authorities from liability.

5. Transparency at Local Authorities Decision making processes of the Local Authorities must be clear and properly communicated to the rakyat it serves. a)

Policies determined by Local Authorities need to be open to scrutiny and to have constructive feedback from the rakyat.

6. Non-discrimination and inclusiveness Local Authorities has a responsibility to meet the special needs of discriminated and marginalised groups through proactive planning, and affirmative actions. a) b)

Allocate substantive resources, especially finance, for this purpose. Study, review, and act against incidents of discrimination and inequalities.

c)

Impartial consultation and dialogue to include discriminated and marginalised groups prior to decision-making processes which will affect their interests Introduce at least 30% women’s representation at the Local Authorities.

d)

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PAPER 7 7.

Effective leadership to ensure equitable, efficient and responsive delivery of public services It is the responsibility of the Local Authorities to ensure that everyone has quality and equitable access to public services through effective leadership and monitoring mechanism. a)

Provide programmes to inculcate a culture of accountability and transparency for councillors, officers, RAs, RT and NGOs.

8. No Taxation without Representation Within a truly democratic tradition, taxation cannot be justified without representation. Ratepayers must be represented in governing bodies which determine how money is spent. This is a fundamental precept of parliamentary democracy which is applicable at all levels of government, including Local Authorities. Nominated representatives in Local Authorities will otherwise only be accountable to their political affiliations and not to ratepayers. WE, as concerned Residents’ Associations (RAs), Rukun Tetangga (RT) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), call for the recognition and adoption of this Charter by the Local Authorities. This Charter is a national initiative and coordinated by the All PJ Pro Action Committee (APPAC), dated 9 October 2006.

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REFERENCES 1

2

3

4

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

14 15

16 17 18

Women’s Development Collective (2004) “A Report On Women Candidates In 2004 Election and Media Coverage of WOMEC”, p. 2-3. Malaysia. The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific: Human Settlements. “Report On The State Of Women In Urban Local Government Malaysia.” http://www.unescap.org/huset/women/reports/malaysia.pdf p. 7. Dato’ Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi in part of his speech to the Women’s Institute of Management. New Straits Times, 15 January 2005, Kuala Lumpur. Local Authorities is defined under the Local Government Act, 1976 as inclusive of the Municipal Councils, District Councils and City Councils. The Star, “Part of the problem or part of the solution?”, Brian Martin, 25 Oct 05. The Sun Weekend, “The truth- not so well told”, R Nadeswaran, 8-9 Oct 05. Utusan, “Cukai MPAJ turun 10 peratus”, 23 Dec 05. The Star, “What Zakaria did not good, says Pak Lah”, 20 Oct 06. The Sun, “A citizens’ victory”, Maria J. Dass, 25 Oct 05. The Sun Weekend, “The truth- not so well told”, R Nadeswaran, 8-9 Oct 05. The Sun, “Justify study visit, councillors told”, Maria J. Dass, 7 Feb 06. NST, “City Hall’s grooming course under scrutiny”, Minderjeet Kaur, 26 June 06. NST, “Warning won’t do, crack down hard, says PM”, Arman Ahmad, Minderjeet Kaur, Rita Jong, Devinder Singh, Dennis Wong and Lydia Gomez, 2 June 06. The Star,”Local govts to get RM236m”, 11 Aug 06. Report of the Royal Commission of Enquiry to Investigate into The Workings of Local Authorities in West Malaysia, December 1968 under the Chairmanship of Senator Dato’ Athi Nahappan, DPMS, JMN, MP (the Royal Commission Report). The Sun, “Local council leaders should answer to voters”, Lee Hwa Beng, 13 Jul 06. Malaysiakini, “Motion on local council elections shot down”, Tony Thien, 27 Jul 06. Rakyat means the people, including citizens and residents.

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PAPER 7

Forwarding Gender Equation in Urban Governance and Planning Maria Chin Abdullah Executive Director Women’s Development Collective

Frequency of Local Council Issues Covered in the Media LOperations/ Response of Local Council 32%

Year 2005

Year 2006 LOperations/Response of Local Council 70, 12%

K - Issues in Accountability and Transparency 68%

K - Issues in Accountability and Transparency 88%

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Issues of Accountability and Transparency (Year 2005/6) K1 -

K3 Transparent and accountable budgets for distribution and resources 27 to 192

Anti – Corruption 19 to 35

K2 - Decision making processes – development in residential/industrial 48 to 192

K5Changes in institutional structures for transparency 9 to 93

K4 Transparent appointments 1 to 12

Findings • Increase on issues of Accountability and Transparency - from 68% to 88% • Reported actions taken by local councils has reduced from 32% to 12% • Request for greater transparency in the local council budgets - increased from 26% to 37% • Request for more residents’ participation increased from 48 to 192.

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Observations • Increase in interests is due to the actions taken by civil society and the public to raise local community issues • Little responses from the local authorities as issues that were not raised by residents are not fully discussed at local council meetings

Observations • Women’s participation did not appear in both years – reserving 30% quota for women; – training for women; and – increasing women appointees.

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Why Gender in Urban Governance? • Chapter 13 of the Ninth Malaysia Plan (20062010) “efforts…undertaken to meet the 30% quota for women in decision making positions in the public sector” (NMP: 293) • Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) • Commitment made at the NAM Putrajaya Declaration, 2005

Civil Society Initiative • Charter on Local Democracy and Governance for Local Authorities of the All Petaling Jaya Pro-Action Committee (APPAC)

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Women in Politics • Women form about 50% of the population • 2004 elections - 23 / 219 MPs – 10.5% - 32 / 505 ADUNs – 6.3% - Local government – 10%

Why is it important to include women and other marginalised groups like the disabled and the Orang Asli into urban governance?

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• Elections DO NOT EQUAL good governance

• A decision making body must reflect the composition of its constituents

• Women do have special needs : crimes which affect women in an overwhelming majority – rape, outraging of modesty, sexual harassment, and security.

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• Women are also involved in business - we also have need to apply for licences, permits, affected by the rules regulations and by-laws • We need to enable more women to be able to input at the policy level

• Rural women – also as homemakers and business people – tsunami – Pulau Betong • Children – playgrounds, libraries, access • Disabled – access and transportation 202

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• For the future - Build a pool of future leaders - take part on State and Parliamentary elections

• Break stereotypes that only women are caring and nurturing therefore should take care of the family • Women leaders can be role models for boys and most especially for girls

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What needs to be done? Immediate actions • Advocate for greater women’s participation Strengthen the 30% women’s quota as a form of temporary affirmative action

• Ensure that women are appointed into political posts • Encourage political parties to undertake special measures to provide funding for women candidates

What needs to be done? • Conduct campaigns with Residents’ Associations, NGOs and the public • Appoint members of sectoral or special interest groups to the local councils

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Long term actions • Restore Local Council Elections – amend LGA, 1976 • Develop and conduct training programmes. • Increase the political and management skills of women and other disadvantaged groups to equip them for elected office.

Terima kasih

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PAPER 7 PAPER SUMMARY 1

INTRODUCTION

a. Good Urban Governance: i. Transparency and accountability; and ii. Ability to provide a level playing field (for private & civil soc). b. Essential to recognise that urban life is for everyone.

2

MAIN POINTS

a. Why Gender in urban Governance? i. 9 th Malaysian Plan: • Woman as part of national mechanism and most of woman issues and concern had to be noted. (Still few woman involved in decision making process). ii. The reasons why woman seems “unnoticeable”: • some still uncomfortable with the advancement of women; • religious principles/culture (way of thinking); • Convention To Eliminate All Forms Of Discrimination Against women (CEDAW); • Commitment made at the NAM Putrajaya Declaration, 2005; and • Sustainable human development should not be just pro-people or pro-people centre, but also to be owned by people and half of that people should be women. iii. Findings from Monitoring ‘Issues Related To Local Governance; • 2005 to 2006-Women Development Collective monitors the commitment of local Councils to issues of the governance(focus-women participation in urban planning); • the response was low; • the key areas monitored – issues of accountability ad transparency; and • Women in politics (Form about 50% population). vi. The findings; For both year (2005 to 2006); • Reserving quota 30% for women; • Training for women; and • Increasing women appointees. v. Why is it important to include women and urban governance? • Even all Malaysia include women in elections still electors do not equal good governance; • A decision making body must reflect the equal voices of every individual (including women); • Women do have special needs; crimes which effects women in and overwhelming majority (rape, outraging modesty, sexual harassment and security); • Women treated equally in business involvement (apply for licences, permits, rules regulation and by-laws); • Women need to be more involve with the policy level; • Rural women still work and being a homemaker; 206

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• • •

3

Children need infrastructure such as playgrounds, libraries and safe access to places; The disable need more planed access and transportation; and For the future: − Educated young people to be excellent leaders; and − Women and other marginalised group should have to chance to take part on state and parliamentary elections. Break the stereotype: − Women at home. In the other hand, women can be role models for boys and girls.

CONCLUSION

a. Action to be taken: i. Advocate for greater women participation; ii. Appointing more women and political posts; iii. Provide funding for women candidate (political initiatives); iv. Combine power (conducting campaign); and v. Appoint non-interest parties in local councils. b. Long-term action: i. Restore Local Council election (amend LGA 1976); ii. Develop and conduct training programmes; and iii. Educate women and other disadvantage groups (in politic and management skill to equip for future.

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Panel Discussion Questions And Answers


NON-COMPLIANCE AND LOW UNDERSTANDING OF THE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING MECHANISM HAVE BEEN CONTRIBUTING TO PLANNING PITFALLS IN THE COUNTRY. DO YOU AGREE AND IF YES WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE?

Chairman: Y. Bhg Dato’ Zainuddin Muhammad FORMER DIRECTOR-GENER AL, FEDER AL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING (1993-2001)


QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS NON-COMPLIANCE AND LOW UNDERSTANDING OF THE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING MECHANISM HAVE BEEN CONTRIBUTING TO PLANNING PITFALLS IN THE COUNTRY. DO YOU AGREE AND IF YES WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE Chairman: Well, we have just listened to an overview by the four speakers on current practice and planning conservation, community-based planning, disaster and risk management and then gender equality in planning. I think we want to focus our discussion this second part of our afternoon today in this forum by crystallizing their views. Generally, there is a common denominator, that is, non-compliance both at the government’s side, developer’s side and stake holder’s side. This non-compliance has led to the consequences mentioned by our four speakers e.g. disasters, buildings not conforming to standards, heritage buildings being torn down and lack of understanding of the rules and regulations of our system. This afternoon we want to take the subject further. The first question we want to ask is “is our current planning system and practice well understood by all stakeholders?”

Mr. Derek Fernandez: The answer is “no”. It is not well understood. It is not necessarily because the people who are supposed to understand it are incompetent. It is a relatively complex area in Malaysia because of the different legislations. But be that as it may, sometimes what is understood is actually really understood by everybody but not practiced. So, the answer to you is “yes”. Non-compliance and low understanding has certainly contributed but the more worrying case is where it is well understood and not done because there has been interference. This is a more worrying situation; the low understanding can be remedied by courses, training and forum like this. But it is the lack of integrity in some of the processes that is extremely worrying. And there are some very obvious cases. Of course, there are cases which are well done and well managed where the planning mechanism has been well conducted. In Some other cases it is not done at all. The answer to the question is “yes”. I do agree with the statement, but we have to go further than that. The non- compliance and low understanding is one of the pitfalls; but the bigger issue is the lack of integrity in some of the processes. Chairman: Thank you, Derek. Perhaps I may want to get the wisdom of Yg. Bhg. Tan Sri about this aspect. When we talk about conservation, what are the issues that are bugging the heritage conservation? Is it the same thing - low understanding and non-compliance? Tan Sri Dato’ Seri (Dr.) Ahmad Sarji b. Abdul Hamid: Yes. There is a lack of understanding on the part of the public in particular with regard to many laws in this country. This is because when bills are drafted, they are the business of the Parliamentary draftsmen, the Attorney General’s Chamber and Ministry or Department concerned. Then they are tabled via Parliament for 1st reading, 2nd Reading and 3rd reading and you enact the law signed by the Agong or the Ruler. But in the process of enacting the bill or legislation, the assumption is that it is sufficient for members of parliament or 210

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legislative assembly to represent the will, the opinion of the people. Sometimes, there are only a few members of parliament present to pass a bill and it becomes a law. So, the process of informing the public, seek their point of view and soon, has been bypassed because the assumption is the members of parliament or legislative assembly represent the people and therefore the bill need not be taken to NGOs for comment. As a result, when a law is passed, there is not only the lack of understanding on the part of the general public, there is also, the lack of understanding among officers. So, with regard to heritage laws in this country, there have been many laws. When I was a young officer I had to administer the Ancient and Treasure Trove Ordinance, then there was the Antiquities Act 1976, and lately the National Heritage Act 2005. That is the set of laws with regard to heritage. How many people know and understand these three laws? And then normally these three laws must go together with three others laws or at least two laws. In the past, there was the Town Board Enactment and Cap 137 and now we have the Town and Country Planning Act. And how many people know that there should be a public hearing when you produce local plans? The fact that so, few attend these public hearings, suggest to me that there is the lack of knowledge and the lack of value on the right to confront with the law for you to give your views and the right to be given a hearing. But if the newspapers take up cases such as the Bukit Gasing and the Damansara cases, then the people become aware. So, to answer the question, “yes”, even these days, many people are still not aware of this heritage legislation. Therefore, they question the rights of local authorities to designate the house or the building as heritage. And then what happened in the past, stealthily, in the early hours of the morning they tear down the big buildings and they pay a small fine. In other words, the penal provisions of the law are not sufficient to act as a deterrent and secondly, in some country you do not have to have high penal provision they value this heritage law. For example in New Zealand and England even if you want to prune a tree, if it is located in a heritage enclave you can not. This is supported by the people. They understand there’s a law. You must follow the process of the law and apply. But here you undertake the renovation first, pay a small fine and apply later. There is an understanding of the law but there are stronger forces, unseen hands more powerful than the provision of the law. I think I rest my case here.

Chairman: Thank you, Tan Sri. Any other members of the panel want to take up the question? Ar. Azman Zainon Abidin: Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I would like to share our experience in Aceh when we talk about non-compliance and low understanding of the development planning mechanism. In fact, even before the tsunami in Aceh, I think Indonesia has a so-called Building Code in order to protect buildings. But, because of the enforcement and bureaucracy and so, on that are prevalent in Aceh, not all the buildings have that kind of construction method for their particular buildings. So, once the earthquake and tsunami happened, we can say thousands of people were killed. But, in terms of disaster mitigation plan or disaster management plan, I know this is new because Malaysia can be considered as one of the countries not in the disaster-prone area. But, I will agree if we say that if it is natural disaster, because we do have the main natural disasters. So, at least once we are involved in this disaster management plan, when we are talking about having a new plan - Local Plan or Structure Plan - do we think about providing the safe zone where the people can congregate if the disaster happens? Where is the evacuation route for the people? What about hazard mapping? This morning at the exhibition booth I came across NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS a pamphlet on Safe City. The concept of the safe city is good, but has this concept ever been tested or reassessed? Can we approve that kind of concept? Referring to the non-compliance and a low understanding we are not here to point fingers. We cannot resolve anything by pointing fingers at the local authorities, the contractors and soon. But what can we do now? Once we know that it is non-compliance, what are the steps to be taken? How to improve the non-compliance? That should become our major role as a professional in this country – to resolve this matter of non-compliance.

Chairman: Let us hear from the lady. Miss Maria Chin Abdullah: I think in terms of town planning, the most important thing is really about communication and not to see the response from the public as criticism or complaints. Because if we see it as a complaint then we tend to put up a wall and not to listen to some of the issues raised which may be important to shape the planning policies. I have been involved through my organisation particularly in Petaling Jaya in pressing the council to produce the budget, the procurement, what they have spent, where and to whom the budget has been allocated and how they make that kind of criteria. But then, what happens is, notices of such meeting are given very late or probably the day after or the day of the meeting. Council meetings are not notified in advance. You only know about it at a very late stage. So, therefore it leaves very little time for residents to prepare their cases to present their concern and their issues in any council meeting or any budget meeting. In other cases, even when they want to participate, it becomes very difficult because they do not understand the way in which the councils actually work – the processes. So, it becomes very difficult for intervention. Even if you know you have issues and concern, to present it, it becomes quite a burden. While I do recognise in general that Malaysians are apathetic, but if they are given informed information they would be able to make a difference and they would be able to help. I would rather see their complaints as a helping hand to make a better community for everyone. Chairman: Would any member of the floor like to respond? En. Mohamed Jamil b. Ahmad: Again I think this morning we have listened to some of the issues raised and we can conclude one of the major aspects that we have to think more about now is again communication. Let’s talk, have more discussion, for example on Acheh. With that close rapport you tend to understand better. “Tak kenal, maka tak cinta”. If we do not know the subject and impose our values on things it might not work out. So, a very important thing, communication is the key word. But how to communicate? That is another issue. Are we talking the same language? Are we using the same frequency? Have we got the right people? Are we open enough to hear the criticism? That’s about it but again I think we all need to look forward, not pointing fingers, but look forward for future benefit for the people. Thank you. Chairman: Thank you, En Jamil. Anybody else want to give an opinion? 212

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En. Kamalruddin b. Shamsudin: Thank you, Datuk Pengerusi. I think this morning’s paper by Prof Emeritus MJ Bruton, in particular the scope framework that the profession of town planning is supposed to solve is not that straight forward, complicated and so, forth. I hope that the planning education is actually considering this kind of perspective. So, far, I have worked for 29 years; I find many planners look at the problem in a straight line, assuming that in a sequential or in linear process. But actually, the problem cannot be resolved in a linear process. It has to go through a sequential approach or cyclic approach. Just now we heard about the communication aspect. We have somebody who talk and receive, but in between the two conundrums, there are many entry and access points which have not been developed. The latest development as far as the practice is concerned, is that we have brought forward participation at the early stage, compared to the past, in which we only gave our objections and our views. But now we have given more access points to the public even before we start the project, in reviewing the terms of reference and later on the development. So, these are the opportunities given. And I know that the planners of the 60’s and the 70’s are very much blueprint planners. They look at every thing from a technocratic approach. And if universities are still holding on to this kind of framework, then we have got problems because town planners may not be very skillful in communication. And that’s where the point as regard public participation is concerned. So, if the proponents are just going to use the minimum to satisfy the law or the requirements, then we have an issue at hand. So, this is very important and we hope that in the process of trying to satisfy each form of indicator and minimum requirements, etc. in particular the speed to finish each project on time we will not neglect certain important issues. And the way we conduct participation is also very important. Sometimes, we only contact people on our list and might ignore people who might be affected by that particular project. And this is true of many of our planning exercises which involve not only local plans, but also, special area plans involving village areas, tourist areas and so, forth. And I think the element of public participation is very important not only from the public side but also, from the plan proponent. So, a lot of skill development is needed in this area and I hope that the universities will pay a lot more attention to this neglected area of communication and not just stick to blue print planning. Chairman: Thank you, Mr. Kamalruddin b. Shamsudin. On this public participation, we know that the percentage of public attending the public exhibition of the structure plan or local plan exhibited is very low. Now we are moving into another level – the sustainable planning concept involving the human aspect, environment, heritage; any development we are looking at has to be sustainable to be used by the present generation but not depriving the future generations. How can we move towards this area of sustainability and make the general public and the stakeholders understand this concept of sustainability. Then the areas of environment, heritage, economic viability, economic wellbeing, safety will be taken care of. How do we move forward from here towards planning for sustainable development? Anybody want to take up the challenge to answer that question? Mr. Derek Fernandez: I can do that. I have spending a bit of my time to using the media, writing papers, doing cases to bring home the point that no development is allowed unless it is sustainable. The easiest way, the most practical solution, would be through the mass media, to have the newspapers NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS giving residents and any individual very clear guidelines on what we mean by sustainable development. For instance, your National Urbanisation Policy contains the open space for environment - 2 hectares of land for every 1000 people. But there seems to be a reluctance to put this fact out to the public, it seems these things are kept very quiet. Although you have a really nice book and printed it outside, the media does not want to, for certain reasons, highlight very basic principles - such as if you carry out a development in an area with no local plan, you must have a public hearing, and another principle which says that you must have a public hearing even though you are not the immediate neighbor because the area has got no local plan. A series of 8 or 9 basic principles would enable or arm the average resident to understand what this whole thing about sustainable development is all about. Development is not measured solely in how many metric tons of concrete, but that each person is required to have so, much air, so, much water, so much recreational space, so, much heritage building, this thing can be broken down and this message is not coming forward. Even if you look at the Water Enactment, you look at all the Water Act in the past they do not define the cleanliness standard of the water. There was a very simple thing which I asked for, what is the standard of our Malaysian water, what is the specification. And if it is not there then the supply of water is not so easy. There is a marked reluctance to do this. I do not know why. One of the classic cases was along Jalan Gasing where we have a whole flight of land uses – commercial, limited commercial and residential. And the guidelines are very clear on this. You can use it for limited commercial purposes for certain categories, no used cars. Secondly you cannot change the façade of the buildings or increase the height of the buildings. Very clear guidelines but again there is a marked reluctance by the press, by the media, to have this info out to the public because every body or somebody feels that their interest may be affected. So, basically there is a lack of being candid in terms of what you mean by sustainable development. You have defined it very beautifully but the key indicators are not out there. And if tomorrow you give a series of key indicators, say, over 35 degrees you can not build, from 25 to 35 degrees you may be able to build under certain conditions So, every body will know, every body can exercise their rights, they know something is coming up or something like the local plan is coming up, it is going to affect you, So, you better watch out for it. So, these kind of things – the dissemination of information to the public is, unfortunately, not very good on these basic points.

Chairman: Thank you, Derek. What does the woman say? Miss Maria Chin Abdullah: I think I agree with Derek in term of information. I think that if people are armed with the correct information, they would be able to participate and to state whether development can happen here or cannot happen there. But, I am just wondering, after all most of you are working in the Town Planning Department, why is it so difficult for such information to be made available to the public? That is the question I want to ask and civil society would like to know. After all, this information is already in your books, your documents, and the law. But yet there is that hold back; we just can not understand why there is the hold back to allow the public to know some of this information.

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Chairman: Can we get an answer from the Town and Country Planning Department or a representative from the Local Authority? Mr. Derek Fernandez: Mr. Chairman, just one more point while we wait for the others to gather their thoughts to answer. A simple thing about the public hearing and objection process we just had in Subang and Ampang. They issue you a notice just one day before the hearing, saying we have a proposal and soon, if you want to object come and object. So, the average guy looks at it. There’s a building here so, we want to see the proposal. What’s the plan submitted? Let me look at it, so, that we can comment. But suddenly, “No, no, no this is secret. Immediately there’s a categorisation or classification to the information that it is secret. Here you are given the right to object, but then you are not entitled to look at what you are objecting to. So, to the Town Planning Department, it’s simple. All applications for development, development impact must be made public. And if there is a public hearing it must be disclosed for a reasonable charge and you can take photocopies of it. What is the secret in all this? But still till today so, many municipal councils continue to practice this. So, when you are supposed to complain you do not even know what you are objecting to, you give so, me general vague objections and the whole thing is just swept under the carpet. Even in Subang Jaya recently, on the plan relating to the lake you need lawyers to come and say “You show me the files otherwise I will take you to court” then suddenly the documents appear. In other cases, you can read but cannot take copies. If it is there why can not it be open? What is the difference between reading it there and making copies, studying it and giving comments that are sensible. Why do not you all make it clear that they all have to make all these proposals public and that is the end of the story. Chairman: Anybody from the local authority want to respond? Member of Sahabat Alam Malaysia: Saya dari Sahabat Alam Malaysia, NGO yang terbabit dalam isu-isu environment. Cuma saya nak bangkitkan dua tiga isu yang berkaitan dengan tidak wujudnya meaningful public participation. Ada public participation tetapi tiada meaningful public participation. Contoh yang saya ambil adalah projek luar bandar dan bandar yng memerlukan EIA. Paparan projek yang memerlukan maklumbalas terhadap EIA adalah di dalam surat khabar STAR di mana column surat khabar berukuran 4cm persegi dan harap mak cik-mak cik di kampung yang akan mengalami kesan projek membaca Star dan memberi maklumbalas. Tiada “meaningful participation” walaupun perkara itu ditekankan dalam Principle 10, Stockholm Declaration. Yang kedua dalam proses menjalankan pembangunan, penghormatan kepada undang dan polisi, tiada. Misalnya dalam EIA utuk Gunung Jerai di mana Pelan Struktur Majlis Daerah Yan 1995-2010 telah menetapkan bahawa Jabatan Perhutanan perlu mewartakan Hutan Simpanan Gunung Jerai sebagai hutan simpanan tadahan air. Walau bagaimanapun kawasan itu telah diberi kepada sebuah syarikat untuk dijadikan kuari dan status hutan simpanan dinafikan. Kes kedua adalah Pulau Paya yang merupakan taman laut di mana telah didirikan beberapa chalet di mana bentuknya adalah terlalu buruk, di mana projek datang dulu dan EIA kemudian. Seterusnya dalam keadaan kelam kabut EIA dibuat dan dengan secepat mungkin diluluskan. Ada juga kes di mana Kerajaan Negeri telah mengumumkan sesuatu projek akan dijalankan NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS walaupun EIA tiada dan menurut Local Authority masih belum diluluskan. Ini akan memberi tekanan kepada Local Authority atau planner untuk meluluskan projek tersebut. Jadi sekiranya “meaningful participation” tidak berlaku, penghormatan kepada undang-undang tidak berlaku, dan sekira ketegasan dari Local Authority tidak dijalankan, kes-kes seperti ini akan bertambah setiap tahun dan Mr. Derek akan banyak kerja lagi. Terima kasih.

Mr. Derek Fernandez: “Kalau saya banyak kerja tak apa”. But if people have no confidence in the system, if they are frustrated, if they find that their participation is not meaningful, they take on the streets. So, this is the problem and if it is not solved it gets even worse. Movements getting people very angry, very upset over small things, they get people dis-organised, running wild on the streets, so, on and so, forth which is not good for the country. Chairman: Thank you. I think we have problems here. We are developing a system that is going to bring our country into the ‘developed’ status. Maybe in terms of legislation and guidelines, we are moving in that direction, and perhaps, very way ahead of the understanding of the people. For example, the recently launched National Urbanisation Policy done by the department - how many percent of the members of the press which is supposed be the vehicle to bring the knowledge to the public, understand what the policy is all about. Similarly, among the professionals themselves, maybe the planners who are involved in drafting the policy understand what it’s all about. But when you cross the border to the professionals, even the planners who are practicing outside JPBD, have they read the policy and fully understood it? This is something that the department will have to look and re-look at in the process of disseminating the knowledge, So, that all the good things that have been taught in the fraternity of the planning of how to bring the country to become a sustainable country and developed nation may not been derailed in the process. Maybe through the experience of Tan Sri Dato’ Seri (Dr.) Ahmad Sarji who has long been in the public sector and is now a leader in the private sector, we can share the fruit of his wisdom and hear his opinion on how to address this issue. Tan Sri Dato’ Seri (Dr.) Ahmad Sarji b. Abdul Hamid: My view is that there are many systems in place already. For example, at the state level, we have the State Planning Committee. At the national level, we have the National Physical Planning Council. At the district level, we also, have the mechanisms. In fact regarding consultation with the people, we have Wakil-Wakil Rakyat, political parties, NGOs, such as Badan Warisan Malaysia; in the case of lawyers, we have the Bar Council; and for the medical people we have the Malaysian Medical Council. All the professions have got their own Boards, Councils or Associations. The issue now really is ‘How articulate is the association?’ It is the question of who has got the greater power? Are they being respected by the authorities? For example, if the rights of lawyers are infringed they have got their EGM or AGM. Similarly for the medical profession. But when it comes to planning when there is a breach of the Local Plan, or conflict between the Town and Country Planning Act and the National Land Code which affect the land owners, who will take up the grievances? In the case of good resident associations such as Bukit Gasing and Bukit Damansara who are well articulated and have the support of the press, they have a break. Even though they want to go ahead with the project, they take cognisance of the voice. But in the case of the State Government it is a question of who has got 216

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Non-compliance and Low Understanding of The Development Planning Mechanism Have Been Contributing to Planning Pitfalls in The Country. Do You Agree and if Yes What Needs to be Done

the greater power. Is it the Town and Country Planning Department, or the State Department of Environment or the State Exco? Who will be the referee? I think the mediating role here is very crucial. Who mediates between these three authorities? It is very obvious to me that the role of the Department of Environment is very strong under the Environmental Quality Act. But it is not consulted over the project if ever approved, why not? Just now I heard that the place, the parcel of land, is reserved for a park I suppose that is the role of the Jabatan Perhilitan. But then the State Government has the overriding power because the State Government holds the power over land, holds the power over the approval of the project because it is controlling the Local Authority. You can submit plans, go through the rigmarole, and go through the procedures to get it approved. So, to me, Dato’ Chairman, if you have conflicts of very serious proportions you need someone or an organisation to act in a mediating role. But it all depends on the merits of the case. Or you can use the courts, that is, the judicial system. In other countries such as in Australia, New Zealand or England, any petition by a citizen in respect of a big project will have the benefit of a court hearing. How soon can the court decide? That is also, a problem here. Perhaps the Registrar can follow precedence here and put your case below. Meanwhile the project gets approved. People benefit from the project and you can hear your case eight years later. The Highland Towers case, I do not know where the fault lies, is a classic example of an act of procrastination. Departments and the Local Authority are involved. In order to put the issue right, there must be a revisiting of the mediating role because three authorities have got the power. You override two Acts – the Environmental Quality Act and the Forest Preservation Act. Has that ever been challenged? Again not only the mediating role is involved here but also can you resort to go to court? But over here there is a reluctance to go to court. You have to pay more fees to lawyers. The higher the profile of the case, the higher the fees.

Chairman: Thank you, Tan Sri. Time is running short and I have been given the signal to wrap up the discussion. We have had a good discussion on conservation, public participation, disaster management and gender participation. What is clear is that there is a need for a lot of communication on general matters, on established issues and planning guidelines on what can be done and what cannot be done so, that the plans produced by the Town and Country Planning Department for the Local Authority will generate a sense of belonging among the public. If the public can understand that in this area, these can be done, these cannot be done, these are the guidelines, then the Local Authority need not become the policeman, but the general public can pick up that role. As such we need to collectively practice that sort of planning as cited by Yg. Bhg. Tan Sri, such as in New Zealand and Australia, where the people’s awareness about what the environment is for, what development is for and what conservation is for, can together bring about sustainable development. And then still we need to resolve the role of our committees as well as the Act over land development, we need better understanding and resolution as regard to how best this can be done and I believe each one of those resolutions is for the interest of the better development and better quality of life for future generations. And if we understand that collectively we are heading in the same direction, then I think the mediation role as suggested by Tan Sri is not too difficult and I hope that in the process we will produce better quality of life not just for us but also for the future generations. With that note, I would like to thank our speakers for sharing their thoughts and wisdom with us; and I would also, like to thank all of you for being such an attentive audience during these two hours. NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

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Non-compliance and Low Understanding of The Development Planning Mechanism Have Been Contributing to Planning Pitfalls in The Country. Do You Agree and if Yes What Needs to be Done

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Session 3


Paper 8 “Marrying Corporate Ideals With Good Urban Planning Practice: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) And Other Means” Y. Bhg Dato’ Abd Wahab Maskan Paper 9 “Towards a More Cultured Society: Town Planning From An Artists Point Of View” Y. Bhg Dato’ Faridah Merican Paper 10 “Sustainable Business Practices – The Corporate Commitment” Mr. Chew Seng Choon Paper 11 “Emerging New Trends Affecting the Physical Landscape of the Nation, Future Shock A La Malaysia” Y. Bhg Dato’ Jailani Johari Panel Discussion Questions and Answers “Good Urban Planning Requires Strong Political Will. Are We There Yet or How Do We Cope with Future Physical Planning Demands?” Y. Bhg Dato’ Ghazali b. Dato’ Yusuff

FUTURE PLANNING AND CHALLENGES


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Paper 8


MARRYING CORPOR ATE IDEALS WITH GOOD URBAN PLANNING PR ACTICE: CORPOR ATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) AND OTHER MEANS

Y. Bhg Dato’ Abd Wahab Mask an DIRECTOR GROUP CHIEF EXECUTIVE OF GUTHRIE BERHAD


PAPER 8 CURRICULUM VITAE

DATO’ ABD WAHAB MASKAN Dato’ Abd Wahab Maskan, is the Senior Executive Vice President of Synergy Drive Berhad. He held position as the Group Chief Executive of Kumpulan Guthrie Berhad for 4 years. He was the Group Chief Executive of Golden Hope Plantations Berhad prior to this for 5 years. He had been in Islands & Peninsular Berhad, Negara Properties and Urban Development Authority (UDA) too. Dato’ Abd Wahab also holds directorship in Pelaburan Hartanah Nasional Berhad and is a member of the Financial Reporting Foundation of the Ministry of Finance. Dato’ Abd Wahab has extensive experience and exposure in property, plantation businesses, and manufacturing spanning over 30 years. Dato’ Abd Wahab holds a Bachelor of Science in Estate Management, a Fellow of the Institution of Surveyors (Malaysia) and a Fellow of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (England and UK). He is also a member of the Malaysian Institute of Directors.

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Marrying Corporate Ideals With Good Urban Planning Practice: Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr) And Other Means

Marrying Corporate Ideals with Good Urban Planning Practice: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Other Means Dato’ Abd Wahab Maskan

22 November 2007

Corporate Ideals – A “Boardroom Perspective” Boardroom Perspective

Economics/ Profitability

Max Land Use

Reputation/ Name/Brand

No. 1 Best in Best Class/ Visionary Community Leadership Best Excellence Iconic/ Developer Developer Asset ROA/ROI Examples Innovative T/over /Builder Designer/ Asset Manager

Corporate Philosophy/CSR

Business CSR

Best Employer

Sustainability

Greenest Developer/ Builder

HARMONISATION

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PAPER 8 Planning Standards/Best Practices

Planning Standards

Distinctive and refinement/ QIPs

Conventional/ Min Quality/ Compliance to Standards

Beyond Borders/ Frontier Ideas/ Innovation/ To another level/ Break from the pack

Creating Communities

- Vibrant, Viable & Harmonious

VISION

Sustainable community

GOALS

Balanced product mix

Best Design

Stakeholder & customer focus

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PLAYGROUND

Viability / Sustainability / Identity Property devt, asset management & leisure

STRATEGY

Reputable builder Reputable manager

ENABLERS

Best practices Delivery culture

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Marrying Corporate Ideals With Good Urban Planning Practice: Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr) And Other Means

Parameters

Global Prospects

Global Trends

Universal Development Policy (Sustainable) National Development Policy (Quality Lifestyle/Livable Community)

Local Prospects

Local Trends

CSR Ideals/Philosophy

Environment, ecology, sustainability, lifestyle, harmony

Social equity, equality, justice, opportunity, harmony with mankind

Economic/employment, unlock value, wealth creation

Universal values, culture/religious harmony, knowledge development

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PAPER 8 Key Drivers

Universal Positioning

Community Establishment Investor Relations Quality of Resources Value for Money

Economic Drivers Hard & Soft Infra Transportation Accessibility

Physical Drivers Collaborative/Smart Partnership Security Amenities Reputation

Environmental Drivers

Corporate Ideals in Urban Planning

– Planned or Strategic Marriage?

STRATEGIC STAKEHOLDER Corporate Ideals

Urban Planning (P&P)

MV

Value to Stakeholder

Profits People

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FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

Planet


Marrying Corporate Ideals With Good Urban Planning Practice: Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr) And Other Means

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PAPER 8 Case 2 – Project Y (Planning)

After

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Quick Facts: • Area – 45,000 ac • Population – 500,000 • Main Components - Residential - Hi-Tech Industry/R&D - Commercial - Amenities & Infra - Parks & Recreation

After (unique/not usual)

“…while others think of master layout, we think of a master design of a larger community…”

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Marrying Corporate Ideals With Good Urban Planning Practice: Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr) And Other Means

Case 4 – Bukit Jelutong: Southern Gateway of SVC

- Forward Planning/Kaizen Planning

Case 4 – Bukit Jelutong

- Adaptation/Alignment/Continuous Improvement BJCC

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PAPER 8 Bukit Jelutong

- Environmental Friendly & Security

Lush landscaping Community playgrounds in Bukit Jelutong

Bukit Jelutong

- Attractive Proposition to Housing Community

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Marrying Corporate Ideals With Good Urban Planning Practice: Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr) And Other Means

Bukit Jelutong

- Public amenities and facilities Masjid, Surau, Bomba, Police Station, Primary & Secondary Schools, Multi-purpose Halls, Kindergarten, Shops, Playgrounds…..

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PAPER 8

Bukit Jelutong, Shah Alam 2,200 Acres, Population 40,000

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FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Marrying Corporate Ideals With Good Urban Planning Practice: Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr) And Other Means

Denai Alam, Shah Alam 1000 Acres, Population : 35,000

1000 Acres, Population : 35,000

THANK YOU

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PAPER 8 PAPER SUMMARY 1

INTRODUCTION

2

MAIN POINTS

To marry corporate ideals with good urban planning practices, it is important that the elements of boardroom perspectives and therefore the business values of the people on the board are in sync with existing planning practices. a. There are 3 elements of boardroom perspectives which are: – Economics/profitability; – Reputation/Name/Brand; and – Corporate Philosophy/CSR. Harmonising the 3 elements of boardroom perspective is in itself a challenge. While the younger people in the board have more ideas and are more receptive to new ideas, the older ones are more traditional in their approach and do not easily support innovations especially so when profits are being compromised. b. Planning authority devices planning standards which have to be adhered to in any development projects. The presenter have categorised 3 types of planning standards i.e.: i. Conventional/minimum quality; ii. Distinctive and refinement/Quality Improvement Products (QIPs); and iii. Beyond border/innovation. The presenter raised concerns regarding moves to introduce innovations by the corporate sector in development projects which are not necessarily approved by the authority. While still being a viable project, approval are not given because it does not necessarily meet the existing standard operating procedure (SOP) of the authority and this is an issue to the corporate sector. c. In any development project, the main aim of either the authority or the Corporate Sector is to achieve sustainability. A conducive development accommodates a sustainable community which is vibrant, viable and harmonious. d. In essence, the planning authority and the business sector should be working hand-inhand towards achieving “Sustainable Community”. However, it is important that both parties should in the first place share the same vision of “Sustainable Community”. To the business sector, creating sustainable community is part of the “Corporate Social Responsibility” (CSR). Nevertheless, sustainability becomes less relevant, if development projects in the first place are not viable.

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Marrying Corporate Ideals With Good Urban Planning Practice: Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr) And Other Means

e.

The CRS ideals/philosophy consist of: – Sustainability – Ecology; – Economy; – Social equality; and – Universal values

f.

The corporate sector works within a set of complex parameters which consists of: – Universal Development Policy (sustainability); and – National Development Policy (quality of life/livable community). – A balancing approach is needed to accommodate these various parameters.

g. The CRS ideals which promote sustainability is self–marketing. An example is the Bukit Jelutong development, in the Guthrie Corridor which is a progressive and responsive development to the current trend on sustainability. Concepts such as the “green plot ratio” have been applied here.

3

CONCLUSION

In any development projects, it is necessary to marry corporate ideals with urban planning practices and develop projects that give appropriate returns (value for money) to the Corporate Sector. In any development project, the main aim of either the planning authority or the Corporate Sector is to achieve sustainability. To the corporate sector, sustainability is an important part of its “Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)”.

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Paper 9


TOWARD A MORE CULTURED SOCIETY: TOWN PLANNING FROM AN ARTIST POINT OF VIEW

Y. Bhg Dato’ Faridah Merican EXECUTIVE PRODUCER THE ACTORS STUDIO BSC


PAPER 9 CURRICULUM VITAE

DATO’ FARIDAH MERICAN Faridah was born in Penang and is a direct descendant to the famed Kapitan Keling. Exposure to bangsawan and chinese opera as a young child left a lasting impression on the woman who is known today as the First Lady of Malaysian Theatre. Late 1950s – started her acting career while studying at the Kota Bharu Teachers Training College. 1959 - After moving to KL, she joined the circle of intellectuals and artists who formed the core of Malaysian theatre as it entered the postcolonial era. Faridah’s early acting credits include such plays as Lela Mayang, Tok Perak, Uda dan Dara, and Alang Rentak Seribu, works that defined Malaysian theatre in the 60s and 70s, and determined the direction that theatre would take in the next few decades. Early 1960s - joined Radio and TV Malaysia as a part-time broadcaster, programme host and national newsreader. Simultaneously, she was involved in the formative years of Malaysian Advertising, and is today, a member of the board of directors at Ogilvy & Mather. She also sits on the board of WWF and several other institutions. In 1989 - Faridah co-founded The Actors Studio with her husband Joe Hasham. As the first privately owned and operated theatre venue in Malaysia, The Actors Studio was instrumental to the growth of the performing arts in the 1990’s. Faridah has, more than anyone else, guaranteed certain continuity in mainstream theatre by bridging the generational gap, working extensively with young people today. Her philosophy is that ‘Performing Arts belong to all Malaysians’ has helped unite all practitioners and instilled a sense of community within Malaysian Performing Arts. Her role in the arts has expanded from that of actress to director, producer and mentor. She is a tireless advocate for the arts, taking the message of a cultured Malaysia to the man on the street, corporate gurus and heads of government. June of 2003 - floods destroyed the entire complex of The Actors Studio in Plaza Putra, Dataran Merdeka. Out of that devastation, Faridah’s ‘nothing is impossible’ attitude generated yet another ground-breaking event – the birth of The Kuala Lumpur Performing Arts Centre, set up by the YTL group, Penyayang and The Actors Studio. In recognition of her multifaceted creativity, tenacity in democratising the arts and her commitment to developing new opportunities, Faridah Merican was awarded the BOH Cameronian Lifetime Achievement Award for 2004. July 2005 - Faridah was conferred the ‘Darjah Dato’ Paduka Tuanku Ja’afar’ by the Yang DiPertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan on the occasion of His Highness’ 83rd Birthday. August 2006 - she received an Honorary Master of Letters at University Sains Malaysia’s 35th Convocation. 19th October 2007 240

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Toward A Cultured Society: Town Planning From An Artist Point Of View

TOWARDS A MORE CULTURED SOCIETY: TOWN PLANNING FROM AN ARTISTS POINT OF VIEW By: Dato’ Faridah Merican The Actors Studio, BSC Jalan Maarof, Kuala Lumpur When I was asked to present this paper I agreed without any hesitation, because somewhere deep within the subject matter is a relevance so near and dear to me and so deep-rooted in my soul that, at times, I feel like shouting it from every available roof-top! The truth of the matter is that I know very little, if indeed anything at all, about Town Planning. What I do know is that when I look around me at the way we have progressed I can’t help but ask myself …why? …who? …how? Why are our wonderful old buildings that have seen and experienced so many memories of days past, being mercilessly, thoughtlessly and avariciously demolished …all in the name of the mighty ringgit? Worse still, this is being done under the pretence of ‘progress’. It is not only heart-breaking, it is a criminal violation of our heritage and our environment. It is an injustice for which, it would seem, there is no legal recourse! Why are our trees allowed to be butchered in the name of progress? Is there no other solution? Why do we allow the people responsible for such criminal acts to be let off? Who are these people? Who is responsible for destroying what has taken Mother Nature centuries to cultivate. Is it private enterprise, or is it local councils, state governments or the federal government? I do not have the answers to all these questions; unfortunately the buildings, roads and trees cannot speak for themselves, but I can sense the pain, day in and day out, of a town being planned haphazardly and with no feeling. If one cares enough and listens closely enough, one can almost hear the cries of our cities as they are being systematically brutalised! In preparation for this paper I searched the internet for some clue as to what I could hook my argument on! I eventually gave up and decided the best I could do was to tell it as I see it …through the eyes and heart of a theatre practitioner. I have always believed and stated, sometimes in the face of much opposition, that we live in an uncultured society; and I have long believed that culture invariably leads to clearer thinking, creative thinking and planning, and, an appreciation of all things beautiful. I ask the question: Is Kuala Lumpur willing to take the lead by helping to put culture ‘back into’ our lives and our society? I say ‘back into’ because I share a very strong belief that once upon a time we did have culture but, over the years we have been systematically and consciously robbed of it! The reasons for this are many:

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PAPER 9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The education system The race for things material The desire of scoring straight 17 A1s The loss of living together as a nation of different peoples The use and abuse of religion for our own gains Television

I consider myself fortunate to have grown up during the Japanese Occupation and pre-Merdeka days. My father was an English school teacher and my mother a house wife. My brothers and sisters set the example of reading and disussions at home with my father, mixing around with all and speaking more than just Malay and English. And, last but not least, there were cinemas to go to, parks and waterfall gardens to cycle to, Bangsawan, Chinese opera and Boria to revel in. What an amazing childhood I had. As if that was not enough, we had trees & hills to climb, rivers to swim in, sports days, & picnics to look forward to and dances to go to - that’s where we would eye the boys. Bicycles and buses were our mode of transport. But somewhere along the way, ladies and gentlemen, something went horribly wrong! What have we done to our hills, to our parks, rivers, trees? What have we done to our education? Where have we hidden our Bangsawan, Chinese opera, Boria, Zapin, Joget etc. What are we doing to our minds? The towns have rows and rows of buildings and roads. We have been robbed of our history, torn down the beautiful old buildings and, for some inexplicable reason, renamed most of our roads! So how do we rectify this? Where do we begin? It does not take a genius to know that if we want to truly bring the culture back to the society, education has a vital role of nurturing arts and culture from the time the child is in pre-school. We teach the arts to children from the age of 3. What does arts do for the child? It teaches the child imagination, discipline, comradship, leadership, awareness of everything and everyone around them. In today’s highly competitve education and business environments, an individual’s worth is often measured by the number of paper qualification one possess; what school or prestigious university did he or she graduate from? This has spawned a growing industry of college and tertiary level educational institutions offering myriad courses including those twinning with established overseas universities. While ademic qualifications are indeed a useful indicator of an individual’s potential, they are by no means a guarantee of success for future employment. Importantly a well-rounded education is essential as it gives the child a wider perspective and equips him better to cope with the demands of a fast changing world. Schools, universities and employers increasingly look beyond academic qualifications, so to be successful, candidates need to demonstrate an edge over the competition. 242

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The arts can provide that edge, but sadly it is usually overlooked and undervalued as an educational tool or asset. The arts provides for a more holistic learning experience because it not only engages the mind, but also the body and the heart. The study of the arts at any age or level, helps build skills that are not only necessary, but importantly the same skills are also applicable in everyday life. This ladies and gentlemen is only the start of working towards a cultured society. We must prepare ourselves and our future generations. What then do we do so that their expectations can be realised? We compliment with the infra structure. During one of my interviews when I received an award, I said that I would not rest till there was a theatre on every street corner. I meant it! But I cannot do it alone. I cannot build theatres, art galleries, museums, parks, etc, but you can. For as long as our children do not have such places to go to experience all the pleasures they were prepared for in their education, we will suffer the fate that we are suffering now. An uncultured society. A society that does not read, visit art galleries, go to the parks, cinemas and theatres; a society that will be without manners. Town planners can contribute to this revolution… they have the tools and the wherewithal. Bring back the greens so we can hear the birds chirping and the monkeys have a place to live. Bring back the parks so our children can ride their bikes and be strong and healthy. And insist on small theatre spaces that can be made available to all who need such spaces for their expression. Every major city in the world has these theatres. KL, Ipoh, Penang, Melaka, JB, KK, Kuching, Alor Star - do not. take a moment to reflect. If you want to create a cultured society, we can do it together. Thank you.

Faridah Merican

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PAPER 9 PAPER SUMMARY 1

INTRODUCTION

2

MAIN POINTS

Through the eyes and heart of a theatre practitioner, we live in an uncultured society. To the speaker, culture leads to clearer thinking, creative thinking and planning, an appreciation of all things beautiful, and therefore it is important to put culture ‘back into’ our lives and our society. a. The concerns regarding the existing environments: i. Old buildings being mercilessly, thoughtlessly avariciously demolished; ii. Trees allowed to be butchered in the name of progress; and iii. Town being planned haphazardly and with no feeling. b. But once upon a time, we did have culture but, over the years we have been systematically and consciously robbed of it. The reasons for this are many: i. The education system; ii. The race for things material; iii. The desire of scoring straight 17As; iv. The loss of living together as a nation of different peoples; v. The use and abuse of religion for our gains; and vi. Television. c. For a start, we must work towards a cultured society. Education has a vital role to play in promoting a cultured society through arts and culture. Arts promote imagination, discipline, comradeship, leadership, awareness of everything and everyone around them. The study of the arts helps build skills that are not necessary, but importantly the same skills are also applicable in everyday life. d. Education is important, but it has to be complimented with the provision of infrastructure, like parks, cinemas, theatres and galleries. e.

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Town planners can contribute to this revolution they have the tools and the wherewithal. Parks need to be preserved and brought back. Theatres spaces need to be made available to all who need such spaces for their expression.

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Toward A Cultured Society: Town Planning From An Artist Point Of View

3

CONCLUSION

The study of arts promotes imagination, discipline, comradeship, leadership, awareness of everything and everyone around us and is therefore important in creating a cultured society. To truly bring the culture back to the society, education has a vital role of nurturing arts. While education is important, but it has to be complimented with the provision of infrastructure, like parks, cinemas, theatres and galleries and town planners play a very vital role.

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Paper 10


SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS PR ACTICES – THE CORPOR ATE’S COMMITMENT

Mr. Chew Seng Choon CHAIRMAN TECHNICAL COMMITTEE, BUSINESS COUNCIL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT MALAYSIA


PAPER 10 CURRICULUM VITAE

MR. CHEW SENG CHOON Mr. Chew Seng Choon is currently the Chairman of the Resources and Conservation Focus Group of the Business Council for Sustainable Development Malaysia (BCSDM). He served the Government of Malaysia for 19 years as an Administrative and Diplomatic Officer. He was the Director of the Conservation and Environmental Management Division in the then Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment prior to joining Sime Darby Berhad as the Group Head of Corporate Communications. Subsequently, he was appointed Group Head of Environment and Safety. Mr. Chew represents BCSDM in SIRIM’s Industry Standards Committee ‘Z’ (Environmental Management Standards), and is the Chairman of the National Working Group on Environmental Communication Standard. He is also a member of the National Mirror Working Group on Social Responsibility Standard. He was the Chairman of the OSH and Environment Advisory Committee of the Malaysian Employers’ Federation in 2004 and 2005. He has been involved with BCSDM since its inception in 1992, and has also been invited to present papers at national and international conferences, seminars and workshops.

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SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS PRACTICES – THE CORPORATE’S COMMITMENT By: Mr. Chew Seng Choon Chairman Technical Committee, Business Council for Sustainable Development Malaysia In a documentary film on New Guinea, made some year ago, the film-makers interviewed a local tribesman who was a hunter of birds of paradise. This was a revered profession passed down for generations from father the son. The bird’s feathers are prized for ornamental decorations in scared rituals. He was telling the firm-markers of how he was doing well, and that he has a good wife and owns two pigs. One day, he was able to acquire a hunting rifle. Overnight his harvest of birds multiplied. Whit every shot from his hunting rifle, the birds of paradise were virtually falling into his hands. He grew rich and obtained a new, younger wife and many more pigs. However, one day to his bewilderment, there were no more birds left to hunt. In a moment of obvious recognition, he understood that a ‘profit’ gained today at the expense of tomorrow cannot be defined as ‘real wealth’. He also saw how the new miracle tool which brought him quick and plenty of returns turned into a dark curse, destroying the very resource upon which his livelihood depended. In the ‘old days’, birds were hunted with blow arrows, a much more demanding practice than spraying lead pellet around. It yielded fewer birds with each hunt, but it also left the total stock basically intact. Moreover, in a technique perfected through generations, arrow tips were wrapped with a leather bulb. On impact, a bird would fall to the ground, knocked momentarily unconscious. The few desired feathers would be plucked and the bird, after gaining its composure, would fly away. The birds would continue to live and be able to grow a new crop of feathers after a while. In these simple observations, this native hunter was able to strike at the core meaning of sustainability. His story brought to the fore two crucial aspects: (i) that ultimately, the concept relates to a particular type of balance in the interaction between a people and the carrying capacity of its environment; and (ii) that in achieving such a balance, Some form of self-restraint must be practised. It is this specific kind of balance which must be the focus of a meaningful definition of sustainability, applicable to any population and its related environment: an amoeba in a Petri dish, algae in a lake, or humans on this one and only habitable planet called Earth.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT “Sustainable Development” was first popularised in 1987 by the World Commission for Environment and Development (Our Common Future) and also known as the “Brundtland

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PAPER 10 Report ”. Sustainable development has been defined in the as “Development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. The concept of ‘sustainable development’, as defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development, and with it the term ‘sustainability’ itself, has been gaining increasing recognition in recent years all around the world. However, its widespread use has been followed by growing ambiguity. Today, both terms are applied within a very broad spectrum of meaning, often to the point of trivialisation. Expressions such as ‘sustainable loans’, or ‘sustainable projects’, for example, are often used international agencies which provide financing for development. The terminology related to questions of whether loans are likely to be repaid, or if projects are likely to be self-supporting beyond the term of initial banking. It has become completely divorced from deeper and more important questions regarding the very nature of development and its ultimate impact on humans as well as the environment. Sustainable Developments is a broad concept about the need to balance economic growth with environmental protection and social equity. It combines economics, social justice, business practise, environmental management, political systems and law. Sustainable development cannot be the domain of government regulatory agencies and policy-makers alone. It is already recognised that Industry has a significant role to play since corporations are the engines for economic growth and need to be more pro-active in balancing economic development with social equity and environmental issues. It must be acknowledged that in the pursuit of economic and entrepreneurial development, some corporations have contributed to unsustainable conditions. Notwithstanding that, corporations in the main have sought to balance business activity and environmental considerations. Since corporations also have the access to the resources to address problems, their support of SD is therefore an economic necessity. Beside, SD is also an environmental and social necessity that helps to focus on environmental, social and economic performance. Hence, SD has evolved into a common goal for corporations, government and civil society to work together. “Establishing the concept of sustainability as the organising principle on our planet in tandem with fostering a well-balanced alignment between individuals, society, the economy and the regenerative capacity of the Earth’s life-supporting ecosystem, represents a most urgent challenge for our time. It is a challenge unprecedented in scope. It requires a fundamental shift in consciousness as well as in action. It calls for a deep transformation, simultaneously, in all aspects of human activity including our worldview, our values, our technology, current patterns of consumption, production, investment, governance, trade, and more”. (Michael Ben-Eli, Sustainability Initiatives)

BCDSM The Business Council for Sustainable Development Malaysia (BCSDM) is a business-based environment non-governmental organisation formed in 1992 on the initiative of the then

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Ministry of Science, Technology and the environment. The main goal of BCSDM is to be the primary advocate of sustainable development in the Malaysian business sector and society at large. The council foci is to advocate the business sector’s position on sustainable development issues; provide opportunity to its members to build their capacity to embrace and implement sustainable development principles; and to offer a platform for business networking and partnership with stakeholders. We have more than a hundred corporate members and some associate as well as individual members. Our membership spectrum covers banking and financial services; petroleum, petrochemicals and energy; food and beverages; plantations and forestry; construction; manufacturing and trading; waste management services; and other sectors like hotels, broadcasting, IT, consultants and individuals. BCSDM has three sustainable development legs, namely, Society, Environment and Economy. These three areas are organized into Focus Groups: (1) Resources and Conservation; (2) Sustainable Livelihood; and (3) Business Roles. These Focus Groups cover issues such as biodiversity and biotechnology; energy challenge, climate change, sustainable agriculture, protection of the oceans and waterways, water supply, waste management, land use, forest management, protecting and promoting health, workplace safety, human capital development, road safety, corporate governance, and CSR in business. In the course of is existence, BCSDM has acted as a catalyst to encourage its members to subscribe to sustainable practices. It provides opportunities for its members to build their capacity – human, technological and managerial – to incorporate sustainable development principles into their daily business activities, strategies and programmes. Members are provided offered training courses and invited to seminars, conferences, workshops and dialogues dealing with environmental protection, resource conservation, social responsibility, compliance to relevant legislation, and corporate governance. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) based in Switzerland provides expertise to its members and liaison partners to progress on sustainable development issues. The BCSDM is a liaison partner that has had the privilege of receiving expertise from time to time. BCSDM believes that its members in embracing sustainable development will eventually be able to sustain their business and remain relevant not only as a business or corporate entity, but also relevant to society. Any successful company will both create shareholder value and operate responsibly. Being sustainable implies that a company will benefit the community it operates in. it will meet customers’ need for good and services. Corporations create jobs, pay wages and salaries, provide for employees and families through health plans and pensions. Companies will innovate products that contribute to human progress. The corporate sector pays taxes that fund public services and infrastructure. It creates work for millions of suppliers, many of which are small-and medium-sized enterprise. The corporate sector is a competitive environment and this leads to efficiency, and in turn to reduce consumption of resource, less pollution, and higher quality products.

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PAPER 10 NEED FOR DIALOGUE AND PARTNERSHIP With the advent of globalisation which we cannot ignore, the time has come for both the corporate sector and regulatory authorities to work together to get our act right for sustainable development and the sustainability of our environment for the present and future generations. The members of BCSDM have endeavoured to work together with the Department of the Environment in meeting the requirements of the relevant law and regulations. BCSDM is wellrepresented in some national-level committees such as SIRIM’s Industry Standards Committee in Environmental Management Standards (ISO 14000 series), Occupational Safety and Health (OHSAS 18000 series), National Mirror Committee in Social Responsibility (ISO 2600) and other similar groups. In collaboration with ENSEARCH, the Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers and the Malaysian International Chambers of Commerce and Industry (MICCI), BCSDM established the Prime Minister’s Hibiscus Award. The work of the various committees for the award has shown that Malaysian companies which participated in the competition have shown that these companies have benchmarked their operations against the best practices in their respective industries. The audit teams have discovered new ideas and thinking being incorporated into the criteria of the companies and such a move has displayed a genuine striving for environmental excellence. The companies which participated in the competition to vie for the Prime Minister’s Hibiscus Award are not “village” champions. Among the criteria scrutinised by the audit teams are 14 broad areas based on some key principles issues by the International Chamber of Commerce’s Business Charter for Sustainable Development, namely: (1) Leadership, priority and commitment, (2) Managing environmental issues, (3) Training and communication, (4) Legal and other compliances, (5) Environmental emergencies, (6) Environmental improvement, (7) Product, services/communication, (8) Employee participation, (9) Supply chain, (10) Environmental social programme, (11) Environmental accounting, (12) Life cycle analysis, (13) Eco-design, and (14) Eco-labelling. These are international benchmarks, and some companies have attained them and the rest are working towards reaching these goals. The corporate sector is not dormant or dragging its feet in the area of sustainable development. In reality, BCSDM welcomes any interested party on stakeholder to work with it towards achieving sustainable development in Malaysia. We want a “win-win” situation for our members. The government, business sector, NGO’s, citizen groups and stakeholders when combined together have all the ingredients t take on the nation’s concerns vis-à-vis sustainable development and the future of our environment. We can work together to manage these concerns at a new and more effective level. Our collective partnership is important. As Einstein said, “Our present problems cannot be solved at the level of thinking at which they were created.” We need to think of new ways and engage more deeply to share our toughest challenges, examine roles and responsibilities and clearly communicate our expectations for others and ourselves.

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We now face few challenges and new chance to combine our present success with efforts to safeguard the long-term survival of our society. This challenge is by no means new. People in many civilizations dependent on renewable resource such forests, game and fish learned long before economic theories were development that they and their children can only be sustained by living off the interest of nature, not its capital stock. We can still do this in our complex, modern, global and technology-based civilization. It will require the marshalling and harnessing of a wide reservoir of human skills. Business leaders will probably have to lead the way and take on special responsibilities in the quest for sustainability. The corporate sector will have to chart a new course if it is to embrace sustainable development for its own sustainability and that of society. REFERENCES ACCA Malaysia Vol. 3, August 2003, Sustainability: Taking corporate governance one step further. BCSDM, 2005, Sustenance, Issues 2/2005. BCSDM, 2007, Resetting BCSDM. Michael Ben-Eli, Sustainability Initiatives, Defining Sustainability. Stephan Schmidheiny with the BCSD, 1992, Changing Course. WBCSD, From Challenge to Opportunity. WBCSD, 2003, Making Good Business Sense.

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PAPER 10

Sustainable Business Practices The Corporate Commitment

National Town Planning Conference Kuala Lumpur November 2007 Presented by: Chew Seng Choon, BCSDM

Sustainability    

New Guinea tribesman & Bird of Paradise Traditional vs Modernisation Profit = “Real Wealth” Balanced interaction between people & environment Self-restraint

2

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Sustainable Development  

Concept popularised in 1987 World Commission for Environment & Development “Our Common Future” = Brundtland Report

3

Sustainable Development “Development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”

4

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PAPER 10

Sustainable Development    

“Sustainability” Widespread use = growing ambiguity Trivialisation of terminology “Sustainable loans”; “Sustainable projects”

5

Sustainable Development 

 

Balance economic growth with environmental protection Also with social equity Combines economics, social justice, business practices, And environment management, political systems and law 6

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Sustainability  

Fundamental shift in consciousness & action Deep transformation in all aspects of human activity Involves our worldview, values, technology, consumption patterns Also production, investment, governance, trade (Michael BenBen-Eli, Sustainability Initiatives)

7

BCSDM     

Business environmental NGO (1992) Primary advocate of sustainable development Advocate business sector’s position Provide opportunity for capacity building Business networking platform for Sustainable Development Partnership with stakeholders 8

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PAPER 10

BCSDM 

Three SD legs   

Society Environment Economy

Focus Groups   

Resources & Conservation Sustainable Livelihood Business Roles 9

BCSDM Members 

   

SD for business sustainability - relevant as business entity & to society Meet needs for goods & services Create jobs, pay wages & salaries Health care for employees & families Pay taxes, innovate products, sustain supply chain 10

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BCSDM Members – BP Malaysia   

‘Sustainability’ - capacity to endure as a group Contributing to a sustainable environment WWF Malaysia and the Department of Fisheries to support two turtle sanctuaries Research, understanding and preserving the survival of the endangered species Ensure sustainable conservation of turtles. 11

BCSDM Members – Nestle Malaysia 

Nestlé Agricultural Services provided local farmers 

technical knowknow-how on modern farming techniques centred on longlong-term agricultural sustainability

Nestlé’s agronomists educate them on the benefits of efficient farming systems which are environmentally friendly 12

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PAPER 10

BCSDM Members – Nestle Malaysia 

  

Nestlé assists the chilly-growing farmers in East Coast Technical know-how to grow high quality chillies Buys back the chillies to make chilly sauce Sustains their own supply of chillies Boost the economic position of the farmers 13

BCSDM Members – Shell Malaysia 

Meet global energy challenge: 

 

to provide the massive amount of extra energy needed to fuel development and reduce poverty; to keep supplies secure from disruption; and to do this in socially and environmentally responsible ways

Road Safety Games in schools

14

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BCSDM Members – Sime Darby  

 

Eco-project - Kempas Devon Estate Yielding higher quality and quantity of palm oil Yet “environment-friendly” Non-conventional estate – no dense undergrowth, clear paths

15

BCSDM Members – Sime Darby 

Constructed by the workers 

recycling materials from old buildings & quarters

Tree house, bird sanctuary, camping site & soccer field, fishing, rafting & barbecue parties “Producing premium palm oil and protecting the environment”

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PM’s Hibiscus Award 

Collaboration with ENSEARCH, FMM & MICCI A symbol of environmental management excellence Audit using ICC’s Business Charter for Sustainable Development criteria International benchmarks 17

Dialogue & Partnership  

 

Working with DOE, SIRIM & others Combined effort – Government, business, NGOs, citizens and stakeholders Collective partnership – think of new ways Live off the interest of nature not its capital stock

18

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Dialogue & Partnership 

Request to Town Planning Department:  

Regular dialogue/consultation with BCSDM BCSDM as “sounding board” before formulation of legislation

Suggestion to Town Planning Department:  

Conduct a macro EIA in your planning process Insist on “Future Homes/Buildings” concept to developers 19

To achieve sustainability in all sectors, let’s work towards a partnership to engage more deeply, share our toughest challenges, communicate our expectations and work together to chart a new sustainable course for the nation

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PAPER 10

Thank you very much for your kind attention

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PAPER SUMMARY 1

INTRODUCTION

a. The core meaning of sustainability focuses on: i. Balance in the interaction between people and the carrying capacity of its environment; and ii. In achieving such a balance, some form of self-restraint must be practiced. b. Sustainability refers to: i. Specific kind of balance that is applicable to any population and its related environment; ii. To balance economic growth with environmental protection and social equity; and iii. Combines economics, social justice, business practices, environmental management, political systems and law. c. Corporations: i. Are the engines for economic growth and need to be more pro-active in balancing economic development with social equity and environmental issues; and ii. Must have the access to the resources to address problems.

2

MAIN POINTS

a. The Business Council for Sustainable Development Malaysia (BCSDM): i. BCSDM embraces sustainable development (SD) that will eventually be able to sustain business and remain relevant not only as the business/corporate entity but also relevant to the society; ii. BCSDM implies that a company will benefit the community it operates in; and iii. The corporate sector is a competitive environment and this leads to efficiency, and in turn reduces consumption of resources, less pollution and increase in quality products. b. Need for Dialogue and Partnership The government, business sector, NGOs, citizen groups and stakeholders combine and work together, to manage our environment at a new and more effective level in order to attain sustainable development.

3

CONCLUSION

a. New challenges and new chances are by combining our present success with efforts to safeguard the long-term survival of our society. We can do this in a technology-based civilization that requires the marshalling and harnessing of a wide reservoir of human skills. b. Business leaders lead the way in the quest of sustainability.

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Paper 11


EMERGING NEW TRENDS AFFECTING THE PHYSICAL LANDSCAPE OF THE NATION, FUTURE SHOCK A LA MALAYSIA

Y. Bhg Dato’ Jailani Johari SENIOR DIRECTOR, STATE PLANNING DIVISION MALAYSIA COMMUNICATIONS AND MULTIMEDIA COMMISSION


PAPER 11 CURRICULUM VITAE

DATO’ JAILANI B. JOHARI Dato’ Jailani worked as the advocates and solicitors for the High Court of Malaya when he first started his career in 1990. He was the Head of Regulatory Division (Universal Service Provision (PPA) (USP), Licensing Department, State Coordination Department and Regional Office of MCMC from June 2005-2006. Dato’ Jailani joined the Securities Commission in 1996 of which he was the head of Licensing of the organization. He had served the Ministry of Primary Industries as a legal advisor from September 1993 - March 1996. At present, Dato’ Jailani is the Senior Director of State Planning Division of the Malaysia Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC). Dato’ Jailani graduated from the University of Malaya (LLB) Hons).

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Emerging New Trends Affecting The Physical Landscape Of The Nation, Future Shock A La Malaysia

Emerging New Trends Affecting The Physical Landscape Of The Nation, Future Shock A La Malaysia

Dato’ Jailani Johari Senior Director State Planning Division Malaysian Communications & Multimedia Commission ��� ����� ����� ��������������� ����������� �������� ����������������������������������������������������������� ������� ����������� ���������������������� �������������������������������

Outline • MCMC

– Roles & relevant acts

• Industry Penetration rate • Network infrastructure deployment

– Key milestones : Malaysian Experience – Early years to present

• Way Forward

– New emerging trends

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PAPER 11 Role of MCMC The Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) was formed as part of the government’s K-Economy strategy

MCMC has a dual role in the C&M sector

Regulatory

Developmental

Present

Future

(Conformance)

(Performance)

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The 10 National Policy Objectives for C&M The Commission plays a leadership role in promoting growth to C&M industry guided by the 10 National Policy objectives. Developing industry capabilities Creating a robust applications environment Nurturing local content and culture Promoting safe and secure networking

Building a civil society Long-term benefits of endusers Nurturing user-confidence

Malaysia: A Global Hub

Promoting access and equity Efficient allocation of resources

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The Relevant Acts

Malaysian Communication & Multimedia Commission Act (1998) and Communications and Multimedia Act (1998) Telecommunications, broadcasting and multimedia

Postal Act (1991) Postal industry Courier service industry

Digital Signature Act (1997) Issuance of license to certification authority

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Percentage

C+M Industry : Penetration Rate Malaysia 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

74.1

78.2

55.9 43.9

30.8 19.6

19.7

11.4

9.7

0.9

1.8

1997

1998

19.7

19.5 12

18.8

21.8 7.1

2.9

1999

19.6

36.9

2000

Fixed Line

8.8

2001

10.5

2002

Cellular

18.1 11.4

2003

17.2 12.7

2004

16.6

16.0

13.9

14.2

2005

Q2 2007

Dial-up

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PAPER 11 Key Milestones – • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

A brief tour of Malaysian Experience

1870 – 1st Telegraph submarine connecting Malaya-Indonesia  extended to London in 1879 (note: Bell invented telephone in 1876) 1891 – 1st telephone exchange installed in Kuala Lumpur 1929 – 1st Police radio linking Pulau Ketam-Port Klang (note: Marconi invented radio in 1894) 1931 – 1st commercial radio broadcast from Bukit Petaling 1946 – Telex launched in Malaysia (then Malaya) 1959 – 1st microwave at Bukit Nanas (now KL Tower site) 1970 – 1st Earth station for satellite reception/transmission in Kuantan 1979 – IDD introduced in Malaysia 1985 – ATUR 450 (NMT) introduced, 1st in Asia 1987 – Corporatization & Privatization of Jabatan Telekom Malaysia; JTM->Regulator, new operating entity – STMB (now TM) 1989 – ART 900 (TACS/ETACS) introduced by Celcom (then TM subsidiary) 1990 – Liberalization of telecommunication industry 1991 – The nation gearing towards vision 2020; 1st class info-structure in the minds 1992 – AMPS/D-AMPS introduced by Mobikom (now defunct) 1992 – Smartfon (TDD) introduced by TM 1993 – GSM900 introduced 1994 – GSM1800/PCN introduced 1998 – JTM -> MCMC – established under the CMA 1998 2003 – UMTS/3G 2004 – Time 1 Initiative 2005 – 2007 - Time 2 Initiative

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Network Infrastructure in Malaysia - the early years to now…

• PRE-1987; government-owned infra thru Jabatan Telekom Malaysia • 1987+ Privatization and liberalization of telecommunication industry • Wireless Infrastructure Owners (excl. broadcast stations/ specialized networks) – – – – –

Pre 1989 – 1 net no sharing 1993 – 4 (5 net) no more share – you are my competitors 2003 – 3 (post M&A and consolidation) + 1 NFP 2005 – 4 + SBCs now, you must share Now – + new entrants, you can continue to share

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Network Infrastructure in Malaysia - the early years to now…

• About 13000 communications infrastructure scattered through out the whole country • KPKT Guideline 2002

– Garispanduan Pembinaan Menara & Struktur Sistem Pemancar Telekomunikasi di kawasan PBT – Prepared by KTAK and KPKT with collaboration Kem. Kesihatan Malaysia, Kem. Sains, Teknologi & Inovasi, Kem. Tanah & Pembangunan Koperasi dan Agensi-Agensi dibawahnya seperti MINT, Institut Jurutera Malaysia, Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia dan SKMM

• KPKT Guideline highlight Jarak minimum menara dari bangunan terdekat Jenis bangunan

Ketinggian Menara – bawah 45 meter

Ketinggian Menara – 45 meter & lebih

Kediaman

20 meter

30 meter

Komersil

10 meter

15 meter

Industri

5 meter

10 meter

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Network Infrastructure in Malaysia - the early years to now…

TIME 1 & TIME 2 INFRA ROLLOUT (additional of 1598 towers : current +-13000) • Introduced in 2004 – to widen cellular coverage nationwide – Time 1 : KL/ Putrajaya/ Cyberjaya – Time 2 : Nationwide with focus on Industrial areas/ Major Towns/ Major Highways/ Tourist Spots

• Promote sharing of infrastructure; • Introduction of non-operator NFP licensees (SBCs); • Requirement of Aesthetic looks

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PAPER 11 Before & After Time 2 –

Pen. Malaysia

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Before & After Time 2 –

West Malaysia

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Network Infrastructure In Malaysia - Special Project

Klang Valley Broadband Push (KVB90) • Initiative by MCMC to spur demand for broadband infrastructure – push for increased penetration; • Strategies employed:– Encourage deployment of multiple broadband technologies – wired and wireless; – Ensure access to broadband in key public institutions – eg libraries, schools, universities; – Demand stimulation – through the roll out of pilot projects, technology showcase etc.

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Conceptual Design – Project KVB90

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PAPER 11 Network Infrastructure In Malaysia … The Current Issues & Future Shocks • Awareness to society – Industry-Community relations programs – Need for continuous safety “awareness” thru media & direct contact

• Encourage infrasharing to reduce cost • Requirement of Aesthetics looks – to blend with building structure/ surrounding • Site acquisition in new areas/ buildings – to include in planning development • Authority related fees for permitting wireless infrastructure may need be to regularize

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Way Forward

… Emerging Issues On Structure For Urban Communications

NEW TRENDS IN STRUCTURE DESIGNS • Wireless antenna height going lower for increase in capacity and network quality – From rooftops to street lights

• Aesthetics values in designs; • Contemporary Look (see “boulder” & “butterfly”) • Ubiquitous presence of structure regardless of location – new trend? ��� ����� ����� ��������������� ����������� �������� ����������������������������������������������������������� ������� ����������� ���������������������� �������������������������������

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ALTERNATIVE DESIGN – Street light

SLIMMER STRUCTURE SMALLER FOOTPRINT

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Aesthetic Designs Palm Tree Tower

Parapet Extension �������������������������������� ���������������������������

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PAPER 11 Other designs Closed “Butterfly”

Closed “Boulder”

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Future trend - Aerostat

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Thank You

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PAPER 11 PAPER SUMMARY 1

INTRODUCTION

2

MAIN POINTS

a. The Malaysian Communication and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) was formed as part of the government’s K-economy strategy with the dual role i.e. regulatory (conformance) at present and developmental (performance) for the future. b. MCMC plays a leadership role in promoting growth in communication and multimedia guided by the 10 national planning policy objectives. a. The Relevant Act i. Malaysian Communication and Multimedia Commission Act (1998) and Communications and Multimedia Act (1998) • Telecommunications, broadcasting and multimedia b. Postal Act (1991) i. Postal industry ii. Courier service industry iii. Telecommunications, broadcasting and multimedia c. Digital Signature Act (1997) i. Issuance of license to certification authority d. Network Infrastructure in Malaysia i. KPKT Guideline 2002 • About 13000 communications infrastructure scattered throughout the whole country. • KPKT Guideline 2002: – ‘Garis panduan Pembinaan Menara dan Struktur Sistem Pemancar Telekomunikasi di kawasan Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan’; and – Prepared by KTAK and KPKT in collaboration with Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia, Kementerian Sains, Teknologi dan Inovasi, Kementerian Tanah dan Pembangunan Koperasi and other agencies under MINT, Institut Jurutera Malaysia, Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia and SKMM. ii.

280

Time 1 & Time 2 Infra Rollout (additional of 1598 towers): • Introduced in 2004 – to widen cellular coverage nationwide: – Time 1: KL/ Putrajaya/ Cyberjaya; and – Time 2: Nationwide with focus on Industrial areas/ Major Towns/ Major Highways/ Tourist Spots. • Promote sharing of infrastructure; • Introduction of non-operator NFP licensees; and • Requirement of aesthetic looks.

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iii. Special Project -Klang Valley Broadband Push (KVB90): • Initiative by MCMC to spur demand for broadband infrastructure; and • Strategies employed: – Encourage deployment of multiple broadband technologies – wired and wireless; – Ensure access to broadband in key public institutions – e.g. libraries, schools, universities; and – Demand stimulation – through the roll out of pilot projects, technology showcase, etc.

3

iv.

The Current Issues & Future Shocks: • Awareness to society; • Encourage infra-sharing to reduce cost; • Requirement of aesthetics looks – to blend with building structure/ surrounding; • Site acquisition in new areas/ buildings – to include in planning development; and • Authority related fees for permitting wireless infrastructure may need to be regularised.

v.

Way Forward-Emerging Issues on Structure for Urban Communication: • New trends in structure designs: – Wireless antenna height going lower for increase in capacity and network quality; • From rooftops to street lights; • Aesthetics values in designs; • Contemporary Look; and • Ubiquitous presence of structure regardless of location.

CONCLUSION

There is a need to promote awareness to society and to harness industry-community relation programmes and continuous safety awareness programmes. The design of infrastructure planning should look into infra-sharing, aesthetics, site acquisition in new areas and the establishment of relevant authority to regulate related fees.

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Panel Discussion Questions And Answers


GOOD URBAN PLANNING REQUIRES STRONG POLITICAL WILL. ARE WE THERE YET OR HOW DO WE COPE WITH FUTURE PHYSICAL PLANNING DEMANDS?

Chairman: Y. Bhg Dato’ Ghazali B. Dato’ Yusuff EXCO MEMBER SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS COUNCIL


QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS GOOD URBAN PLANNING REQUIRES STRONG POLITICAL WILL. ARE WE THERE YET OR HOW DO WE COPE WITH FUTURE PHYSICAL PLANNING DEMANDS? Chairman: Good urban planning requires strong political will, especially at the local level. Are we there yet and how do we ensure that every stakeholder plays their rightful role? Before going to the floor, I welcome each speaker’s view on this matter.

Dato’ Abd Wahab Maskan: From my point of view and experiences, the political ideas/ideals and will at the top are strong. However what really happens many times and in a continuous manner are that, at the next level that is where the devils (problems) are i.e. the devils are always at the tail. The political will at the local or second and third tier levels as not being very strong. The reasons rest with the system or the fabric of power in the country/state/local administration. This again is an observation and not a criticism. While it is improper to talk on nostalgia or the problems at length, concentration should be focused on how to move forward. I think the will at some local levels are strong while there are those not strong at all and overall, more will is needed. So, how then do we move forward from here? From my experiences of the various development projects that have been launched, basically there are two things that did not happen: a. It is not happening in the right way; and b. The word ‘sustainability’ has been diluted in commitment and understanding at the local level. For example, a project in which the speaker was involved in. Having all the right ingredients in terms of corporate ideals/entity and political will, but the “wheel” at the local level did not match the “will” required. The project did not meet the targeted time and raised a lot of implications such as cost implications, postponement of delivery to the customers and affecting the smaller people like the SMEs, etc. The bottom line here is to move forward. A look especially at the SOP is necessary. To all professionals, SOP means Standard Operating Procedure but it could also carry the meaning “Strong Operating Practices”. What actually happens today between the top and the local levels (this refers to the ministry/department and local authority at the local level) is that the SOP at the local level does not match with some of the new thinking on sustainability or other forward looking or new ideas that are meant for the next generation. A lot of decisions on new things like the multimedia or sustainability do not seem to match the operation, implementation and SOP at the local level. They do not seem to be getting it and do not deliver which causes a lot of disappointment. Basically, a change of SOP is necessary in the Public Service. Although improvement and amendment is undergoing, it does not seem to be moving in the same direction. What seems to need little amendment takes a long time and layers after layers of long process but sometimes 284

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goes back to the same base and nothing changes, unlike in other countries where changes occur faster. While these countries do face the same problems even in England, they do however, come up with some kind of a new dimension/approach on how to make SOP changes occur faster. Some suggestions of new approaches on how to make faster changes are: a. Do not have too many committees; and b. When handling a dedicated change programme, never go beyond a certain number of people in a task force and complete it within a certain time. We tend to form a task force which gets bigger and lose focus. While completing a Task A, for example, and if the task force is good, tasks B, C and D are also given. This makes the whole thing become bigger and subsequently allowing bureaucracy to sets in. In conclusion, the bottom line is for there to be the strength or the will to do these kinds of changes at the operating/local level.

Dato’ Jailani Johari: With regards on telecommunication matters, I see related issues are divided into three segments: a. Good urban planning; b. Political will; and c. How well one can cope? There are 14 states in Malaysia and a strong political will is needed not only at the Federal level but also at the state level involving the various Menteri Besar and the Chief Ministers. While it is necessary to get the Federal Government to support the communication and multimedia industry, the commitment from the various state governments are equally important. Among the problems encountered by the telecommunication industry is the provision of infrastructure. Presently, the penetration rate of broadband reach is low i.e. 11% - 12% of the households as opposed to the targeted figure of 75% by 2010. As such, after being reviewed by the Cabinet, a target of 50% by 2010 has been adopted with the Deputy Prime Minister leading the moves towards attaining this. The next issue is to how well can one cope with the present development in the telecommunication industry? Various angles need to be looked at: • Are all sites available for infrastructure use?; • Is there awareness among the public that these new initiatives are good for them?; and • Are we ready for this future demand affecting physical planning?

Mr. Chew Seng Choon: I believe that political will is one of the ingredients needed for any sort of planning, be it physical planning, financial, environment, etc. We are a country with good policies, laws and plans but what is lacking is the will to enforce these and to create a level playing field in all localities i.e. Federal, State and Local levels. People who hold the powers or in authority to either approve or not to approve certain projects should do so, on a level playing field where equal standards should be applied. There tend to be some political interference in some decisions made by the bureaucrats. NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS If the politicians want to be involved in urban planning as they should be, because they are the people who have been elected, they should be clear as to what is right and what is wrong. They should be the ones with principles, ones who do not only talk about principles during, but also after elections and not to behave any differently. To conclude, for things to get going in the country, be it urban or rural planning, the politicians themselves must be people with integrity and be clear as to what is right and what is wrong. Civil servants or people in business must help and guide them along and not being the ones at fault by misleading them. There are good politicians who can make good decisions. A good supporting team as well as stakeholders should play their roles so that we can work towards a better future.

Chairman: Thank you, speakers, let me now pose the second question, what are the roles of civil society and is the roles of NGOs proactive or assertive enough? Dato’ Faridah Merican: There are different levels of NGOs in the country and I believe that the voice of the NGOs is very important. The NGOs play an advisory role to the Government and should be regarded highly. Its voice is non political and no hidden agenda is involved. But unfortunately, NGOs tend to be accused of being leftist and in opposition to the ruling party. This is partly true because when the NGOs speak up, they tend to criticise the government who might not welcome criticisms or take it in a manner which is constructive and to deal with it intelligently. It is a difficult balance to strike but the country must encourage good NGOs and good NGOs must be led by good people which consequently produce good results. Chairman: The engagement process among stakeholders in plan making is very important to avoid problems. Are we presently having enough of this engagement process? Dato’ Abd Wahab Maskan: From my own experiences, I find that all the while, engagement processes had been done within the government agencies and political masters, but what is important is that, over the couple of years, there has been a change in this practice. There is a higher involvement of the non-government sector in micro planning or strategic planning. Previously, plans being developed are strictly in the powers of the EPU but the current approach differs in that plans are likely being coordinated by the government sector, while they are actually being prepared by a team involving private sector and the various stakeholders. There are stakeholders comprising of only the business community and others which are called border committee or task force which are comprised of heads of all the representative clusters and business units. The involvement of the government sector comes at a later stage. Decisions, as well as conclusions and recommendations made are more driven by the private sector. This is to say that some of the plans being developed are actually driven by the stakeholders’ suggestions. Some examples are the planning of the Northern Corridor concept, Eastern Corridor and now the Sabah and Sarawak Corridor. These engagement processes need to be further enhanced and more dialogues needed. More engagement are necessary between the various parties and stakeholders, where in the 286

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past, these were driven by the public sector. Presently, the trend is moving more into the private sector taking the lead. There are already suggestions that the private sector makes the recommendations while the civil servants do the monitoring. While that stage has not been reached yet, we are actually moving in that direction. This is evident in the search for the nation’s growth corridors.

Chairman: Thank you Dato’ Abd Wahab. While there are difficulties in coordinating the federal and state governments, are there such problems in inter-ministerial coordination, from Dato’ Jailani’s current interest area? Dato’ Jailani Johari: In the field of telecommunications, there had been full support from the various ministries. However, since the industry is building up on new form of infrastructure, a lot of support is needed like those from the planners as well as other ministries like the Health Ministry. In that instance, the agency would fall back on the political masters who, in the first place generate the idea of network expansion to address grouses from the public. It is therefore, necessary to have strong political masters who can direct relevant ministries/agencies under their portfolios to provide relevant assistance. So far, the industry has experienced one or two problems but overall this is manageable. Chairman: Thank you Dato’ Jailani. I now invite views, questions and comments from the floor. Datin Mc Coy: Understanding and support from professionals like the town planners are needed to ensure a sustainable future for a city, for the nation and for our grandchildren. Good urban planning implies that, it should be ecologically sustainable. Urban planning as with anything else should recognise and respect the environment both overarching and underlined. The realities facing planners today are the ways in which to cope with future physical demands. The planet is already in a very serious physical condition. We are already in ecological overshoot since the mid 1980s, and are now having to struggle with the realities of climate change, global warming, etc. The planet is having a fever, is in fact in the ICU and is badly in need to be restored to health. The reason for this situation we are in now is due to the excessive demand made on the planet by human development. Therefore, a shift has to be made from the way we plan our urban areas, as well as from the way we live. In this era of globalisation, the lifestyles we live have an impact here as well as elsewhere in other countries. A few months ago, a conference on ecological footprint was organised by the EPSM, attended among others, by Professor William Reez who is the originator of the concept. Accordingly, we have to recognise that that there is no way we are going to have a future for our children, if we do not make the shift to live sustainably. This really mean bringing down the way we live our lives and the demand we make on the planet. Everybody, including planners should try to be familiar with the contents of the Living Planet report by WWF which gives information about how much resources we are taking out of the planet, how much we are delivering and make the NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS planet absorbs our wastes and generally what seems to be necessary if the planet is to heal for the benefit of our grandchildren and great grandchildren in the future. Planners therefore have a role to play to think about slowing down some of the processes of development, so that we can have a healthy planet, which is the only one planet we have. As for the political will, everybody have views on this but, recently, we are really in need of this badly.

Dr. Dahlia Bt Rosly: There are initiatives undertaken by JPBD on the subject of sustainable development and these were not presented adequately during the convention. A lot has been said especially by Mr. Chew on sustainable development, as well as Datin Mc Coy on ecology and environment. JPBD in fact, has actually done quite a lot of work on these since 1998. JPBD has already embarked on the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in plan making, a concept which is similar to the Macro EIA mentioned earlier by one of the speakers. This concept was already applied for the past 9 years on several Local Plans under the 8th Malaysian Plan period. With SEA, these plans are measured in terms of their compatibility with the environmental objectives. Now JPBD has actually progressed into another phase of SEA, i.e. Sustainability Assessment, which not only look at environmental concerns but also social, as well as economic concerns. Planning is now looked at in an integrated, holistic and balanced manner. This concept is being used in the preparation of Local Plans under the 9 th Malaysian Plan. These initiatives are ‘bukan jaguh kampong’ but are ones that are being benchmarked with practices in Europe, Canada, Hong Kong, Australia, etc. In the UK, Sustainability Assessment is a legal requirement to be complied with. JPBD is half way through with the initiatives and comparisons are being made with the EU countries and other local authorities undertaking the same initiatives around the world. In short, JPBD is actually doing something on sustainability through these initiatives. When talking about political will, communication is an important factor. And to communicate with the politicians, or decision makers, some kinds of evidence/documentation is needed to justify certain actions. Through the SA initiatives, decision makers and politicians would recognize that certain things could not be done because of certain evident impacts. Incorporating sustainability assessment in our plans is what JPBD is trying to achieve.

Chairman: It is evident that, with respect to planning, we are as good as any other country and maybe what is not apparent enough is the communication aspect which the media has an important role to play. Media here do not just mean newspaper and broadcasting but must go right down to groups like the residence associations, persatuan, PIBGs, etc. The grass root level need to be further developed as far as information is concerned. Any views from the panellists? Mr. Chew Seng Choon: What the regulatory bodies are doing i.e. the SA initiatives in plan making is definitely something that the BCSDM would like to see and look forward to, even though this was not communicated to many. The need for communication is so important because a lot of things on strategic planning, for instance are either pushed aside or not highlighted by the press, in place of more sensational news which can sell. Even the work of BCSDM is hardly highlighted by the 288

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press and attendance by the press in any seminar organised for them was poor. This is the kind of scant attention received from the media apart from the issue of lack of communication However, I take the opportunity to announce about an Environmental Communication Standard that is being developed which the BCDSM is involved. In fact, the seed of that standard was planted here in Kuala Lumpur, in this very building itself during the ISOTC 07 meeting that was recently held. Workshop/seminar will be organised on the 24th January 2008 on this matter and all concerned parties should take part in it. This includes newspapers, TV, all society and every stakeholder to communicate their expectations, explanations and what they have done in a right manner so that everybody knows what is going on and can be a part of something to get things going.

Dato’ Abd Wahab Maskan: I would like to raise two (2) main points as follows: Coming from the perspective of a major stakeholder in the industry on the points just raised about sufficient, growth, I am of the view that as much as we are all concerned about global warming, or the planet being in a feverish stage, it is for us to manage it well. The key word is that we should not be slowing down, but should be managing this change. We must grow and we must continue to grow and the nation needs to grow because without growth, we might not survive. However, we must manage change. The pertinent message to be put across here is that we are not to slow down but we must manage growth properly and sustainably. Many suggestions have been mentioned, and that JPBD is also doing a lot, which is good to hear. On the second point, we should be more action-orientated and are seen to be moving forward. At the end of the day, we must be visible. We must show real examples of things happening. Things happening here mean more than just ideas, there must not be just reports and that there must be examples of specific projects. Specific projects here imply some macro projects which may take a long time for any visible results to be seen but these nevertheless need to be communicated. Projects undertaken must show changes or success, in the short term for otherwise, by the time this is communicated, it is already too late. Therefore, there must be this ‘balance’ in urban planning. Planning here must not only refer to urban but also to include regional planning since the nation’s growth is also now driven by regional development. There is a real life case in front of us that we all need to participate in. We must all participate in the growth corridor development and make sure for things to happen for the sake of our future generation. The point to stress here is for there to be something visible. The outcome of this dialogue should focus on increased collaboration or working together between the respective stakeholders and to find a platform where this can be done properly. Collaboration involves resources, tracking and the actual implementation. Communication with the media is important and has to be undertaken all the time. Sustainability must be really practice and not to remain as just a dream. A move towards this should be upgraded all the time involving all stakeholders from the public and private sectors.

Dato’ Jailani Johari: Any planning that is good has to be supported. But when we talk about planning, it is always on economic sustainability and we tend to forget about the other groups especially the disables. Disability is always seen as being unhealthy and poor and therefore, the physically handicapped NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS are always being left out in terms of planning. Insufficient facilities are being planned for this group of people, which results in them shutting themselves from being part of the community. Therefore, planners are urged to take into considerations the requirements of the disables. How can this be done? There a three (3) angles that this issue can be addressed: i.

By forming smart partnerships between the government and the private sector. A project can be established by the government and the commitment from the private sector can be sought. Even though the private sector is more concerned about dollars and cents, once an engagement is reached between the public and private sector, then this can be done; ii. By improving on communication especially by the media to express to the public on the needs of the disables; and iii. Through the community itself i.e. the engagement of the community itself in addressing these issues of this minority group i.e. the disables.

Dato’ Faridah Merican: “Planning” as being talked about during the convention, is a word whose meaning, I am has still not fully grasps, after seeing places like Kuala Lumpur and Penang, where I have been living, being ‘destroyed’. Even going to the ministry to voice grouses and presenting proof before ‘our very own eyes’, these would not be listened to either, there being too many corruptions going on. As a Malaysian and as a citizen of this country, it is difficult to get the real picture about the planning that is being done in this country, a view which is being shared by many people. These people do not know who says yes to the felling of trees and who says yes to the cutting of yet another hill and who says yes to building yet another high rise apartment and to squeeze all things into this one full city of Kuala Lumpur. Why is it not possible for development to move out of the city and go to Rawang, Bukit Jelutong, etc. The kind of planning that is being talked about during the convention is what the people would want to see. Chairman: Thank you. Following to what we have discussed I would like to suggest for the 10 th Malaysian Plan to not be based on economic development alone, but to emphasise more on values development. This is an advice that goes out to the EPU, as well as all future planners. At the end of the day, what was discussed during this session is not so much as problems in setting up physical structure, but what is more important is for everyone to have the right values to go along with it, and this is going to be the biggest challenge in Malaysia. I feel that economically and materially, the nation is all right, but most importantly is to get the balance and to guide the right values to be in place. Understanding the disables is a value system, respecting nature is a value system, what happens in the climate is the result of the degradation of our value system. These are the things that what we should all be looking at. Once again I would like to thank the organiser for the invitation to chair the session which I really enjoyed. I would also thank the panellists for their participation and enriching contributions during the discussion. To all the participants, thank you for being patient enough to listen and to contribute ideas and questions.

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Closing Speech And Resolution


Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd Fadzil b. Haji Mohd Khir DIRECTOR-GENER AL FEDER AL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING


CLOSING SPEECH 2007 Y. Bhg. Datin Wira Hamisah bt. Ariffin, Timbalan Ketua Pengarah II merangkap Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Induk Sambutan Hari Perancangan Bandar Sedunia 2007 Jabatan Perancangan Bandar & Desa Semenanjung Malaysia Ketua-Ketua Jabatan, Pembentang-Pembentang Kertas Kerja, Dato’-Dato’, Datin-Datin, Honourable guests, delegates, ladies and gentlemen. Assalamualaikum warahmatullah and very good afternoon. 1. We have now come to the end of a productive two-day convention on Town and Country Planning – 50 years to commemorate our 50 years of Independence. It is an honour for me to be here with you today, to conclude this meaningful discussion. Ladies and Gentlemen,

THE THEME 2. The theme Town and Country Planning – 50 years, allows us the chance to reflect on our past successes and failures, check on our current activities and put them back on the right track and start visualising of how we can make the next 50 years better in everyway. 50 years is both short and long period of time. On the one hand, it is enough to give birth to 2 generations of working adults. Yet, for town planning it is long enough to afford several shifts of thoughts and focus, with regard to the urban form, the planning approach and the development priorities. This Convention has taken you through the evolution of town and country planning, highlighting the many challenges that it has encountered since 1957, the current issues and problems, as well as the future challenges. 3. For this, we have invited other professionals in various fields to give a different perspective on the achievements or shortcomings of town planning over the past 50 years. 4. First Session -

Professor M.J. Bruton Professor Bruton has taken us through the different phases of town planning. There were shortcomings in the way we inherited the British planning system particularly in the way the first generation of Structure plans were prepared by too many Local Planning Authorities which lacked professional and technical support. Earlier Malaysia Plans, especially the 6th and 7th Plans paid lip service to the formulation of National Urban Policy and the formation of the National Physical Plan and National Physical Planning Council. It was only in the Eighth Malaysia Plan after the amendment to the 2001 TCP Act, that significant improvement to the system was made and the above became a reality. By now, Malaysia has developed its own planning system specially designed after our own mould.

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Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh Dato’ Seri Dr. Salleh has emphasised the impact of planning on the environment. He exhorted planners to be professional and to have the courage to stand by professional ethics. We need to tell the political master what is professionally correct or the right thing to do. We already have the rules in place to guide us in terms of good management. Nevertheless, we can bend the rules but we should not break them. 5. Second Session -

Tan Seri Dato’ Seri (Dr.) Ahmad Sarji Tan Seri has expressed his regret that the amendments to the TCP ACT (2003) to incorporate the conservation of national heritage did not come through with the establishment of the new Ministry of Arts, Culture and Heritage (KEKKWA). There also remains a danger of the inadequate level of understanding of heritage among officers in town planning and even among consultants hired by the authorities. Decisions on the ‘heritage worthiness’ of a building or site, are often made by people who are not qualified or have no experience. There should be better management of public participation with regard to local plans and the designation of conservation areas. Mr. Derek Fernandez He spoke about the lack of understanding of rules, regulation and guidelines among professionals. Even if rules and regulations are well understood, the lack of integrity of a few individuals resulting in non-conformity. He also emphasised on the difficulty of obtaining the necessary information from government departments. The issue of lack of understanding is due to the poor dissemination of information pertaining to government policies and planning proposals to the general public especially to the affected residents and stakeholders. Furthermore, decisions are not made public and not transparent. Ar. Azman He spoke about the role of community participation during disaster management and the importance of being a prepared and responsive community especially in disaster risk management. Ms Maria Chin Ms. Maria has talked about gender empowerment in nation building. She also stressed on the importance of including women and other marginalised groups in urban governance. 6. Third Session -

Dato’ Abd Wahab Maskan Dato’ Abd Wahab emphasised that sustainable community is the vision of most corporate bodies but sustainability cannot stand alone. A project must be viable, hence it is vital to emerge the three interest i.e. planning profession, business fraternity and the sustainable community movements. It is also important that we go beyond borders to innovative and work outside the ambit of the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP).

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CLOSING SPEECH 2007 Dato’ Fardiah Merican Dato’ Faridah talked about development of town presently has removed cutlture and history. Town planners can contribute, as they have tools and understanding. They are empowered to act. Planners must bring back greens, parks and insist on small theatre spaces to allow youth to perform. In the nutshell, planners must put human dimension into physical plan. Mr. Chew Seng Choon Mr. Chew emphasised the importance of dialogue and collective partnership between corporate sector, government regulatory authorities and stakeholders. He reminded it is important to think of new ways, share challenges, examine roles and responsibilities, communicate expectations towards achieving sustainable development goals. Dato’ Jailani Johari Dato’ Jailani gave and overview on the current new trends affecting the physical landscape for urban communication of the nation. He reiterated the need to promote awareness to society and suggested that industry – community relation programmes as well as continuos safety awareness programmes. Therefore, the design of infrastructure planning should look into infrasharing, aesthetics, site acquisition in new areas and the establishment of relevant authority to regulate related fees. Ladies and Gentlemen,

RESOLUTIONS 7.

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For the past two days, ten speakers from various background and fields have shared with us on what and how planning has and can contribute towards sustainable planning and development. Some of the main conclusions and resolutions as well as the way forward for this convention are: 1. Political interference in planning process is deemed to be one of the main problems. In order to address the issue, we should be partners with politicians, build support with industry, build symphatises with NGOs and engage the community effectively. 2. Be Professional. Planners should give professional advice by adhering to laws, rules and guidelines. We should stand by our professional ethics and not to bend rules and regulations to sacrifice our quality of life i.e. safety, security and health. 3. Policy must be action-oriented and be at ground zero i.e. supported by grass root. There should be communication from the grass root level right to the decisionmakers. Therefore, there should be better dissemination of information on policies and planning proposals. Decisions made should be transparent. 4. Planning has contributed to the nation building in terms of economic and physical development. However, the ability to predict growth scenarios and react to unintended impact of development should be greatly improved so that planners will not be continuously blamed. Thus, planning should take through to the facilitation and implementation.

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5.

6.

7. 8.

9.

10. 11. 12.

13. 14.

Research and Development (RnD) wing of the Department needs to be strengthened. RnD must be innovative and managed well. Planning information that is correct, relevant and timely must be made available. There should be more specialists who are equipped with the relevant knowledge and various latest planning techniques that can be tested and applied. There is a very low appreciation of the natural resources among all level of society. There is a lot of mismanagement of environment and we fail to be the custodian of the earth. There should be a strong correlation between the environment and planning. The most pressing recent issues are the threat of global warming and disaster risk management. Integrated system is needed. Thus, it is the duty of all of us to assess and manage the environment. Integrating disaster risk reduction into development policies and planning with a strong institutional basis for implementation, as well as ensuring prepared and responsive community participation in disaster risk management. There is inadequate level of understanding of heritage among officers and consultants in town planning. Decisions on the ‘heritage worthiness’ of a building or site, should be made by qualified and experienced officers. Furthermore, there should be more collaboration among town planners and other agencies and the community in matters relating to conservation areas and heritage buildings. Planning system is in place. All organisation i.e. NPPC, SPC, Local Authorities are there to resolve matters within the government machinery. There are NGOs and residents’ associations to represent some pressure groups and the local population. The issue is how far these organisations can influence planning decision. In cases where there is conflict among agencies, between the state and the people there need to be a mediating body. Penal provision in our planning system is not adequate to deter non- compliance. The monitoring, evaluation and enforcement of non- compliance should now be strengthened. We should depart from blue print planning and concentrate more on participatory planning. This should be taken up in the planning curriculum of the higher learning institution. Need for dialogue and collective partnership between corporate sector, government authorities and stakeholder achieve win-win situation by: • Think of new ways • Share challenges • Examine roles and responsibilities • Communicate expectation There should be a planned or strategic marriage between corporate ideals and urban planning to bring about higher value added to stakeholders i.e. the people, the business sector and the planet. Body and soul maketh a man. Using this analogy, the Malaysian cities and towns need the soul which include the arts and culture which are the tangible provision or the software to make it alive, hence liveable cities.

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CLOSING SPEECH 2007 15. Planners must bring back greens, parks and insist on small theatre spaces to allow youth to perform. In a nutshell, planners must put human dimension in physical plan. 16. Planners should be concerned about the cohesiveness of our cities so as to encourage racial unity and avoid social segregation. 17. Business leaders need to lead the way and take on special responsibilities in the quest for sustainability. 18. New emerging trends in the design of infrastructure planning should look into infrasharing, aesthetics, site acquisition in new areas and the establishment of relevant authority to regulate related fees. Ladies and Gentlemen, 8. I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to all the paper presenters and delegates. And not forgetting all involved in organising this Convention successfully. With this, I close the World Town Planning Day Convention 2007 with the theme Town and Country Planning – 50 years. Terima kasih and thank you.

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Annex


• LIST OF PARTICIPANTS • ORGANISING COMMITTEES • CONVENTION PHOTOS


LIST OF PARTICIPANTS MIP MEMBERS/CONSULTANTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 302

Mohamad Nazri Jaafar Norazian bt. Salaman Noraida Saludin Mohd Anuar A. Wahab Annuar b. Abu Bakar Suriani Abidin Zaliah Shamsudin Mohamad Fauzi Ahmad Lee Kee Teck Mohd Noor Hisham b. Mohamad Affandi Keli Raymond Abin Thayanti Kuiruturan Zainal Abidin Mad Yusof Megat Shahrir Zainal Fauzi b. Abdul Rahim Mohd. Samsudin b. Mohamed Hj. Mohd. Nazam Md Kassim Lim Ech Chan Siti Fatimah Idris Farahanie bt. Jaafar Abdul Hamid b. Akub Norma Nun Faisal Halmi b. Mohd. Salleh Mazlan b. Hj. Othman Ezzly Harris b. Khalid Ahmad b. Ab Majid Haji b. Ramli Khairuzaman b. Hj. Napis Muhamad Khairuddin b. Abu Bakar Mohd Noor Awang Fadzil Abdul Rahman Zulkii Abdul Rahman Wan Rusdan b. Wan Manan Md. Noor b. Ayob Hon Kim Long Zahir b. Kamsan

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38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69.

Azman Mohd Soffian Kamarul Jumat Ramli Juaina Abas Rashid Chan Wai Ling Noor Agus b. Ramli Leong Siew Leng Lee Nyuk Ching Wee Hock Eian Zainal Arif b. Muhamad Zain Mohd Sharo b. Mat Zin Ratnawati bt. Aman Rosazanam b. Khalid Siti Khadijah bt. Baba Juliana bt. Mohamad Rahani bt. Jusoh Rohani Osman Saiful Nizam b. Yamegun Mohd. Sidek b. Abdul Latiff Lee Ah Huat Neoh Soo Keat Ishak b. Ariffin Bartholomew Wong Kee Kho, Mr. Young Daud b. Nordin Ali Zulkifli Mohd. Dalim Hjh. Norasiah bt. Yahya Muhammad Zubair b. Mat Husin Mohd Shukri b. Abdul Rahman Norrahman Mohamed Linda Abas Jamiatun Abd Rani Zahirudin b. Zainal Ihsan Zainal Mokhtar

OTHER AGENCIES 70. 71. 72.

Ab. Hamid b. Abd. Majid Asp Chong Fuk Cheong Mohd. Shuhaimi b. Ibrahim

Federal Territory Ministry Royal Malaysia Police, Kuala Lumpur Department Of Irrigation And Drainage

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LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

304

73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79.

Azmi b. Amat Nurjafni b. Zainuddin Jamariah bt. Isam Nik Zamani Supt. Zainudin b. Ahmad Asp Izam b. Sulaiman Supt. Shukaime b. Abu Samah

Department Of Irrigation And Drainage Planning Road Division, Public Works Ministry Planning Road Division, Public Works Ministry Royal Malaysia Police, Kuala Lumpur Royal Malaysia Police, Kuala Lumpur Royal Malaysia Police, Putrajaya Royal Malaysia Police, Kuala Lumpur

80.

Mohd Khairul b. Senin

Iskandar Regional Development Authority (IRDA)

81. 82.

Noraini bt. Salleh Sabran Sahperi

Local Government Department Local Government Department

83.

Aminah Abd. Rahman

Local Government Department

84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97.

Razaman Udin Nik Shara bt. Abd Rahim Mohammad b. Abdullah Che Rashid b. Che Seman Muhammad Anwar b. Ramli Dato’ Hj. Ismail b. Ngah Mohamad Yusuf b. Che Sulaiman Mat Wadi b. Ab Satar Azizan b. Ali Qalam A’zad b. Rosle Che Ibrahim b. Mat Saman Husner b. Ahmad Zanurin Rauf b. Abdul Rashid Hashimi b. Alwi

Local Government Department National Landscape Department National Landscape Department National Landscape Department National Landscape Department National Landscape Department Jabatan Mineral & Geosains Malaysia Jabatan Mineral & Geosains Malaysia Jabatan Mineral & Geosains Malaysia Jabatan Mineral & Geosains Malaysia Jabatan Mineral & Geosains Malaysia Broadcasting Department Langkawi Kedah Sewerage Services Department Land & Survey Department, Sarawak

98.

Cynthia George

Department Of The Lands Director-General And Mineral

99.

Norhaslin bt. Abd. Halim

Department Of The Lands Director-General And Mineral

100.

Hazlina bt. Musa

Department Of The Lands Director-General And Mineral

101. 102. 103. 104. 105.

Hjh. Faezah bt. Jaafar Hjh. Mazlah bt. Mohamad Hj. Ahmad Nadzir b. Hj. Ismail Hj. Ahmad Faudzi b. Abd. Majid Abdul Majid b. Wahab

KETENGAH KETENGAH District Development Board Kedah (KEDA) Tioman’s Development Board, Pahang Macres, Kuala Lumpur

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106.

Aszmy Mahmood Yusof b. Mohamed

MITI

107. 108. 109. 110. 111.

Ibrahim b. Tambi Norzila bt. Sidek Sulimah bt. Salleh Sariah bt. Said M.S Anwar Mahmud

Labuan Corporation Selangor State Development Corporation Selangor State Development Corporation Selangor State Development Corporation Natural Friend Malaysia

112.

Azman b. Hj. Othman

Ministry Of Natural Resources And Environment

113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121.

Thiagarajan Nadeson Michele Lee Khairulnizam b. Othman Lily Hamaddah bt. Ramle Muhamad Adli Salihin b. Samsudin Marfi’ah bt. Sodono Shaballah b. Zainal Abidin Laim Kosom Nik Khusairie b. Jaafar

WWF-Malaysia WWF-Malaysia Federal Territory Ministry Federal Territory Ministry Department Of Agriculture Malaysia Department Of Agriculture Malaysia Social Welfare Department Malaysia Department Of Agriculture Putrajaya Corporation

122.

Norashikin bt. Mohd Azam

Entrepreneurial Development And Cooperative Ministry

FEDERAL & STATE DTCP 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136.

Hasnan b. Iberahim Che Zu bt. Amin Hartini bt. Hamad Saidah bt. Ahmed Suriawati bt. Hj. Ab. Rahman Noorsiah bt. Arshad Norlida bt. Ismail Nadia Iryanty Putri bt. Ab. Kadir Rusnah bt. Khalid Hjh. Norimah bt. Md. Dali Chee Ping Ngang En. Suhaimi b. Sarpan Abdulhan b. Abdul Lamit Tn. Hj. Anaspekri Mahidin

DTCP Perak DTCP Perak DTCP Perak DTCP Negeri Selangor DTCP Negeri Selangor DTCP Negeri Selangor r DTCP Negeri Selangor DTCP Negeri Selangor DTCP Negeri Selangor DTCP Negeri Sembilan DTCP Negeri Sembilan DTCP Melaka DTCP Johor DTCP Negeri Pahang

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LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

306

137. 138. 139. 140. 141.

Nik Noraisu bt. Hj. Nik Ibrahim Norzalinda bt. Othman Sazrina bt. Ibrahim Hj. Mokhtar b. Samadi Saifuddin b. Ahmad

DTCP Negeri Pahang DTCP Negeri Pahang DTCP Negeri Pahang DTCP Terengganu DTCP Terengganu

142.

Tn. Hj. Isa b. Jaafar

Reseach And Development Divison, Federal DTCP

143.

Tn. Hj. Ahmad b. Abdullah

Legal, Planning & Regulatory Divison, Federal DTCP

144.

Hjh. Kamariah bt. Ibrahim

Legal, Planning & Regulatory Divison, Federal DTCP

145.

To’ Pn. Hjh. Rozaimi bt. Zainuddin

Legal, Planning & Regulatory Divison, Federal DTCP

146.

Tn. Hj. Rusli b. Mohd. Dalim

Legal, Planning & Regulatory Divison, Federal DTCP

147.

Wardiyah bt. Senik

Legal, Planning & Regulatory Divison, Federal DTCP

148.

Lee Yoke San

Legal, Planning & Regulatory Divison, Federal DTCP

149.

Mohd. Faizul b. Mohd. Zain

Legal, Planning & Regulatory Divison, Federal DTCP

150.

Lilian Tai Yee Chee

Legal, Planning & Regulatory Divison, Federal DTCP

151.

Sarina bt. Saad

Legal, Planning & Regulatory Divison, Federal DTCP

152.

Leelawati@Normadiah bt. Ismail

Legal, Planning & Regulatory Divison, Federal DTCP

153.

Hjh. Zakiah bt. Ali

Legal, Planning & Regulatory Divison, Federal DTCP

154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163.

Rokibah bt. Abd. Latif Norasiah Bee bt. Mohd. Haniff Tee Szu Fong Hasni bt. Ramli Noor Azuwa bt. Kushairi Zaleha bt. Shaari Fudziah bt. Abas Agnes Anak Johari Mohd. Fahmi b. Said Rohana bt. Mohd. Nor

Corporate Planning Divison, Federal DTCP Corporate Planning Divison, Federal DTCP Corporate Planning Divison, Federal DTCP Corporate Planning Divison, Federal DTCP Corporate Planning Divison, Federal DTCP Regional Planning Division Federal DTCP Regional Planning Division Federal DTCP Regional Planning Division Federal DTCP Regional Planning Division Federal DTCP Regional Planning Division Federal DTCP

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Rohani bt. Md. Hashim

National Physical Plan Division Federal DTCP

165.

Nazirah bt. Mahmud

National Physical Plan Division Federal DTCP

166.

Siow Suan Neo

National Physical Plan Division Federal DTCP

167.

Tn. Hj. Azman b. Talib

National Physical Plan Division Federal DTCP

168.

Abbas b. Abdul Wahab

National Physical Plan Division Federal DTCP

169.

Noor Yazan b. Zainol

National Physical Plan Division Federal DTCP

170.

Norhasnita bt. Abd. Samad

National Physical Plan Division Federal DTCP

171.

Md. Farabi Yussoff b. Md. Yussoff

National Physical Plan Division Federal DTCP

172.

Norfaezah bt. Aman

National Physical Plan Division Federal DTCP

173.

Nen Farahana bt. Ahmad Fooad

National Physical Plan Division Federal DTCP

174.

Datin Nor’ashikin bt. Hj. Kumasi

National Physical Plan Division Federal DTCP

175.

Nik Norhanah bt. Nik Hassan

National Physical Plan Division Federal DTCP

176.

Rozy Effendy b. Abd. Rahman

National Physical Plan Division Federal DTCP

177.

Tn. Hj. Nor Sallehi b. Kassim

Information Technology Division Federal DTCP

178.

Camellia Melawati bt. Ahmad Tarmizi

Information Technology Division Federal DTCP

179.

Marha bt. Sidik

Information Technology Division Federal DTCP

180.

Suraya bt. Dahlan

Information Technology Division Federal DTCP

181.

Mimi Zareena bt. Md. Nor

Information Technology Division Federal DTCP

182.

Toh Lay See

Information Technology Division Federal DTCP

NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

307


LIST OF PARTICIPANTS 183.

Hjh. Nooraini bt. Hj. Ismail

Human Resource Planning Unit Federal DTCP

184.

Syarifah Nuraida bt. T. Mohd. Apandi

Human Resource Planning Unit Federal DTCP

185.

Faridahwati bt. Mohd. Salleh

Human Resource Planning Unit Federal DTCP

186.

Sapiah bt. Md. Salleh

Human Resource Planning Unit Federal DTCP

187.

Norhisyam b. Mohamad

Human Resource Planning Unit Federal DTCP

188. 189. 190. 191. 192.

Harizah bt. Dato’ Hj. Hassan Salehah bt. Abd. Manaf Fatimahton bt. Hassan Mohd. Jasni b. Johari Roziyah bt. Seleman

Federal DTCP Project Coordination Office Federal DTRP Project Coordination Office Federal DTCP Project Coordination Office Federal DTCP Project Coordination Office Federal DTCP Project Coordination Office

LOCAL AUTHORITIES Negeri Sembilan 193. Mustafa Bakri b. Alias Sani 194. Dzul Ashrai b. Abu Bakar 195. Yong Chee Kong 196. Dato’ Hj. Mohd. Yusof b. Yunus 197. Ahmad Faizal b. Kamarudin 198. Nazri b. A. Ghani 199. Nor Mohd. Azrin b. Zainuddin 200. Norleeza bt. Zainuddin 201. Hj. Lokman b. Omar 202. Mohd Faizalnizam b. Md Zain Melaka 203. Shamsidah bt. Ismail 204. Mohd. Syamsul Arief b. Mahbud Selangor 205. Mazlan b. Mohd 206. Mohd Hazhman b. Haron 207. Nordin b. Hashim 208. Arpaaii b. Haji Sanat 209. Basri b. Basir 210. Fitri bt. Abd. Rahman 308

Jelebu District Council Jempol District Council Rembau District Council Tampin District Council Tampin District Council Nilai Municipal Council Nilai Municipal Council Nilai Municipal Council Seremban Municipal Council Nilai Municipal Council Jasin Municipal Council Jasin Municipal Council Shah Alam City Council Hulu Selangor District Council Hulu Selangor District Council Kuala Langat District Council Kuala Langat District Council Sabak Bernam District Council

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

211. Rozita bt. Hamid 212. Mohd. Azli b. Othman 213. Awang Mustapha b. Md Yunus 214. Saidatulakmar bt. Mohamed 215. Manisah bt. Mat Yaakob 216. Reduan b. Idris 217. Wan Fauzi b. Wan Hussin 218. Hj. Hassan b. Yaakob 219. Abdul Hadi b. Abdul Hamid 220. Abu Bakar b. Mat 221. Ismail b. Muhamad 222. Adnan b. Hj. Md. Ikshan 223. Mohd. Faidzal b. Hamzah Perak 224. Hj. Azizuddin b. Alias 225. Khairulzaman b. Ibrahim 226. Khairil b. Khalid 227. Abdul Fuhat b. Mat Nayan, (Kmn,Pmp,Amp) 228. Norhafisah bt. Mohamad 229. Syazlina bt. Bahari 230. Zulazhar b. Abd Ghani 231. Mohamad Sabri b. Ahmad 232. Ahmad Fadzli Reza b. Abdul Rashid 233. Mohamad Eyas b. Anjang@Mohd. Talib 234. Tn.Hj. Abdul Hakim b. Hj. Ibrahim 235. Farid b. Ibrahim 236. Nor Zaliza bt. Mohd. Puzi 237. Hj. Mohd. Shafie b. Arifin 238. Mohd. Norulamin b. Ahmad 239. Zainudin b. Nali 240. Bakar b. Othman 241. Norsiah bt. Din 242. Ahmad Tarmizi b. Ahmad 243. Mateen Zayani b. Abu Bakar 244. Mustaffa Kamal b. Mohd. Ali 245. Roszita bt. Ali 246. Zulkifli b. Osman Pulau Pinang 247. Nik Husni b. Nik Rashid

Ampang Jaya Municipal Council Ampang Jaya Municipal Council Ampang Jaya Municipal Council Kajang Municipal Council Kajang Municipal Council Kajang Municipal Council Kajang Municipal Council Klang Municipal Council Klang Municipal Council Sepang Municipal Council Subang Jaya Municipal Council Subang Jaya Municipal Council Subang Jaya Municipal Council Ipoh City Council, Perak Ipoh City Council, Perak Gerik District Council Kerian District Council Kerian District Council Kinta Barat District Council Kinta Selatan District Council Pengkalan Hulu District Council Perak Tengah District Council Perak Tengah District Council Perak Tengah District Council Selama District Council Tapah District Council Kuala Kangsar Municipal Council Kuala Kangsar Municipal Council Kuala Kangsar Municipal Council Manjung Municipal Council Taiping Municipal Council Taiping Municipal Council Taiping Municipal Council Teluk Intan Municipal Council Teluk Intan Municipal Council Ipoh City Council, Perak Pulau Pinang Municipal Council

NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

309


LIST OF PARTICIPANTS 248. Hj. Ahmad Fuad b. Hj. Hashim Perlis 249. Norul Najwa bt. Ali 250. Nazir b. Ahmad 251. Nazlee b. Abu Bakar 252. Hjh. Asni bt. Mustafa 253. Asmaliza bt. Shaidan 254. Zaihaimi b. Zulkifli 255. Noor Asmaniar bt. Ahmad Shaffie Kedah 256. Hjh. Noor Mala bt. Mohd. Noor (Amk,Bck) 257. Nor Azliza bt. Jamian 258. Abdul Ghani b. Osman 259. Abd. Talip b. Abd. Rahman 260. Ahmad Jamaludin b. Ali 261. Amilia bt. Muhamad Nor 262. Mursidin b. Ismail 263. Any Nuhairah bt. Abdul Razak 264. Siti Mariam bt. Hj. Hashim 265. Azrul b. Osman 266. Hj. Muhammad Helmi b. Harun (Bck) Kuala Lumpur 267. Rosli Nordin (Ganti Tn.Hj.Mahadi) 268. Norazmin bt. Othman Sarawak 269. Gustian Hj. Durani 270. Ali b. Suhaili 271. Ignatius Jinnie Bunyau 272. Lau Chung Nam 273. Jack Aman Luat 274. Alijus Hj. Sipil 275. Ir. Tai Yunwu Kelantan 276. Shahzarimin b. Salim 277. Mohd Faizul b. Ismail 278. Badrul b. Rahim 279. Rosmizawati bt. Mohamed Salleh 280. Sharil Nazmi b. Daud 281. Wan Abdullah b. Wan Ab. Rahman 310

Seberang Perai Municipal Council Kangar Municipal Council Kangar Municipal Council Kangar Municipal Council Kangar Municipal Council Kangar Municipal Council Kangar Municipal Council Kangar Municipal Council Alor Setar Municipal Council Alor Setar Municipal Council Alor Setar Municipal Council Baling District Council Bandar Baharu District Council Kubang Pasu District Council Padang Terap District Council Pendang District Council Sik District Council Yan District Council Sungai Petani Municipal Council Kuala Lumpur City Hall Kuala Lumpur City Hall Dalat & Mukah District Council Dalat & Mukah District Council Saratok District Council Sri Aman District Council,Sarawak Sri Aman District Council,Sarawak Kota Kinabalu City Council Kota Kinabalu City Council Dabong District Council Gua Musang District Council Ketereh District Council Kuala Krai District Council Machang District Council Pasir Mas District Council

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

282. Nik Abdullah b. Ismail 283. Hj. Wan Abd. Aziz b. Wan Jaafar 284. Roslizana bt. Abdul Rashid 285. Wan Andery b. Wan Mahmood 286. Mohd. Izani 287. Tn.Hj. Shafie b. Ismail Terengganu 288. Abdul Aziz b. Mohter@Makhtar 289. Norhayati bt. Abu Bakar 290. Suraya bt. Alisaa 291. Donny b. Linan 292. Wan Yusnini bt. Wan Ahmad 293. Hj. Azmi b. Razik 294. Mohd. Sabri b. Muhammad 295. Rooslinda bt. Amat 296. Yusri b. Yunus 297. Che Wan Zahari b. Che Wan Ahmad 298. Mohd Shukri b. Ariffin

Pasir Puteh District Council Pasir Puteh District Council Pasir Puteh District Council Tanah Merah District Council Kota Bharu Municipal Council Kota Bharu Municipal Council Besut District Council Dungun District Council Hulu Terengganu District Council Marang District Council Marang District Council Marang District Council Setiu District Council Kemaman Municipal Council Kemaman Municipal Council Kemaman Municipal Council Kemaman Municipal Council

299.

Mohd. Yaziz b. Selamat

Kuala Terengganu Municipal Council

300.

Noraini bt. Omar Chong

Kuala Terengganu Municipal Council

301.

Haji Husain b. Embong

Kuala Terengganu Municipal Council

302.

Nawi b. Pa’tik

Kuala Terengganu Municipal Council

303.

Ibrahim b. Mohamad

Kuala Terengganu Municipal Council

Pahang 304. Hamizatul Azna bt. Khamis 305. Ahmad Fauzi b. Haji Yusof 306. Adi Iskandar Zulkarnain b. Noordin 307. Muhammad Shaifuddin b. Abdullah 308. Akhbar Zahim b. Said 309. Mohd Affandi b. Razali 310. Ahmad Fahizam b. Abd. Rashid 311. Hamiza bt. Hamzah 312. Rosila 313. Noorshida bt. Muhammad

Pekan District Council Pekan District Council Raub District Council Rompin District Council Bentong Municipal Council Bentong Municipal Council Bentong Municipal Council Kuantan Municipal Council Kuantan Municipal Council Temerloh Municipal Council NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

311


LIST OF PARTICIPANTS 314. Shahrul Niza b. Samsudin 315. Wan Zulredah bt. Wan Awang Johor Bahru 316. Nur Azhani Bujang 317. Abd. Jalil b. Tasliman 318. Zainudin b. Kasri 319. Aziaton bt. Shuib 320. Zaifulzahri b. Kamde 321. Elvi Susanti bt. Drs Lahmuddin Yusuf

Temerloh Municipal Council Bentong Municipal Council Johor Bharu City Council Johor Bharu City Council Kota Tinggi District Council Labis District Council Mersing District Council Segamat District Council

322.

Rosmawati bt. Haron

Simpang Renggam District Council

323. 324. 325. 326. 327. 328. 329. 330. 331. 332. 333. 334. 335. 336. 337. 338. 339.

Mohd. Faizalnizam b. Md. Zain Latif b. Kahar Norfarahzura bt. Sazali Mahani b. Salim Chew Lee Ting Abdul Shukur b. Osman Rosli b. Yusop Hasrin Kamal b. Hashim Hj. Yahaya b. Mohd. Salleh Norashikin bt. Mohd. Yasin Shahril b. Karjo Mohd. Hussaini b. Harun Hj. Amran b. A. Rahman Kamarulzaman b. Tugiman Ahmad b. Yusof Kamal b. Noor Noraida bt. Abdul Rani

Tampin District Council Tangkak District Council Tangkak District Council Tangkak District Council Yong Peng District Council Yong Peng District Council Yong Peng District Council Yong Peng District Council Yong Peng District Council Batu Pahat Municipal Council Batu Pahat Municipal Council Batu Pahat Municipal Council Batu Pahat Municipal Council Kluang Municipal Council Kluang Municipal Council Muar Municipal Council Muar Municipal Council

340.

Nor Aklima bt. Kidir

Johor Bahru Tengah Municipal Council

INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING 341. 342. 343. 344. 345.

312

Rosilawati bt. Zainol (Gant) Dr. Norhaslina Hassan (Assoc. Prof) Melasutra bt. Md. Dali Faizah bt. Ahmad Ibrahim b. Mohd @ Ahmad

Universiti Malaya Universiti Malaya Universiti Malaya Universiti Malaya Universiti Malaya

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

346. 347. 348. 349. 350. 351. 352. 353.

Kamariah bt. Dola Dezubaida bt. Salbani Fathuddin b. Kamruddin Kushairi b. Rashid Mohd. Faizal b. Masdor Siti Sakina bt. Mohd. Azman Wan Abd. Ghafar b. Wan Abd. Hamid Young Elias b. Young Daud

Universiti Putra Malaysia Universiti Teknologi Mara, Perak Universiti Teknologi Mara, Perak Universiti Teknologi Mara, Perak Universiti Teknologi Mara, Perak Universiti Teknologi Mara, Perak Universiti Teknologi Mara, Perak Universiti Teknologi Mara, Perak

354.

Krizelda Fu Rui Xing

Imperia Institute Of Technology, Kelana Jaya

355.

Marina bt. Hassan

Imperia Institute Of Technology, Kelana Jaya

356.

Muhammad Zulhilmi b. Mohd Hassan

Imperia Institute Of Technology, Kelana Jaya

357.

Azzatunisa bt. Ahmad Zubir

Politeknik Sultan Abdul Halim Mu’adzam Shah, Jitra, Kedah

358.

Mohd. Faizal b. Rahmat

Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia

359.

Nuarrual Hilal Md. Dahlan

Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia

360.

Oliver Lins Hoon Leh

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

361.

Faizawati bt. Abdul Aziz

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor

362.

Haidaliza bt. Masram

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor

363.

Norfazamimah bt. Mohd. Ariffin

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor

364.

Norsidah bt. Ujang

Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor

365.

Hassim b. Mat, Prof. Madya

Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang

366.

Jabu Anak Dugu

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor

367.

Roslina bt. Ali

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur

368.

Alias b. Rameli

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor

369.

Rusman b. Sulaiman

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

313


LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

314

370.

Shamsaini bt. Shamsuddin

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor

371.

Ahmad Safri

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

372.

Hazlina bt. Hamdan

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

373.

Ismail

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

374.

Mazura

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

375.

Mohd Hayyu Arrasyid b. Saberon

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

376.

Mohd Izad b. Yahya

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

377.

Mohd Saidi

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

378.

Muna bt. Sharimin

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

379.

Munirah

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

380.

Nadzarith Raiha bt. Abdul Rahim

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

381.

Rosnani Anuar

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

382.

Noriyana

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

383.

Saiful Faizal b. Bahari

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

384.

Sanisah bt. ShaďŹ ee

Universiti Teknologi Mara,, Shah Alam, Selangor

385.

Siti Nadia

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

386.

Wira Syariza b. Tahir

Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor

387.

Muhammad Hazwan b. Kamarudin

Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Perak

388.

Nur Adilawati bt. Mohd. Roslan

Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Perak

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

389.

Chin Ki Fatt

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Batu Pahat, Johor

390.

Firdaus Akhimullah Munir Al-Hakim b. Ramly

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Batu Pahat, Johor

391.

Indera Syahrul b. Mat Radzuan

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Batu Pahat, Johor

392.

Mohd Fadhil b. Mohd Ali

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Batu Pahat, Johor

393.

Seow Ta Wee

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Batu Pahat, Johor

394.

Shafee b. Saad

Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah

395.

Dr. Ainul Jaria Maidin

Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia

396.

Dr. Sharifah Zubaidah

Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia

397.

En. Yusof b. Ismail

Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia

398.

Mohd. Hisyam b. Rasidi

Shibura Institute Of Technology

NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

315


ORGANISING COMMITTEES ADVISOR Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd. Fadzil b. Hj. Mohd. Khir Director General, Town and Country Planning Department, Peninsular Malaysia

MAIN & FINANCIAL COMMITTEE Chairman: Datin Wira Hamisah Ariffin Deputy Director General II Deputy Chairman: Ms. Rokibah Abdul Latif Director, Secretariat, Coordination, and Corporate Planning Division Members: • Mr. Kamalruddin Shamsudin Deputy Director General I • Dr. Dahlia Rosly Director, Kuala Lumpur Project Office Development Planning Division • Mdm. Zaleha Shaari Director, Regional Planning Divison • Mr. Mohd. Jamil Ahmad Director, Reseach and Development Divison • Tn. Hj. Ahmad Abdullah Director, Legal Planning and Regulatory Divison • Ms. Rohani Md. Hashim Director, National Physical Planning Division • Mr. Omar Jamaluddin Director, Management Service Division • Tn. Hj. Nor Sallehi b. Kassim Director, Information Technology Division • Mdm. Nooraini Hj. Ismail Head, Human Resources Planning Unit • Mdm. Harizah Dato’ Hassan Head Assistant Director, Project Coordination Office • Mdm. Norliza Hashim President, Malaysian Institute of Planners (MIP)

SECRETARIAT Chairman: Cik Rokibah bt. Abdul Latif Corporate Planning Division, Federal DTCP 316

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

Deputy chairman: Cik Norasiah Bee bt. Mohd. Haniff Members: • Pn. Tee Szu Fong • Pn. Mazisalwani bt. Mahyuddin • En. Slyvester Ogang • En. Faisal b. Mohd. Sapari • Pn. Hasni bt. Ramli • Pn. Noor Azuwa bt. Kushairi • Pn. Hasmawati bt. Mahmood • Cik Nurul Shuhada bt. Othman • En. Mohd. Sirad b. Hj. Taha • Pn. Sakon Din Chom • Pn. Noriah bt. Ismail • Pn. Azlia bt. Shamsudin • En. Ahmad Sabri b. Harun • Pn. Rosmini bt. Mad Zain • Cik Puteri Zanzarina bt. Abdul Latiff • En. Gikal b. Samud • Cik Nur Elliana bt. Zainal Abidin • Hj. Amir Hamzah b. Hashim • Cik Miskiah bt. Hassan • Pn. Yusliza bt. Yusop • S. Lawrence • Cik Noor Saberina bt. Fakir Mohammad • Cik Noor Sahaliza bt. Ramli • En. Mohd. Nor Akmal b. Abdul Hamid • Cik Fakhriyah bt. Hanafi • En. Mohd. Ikhwan Azani b. Mat Isa

WORKING PAPERS COMMITTEE Chairman: En. Mohamed Jamil b. Ahmad Director, Research And Development Division Members: • En. Ramli b. Hj. Zulkifli • En. Mohd. Nasir b. Dato’ Shaari • Cik Suraya bt. Dato’ Badaruddin • En. Mohd. Syukri b. Yahya • Pn. Nor Aini bt. Sulaiman • En. Azlin b. Mujir • En. Ezwan b. Adlan • Cik Hasnifarina bt. Hassan NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

317


ORGANISING COMMITTEES Seminar Proceeding and Rapporteurs: • Dr. Zainah bt. Ibrahim • Pn. Lilian Ho Yin Chan • Pn. Kalsom bt. Yop Mohd. Kasim • Pn. Jasmiah bt. Ismail • Cik Suraya bt. Dato’ Badaruddin • Cik Zuliana bt. Nawawi • Pn. Khatijah bt. Che Embi • Pn. Norzahriyati Aini bt. Abdul Majid • Cik Rohaya bt. Daud • Pn. Siti Noor Haslinda bt. Md. Latip • Cik Siti Marini bt. Mohktar • En. Mohd. Fazli b. Idris • YM Raja Dhiyauddin b. Raja Aziz

Research And Development Division Research And Development Division Research And Development Division Research And Development Division Research And Development Division Research And Development Division Research And Development Division Research And Development Division Research And Development Division Research And Development Division Research And Development Division Research And Development Division Research And Development Division

PROMOTION & PUBLICITY COMMITTEE Chairman: Cik Rohani bt. Md. Hashim Director, Regional Planning Division Members: • Pn. Norhasnita bt. Abd. Samad • En. Md. Farabi Yussoff b. Md. Yusoff • En. Rozy Effendy b. Abdul Rahman • Pn. Rosnah bt. Osman • En. Mohammad Zamri b. Ahmad Daud • Cik Norhayati bt. Harun • Cik Shahidah bt. Che Wan Mohamed

EXHIBITIONS COMMITTEE Chairman: Dr. Dahlia bt. Rosly Director Kuala Lumpur Project Office Deputy Chairman: Pn. Marhamah bt. Abdul Ghaffar Members: • En. Mohd. Rizal b. Osman • Pn. Sylvia anak Entalang • Pn. Egna Francis Gitom • Pn. Azlin bt. Abdul Hamid • Pn. Khadijah bt. Abdul Hamid 318

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

• • • • • • •

Pn. Salmiah bt. Hashim Pn. Siti Jailah bt. Hj. Dol Lajis YM Raja Syamsul Nizam b. Raja Abdullah En. Mohd. Safie b. Mostapa En. Azhari b. Jamal En. Mustafa b. Ramli Pn. Rohaya Che Morat

LAUNCHING COMMITTEE Chairman: Tn. Hj. Nor Sallehi b. Kassim Director Information Technology Division Deputy Chairman: Pn. Marha bt. Sidik Members: • Pn. Camelia Melawatie bt. Ahmad Tarmizi • Cik Rajeswary A/P Vasu • Cik Norkhamsiah bt. Abdul Malik • En. Shamsur b. Othman • En. Syaiful Niezam b. Hamil • Cik Rafizah bt. Mijan • En. Mohd. Shahrin b. Mhod. Safran • En. Mohd. Faisal b. Khalil

OFFICIATION/PROTOCOL/VENUE PREPARATION COMMITTEE Chairman: Pn. Hjh. Nooraini bt. Hj. Ismail Director Human Resource Planning Division Members: • Pn. Harizah bt. Dato’ Hassan • Pn. Syarifah Nuraida bt. T Mohd Apandi • Cik Faridahwati bt. Mohd Salleh • Pn. Agnes Anak Johari • En. Juwis Ladiu • En. Mohammad Jasni b. Johari • Pn. Sapiah bt. Md. Salleh • En. Norhiysam b. Mohamad @ Samad • Pn. Roziyah bt. Seleman @ Awang • Cik Alina bt. Apo NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

319


ORGANISING COMMITTEES SPEECHES &VVIP/VIP INVITATIONS ACCOMMODATION COMMITTEE Chairman: Pn. Hjh. Zaleha bt. Shaari Director Regional Planning Division Deputy Chairman: Pn. Fudziah bt. Abas Members: • Pn. Rohana bt. Mohd. Nor • En. Mohd. Fahmi b. Said • Pn. Nadzrah bt. Md. Shah

REGISTRATION, INVITATION & ACCOMMODATION COMMITTEE Chairman: Tn. Hj. Ahmad b. Abdullah Deputy Chairman: Y. Bhg. To’ Puan Hjh. Rozaimi bt. Zainuddin Members: • Pn. Anisza bt. Zainudin • En. Suhairi b. Zainuddin • Pn. Rasedatul Helmiyah bt. Ahmad • Pn. Noridah bt. Mohd. Noor • En. Mohd. Rafiee b. Abdol Rahman • En. Mohd. Faizul b. Mohd. Zaidin • Pn. Hjh. Zakiah bt. Ali • Pn. Norshaadah bt. Sarifuddin • Pn. Noriah bt. Shaari • Pn. Hjh. Sarah bt. Khalid • Cik Norzaina bt. Salim • Pn. Rohaiza bt. Abdullah • Pn. Sri Juwita bt. Mahusin

320

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

SECURITY, TRANSPORTATION& TRAFFIC COMMITTEE Chairman: En. Omar b. Jamaluddin Members: • En. Adrian Allan Richard • En. Muhamad Bazli b. Ahmad • Pn. Jam’iah bt. Ngah Ramli • En. Mohd. Asri b. Abdul Halim • En. Zulamly b. Kamaruddin • En. Zainal Abidin b. Daud • En. Zakaria b. Zainal • En. Mohd. Suzali b. Hassan • En. Bidin b. Othman • En. Mohd. Ramani b. Abdul Rani

NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

321


CONVENTION PHOTOS

322

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

323


CONVENTION PHOTOS

324

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


Town And Country Planning – 50 Years

NATIONAL CONVENTION: TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING – 50 YEARS

325


CONVENTION PHOTOS

326

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA


World Town Planning Day 2007 - Convention Proceedings  

World Town Planning Day 2007 - Convention Proceedings. National Convention

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