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APPROACHING SYSTEMATIC URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF YANGON CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT Dr. Su Su DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE, MANDALAY TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, MANDALAY, MYANMAR

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Paper 4

Abstract

APPROACHING SYSTEMATIC URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF YANGON CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT This paper highlights the problems and potentials of the existing Yangon Central Business District (CBD) and proposes systematic planning documents and institutional arrangements for the area. Revising numerous official documents, reports and field observation revealed the problems of CBD in relation to land use and infrastructure. Field studies had been done on the Prime CBD area and development projects within CBD area with observation format interpreted the collected data by overlaying on maps and analysed and evaluated. Checklists of interviews on concerned people were also conducted to get their opinions and views on measures for easing the problems, proper planning legislations and institutional arrangements. The most crucial items to consider are transportation, capacity of sewerage system, drainage system, green belt, etc. Proposed facts include five parts: (1) Proposed planning documents (2) Institutional arrangements (3) Facts to include in a detail Master Plan of Yangon concerning Yangon CBD (4) The need of the prime regulator of equitable built environment: zoning regulation (5) The outlines of the Development Plan of Yangon CBD which contain Planning and Urban Design Principles, Key Concepts for CBD, and Areas for Historic Conservation and Urban Renewal.

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CONTENT 1.0 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND EXISTING OVERVIEW ON YANGON CBD 1.1 Historical Development of Yangon CBD 1.2 Legal Frameworks 1.3 Existing Overview of Yangon CBD 1.4 Experts’ Opinion on Yangon CBD 2.0 DETAILED ANALYSIS ON PRIME CBD AREA 2.1 Redefining Prime CBD area 2.2 Land Use Pattern of Prime CBD 2.3 Listed Buildings and Growth Pattern of New Developments after 1990s 2.4 Existing and Potential Development Sites 3.0 PROPOSED PLANNING DOCUMENTS FOR YANGON CBD 3.1 Planning Documents 3.2 Facts to Include in the Detail Master Plan of Yangon Concerning with Yangon CBD 3.3 The Proposed Role of CBD 3.4 The Outlines for a Development Plan of Yangon CBD 4.0 CONCLUSION

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Paper 4 1.0 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND EXISTING OVERVIEW ON YANGON CBD 1.1.

Historical Development of Yangon CBD Yangon has quite a long history starting from a village and developed between two rivers to the north and then to east and west directions after 1990s.

1.1.1

Pre-urban Dagon Village Dagon village, according to the records, had existed as a small village in low lying often water-logged land, south of Kyauk Lagon Pagoda (present site of Shwedagon Pagoda) since 11th century A.D.

1.1.2

Yangon in 1755 In 1755, Myanmar King Alaungphaya, upgraded Dagon (Yangon) into a new town and renamed it to Yangon. At that time, urban settlement Yangon was planned and built around Sule Pagoda, the heart of present day Yangon CBD. At that time the area around Sule Pagoda was very different from nowadays.

1.1.3

Yangon in Late 19th Century King Tharrawaddy’s Yangon was not in the place of present-day Yangon CBD but close to it. It was located in present Dagon Township of Yangon and not all parts are within the present day CBD boundaries.

1.1.4

Yangon between 1853 and 1947 The town plan of new colonial capital of Yangon was presented by Lieutenant A. Fraser, a Bengal Engineer. In this plan, the Sule Pagoda was adopted as the centre of the town, so that the town was thus moved westwards as compared with Alaungpaya’s Yangon. Sule Pagoda road, 200ft wide, was formed running northwards from the River, with the Pagoda in its middle: in the western part of the town there were aligned four 100ft road running north-south, and in the eastern part three such roads are all parallel to the Sule Pagoda Road. All north-south roads were to perpendicular to the Strand Road, thus preserving the originally proposed chessboard pattern. The distance between each two such roads was 850ft wide, and the blocks thus formed were divided by one central 50ft wide road and four minor 30ft wide roads, all running north-south. The centers of each two 100ft east-west roads were to be 900ft apart, commencing from the basic post, so giving blocks of buildings of 800ft. Fytche Square in Central Yangon, had matured and had turned into an extremely picturesque green oasis ringed by offices, shops and banks and dominated by the gilded spire of the Sule Pagoda as shown in Figure 1.1. The town was actually allowed for as estimated population of only 36, 000. [1]

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Figure 1.1: Plan of Yangon OfďŹ cially Adopted in 1853 Source: Pearn (1939)

1.1.5

Yangon between 1950s and 1980s (Post Independence) After the Second World War, population of Yangon had reached 700,000. As a Central Business District, it was indeed developing and inuencing the whole Yangon urban system. Therefore, three satellite towns namely South and North Olkkalapa and Thaketa were constructed during the period of 1958 to 1960. As natural barriers, Hlaing River in the west and south and the Pazundaung Creek in the east, the city was expending northwards leaving the CBD in the south. The area of the city has expanded from around 33 sq. miles in 1920, to over 80 sq. miles in 1974 and 133 sq. miles in 1985. In 1988, the city area has further extended to over 200 sq. miles as shown in Figure 1.2.

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Paper 4 1.1.6

From 1990s to Present Day Yangon After 1988, the Government has constructed bridges across Pazundaung Creek and developed two new settlements, New Dagon North and New Dagon South to break the northwards sprawl of the city. At the same time, Hlaing Thaya on the west side of Hlaing River was further developed and at present the city pattern has changed to have east-west axis (Hlaing Thaya, Dagon North and Dagon South) and north-south axis. (Htauk Kyant and CBD).[2]

Figure 1.2: Administrative Boundary of YCDC Source: YCDC (2005)

1.2

Legal Frameworks It is relevant to look back the past legislative and institutional developments in the ďŹ eld of urban and regional planning and housing in particular. The Two Acts under British Colonial Administrations are: (1) Rangoon Development Trust (1920) (2) Rangoon Municipal Act (1922) After the independence the two acts was replaced by National Housing Town and Country Development Board Act (1951).

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1.2.1

The Rent Control Act (1947) The reasons for the lack of maintenance of housing stock were ‘Rent Control Act’ promulgated in 1947. The private rental housing activities as common in many other countries have not yet developed in Myanmar. The salient points of this act are (1) the tenants cannot be evicted unless the tenants destroy the houses (2) the tenants are practising illegal way of life in the houses (3) the tenants are not paying rent The third reason ‘not paying rent’ is a weak point. In addition to almost impossible to evict the tenant the rents are also strongly controlled by the Urban Rent Control Acts.

1.2.2

Yangon Municipal Bye-Laws The main points in those Yangon Municipal bye-laws until 1992 were to have minimum room height of 14ft in the ground floor and 10ft in the top floors. All structures more than five storey were reluctant to be given buildings by city authority. The people were constructing mezzanine floors with about 7ft room heights and these mezzanine floors were normally occupied by the separate families. Since 1992 these restrictions have changed. The present law says 10ft floor to floor height in the ground floor and 9ft floor to floor height for top floors. There is no more limitation except all buildings higher than 66ft high must have lifts.

1.2.3

Proposed Development Policy ‘Yangon City Structure Plan, 1993’ There was no officially adopted plan and legal requirement in guiding future development of Yangon City. With the absence of a guiding plan for future development of the city, private sector urban investment action are quite often conflicting with the city’s long term development options. The proposed development policy of this project was ‘Yangon City Structure Plan – 1993’. Concerning the role of CBD, the plan states that there are problems of overburdening of existing infrastructure facilities in the CBD areas due to over-concentration of activities in the CBD areas. Additional population and activities, which is almost likely scenario, will contribute further deterioration of existing infrastructure. Therefore it is recommended that priority measures should be given to rehabilitate and improvement of infrastructure network of CBD areas. It is also recommended that necessary actions should be taken in order to facilitate the process of absorbing more CBD functions in inner urban ring. Concerning spatial restructuring of CBD, it is recommend here to investigate successful implementation of an urban renewal scheme. [2]

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Paper 4 1.2.4

Interim Report for ‘Yangon Strategic Development Plan, 2005’ In this report, CBD townships are mentioned as Inner City Area (ICA). A recommendation here is to establish a proper Central Business District. It is important that some urban character of these areas should be planned. In order to do this, there may be a need to expand the present CBD (Central Business District) to accommodate new Private Office and Commercial Complexes and relieve development pressure on the Conservation Zone. There is also a need to continue retaining population in the CBD by allowing the construction of more condominiums, studio and service apartments in the expanded area. The proposed CBD would involve an extension of the Inner City Area to include parts of the townships of Ahlone, Dagon and Mingalar-Taung–Nyut bounded by the Inner Ring Road. The new CBD area will cover an area of 6.71 sq. miles.

Table 1.1: Functions and Facilities of CBD Township

Functions

Facilites

• Corporate Offices Botahtaung,

• City hall (YCDC)

Kyauktada,

• Police HQ

Lanmadaw, Latha, Central Business Districts (CBD)

Pabedan Pazundong, Seikkan (Port), Parts of Ahlone,

• City parks

• Facilities that cater for

National and Regional needs

• Museums

• Higher order facilities

• Stadiums

• To meet the needs of the CBD population

• Specialist Hospitals

Dagon, Mingalar-Taung Nyut Bordered by the Inner Ring Road

• Theatres

• Specialist/Higher Order Shopping Facilities • Entertainment • Multimodal transport terminals

Source: Interim Report for Yangon Strategic Development Plan (2005)

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Concerning city planning and urban development law and related guidelines, there is an urgent need to establish a comprehensive city planning and urban development law. This law should be a comprehensive law covering aspects related to the use, development and conservation of land and building in the city. Concerning with preparation of a detailed city plan and an Infrastructure Master Plan, there is an urgent need to prepare a Detail City Plan and an overall Infrastructure Master Plan to guide, promote and control the development of the City. The Detail City Plan of Yangon should not merely be a land use plan but should be complemented with an overall infrastructure Master Plan. The plan should include land use zoning and building controls, as well as infrastructure plans covering key aspects of roads and urban transportation, urban drainage, waste water treatment and solid waste disposal. The present strategic plan could be served as a basis for a more detailed City Plan. [3] 1.3

Existing Overview of Yangon CBD This part is overview of the existing conditions of Yangon CBD. The YCDC area or Yangon City comprises 33 townships and Dagon Extension Area covering a total area of about 196,441 acres. For purposes of analysis, Yangon Central Business District (CBD) will include the seven townships which are located in the downtown area as shown in Figure 1.3 and have high development intensity. These include the townships of Botahtaung, Kyauktada, Lanmadaw, Latha, Pabedan, Pazundaung and Seikkan with a land area of about 1,976 acres.

Figure 1.3: Seven Townships of Existing Yangon CBD Source: YCDC (2005)

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Paper 4 1.3.1

Transportation and Infrastructure Transportation and Infrastructure of Yangon CBD have many problems. a) Transportation The land use situation of the Yangon leads to the public transportation problems and general congestion in the CBD. 30% of all bus trips have the destination towards CBD. [4] During eight to 11 hours, around 20,000 vehicles are stationed on CBD area which is about 20% of total city’s vehicles. Besides the road transports, boat passengers from Dalla and travelers from delta region and lower Myanmar reached CBD jetties first. The central railway station of Yangon is in CBD too. b) Water Supply Every household in the CBD is connected with main water pipe line. Nevertheless, the existing water supply system is over one hundred years old, provides a low level of service and is deteriorating quite rapidly. Leakage and wastage of water are known to be occurring through leaks in the net work as well as through the public stand pipe. The problem is very low pressure and it is intensified by practice of making illegal connection. In addition numerous public taps are broken and water is wasted. c) Sewerage system The existing sewer system was installed in 1888 to serve the CBD. d) Drainage system During the heavy capacity of existing drain cannot carry the rain volume due to the two factors, inadequate drainage system and garbage that people throw into it because there is no cover for drain in most cases.

1.3.2.

Population and Employment Yangon CBD, overcrowding problems have based on the two main points. Firstly, some families want to live with extended families because of the cultural background and some who cannot afford to rent or to buy new apartment or house. Secondly, within the inner urban area the major shares of employment opportunities and social amenities are highest. Many people are living in central area, although the buildings are old and even dangerous for human habitation. The distribution of office areas and office jobs is still uneven. CBD and Inner Urban Ring together offer around 47% of all jobs, which can be more since most of the informal sector activities like small scale trading per acre in year 2000. Annual growth rate is about 1.88% each year and that of the inner ring is the second highest.

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Table 1.2: Projected Population of Yangon CBD by Townships (2005 – 2020) Population Township

AAGR (%)

2005

2010

2015

2020

2005 – 2010

2010 – 2015

2015 – 2020

1

Lanmadaw

46,009

47,439

49,243

51,563

0.6

0.7

0.9

2

Lathar

36,802

37,768

39,020

40,667

0.5

0.7

0.8

3

Botahtaung

60,508

64,602

69,437

75,287

1.3

1.5

1.6

4

Pabedan

54,515

5,8130

62,402

67,575

1.3

1.4

1.6

5

Pazundaung

44,150

47,307

51,031

55,531

1.4

1.5

1.7

6

Seikkan (Port)

1,513

1,438

1,377

1,329

-1.0

-0.9

-0.7

7

Kyauktadah

50,914

5,5067

59,959

65,857

1.6

1.7

1.9

Source: Interim Report for Yangon Strategic Development Plan (2005)

CBD 300000 Inner Ring

250000 200000

Outer Ring

150000 100000

North Suburbs

50000 0

Tow nships

6%

11%

3%

25%

10% 22%

23%

Older Suburbs New

Figure 1.4: No of Office Jobs Percentages of Each Township in CBD Source: Yangon City Structure Plan: DHSHD/UNDP (1993) and DHSHD (2000)

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Paper 4 1.4

Experts’ Opinion on Yangon CBD

1.4.1

Respondents’ views on Easing CBD’s Problems A summary of respondents’ views on easing CBD the problems is given in Table 1.3. It illustrates respondents’ views on easing CBD problems such as providing development control guidelines, Pedestrianization of some roads in CBD area, provision of bus terminals outside CBD and creating city bus system, during rush hours. Respondents considered the most important ways to solve the problems in CBD are provision of development control guidelines, strengthening the institutional arrangements and zoning proposals for existing land use structure as they gave rated scores of 11.83, 10.83 and 10.0 respectively and priority index of 0.788, 0.722 and 0.667 respectively. According to the priority indexes all respondents’ view on easing CBD problems can be ranked as follows.

Table 1.3: Ranks of Views on Easing CBD Problems No.

View on Easing CBD problems

Rank

1.

Provision of development control guidelines

1

2.

Strengthening the institutional arrangements

2

3.

Zoning proposals for existing land use structure

3

4.

Provision of bus terminals outside CBD and creating city bus system

4

5.

Pedestrianisation of some roads in CBD area

5

6.

Restriction zones for private cars during rush hours and pricing on long stay parkers, providing multi-storey car parking

6

Source: Field Survey (2005)

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2.0 DETAILED ANALYSIS ON PRIME CBD AREA 2.1.

Redefining Prime CBD area For the purpose of analysis, it is important to find out the prime CBD area as existing CBD was defined by administrative boundaries and the most congested area with highest concentration of CBD functions is not very clear among the seven townships.Downtown-land use method for definition of uses to be accepted as the characteristics of the Prime CBD, and also measurement of floor space and calculation were also done. Therefore, the Method of Areal Definition as suggested by Murphy and Vance [5] and Downtown Land use method by Lawrance [6] will be the most suitable ways in redefining the area of the highest concentration of Central Business District functions. For Yangon’s case, downtown type uses include office buildings, financial institutions, government buildings and theatres. Concerning with the method of Areal Definition, the result found is that the area of the highest CBHI and CBII ratio was found to be nearly the same to the area that include that blocks where downtown types uses situated and forming boundaries as shown in Figure 1.5 and Figure 1.6. One of the areas of highest central business uses can also be found in some parts of Pazundaung Township. Outside the Prime CBD area only frontage developments along major roads can be counted as downtown type uses and some may be included with the downtown as a separate isolated segment.

2.2

Land Use Pattern of Prime CBD Land price had the highest increase rate among all the prices in Yangon. The land price of CBD area and the inner urban townships have increased to about 20 times from 1975 to 1993. Also in terms of Zoning; Prime CBD has the mixed land use pattern. Yangon has no defined zones for separate functions. The characteristics of different zones differ from one another by having some specialised functions than the others. CBD townships have high concentration of commercial functions, having around 10% of total areas used for this purpose, but this zone still has around 37% of total areas used for residential function and 31% of total areas used for public and semi public (where 17% of this land use is for institutions in 2005)as shown in Figure 1.7. Only 2% of total areas is used for recreational facilities. Although 16% of the city’s commercial floor areas are concentrated in the seven CBD townships, around 75% are floor area for shops. The CBD and inner urban areas have the primary and middle school floor areas of around 2,000 sq.ft. per 1,000 populations. The reason for this lower figure in the CBD is smaller school sizes in the congested old schools of Yangon’s southern zones. Besides state’s hospital, private clinic of all kinds are evenly distributed all over the CBD in the old dwelling houses.

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Figure 1.5: Maps Showing Central Business Intensity Index Source: Field Survey (2005)

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Figure 1.6: Concentration of Downtown Type Uses within the Area of High Commercial Facilities Source: Field Survey (2005)

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Mixed Residential/Commercial

20% 37%

2%

Commercial Public and Semi Public Recreation

31%

10%

Transportation and Communication

Figure 1.7: Land Use Map and Area Percentages of Prime CBD (2005) Source: Field Survey (2005)

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By dividing the Yangon CBD in a variety of different zones, planners could precisely control the open space, commercial character and desired density of each section of the CBD. 2.3.

Listed Buildings and Growth Pattern of New Developments After 1990s In every block in existing CBD boundaries, there are religious buildings such as temples, mosque, and damathalas. Before 1990s, all administrative buildings were to be concentrated in CBD area. In consideration of economic development, private buildings, used as retail core and business offices for private firms are not placed under the control.

Among 189 buildings, there are about 85 buildings in existing CBD area and 73 buildings in the Prime CBD Area only as shown in Table 2.1.

Social Buildings

Commercial Buildings

Churches

Buddhist temples

Hindu temples

Mosques

Chinese temples

Others

Total Buildings

Percentages of all Listed Buildings in Yangon

Latha

-

2

-

-

-

1

1

2

-

6

3.17%

3.

Pabedan

6

3

1

2

1

5

5

-

1

24

12.7%

4.

Kyauktada

33

-

1

2

1

-

2

-

-

39

20.63%

5.

Botahtaung

2

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

4

2.12%

Townships

2.

No.

Administration/Institution Bldgs

Table 2.1. Distribution of Listed Buildings in Prime CBD

Religious Buildings

Total percentages of all Listed Buildings in Yangon

38.62%

Source: Field Survey (2005)

There is a need to identify and choose a proper path to utilise the strength of diversity and uniqueness and to solve conflicts between development and conservation. Daw Hlaing Maw Oo stated in her paper that the choice being between two scenarios: (1) Continuing opportunistic site by site development, uncoordinated and reliant upon individual developers’ best interest to determine city future. (2) Designating a coordinated pattern of growth that can be followed to provide the collective best interests of the city as well as the nation by establishing as image based upon Yangon’s most distinguished features stemmed from its geographical location and its history. [7]

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Paper 4 2.4

Existing and Potential Development Sites Existing and potential development sites of prime CBD for current projects located around the areas to be conserved and the area of dangerous buildings should be carefully considered. The resultant development should have minimal visual impact on sensitive historic environments retaining and enhancing key views and important vistas. The total area of these sites is around 900,000 sq.ft. and about 5% of the total land area of Prime CBD.

3.0

PROPOSED PLANNING DOCUMENTS FOR YANGON CBD Proper planning documents are essential for a coordinated pattern of growth of Yangon CBD.

3.1

Planning Documents Urban development and planning controls comprise of zoning and sub-division regulations as part of a planning process and of building bye-laws (codes) as part of a municipal regulatory process. Yangon only has building bye-laws for municipal regulatory process and zoning and sub-division regulations are necessary. The following requirements should be done for systematic planning system of Yangon CBD. (1) Every country’s planning system based on city planning and management regulation. Comprehensive legislation like ‘The Yangon Town Planning Act’ should be enacted for improvements of Yangon. (2) Yangon’s development has to be on the basis of a spatial plan. A detail city level structure plan is considered the most effective. It is also essential for the preparation of a detail Master Plan of Yangon for socio-economic development. This Master Plan should be based on the proposed Yangon Strategic Development Plan. Yangon CBD’s development has to be again based on CBD Sub-Area Plan which is in accordance with the zoning regulations in the above mentioned Master Plan of Yangon. (3) The prime regulator of an equable built environment for Yangon CBD should be zoning regulations. This ideally comprises of: (a) A well publicised and clear broad land use maps (b) Zoning regulations ‘primarily in terms of floor area ratio (FAR), parking and height control, vindicating uses disallowed in each land use zone. Yangon CBD area should be divided into the area needed to be control such as conservation area; waterfront area and religious area and area need to be developed for tall office buildings, tall services buildings like hotel and recreation area.

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3.2.

Facts to Include in the Detail Master Plan of Yangon Concerning with Yangon CBD In Master Plan for Yangon, it should be included that (1) CBD area is to be treated as Special Area which has a special mixed land use pattern of development which is different from other areas. This area, which cannot be developed on the basis of normal planning policies and controls, has been given the status of Special Area to be treated in different manner. (2) Historical Heritage of Yangon CBD to be conserved and some of the old historic areas should be designated as conservation areas. Special plans are to be formulated for the conservation and improvement of these areas. (3) Congestion of the CBD should be reduced and the CBD should be decentralised. Forming hierarchy of centers such as development of secondary CBD and district centre for each district would be effective. (4) Local train system to be improved and it should connect with city bus system which will run in and around the CBD. For long term, Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system should be established. In Land use plan in Master Plan, restructuring of land use along the proposed ring rail around the CBD should be included.

3.3.

The Proposed Role of CBD The proposed role of CBD is as follows. One of the ways to solve the CBD problems is to make the change of use to some buildings with provision of parking facilities. Some particular areas of land owned by the government, especially located in the city centre, are to become social, cultural and entertainment zones. This will enable government land to be used for wider social, cultural and commercial purposes. The Yangon CBD’s urban design had remarkably successful as place as well as link, incorporating an integrated and somewhat unspeciďŹ ed mix. The architecture has so much uniqueness, aesthetic quality, various superior styles of architectural heritage and landmarks that it provides a rich serial in complexity of rich urban artefact and assembles many beautiful buildings and places. In fact, the old city centre should have been a conservation area as a living monument of permanence and tourist attractive pedestrian friendly area as shown in Figure 3.1. Prime CBD Area is congested with various functions and necessary infrastructure like the sewerage system and it is too old to absorb more population and more activities. The renovation and upgrading of all infrastructure services including water and electricity supply and telecommunication systems are highly recommended in revitalisation of CBD. It is important to establish a proper Central Business District: some parts of the Prime CBD are designated as Conservation Zones to protect the

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Paper 4 heritage and urban character of these areas. In order to do this, there may be a need to expand the present CBD (Central Business District) to accommodate new Office and Commercial Complexes and relieve development pressure on the Conservation Zone. It is necessary to continue retaining population in the CBD by allowing the construction of more high density developments in the expanded area. The future CBD should include parts of the townships of Ahlone, Dagon and MingalarTaung–Nyut. One of the main strategies to developing this area is to relocate the port functions from this area to the Thilawa Port and re-establish the river front promenade that is currently lost due to the huge hoardings and security fencing for container storage and port related activities. Passenger jetties should continue to operate in the area. It should be a redevelopment area for shopping, special recreation such as playground and boating, and inland water jetties as water front redevelopment projects in other countries. There will be a special opportunity to revitalise the historic urban core of Kyauktada along with the water front redevelopment project as in Figure 3.2. 3.4

The Outlines for a Development Plan of Yangon CBD This research work is the outlines of a Development Plan of Yangon CBD and its outcomes include the followings.

3.4.1

Planning and Urban Design Principles In the outlines for a Development Plan of Yangon CBD, a number of key principles should be followed. a) Concentrate Commercial Activity Within the CBD area, commercial activity should be focused as much as possible in order to achieve a ‘critical mass’. b) Refine Investments in Public Facilities New public facilities should attempt to achieve multiple objectives, including serving the public and stimulating private actions. c) Create Public Spaces at Every Opportunity All development, whether public or private, should contribute to an array of public spaces including plazas, squares, courtyards and parks. Mahabandola Park should be one large, centrally located civic space. d) Humanise the Streets Streets within the City Centre should be lined with sidewalks and street trees, in order to provide a strong, consistent visual character and encourage pedestrian activity.

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e) The traffic As the CBD area carries considerable through-traffic, traffic management techniques should be used to ensure that the CBD area not hampered by congestion. This may require directing through traffic to corridors outside the CBD. f) Moving parking into structures The present surface parking should transition largely to structures to provide sufficient spaces for the demand of parking facilities

Figure 3.1: Downtown Design Concepts of Prime CBD Source: Field Survey (2005)

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Figure 3.2: Urban Form Concept of Prime CBD Source: Field Survey (2005)

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3.4.2

Key Concepts for Yangon CBD The CBD is envisioned as a dynamic hub of urban activities. It will be a centre which combines community businesses, housing, cultural amenities and public spaces where people can both live and work. It will give the city a strong identity and form a true ‘heart’ for the community. The following concepts represent important building blocks to achieve the goal and objectives of the plan. a) Gateways Major Intersections and access points into the Prime CBD area should be identified and treated as gateways. Gateway locations should include landmark type structures, significant buildings and landscaping. These gateway features would provide orientation and identity for the centre. b) Commercial Core with Major Attraction One part of the prime CBD Area should be developed as the commercial core and offices, markets and commercial uses would be concentrated in this area. c) Core Area of Historic Conservation The highest concentration of listed buildings is found between Sule Pagoda Road, Strand Road, Lower Pansodan Road and Mahabandola Road on Strand Road between Sule Pagoda and Bo Aung Kyaw Street. It is thus proposed to demarcate that area as core area with stringent conservation guidelines. d) Short-Term Projects In order to implement the CBD area plan, it will need to accomplish several short-term projects together with private investment as catalysts. These demonstration Projects could consist of the following: mixed-use housing, a civic plaza, a convention centre, sidewalk and landscaping improvements on major streets.

4.0

CONCLUSION Having examined the various scale of the problems related to urban growth, land use and zoning planning of Yangon’s CBD, this study comes to the conclusion that improving urban facilities and urban environment in isolated action without adequate coordination is not likely to be effective in achieving the longer-term development goals to beautify Yangon CBD. On the other hand promoting of the institutional component alone will not appease the decay of urban environment. Therefore, physical, legal, institutional and financial components should be vigorously pursued.

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Paper 4 References 1)

Pearn, B.R. 1939. A History of Rangoon. Rangoon (Yangon). Myanmar: Corporation of American Baptist Mission Press.

2) DHSHD and UNDP. 1993. Yangon City Structure Plan. Yangon City and Regional Development Project Phase II,DHSHD, Yangon, Myanmar. 3) Malaysian Industry Government Group for High Technology and Institute of Sultan Iskandar. 2005. Yangon Strategic Development Plan (Interim Report). Yangon City Development Committee, Yangon, Myanmar. 4) Nwe Ni Pwint, Aye Mya Nandar Aung, Aye Pale Win. 2004. ‘Study on Street Architecture of Yangon City’. M.Arch thesis, Department of Architecture, Yangon Technological University. Yangon. Myanmar. 5) Murphy, R and Vance, J.E. 1954. Method of Areal Definition. Cited in Win Myint, Mg.1995. ‘Redevelopment of the Proposed Yangon CBD’. D.S.P.D, Yangon Technological University, Yangon. Myanmar. 6) Lawrance, E. no date. ‘Delineating the Boundaries of Downtown.’ June 2005. <http://www.Downtown research@bellsouth.net> 7) Hlaing Maw Oo, Daw.2005. ‘Heritage Conservation in Transforming Yangon into A Sustainable Mega City’ German Myanmar Workshop on Sustainability and Urban Development in the Mega City Yangon. University of Yangon, Yangon.

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Approaching Systematic Urban Development and Management System of Yangon Central Business District (CBD) 

by

Dr. Su Su Lecturer and Acting Head of Department Department of Architecture Mandalay Technological University

Outline of presentation Historical Development  Legal Frameworks  Existing Overview  Expert’s Opinion  Detailed Analysis on Prime CBD Area  Proposed Planning Documents for Yangon CBD  of CBD Proposed Role Key Concepts for Prime CBD 

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Paper 4

Historical Development

PLAN OF YANGON IN 1853

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ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARY OF YCDC 2005

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Paper 4

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Legal Frameworks       

Yangon Municipal Act 1922 The Rent Control Act 1947 National Housing Town and Country Development Board Act (1951) Yangon City Development Committee Act (1990) Yangon Municipal Bye - Laws Proposed Yangon City Structure Plan 1993 Interim Report on Yangon Strategic Development Plan, 2005

Existing Overview of Yangon CBD

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Paper 4

SEVEN TOWNSHIPS OF YANGON CBD

PROJECTED POPULATION FOR YANGON CBD AAGR (%)

Population Township

2010

1 Lanmadaw

46009

47439 49243

51563

0.6

0.7

0.9

2 Lathar

36802

37768 39020

40667

0.5

0.7

0.8

3 Botahtaung

60508

64602 69437

75287

1.3

1.5

1.6

4 Pabedan

54515

58130 62402

67575

1.3

1.4

1.6

5 Pazundaung

44150

47307 51031

55531

1.4

1.5

1.7

1377

1329

-1.0

-0.9

-0.7

55067 59959

65857

1.6

1.7

1.9

6 Seikkan (Port) 7 Kyauktadah

1513 50914

1438

2015

2020

2005 2010 - 2015 -2010 2015 -2020

2005

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OFFICE JOBS PERCENTAGES OF CBD CBD 300000 Inner Ring

250000 200000

Outer Ring

150000 100000

North Suburbs

50000 0

Tow nships

Older Suburbs New

6%

11%

3%

25%

10% 22%

23%

Experts' Opinion

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Paper 4

VIEWS ON EASING CBD PROBLEMS No. View on Easing CBD problems

Rank

1.

Provision of development control guide lines

1

2.

Strengthening the institutional arrangements

2

3.

Zoning proposals for existing land use structure

3

4.

Provision of bus terminals outside CBD and creating city bus system

4

5.

Pedestrianization of some roads in CBD area

5

6.

Restriction zones for private cars during rush hours and pricing on long stay parkers, providing multi-storey car parking

6

Detailed Analysis on Prime CBD

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MAPS SHOWING CENTRAL BUSINESS INTENSITY

CONCENTRATION OF DOWNTOWN TYPES USES

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Paper 4 LAND USE MAP OF PRIME CBD 2005

LAND USE PERCENTAGES OF PRIME CBD Mixed Residential/Commercial

Commercial

20%

37%

2% 31%

10%

Public and Semi Public

Recreation Transportation and Communication

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Others

Chinese temples

Mosques

Hindu temples

Buddhist temples

Churches

Percentages of all Listed Buildings in Yangon

Religious Buildings

Total Buildings

Commercial Buildings

Townships

Social Buildings

N o.

Administration/Institut ion Buildings

DISTRIBUTION OF LISTED BUILDING IN PRIME CBD

1

Latha

-

2

-

-

-

1

1

2

-

6

3.17%

2

Pabedan

6

3

1

2

1

5

5

-

1

24

12.7%

3

Kyauktada

33

-

1

2

1

-

2

-

-

39

20.63%

4

Botahtaung

2

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

4

2.12%

Total percentages of all Listed Buildings in Yangon

38.62%

Isometric View of Prime CBD Area

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Paper 4

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Proposed Planning Documents Yangon Town Planning Act  Detailed Master Plan of Yangon  Land Use Maps and Zoning Regulations 

Facts to include in Detailed Master Plan concerning with Yangon CBD To be treated as Special Area  Historical Heritage to be conserved  Congestion of CBD should be reduced  Local train system to be improved 

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Paper 4 LISTED BUILDINGS AROUND MAHABANDOLA PARK

AROUND SULE PAGODA

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ALONG PANSODAN & SULE PAGODA ROADS

Proposed Role of CBD Living Monument of permanent  Tourist Attraction  Pedestrian Friendly Area  Renovation and upgrading of all infrastructure  Expand the present CBD  Relocate port functions and create redevelopment area 

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Paper 4 KEY CONCEPTS FOR PRIME CBD

KEY CONCEPTS FOR PRIME CBD

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Thank you very much

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RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA: DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE Prof. Dr. Mohamad Tajuddin bin Haji Mohamad Rasdi DIRECTOR OF KALAM, CENTRE FOR THE STUDY OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN THE MALAY WORLD, UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA, MALAYSIA Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.


Paper 5

Abstract

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA: DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE The modern housing estates in Malaysia have been around for four long decades and they still exhibit an uneasy relationship between architectural design and the needs of climate, culture and community. The present housing design in the modern estates uses too much energy as air-conditioning and electrical lighting during the day is now the norm. The daily rituals of washing are still at odds with the simplistic designs of drying and washing areas. There are many aspects of privacy violations that go beyond personal comforts and borders on pure racial tensions in the layout and planning of the modern terrace houses. The planning of houses, educational and community buildings have ignored the changing working rituals and culture of modern Malaysians which have resulted in what I term as the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Death of the Modern Malaysian Communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. The increase in crime in the housing estates is a symptom of the fatal malady that have been wrought upon the Malaysian community via bad designs of the housing estates. I will present some design and planning solutions to address these important fundamental issues in this paper.

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CONTENT 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 THE CHANGING MALAYSIAN COMMUNITY 2.1 A Cultural Dilemma 2.2 The Socio-Economic Dilemma 2.3 The Myth of Independence 2.4 The Car Paradox 3.0 SUGGESTING NEW COMMUNITY CATALYSTS 3.1 The Community Development Center 3.2 The Mosque and Other Religious Buildings 3.3 The Warungs 3.4 The Other Buildings 4.0 RESTRATEGISING HOUSING PLANNING 4.1 Decentralising Community Buildings 4.2 Walking and Cycling Yourself to Health and Security 4.3 Rethinking the Vehicular Circulation 5.0 THE PROBLEMS OF HOUSE DESIGNS AND NEIGHBOURHOOD IN RELATION TO TRADITIONAL VALUES AND RITUALS 5.1 The Windows and the Back Alley 5.2 The Porch and the Serambi 5.3 Thermal Comfort, Storage and Corridors 5.4 Neighbourhood Architecture 6.0 CONCLUSION

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Paper 5 1.0 INTRODUCTION The main purpose of this paper is to present a message that the present housing estates with respect to its planning of community buildings as well as house designs are completely at odds to the real cultural needs of today’s society. In the first part of this paper, we will explain how the Malaysian community has changed drastically from a homogeneous closely knit society to a heterogeneous one with different values and patterns of living. The second part of the paper presents arguments for changes in the definitions of community buildings such as mosques, community halls and playgrounds. We will introduce new building ideas and also innovate existing ones so as to be more in tune with today’s lifestyles. In the third and final part of this paper we will present my own house design ideas that would help preserve traditional values and not violate them. 2.0 THE CHANGING MALAYSIAN COMMUNITY We have grown to a position that the ills plaguing the problems within the housing estates are in fact inseparable from the bigger question of the idea of the modern Malaysian ‘community’. It is necessary at this point to place the term community in apostrophe since the first question one must ascertain is whether there actually exist a ‘community’ as we have been brought up to understand. Almost everywhere we drive to in Malaysia presently, one obvious scenery encountered would be the sprawling and ungainly modern housing estates. These housing estates boast of ultra modern facilities and infrastructure such as designer playgrounds, mosques, Dewan Serbaguna or Multi-purpose halls, club houses, shops and many more. The houses range from RM25,000.00 to RM700,000.00 and the affluence of the society can be seen in the variety and large number of cars populating the settlements. The housing estates easily cram in thousands of families in close proximity. Never before has so large a community at one particular place exist in this country in its 46 year old history. But the gnawing question here is what kind of community exists in these locations? Or to be more blunt, is there any kind of ‘community’ in these massively populated environments? In this section we put forth the argument that communities in Malaysia exist only in numbers and close proximity but in truth Malaysians are nothing but a community of strangers just living next door to one another. 2.1 A Cultural Dilemma One stark difference between the traditional and modern communities is that the former consists usually of a single culture where as the latter has more than one race living together in the same housing estate. In Malaysia, a decision was made towards the perceived ‘greater good’ of a multi-cultural nation, to insist that developers provide a suggested distribution of house owners from different races. And thus, the developers dutifully fulfilled their part of the bargain. And that was it. There was no programme for integration and an encouragement to know one another in a more active and controlled manner. We refer this as the ‘wawasan

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school’ syndrome. You kind of hope that close proximity provide opportunities of integration. Well, the theory is sound but it neglects the historical ‘hurt’ between the races in this country. In the traditional society with a single cultural entity, the social, moral and religious norms are well understood and entrenched in the fabric of life. The physical environment is the manifestation of these norms as evidenced in the method of privacy controls in building siting, use of landscape elements and compositions of windows and doors. You don’t have the problems of back-to-back windows that encroaches serious privacy violations because the Tukang or builder is from that same culture or in fact lives just up north beyond the riverside! The modern version offers faceless architects, developers and municipal authorities. In the traditional community you don’t have problems of smoke from the Chinese joss sticks ‘aromising’ your rooms simply because your neighbours do not perform this ritual. Hence, an extreme suggestion would be to create separate racial enclaves within the housing community but that would put the idea of ‘Malaysia’ at great risk of being a mere lip service. A better suggestion would be to design a chimney stack. A marvelous one would be to eliminate the terrace house and develop a scheme that would once again allow adequate air movement. A long term strategy would be to develop a community curriculum to teach mutual tolerance. Someone has to teach the different cultures how to live within each other’s social norms. 2.2 The Socio-Economic Dilemma In the traditional society, the economic activities of those homogenous cultures living in a village are almost the same or at least directly related to one another. Villages in the coastal areas see fishermen going out to sea whilst those in the interior parts of a country would farm the lands and rear livestock. Thus, it is hardly surprising that a strong communal bonding exist in these traditional societies with close proximity of work places, interdependent activities, the common celebration of successes as well as ‘berat sama dipikul’. In contrast, the modern society produces the office worker, the retail keepers and others who work in separate geographical and architectural entities. It is not surprising therefore to find next door neighbours who hardly know one another since two thirds of their waking moments are spent in different places. Coming home from work at the end of the day finds these ‘worker bees’ confining their activities looking at their children’s homework or going out for dinner. Preparing food at home to the middle class families is fast becoming an extinct ritual. The concept of ‘weekends’ also provide for personalised family activities at shopping complexes or holiday resorts. At least, for Malay Muslim individuals, they would still have to go to the mosque in their community for the maghrib, isya and fajr prayers as well as the weekly Juma’at prayers. They would still have to attend other religious activities and celebrations. I am not sure about the Chinese communities as I find them more reserved and pay full attention to their individual family than committing to any communal responsibility, if at all there is any.

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Paper 5

We are nothing but a community of strangers just living next door to one another

Thus, one can see the break down of the Malaysian communities with these isolationist reactions from the modern working ritual. It is very pronounced in the Chinese communities and the Malay-Chinese relationship. We have no experience with Indian communities and thus cannot speak about them but we suspect it would be similar. The Malay middle class still seems to hold a loose sense of community as Islam demands a minimum involvement at the part of congregational prayers and other religious activities. Perhaps if there were enough temples for the Chinese and Indian communities, the break down within those specific races would be less pronounced. As yet, we have lived in and visited many housing estates but found temples wanting in them. On occasion, we would find the shophouse churches filled to overflowing with the two races on Sundays. 2.3 The Myth of Independence The modern society has this simplistic myth of ‘independence’. We call it the five ‘c’s’; careers, condos, cellphones, cars and credit card. Don’t leave home without any of them. Interdependence among family members and community members in the traditional societies create a strong bonding and sense of worth. When a family member is sick, the nurse would be none other than one of the family members. The hospital is the house and vice versa. Caring, visiting and funeral services are all within an arm’s reach away. Cooking and washing are sanctified duties of the household and teenagers given these tasks know well their roles in the smallest social unit: the family. There are no servants to rely on. The Indonesian or Filipino maid service is non-existent. In the modern society, our children and teenagers have an identity crisis. Who are they in relation to the family? Forget asking that question in relation to the immediate community. Since all we ask of them is that they study hard for exams, our teenagers look towards the MTV for inspirations of identity in their lots of spare time. Cyber Cafes and Comic book libraries are also favourite escapism with so much time in their hands since ‘bibi’ does all the washing, cooking and taking care of baby sisters. Who are we in relation to the immediate community? Who are we besides teachers in schools, workers in offices, operators in factories and wheelers of business dealings? When we come home, we have no definitive roles in our societies. Is it a wonder that a child can be kidnapped and raped such that we did not know whose child it was? In the days of old alienation was a

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product of different cultures and geographical origins. In the modern context, alienation is the about same culture just two doors away. 2.4 The Car Paradox The car is the symbol of man’s progress … and ruin. The progress of the car is that it provides rapid mobility. The car’s downside is more than just two. It causes pollution at a grand scale. It wastes time when one gets caught in the traffic jam. It kills people. The car is especially lethal to walkers and cyclist that have no choice in our pavement-less housing estates. Lastly the cars cause social alienation with its speed and exclusivity behind the tinted glass windows. In the morning, one closes oneself in this mobile home, backs out the front porch and zooms out without so much as a wave or a nod to the neighbors around. So goes the human aquarium. Our housing estates do not provide nice and safe walkways filled with shady trees, paved streets, convenient wakafs and comfort stops. We live in an air-cond house, to an air-cond car taking us to an air-cond office with frequent trips to the air-conditioned shopping complexes with air-cond play spaces. And this is perceived as progress. 3.0 SUGGESTING NEW COMMUNITY CATALYSTS The previous section draws a bleak and ominous picture of today’s community in Malaysia. In this section we will labor to expound some ways in which we can rebuild the idea of a true Malaysian community by reexamining the concepts of community facilities in existence today with respect to their roles, design and site planning. 3.1 The Community Development Center It is clear from the discussion above that we need a new cultural catalyst to push and encourage our individual citizens and their ethnic groups into a whole new idea of ‘community’. There are three important ingredients in this new catalyst in order to be viable in today’s local context. Architecturally, there must be a place for the various ethnic groups to meet and have ‘modern rituals’ such as ‘Hari Keluarga’ or Family Day, health check, children playground or music lessons and many more. Secondly, there must be community programmes that are ‘neutral’ culturally but important enough for the security, self advancement and to meet some aspect of national concern. Thirdly, and this is the most important ingredient, there must be a Director with his team to design the community ‘curricula’ and ensure its running. In this essay we wish to concentrate my attention on a brief critic of our Dewan Serbaguna or Dewan Orang Ramai. The present Dewan Raya, Dewan Orang Ramai and Dewan Serbaguna are to my mind in truth Dewan sekali-sekala-Raya, Dewan Orang-tak-Ramai and Dewan Serba-tak-Guna. The idea of an all functioning room dates back a century ago to Mies van der Rohe’s ‘universal space’ idea. The idea is logical, attractive and simple; put up a long span space with no interior columns and make it high enough to suit functions such as sports and community gathering. The problem with this idea is that the room is valid now to be used on two occasions only; a community gathering that occurs once in a blue moon and a weekly badminton game. Try playing chess in the big hall. Try going there for a chit-chat and see if you can pass beyond the closed

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Paper 5 steel gates. And if you do pass through the gates, pray tell where you are going to sit? The only function that the high ceiling space serves for is simply the badminton game. For other functions, the upper half of the hall’s volume is a waste of air conditioning and light energy. It takes a strong light and fan energy to get all of that down the 24 feet or more high ceiling. And, why are we closing the hall from windows that give better lighting and ventilation? It is so that the wind does not interfere with the shuttlecock! Thus, just because of one badminton function, the building fails to attract all other functions and even makes the gathering function difficult. Consider the echo effect of a closed up and huge volume space when you’re trying to announce something on the speaker system. First and foremost, a community center building must have a cafeteria or a warung type place. The food stall or the cafeteria is one of the most important ice breaking social element. It is a neutral cultural entity since all of us have to eat. Next, a small library space with places for students to study is a big help to our children in the low cost housing flats. Our reading habits is poor not because our children don’t like reading but simply because they cannot afford the book prices, there’s no library in the housing estate, they are never given a long time in the school library, they don’t have time after school because of the ‘sekolah agama’ afterwards and finally their parents lack the joy of reading. A nice and safe playground with seating under a clump of shady trees would draw parents and toddlers to it and the socialising would surround the mothers with talks of baby fevers and high cost of schooling. Of course we must have the multi-functional space but to be not two stories high but just a little over twelve feet would do fine. The administration space should include rooms for a director and two assistants with ample storage and workroom in order to organise such activities as exhibitions and family sports day. There should also be one or two smaller rooms for classes and children’s tuition activities. The parking lot should be designed to cater to overflow spaces with tents and similar temporary structures. Outside seating are a must to be provided integrated in a landscape that provides both semi private activities and rowdy ones. The architectural language should incorporate ethnic vocabulary with natural materials such as stone, brick and timber with support from the usual reinforced concrete structural frames. Make it a bit resort like and not like a sports center or an abandoned small factory. There are sheets of metal decks being used as walls and curved roofs in today’s dewan and we guess it is the ‘natural’ evolutionary type of a badminton hall turning into a small and medium industry workshop! Avoid the urge to make strong ‘Putrajaya’ symmetry compositions for the building mass but make it asymmetrical with broken up massing to lower the building scale and provide good natural lighting and ventilation. we think with the above mentioned suggestion, we can thenlive like a community.

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3.2 The Mosque and Other Religious Buildings We feel that the mosque and other similar religious buildings such as churches and gurdwaras should be designed as friendly community centers rather than formal monumental sculptures in a landscape. Each religious programme should incorporate the importance of inter-religious understanding as a cornerstone for living in peace and harmony. Mahatma Gandhi once mentions the ease of which Hindus and Muslims come and go in mosques and temples in a single village of his native India. We, especially Muslims are too strict and uncompromising in this respect and thus, we will concentrate on deliberating about the mosque curriculum and design. Muslims are faced with many serious challenges today. Ethnic violence have erupted because ethnic groups do not understand each others’ socio-cultural needs and thus do not respect one another. There are even serious disagreements among Muslims of different sects and madhab that have created shameful unrests. Honest leaders find difficulty developing Muslims who do not understand the political realities of their nations and heritage. We can also see that many religious teachers are still teaching Muslims through the old traditional pedagogy and shy away from using technology and experimentation of new teaching methods. The programme for intellectual development calls for a total revamp of the present curriculum. Muslims must not only be taught about rituals of prayers and tafsir of hadith and Qur’an but they must also be taught history and to celebrate the sacrifices of past and present ‘heroes’ in Islam who had saved or developed their peoples. The teaching of the Sirah and the deeds and morals of these important individuals must be ‘alive’ in the spirit of every Muslim young and old. Aside from lessons in Islam, Muslims must also be exposed to knowledge about the various ethnic groups and their cultures around the world who are also Muslims so that they understand the greatness of Islam in the world and that these people will not be seen as mere statistics to them in times of giving aids. There must also be lessons on the religions of the different cultures who live amongst Muslims; for instance the Muslim Malays in Malaysia live amongst Chinese and Indians who are mainly followers of Buddhism and Hinduism. Interfaith discussion is necessary for us to tolerate one another’s peaceful existence. The burning of mosques and temples in the past is a regrettable event and should not be condoned by anyone especially Muslims. Much of the implications of these programmes relate directly to the methods of instruction. These may include lectures, discussions, video viewing, reading or even performing cultural shows. Exhibitions can also be held as it is an important educational mechanism. The design of the mosque must cater to these needs in the sense of providing the audio visual equipment and their proper placements, spaces for libraries or electronic viewing or stages for performances. Special storage facilities for exhibition materials must be included in mosque designs so that the ease of changing and exhibiting them can be achieved. Classrooms and story telling corners would be a most welcome addition to children and youngsters. Libraries, resource and hobby centers would be appreciated by the teenagers and adult population.

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Paper 5 Muslims in communities no longer posses an identifiable Islamic identity. Although the community may have possessed a monumental mosque complete with exotic arches and muqarnas ornamentation, Muslims are empty of their own sense of Islam. In the first place there are few celebrations of the rites of passage. Circumcision ceremonies are no longer held at homes and replaced by a quick stop at the hospital or clinic. The marhaban ceremony is kept within family circles and most of the time ignored. Marriages are more fashionable at hotels where private catering absolved community responsibilities in helping out. Much of these kinds of happenings that were present in traditional societies are slowly becoming extinct and along with it, the brotherhood of Islam. Programmes must be implemented to make each Muslim feel a sense of Islamic identity and to foster communal feelings of brotherhood. Celebration of the rites of passage such as births, circumcision and marriages must be reinstated as important events to be celebrated by the whole community at the mosque. Celebration of historical events in Islamic history should be increased so that the community can come together more often and the Islamic heritage is remembered by children, teenagers and adults. Teenagers can be given some responsibility in terms of joining clubs or military-like organisations such as the Police Cadet Corps at the mosque instead of at schools. Library Clubs, Drama Clubs, Historic Society can all be instituted at the mosque rather than at schools. In this way teenagers will be directly involved in community services. The mosque administration must then identify among its congregation someone who can lead the teenagers in all the activities stated. In this way there will be many Muslims who will pride themselves in contributing to society and learn to become leaders in the small organisations. To inculcate team spirit, games and sporting events must be organised such that friendly rivalries may occur between different mosques and qari’a. The architectural implications of the above programme include the design of small rooms as clubhouses, library space, and perhaps workshops. Mosques must also be equipped with a compound that can be used as parades and also as outdoor activities during celebrations and sports. The space in the mosque must be designed in a manner that a stage for performing arts can be integrated. We suggest that the present criterion of mosque size has been based entirely on the notion of the house of God and that its main concern was that of prayer. Since the eternal idea of the mosque is to provide the opportunity for the Muslims to organise and develop their community, it follows that the consideration of size must take into account the ideal and manageable size toward this aim. One of the main functions of the mosque is that of education and also to unite the Muslim in a strong brotherhood tie. In this respect the question that must be raised is what should the ideal size be for a leader and the administrative committee to manage the activities toward these ends. It is important to question whether the building of huge mosques for tens of thousands worshippers is appropriate.

For detailed study please see M. Tajuddin’s The Mosque as a Community Development Center, Penerbit UTM, 1998 or Peranan, Kurikulum dan Rekabentuk Masjid Sebagai Pusat Pembangunan Masyarakat, Penerbit UTM, 1999 2

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Some sample of proposed Mosque design for Malaysia

3.3 The Warungs The warung or hawker stall is one of the most indispensable facilities in the housing estate. With the spouses having careers, there is simply no time to cook meals and the warungs and the hawker stalls are favorite targets for a quick and informal meal. We have seen municipalities setting up temporary and permanent structures for this function and this effort is commendable. However their centralised location should not be an obligatory act but it should be dispersed. A children playground should be incorporated into these stalls such as the ones shown by the Rest Areas by PLUS on the North-South highway. Warung seating should be more diverse and allow for creative landscaping furnitures and elements to present the stall as a meeting place and a leisure area for informal reading as well as conversation. 3.4 The Other Buildings Because of the diverse living patterns of the Malaysian community due to their socio-economic and religious differences, there is a need to upgrade and invent new meeting places where these patterns of lives cross. For instance, the community membersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; cross-patterns and meet at bus stands, LRT terminals and nasi lemak vendors. Where they meet to wait, there should be opportunity for the architect to enhance the meeting space such as interaction can occur while waiting. Thus the present bus stand ought to give away to the new waiting culture of positive social interaction. The other place where the community members meet is the primary and secondary schools while waiting to pick up their children. We have witnessed many cars waiting by the road side with engine running because there is no parking as well as street furniture for waiting. The proper landscaping and design of lay-bys and front gate-fence of schools can provide quality time for parents to gossip about their children and ďŹ nd things in common.

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Paper 5 4.0 RESTRATEGISING HOUSING PLANNING With the various changes of cultural patterns of work, home and play, it is necessary to restrategise community facilities so as to encourage community interaction. The formula is simple; find out where they cross and make them stay there for a while. 4.1 Decentralising Community Buildings In most housing estates in Malaysia, community buildings such as the mosque, the Dewan and the kindergarten is centralised in one location usually close to the big playing field. Developers and planners have understood that they have to ‘give up’ certain percentage of the land area for such facilities and they too find it convenient to lump it all in one location. Perhaps the original idea for such a design decision was to protect the privacy of the house owners as these were public places and houses are deemed private areas. Thirty or forty years ago, this idea might be valid but it is certainly not so since most of the middle class owners are not at home to watch over their property and children. We propose that we decentralise such facilities and create more public facilities as have been outlined above. Each community building or structure must be made to be a sentinel to a group of houses. Let us imagine that instead of the present rows of terrace houses, we convert them all into U-shaped organisations with a small padang at the center. On such small padangs would be placed a single community building. Thirteen such community buildings can be community centers, sports hall, hawkers stall, mosque, Chinese Temple, Hindu Temple, church, groups of wakafs, playgrounds, basketball courts, roller blading rink, kindergartens and libraries. We could add schools which should be designed smaller and with shared playing fields. Shop-offices could be clustered into two or three core areas and contain functions of retail, health clinics, post offices and restaurants. We should also add to this list the police hut and Rukun Tetangga offices. With twenty such groups of buildings, it can be a sentinel to over 800 individual houses. The low-cost flats are also excellent sentinels because the owners still retain a traditional based family unit of father-work and mother-home concept. The low cost flats should be clustered in a few groupings so that it would also stand guard over groups of bungalows, semi-detached units and terraced lots. This would eliminate the ‘poor areas’ as with the case of many housing estates nowadays. 4.2 Walking and Cycling Yourself to Health and Security It is a common site nowadays to see middle aged and elderly couples walking or jogging at public parks and around the housing estates. No one cycles because there is no safe place to do it. The concern for health is paramount with the present life stresses and environmental pollution. The simplest way to solve much of our physical, social, economic, environmental and spiritual health is through … walking! Just think about it for a minute. Everyone agrees that walking and jogging is a necessity of physical health. And when one jogs or walks the pace of life is slower and one can get to ‘smell the roses’ as well as greet the neighbors. This creates healthy social cohesion. Thirdly, when one walks to the shops and leave the car behind one is

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saving money on the high price of petrol as well as save tons of Carbon monoxide to pollute the environment. Spiritual health is about a good dose of community living with a dash of greenery and this can be gotten from a housing estate that plants trees for shading pedestrians. What about crime? If walking creates community interaction, the slow pace of life promotes street surveillance.

The roadways being divided into two thirds for cars and another third for pedestrians and bicycles.

The problem of children safety is related directly to the traffic-pedestrian-cyclist circulation in our schools and simple school policies

Try to find walkers on our streets in the housing estates from 10.00 am to 4.00 pm. You may not find any. This is because the housing estates have no pedestrian paving, have no shady trees; no outdoor furniture’s, no comfort stations and the shops are too far to walk to. We can change all that simply by redistributing shops and community facilities with a linkage of pedestrianised circulation that has strategically placed wakafs, furniture’s, and comfort stops. In Toyohashi, Japan, people use a lot of bicycles to go shopping, to work, to schools and to the mall. The Japanese have allowed one third of their roadways for cycling equipped with guard rails. In Malaysia, walking and cycling are activities that invite sudden death by being hit by a car or lorry.

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Paper 5 4.3 Rethinking the Vehicular Circulation The bonus to criminals and a blow to community interaction in our housing estates is the efficient vehicular circulation. The housing estates are made for cars and not pedestrian or cyclist friendly. There are grids of straight, smooth and wide roads for gateway cars and vans. In our article about safety in New Straits Times we suggested that this grid iron planning is murderous to children. We explained how in one of the housing projects, we designed a crossfree circulation system for children. The idea of using humps to slow down traffic is certainly inconvenient to drivers and puts a dent in the petrol ringgit and not to mention a few exhaust pipes. Unfortunately, when we put humps on the street in front of the houses the municipality came and tore it up as well as the other twenty illegal humps put up by house owners. The reason was because we did not seek permission. Now the traffic in front of my house is as fast as in the original condition and is a danger to my children as well as a facility for the criminals getting away. We must do away with the grid iron planning, have more humps and also create new ways to slow traffic down. 5.0 THE PROBLEMS OF HOUSE DESIGNS AND NEIGHBOURHOOD IN RELATION TO TRADITIONAL VALUES AND RITUALS The issue of strained race relation in this country has surfaced again. If there is one glaring ‘failure’ of this coalition government is that this relationship is even worse than before. We wish to expound on one aspect which has been hidden all this while and this aspect is also something which I suspect is adding the rift between our races. It is in the way we design our buildings and plan our housing. We maintain that architectural design and housing planning worsen ethnic relation in this country. There must be a revamp in our thinking about design and planning principles if we as the people are to get back on track towards a nation of true peace and harmony. 5.1 The Windows and the Back Alley Let us first tackle the design of the terrace house. Malaysian terrace house design has seen four decades of changes but yet they still maintain the basic feature that would strain race relation. The most obvious would be the face-to-face windows in the front and back part of the house. The worse situation is in the back alley. Architects have mindlessly design the same windows that permit privacy violations to occur. The back window frames the kitchen and the bedrooms. The aroma of cooking for different cultures may strain healthy social relationships. Because of the packed planning of housing blocks there is hardly any air movement in the back alley that would drive the aroma of cooking away. The use of chimney stacks whether of masonry or metal should be considered by developers as this would dissipate the aroma away.

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The back alley is a fun place for criminals because developers like to make the terrace rows long and lonely

The bedroom windows should be designed differently to avoid visual violations. As it is now, tenants draw curtains which block views but also badly needed lighting and ventilation. This increases energy usage for cooling and lighting. Window designs should be split into those that provide lighting and ventilation and those that permit view. We recommend that ribbon windows above five feet be designed until the ceiling beam to allow maximum light and ventilation. For restricted views, we recommend slits of window one foot wide be placed at corners rather than at the center of the wall. These slits should be placed in a deep timber or concrete frame of about a foot deep to restrict outside viewing vantage. The Islamic mashrabiya can also be an interesting solution as it permits inside to outside view rather than the other way round. Other ways are to landscape back alleys and street fronts with trees but this would block the sun for drying clothes. Perhaps we could dry clothes on the roof tops rather than at the ground floor. 5.2 The Porch and the Serambi The other aspect of house design which is of concern is the porch design. There are Malays who have to be very patient with Chinese neighbours who burns the joss sticks which lets offensive smoke meander into the living room. Should we forbid this ritual from being practice? Of course not. A simple solution would be a metal chimney pre-designed into the porch ceiling space. A worse case scenario is the neighbour that keeps the car idle for a while and lets poisonous carbon monoxide into the next house. Nowadays most people extend their porch to cover the whole serambi space. Setbacks should be instituted rather than the twenty foot minimum. In this way a twenty foot serambi that covers completely the car can be a feature but an extra ten foot of roofless and gated space permit the car to idle with less chance of smoke coming into the house. The porch seems to be a substitute for the traditional serambi or verandah. The Malay serambi, anjung or selasar is an important socialising element that sends a message that the family is ready and willing to interact with anyone in the village who has good intentions. Nowadays the porch is an architectural feature that is for the car and there is no serambi at all to encourage social interaction. We must bring back the serambi and redefine the fence design such as a more friendly environment would prevail.

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Paper 5 5.3 Thermal Comfort, Storage and Corridors The first rule in thermal comfort design in a terraced unit or a high rise one is simply to let in cross ventilation. The Police barrack is excellent in this regard since it has ventilation fins running at the top of the two external walls. Then there is the advantage of having the full panel louvered wall to allow more body level ventilation especially for a culture that half of the time sits on the floor. The gap between the internal ‘wall’ and the ceiling in the two bedrooms facilitates the air movement nicely. The chimney flue perhaps added to the lowering of inside air pressure may function just like an air-well.

The Police barrack is excellent since it has ventilation fins running at the top of the two external walls.

The other rule about thermal comfort is to reduce as much masonry as possible in order to reduce the storing of heat in the walls which becomes radiators at night due to the phenomena of heat-lag. The use of timber walls and timber closets as spatial dividers contribute to a reduction of almost fifty percent of potential heat storage architectural elements. Now try to compare these thermal comfort lessons to the present low cost flats and medium cost apartments designed nowadays. There is full masonry usage and nowhere for the air to get in unless one opens the sliding window panes. And even when the air reluctantly enters, where is it going to go if it is stopped dead in the bedroom, living room and kitchen since there is no pressure difference and air way openings. This particular police barrack has one small and simple item that is almost entirely and absolutely ‘non-existent’ in any of the contemporary apartment design. A ground floor storage room for each unit. The storage units are for bicycles and motorcycles. Many architects fail to notice that houses have families and families have children and children equals to many bicycles. Where are we to store them? Most children have to carry them up to the third or fourth floor landings.

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A ground floor storage room for each unit

The wide corridor in the barrack is going out of style and is rapidly replaced by living units clustered around a common landing of a stairway. There are several advantages of the external corridor. Firstly, there is greater acoustic privacy since the front wall opens out and not in front of a neighbour’s as in the clustered typology. Secondly, there are good lighting and ventilation opportunities in the open corridor concept than the closed landing one. Thirdly, the corridor serves as a good play space for roller skating, and tri-cycling for toddlers. There is hardly any room to play chase or rollerblading in the clustered concept. One can see children having picnics, playing police and thieves and the usual toy soldiers and paratroopers. There is certainly much room for improving the JKR concept to include privacy from the small width of the corridor that overlooks into the living rooms of the unit. One simply needs to lower the corridor by half a meter and the problem is solved. There is also the question of children’s safety with regard to the railings and a simple gutter system, planter box, or cantilevered sun shading grilles could save children from falling to their death. 5.4 Neighborhood Architecture Let us now tackle the housing neighbourhood planning rather than just the house design. We had written an article once about how we can simply walk away all or problems related to physical health, social health, economic health, environmental health and personal safety. By walking to shops and the kindergarten, instead of driving, you can have better health. You save money on fuel and pollute the environment less. At a slower pace of walking you can greet neighbors instead of zooming past them whilst inside your 100% tinted and air-conditioned car. By knowing everyone, you would create a defensible space against strangers planning to commit crime. If the housing estates were filled with people walking back and forth we can almost guarantee that criminal will be put at bay because of the closer community ties developed. But how do we encourage the walking culture? Make pedestrianized pavements on the street mandatory. Make the planting of shady trees and obligatory act. Place wakaf huts and simple furniture at the streets for intermittent resting places and which acts as places for mothers and children to wait for their busses.

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Paper 5

Urban Wakafs in Kota Bharu

Make kiosks for newspaper and goreng pisang stalls easily set up and provide amenities for this small business which have the potential of creating a social hub in the community. Place schools, libraries, mosques, temples, community centers and some shops within true walking distance so that there is an encouragement to walk rather than to drive. Promote cycling by proper pathways as well as bicycle parking spaces. It is so simple. By having all these inexpensive features minus the royal palm trees and decorative lamp posts, we would have placed strategic elements that would forge communities and racial interaction.

A Totally TrafďŹ c Free Pedestrianised Housing Scheme with terrace houses, ďŹ&#x201A;ats, shops, schools and community buildings. Children can cycle and walk anywhere without crossing a single street.

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6.0 CONCLUSION Housing should be designed with the individual family and the community in mind. Presently, housing is more of a fashionable investment than a real home to live in. Increased crime rate and cultural stresses are a product of a community that no longer find much reason to continue living as one. Part of the ‘death of the Malaysian community’ is the outdated design principles of houses and housing. We must look at our modern patterns of work, home and play rituals in order to plan better facilities and infra structure. We must understand the basic traditional and religious values of the various races and design so that they can occur symbiotically and not at odds with our lifestyle. It is this socio-behavioral approach that is badly needed for our housing in Malaysia. As Lao Tse says in the I Ching, ‘one does not have to look out the window to see the world’ and so must we look into ourselves as Malays, Chinese, Indians, Sikhs and as Malaysians will we find the solution that would ultimately forge stronger unity amongst the peoples of this great nation.

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Paper 5 RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE Professor Dr. Mohamad Tajuddin M.Rasdi Director of KALAM Pusat Kajian Alam Bina Dunia Melayu Center for the Study of Built Environment in the Malay World Faculty of Built Environment Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Skudai, Johor Cheah Khai Kid MASSA Modern Architecture Study in Southeast Asia School of Architecture . Building . Design Taylor’s College Petaling Jaya

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

CONTENT

1

INTRODUCTION

2

THE CHANGING MALAYSIAN COMMUNITY

3

SUGGESTING NEW COMMUNITY CATALYSTS

4

RESTRATEGIZING HOUSING PLANNING

5

THE PROBLEMS OF HOUSE DESIGN AND NEIGHBOURHOOD IN RELATION TO TRADITIONAL VALUES AND RITUALS

6

CONCLUSION

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

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RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

1. INTRODUCTION CULTURAL NEEDS OF TODAYS SOCIETY

COMMUNITY BUILDINGS HOUSE DESIGN

DIFFERENT VALUES AND PATTERNS OF LIVING

HOMOGENEOUS CLOSELY KNIT SOCIETY

RE-DEFINATION OF OUR BUILT ENVIRONMENT –RESIDENTIAL RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS,COMMUNITY HALLS PLAYGROUNDS AND OTHER BUILDINGS

PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

2. THE CHANGING MALAYSIAN COMMUNITY

MODERN HOUSING ESTATE ULTRA MODERN FACILITIES • DESIGNER PLAYGROUND • MULTI PURPOSE HALLS & CLUB HOUSES • MOSQUE • SHOPS • CAR POPULATION

COMMUNITY ??? BEFORE WE ANSWER THAT……………… K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

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Paper 5 RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

CULTURAL TRADITIONAL COMMUNITY CONSIST OF ONLY ONE SINGLE CULTURE SOCIAL MORAL AND RELIGIOUS NORMS ARE WELL UNDERSTOOD AND ENTRENCHED IN THE FABRIC

NEW MULTI-CULTURAL SOCIETY

DIFFERENT SOCIAL,MORAL AND RELIGIOUS NORMS

JOSS STICKS & AROMA OF COOKING TO CREATE SEPARATE RACIAL ENCLAVE WITHIN THE HOUSING COMMUNITY!!!! CHIMNEY STACK OR NEW PROTOTYPE TO ENCOURAGE BETTER AIR FLOW

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

SOCIO – ECONOMIC

TRADITIONAL SOCIETY • SAME OR RELATED ECONOMIC ACTIVITY • STRONG COMMUNAL BONDING • CLOSE PROXIMITY OF WORK PLACES • INTERDEPENDENT ACTIVITIES • COMMON CELEBRATION

MODERN SOCIETY • OFFICE WORKERS • SEPARATE GEOGRAPHICAL ENTITIES • MINIMAL INTERACTION WITH NEIGHBOUR • WEEKEND AT SHOPPING COMPLEXES • FULL ATTENTION TO INDIVIDUAL FAMILIES

ISOLATED MODERN WORKING RITUAL

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

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RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

MYTH OF INDEPENDENCE

TRADITIONAL SOCIETY •INTERDEPENDENCE FAMILY MEMBERS

STRONG SENSE OF BONDING

MODERN SOCIETY • SIMPLISTIC MYTH OF INDEPENDENCE • THE 5 ‘C’ • CAREERS,CONDOS,CELLPHONES,CARS, • CREDIT CARD • EXISTENSE OF HELP • IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

INDIVIDUALISTIC BEHAVIOR

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

THE CAR PARADOX

CAR AS SYMBOL OF PROGRESS POLLUTION WASTES TIME IN TRAFFIC CONGESTION DANGEROUS TO PEDESTRIAN AND CYCLIST SOCIAL ALIENNATION

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

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Paper 5 RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

3. SUGGESTING NEW COMMUNITY CATALYSTS

THE PREVIOUS SECTION HAVE DRAWN A BLEAK AND OMINIOUS PICTURE OF TODAY’S COMMUNITY IN MALAYSIA. IN THE NEXT SECTION WE WILL ELABORATE ON WAYS TO REBUILD THE IDEA OF A TRUE MALAYSIAN COMMUNITY BY RE-EXAMINING THE CONCEPTS OF COMMUNITY FACILITIES IN EXISTENCE TODAY WITH RESPECT TO THEIR ROLES,DESIGN AND SITE PLANNING.

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CENTER

A PLACE TO MEET FOR MODERN RITUAL • FAMILY DAY • HEALTH CHECK • CHILDREN PLAYGROUND • MUSIC LESSON

COMMUNITYPROGRAMS •NEUTRAL •NATIONAL CONCERN

DIRECTOR •COMMUNITY CURRICULA

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

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RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

THE ‘DEWAN SERBAGUNA’ & ‘DEWAN ORANG RAMAI’

THE ORIGINAL IDEA OF MULTI FUNTION ROOM REFERS TO MIES VAN DER ROHE’S ‘ UNIVERSAL SPACE’ – COLUMN FREE LONG SPAN SPACE ONLY SUITABLE FOR COMMUNITY GATHERINGS AND BADMINTON GAMES

DOUBLE VOLUME SPACE IS A WASTE OF AIR-CONDITIONING AND LIGHT ENERGY BAD SOUND REFLECTION

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

COMMUNITY CENTER – TO INCLUDE •CAFETERIA OR ‘WARUNG’ – ICE BREAKING SOCIAL ELEMENT •SMALL LIBRARY – STUDENTS AND CHILDREN TO STUDY •CHILDRENS PLAYGROUND •OPEN SPACES – TO INCORPORATE LANDSCAPE AREA •ADMINISTATION SPACE – ORGANIZATION OF ACTIVITIES •ARCHITECTURAL LANGUAGE – ETHNIC STONE,BRICK AND TIMBER – RESORT LIKE OUTLOOK – AVOID STRONG MONUMENTAL LANGUAGE HUMAN SCALE CONSIDERATION K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

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Paper 5 RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

THE MOSQUE AND OTHER RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS

TO BE DESIGN AS FRIENDLY COMMUNITY CENTRES AND NOT FORMAL MONUMENTAL SCULPTURES IN A LANDSCAPE

RELIGIOUS PROGRAM TO INCORPORATE INTER-RELIGIOUS UNDERTSANDING

PROGRAMS TO INCLUDE LECTURES,DISCUSSION,VIDEO VIEWING,READING AND CULTURAL SHOWS

EXHIBITION AS MEANS OF EDUCATIONAL MECHANICS

THE ETERNAL IDEA OF PROVIDING THE OPPORTUNITY TO ORGANIZE AND DEVELOP THE COMMUNITY MUST BE ANSWERED

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

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World Town Planning Day 2006

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

OTHER BUILDINGS DIVERSE LIVING PATTERNS NEEDS NEW BUILDING TYPE ARCHITECTURAL SPACES TO PROMOTE SOCIAL INTERACTION

BUS AND TAXI STANDS

LRT STATION

NASI LEMAK STALLS

SCHOOLS WAITING AREAS / PICK UP AREA A PLACE TO MEET AND WAIT

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

4. RESTRATEGIZING HOUSING PLANNING

Various changes of cultural patterns of work, home and play, it is necessary to restrategize community facilities so as to encourage community interaction

WHERE THEY MEET…… MAKE THEM STAY A WHILE

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

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Paper 5 RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

DECENTRALIZING COMMUNITY BUILDINGS

ORIGINAL IDEAS OF SEGREGATING PUBLIC AND PRIVATE WORKS 30 -40 YEARS AGO

MIDDLE CLASS OWNER ARE NOT AT HOME TO WATCH OVER THEIR PROPERTY AND CHILDREN NOW

• CONVERT PRESENTS ROWS OF TERRACE HOUSES INTO ‘U’ SHAPE ORGANIZATION WITH SMALL ‘PADANG’. A SINGLE COMMUNITY BUILDING, PLAYGROUND,WARUNG CAN BE PLACE .

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

WALKING AND CYCLING TO A SAFE AND HEAHLTY LIFESTYLE

NOW • NO PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY • NO SHADY TREES • NO OUTDOOR FURNITURE • SHOPS ARE TOO FAR TO WALK TO

HOW • REDISTRUBUTING SHOPS AND COMMUNITY FACILITIES WITH LINKAGES OF PEDESTRIANIZED CIRCULATION • STRAGICALLY PLACE WAKAF, STREET FURNITURE • CYCLING PAVEMENT WITH GUIDERAILS TO PROMOTE CYCCLING SAFETY

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

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International Convention

World Town Planning Day 2006

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

RETHINKING THE VEHICULAR CIRCULATION CURRENT HOUSING ESTATE ARE MADE FOR CARS AND NOT PEDESTRIAN OR CYCLIST – GRIDS OF STRAIT, SMOOTH AND WIDE ROADS FOR CARS – DANGEROUS TO CHILDREN – HUMP WILL ONLY WASTE ENERGY AND RESOUSES

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

THE PROBLEMS OF HOUSE DESIGN AND NEIGHBOURHOOD IN RELATION TO TRADITIONAL VALUES AND RITUALS

• ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN AND HOUSING PLANNING EFFECS ETHNIC RELATIONS • REVAMP TO PROMOTE A NATION OF TRUE PEACE AND HARMONY

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

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Paper 5 RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

THE WINDOWS AND BACK ALLEY MALAYSIAN TERRACE HOUSE DESIGN HAVE SEEN FOUR DECADES OF CHANGES THAT STILL MAINTAIN BASIC FEATURE THAT WOULD STRAIN RACIAL RELATION

NOW •FACE TO FACE WINDOWS – AROMA OF COOKING FOR DIFFERENT CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS BACKGROUND •VISUAL VIOLATION •USING CURTAIN TO BLOCK BUT NEEDS LIGHTING HOW •RIBBON WINDOWS AT FIVE FEET ABOVE UNTILL THE CEILING BEAM TO ALLOW LIGHT AND VETILATION

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

THE PORCH AND THE ‘SERAMBI’

• •

SMOKE FROM BURNING OF JOSS STICK CAR EXAUST FUME WHICH ARE DANGEROUS TO HEALTH

REDESIGN THE PORCH AGAINS THE CONCEPT OF ‘SERAMBI’ THAT PROMOTES SOCIAL INTERACTION AND FRIENDLY ENVIRONMENT AND NOT ONLY FOR CARS

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

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International Convention

World Town Planning Day 2006

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

THERMAL COMFORT, STORAGE AND CORIDORS

• • • • • • • • • • •

CROSS VENTILATION DESIGN VENTILATION FINS FULL PANEL LOUVERED WALLS GAB BETWEEN INTERNAL WALLS CHIMNEY FLUTE TO LOVER INTERNAL PRESSURE LESS MASONRY WALL TO REDUSE HEAT GAIN STORAGE UNITS FOR BICYCLES AND MOTOCYCLE PROMOTE CORRIDORS DESIGN GOOD LIGHTING AND VENTILATION PRIVACY BY LOWERING THE CORIDOR LEVELS PLATER BOX TO PROTECT CHILDREN FROM FALLING

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

NEIGHBOURHOOD ARCHITECTURE WALKING • BETTER HEALTH • SOCIAL HEALTH • ECONOMIC HEALTH • ENVIRONMENT HEALTH • PERSONAL SAFETY MANDATORY PEDESTRIAN PAVEMENT PLANTING OF SHADY TREE PLACE WAKAF AND STREET FURNITURE FOR RESTING PLACE KIOSK FOR SMALL BUISNESS TO PROMOTE SOCIAL INTERACTION PLACE SCHOOL, LIBRARY,MOSQUE,TEMPLES, COMMUNITY CENTERS AND SHOPS WITHIN TRUE WALKING DISTANCES PROMOTE CYCLING AND PROVIDING PROPER BICYCLE PARKING AREAS K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

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Paper 5

RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

Kedai/ Pejabat Pangsapuri Rumah Teres Kondominium Warung Makan Sekolah Rendah/Menengah

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

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RETHINKING HOUSING CONCEPTS IN MALAYSIA

DESIGNING TO PRESERVE TRADITIONAL VALUES AND A CHANGING MODERN CULTURE

CONCLUSION • • • • •

HOUSING SHOULD BE DESIGN WITH THE INDIVIDUAL FAMILY AND THE COMMUNITY IN MIND. WE MUST LOOK AT OUR MODERN PATTERNS OF WORK, HOME AND PLAY RITUAL IN-ORDER TO PLAN BETTER FACILITIES AND INFRA STRUCTURE. WE MUST UNDERSTAND THE BASIC TRADITIONAL AND RELIGIOUS VALUES OF THE VARIOUS RECES AND DESIGN SO THAT THEY CAN EXIST SYMBIOTICALLY AND NOT AT ODDS WITH OUR LIFE STLYE IT IS THIS SOCIAL BEHAVIORAL APPROACH THAT IS BADLY NEEDED FOR OUR HOUSING IN OUR COUNTRY AS LAO TSE SAYS IN THE I CHING,’ONE DOES NOT HAVE TO LOOK OUT THE WINDOW TO SEE THYE WORLD’ AND SO MUST WE LOOK INTO OUR SELVES AR MALAYS,CHINESE,INDIANDS,SIKHS AND AS MALAYSIAN WE WILL FIND THE SOLUTION THAT WOULD ULTIMATELY FORGE A STRONG UNITY.

K A L A M . UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA &

M A S S A . TAYLORS COLLEGE PETALING JAYA

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IMPROVING URBAN AIR QUALITY BY INTEGRATING LAND USE AND TRANSPORT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY OF BANGKOK METROPOLITAN AREA

Dr. L.A.S Ranjith Perera COORDINATOR, URBAN ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT FIELD OF STUDY, SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENT, RESOURCES & DEVELOPMENT, ASIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, THAILAND Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.


Paper 6

Abstract

IMPROVING URBAN AIR QUALITY BY INTEGRATING LAND USE AND TRANSPORT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY OF BANGKOK METROPOLITAN AREA Zoning in land use that distinguishes residential and commercial or industrial zones would create the needs of motorised transport due to journey to work and other purposes, provided that the proximity between zones is absent. In many Asian cities, this state has undergone mostly because the cities are sprawling to all directions. This experience makes motorised travel demand increasing, and reducing it would be indispensable from the environment and energy viewpoints. This paper explores the current conditions of land use and transportation relationship that inďŹ&#x201A;uences urban air quality in a Southeast Asian city. Various attempts to improve the air quality through planning and other measures are the foci of this paper. It highlights that one of the fundamental responses towards environmentally satisfying nexus is through land use modiďŹ cation. Mixed land use and compact city arguably attempt to create proximity between origin and destination by promoting cohabitation and closeness of residential and commercial uses, and thus encouraging non-motorised travel. This condition would eventually improve air quality since less fuel combustion created by motorised travel. Provision of excellent urban mass transits system is also regarded as a remedy in reducing the use of private cars and air pollution incidents, particularly where private cars use fossil fuels of their combustion system. Creating pedestrian friendly environment could also support in improving urban air quality since it encourages non-motorised travel: walking and cycling. Furthermore, the use of low emission fuels like CNG and LPG is the most direct intervention to improve urban air quality. Keywords: land use, transport, air quality, transport modes, nexus, passengerkilometer traveled.

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CONTENT 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 BANGKOK, THAILAND 2.1 Land Use in Bangkok 2.2 The Bangkok Comprehensive Plan of 1999 2.3 Current Status of Transportation in Bangkok 2.4 Urban Air Quality in Bangkok 3.0 CONCLUDING REMARKS

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Paper 6 1.0 INTRODUCTION Urban growth is usually associated with environmental problems. It is true that urban areas in developed countries are encountering less environmental problems. This is because this group of countries has sufficient technological and financial capability to cope with the problems. Developed countries are able to provide better urban environmental management than their counterparts in developing countries. Irrespective of the status of development, air pollution exists in both groups of countries. However developing countries are confronting with worse situations than developed countries. This can be explained by looking deeply into inverted Kuznet Curve (inverted U-shape) as shown in a cross country study undertaken by World Bank in 1992 (World bank, 1992; Field, 1997). The Curve signifies that level of environment degradation will amplify up to a certain point of gross national product (GNP) of a country and then it will decline beyond that point when GNP increases. This phenomenon is also valid in the case of air pollution as an environmental problem. Air pollution has been a concern in many urban areas in developing countries since it leads to adverse impacts particularly on human health. This paper tries to explore the correlation among three urban parameters viz; land use, traffic and air quality in some Southeast Asian Cities. It attempts to look into fundamental comprehension on the impacts of land use on urban physical mobility, and at the end how it affects the urban air quality. Transportation is one of the important functions in urban dynamics. Need for transportation increases in line with the growth of urban area as well as growth of urban economy. On the other hand, urban growth is characterised by the change of land use, thus there is a close correlation between change of land use and change in transportation needs. The relationships between transportation and land use have been investigated by many researchers. Many descriptive and analytical models have been developed, each providing a dimension of investigation and explanatory elements in the urban spatial structure (Carter, 1995). Coping strategies to reduce air pollution problems can be viewed in terms of three components, which are transportation infrastructures, modes of transport and road users. The provision of adequate capacity of roads to cater the maximum traffic loads can reduce air pollution by creating free flow of traffic. At the same time it encourages people to have private cars. Creating the conditions that encourages the use of mass transportation system can directly improve urban air quality. Reduction of air pollution caused by vehicular traffic can be accomplished by modifying travel pattern (e.g. reducing needs of motorised travel by creating the proximity of origin-destination up to the level of walking distance). In addition to those direct means, some indirect means to reduce air pollution with respect to land-use can also be introduced by creating the proximity of Origin (O) and Destination (D). With the closeness of O and D, the need for motorised travel will also be reduced. Moreover, inter-categorical links of land use may indirectly minimize the impact of air pollution. These approaches will probably be achieved through the modification of land use. These arguments postulate a linear causality between air pollution, transportation and land use. In the rest of the paper, it is attempted to examine the land use, transport and air quality nexus in a city of South East Asia.

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2.0 BANGKOK, THAILAND Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand, was once a notoriously congested and polluted city. This was mainly attributed to the high dependency on private vehicles for transportation. In other words, Bangkok epitomised a highly car-dependent metropolis. However with synergistic efforts since early 1990s, air quality in Bangkok has significantly improved. Among other attributes, the urban development strategies introduced by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration have significantly contributed to improve the air quality. 2.1 Land Use in Bangkok Present land use in Bangkok Metropolitan is identified within two broader zones, comprising the inner city districts within 10 kilometres of the Rattanakosin Area which is the main concentration area for government offices, commercial activities, educational establishments and living quarters. The outer bound is defined as the next 10 kilometres ring functioning as the new central business district accommodating outward increase in the numbers of businesses and commercial activities. Presently, the key government operations and businesses and commercial activities are concentrated in these inner city bounds and it continues to be the major employment areas. Intensification of economic activities and continued demand for centrally located sites is the main reason for the rise in land price in these locations. The outer part of Bangkok is defined as the 20-40 km ring from the centre. These areas are linked to the center by a set of roads radiating northwards and southwards to Nonthaburi and Samutprakarn Provinces and eastwards and westwards to Chachoengsao and Nakhon Pathom Provinces respectively (see Figure 1). Around 25 percent of these suburban areas were classified as residential areas. The remaining 75 percent of land are utilised for manufacturing and commercial activities while large parts of the land remain under agricultural production. The outward expansion of economic activities together with the economic and environmental factors is likely to intensify land use in these fringe areas. Though linked with the inner city by expressways and arterial roads, inadequate distributor roads and access roads and poor urban amenities are said to be the prevalent problems of these areas. The pattern of urban land use in the outer metropolitan areas has been mainly influenced by private developers due to weak enforcement of planning and control measures. During the early 1980s, population density increased rapidly on the eastern side of the city. Although lower in density, the urbanisation on the western part of the city was mainly at the expense of losing agricultural land. The recent completion of the outer ring road circling Bangkok will expedite urban sprawling to almost all sides of the city including the adjacent provinces. The present trends indicate that the city is sprawling to the Pathumthani province in the north and Nonthaburi and Nakhonpathom provinces in the west with new residential developments.

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Paper 6

Figure 1: Bangkok and Adjacent Provinces

Figure 2 depicts the first Revision of Bangkok Metropolitan Land Use Plan of 1999. However with current needs of development, the plan has been revised for the second time in 2006. The Second Revision of Bangkok Metropolitan Land Use Plan was promulgated in May 2006. Significant changes in the revised plan include an emphasis on developing a multi-nodal metropolitan with a ring of sub-centers. This is an attempt to reduce the significance of CBD areas. While the city center remains as the commercial and financial hub, the sub-centers are promoted as growth centers to attract new investments and new housing. The urban planning strategies that contribute to improve the air quality in Bangkok are outlined in section 2.2.

Figure 2: IBangkok Metropolitan Comprehensive Land Use Plan Source: Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (http://www.bma.go.th)

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2.2 The Bangkok Comprehensive Plan of 1999 Bangkok Metropolitan Administration has planned and made Bangkok Metropolitan Comprehensive Plan (1st revised edition) in 1999 and made it effective by the enactment of Ministerial Regulation Number 414 BE 2542 (1999), which was released under the City Planning Act 1975 and announced in the government gazette the royal decree edition 116 section 57 on 5th July 1999. The comprehensive plan has the objectives to guide Bangkok Metropolitan urban development and peripheral conservation and preservation for the purpose of comfort and better life of the citizen. Five broad objectives of the plan are: a. b. c. d. e.

To conserve the historical and cultural heritages and to maintain the national identity; To preserve valuable natural and environmental resources, and simultaneously improve the quality of life; To create technological information based economy which is essentially centered by excellent administration and communication; To improve the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s accessibility by improving an efďŹ cient mass transit system; To achieve more efďŹ cient land use plan in order to accommodate future growth of the metropolitan.

To achieve these objectives, the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration promoted following strategies: Strategy 1. To develop polycentric city by strengthening existing business centers which are located in the city center (hatched area as shown in Figure 3) and develop other commercial and residential areas scattered in the outskirt areas (shown as red-shaded areas).

Figure 3: Implementation of Strategy 1 Source: City Planning Dept, BMA

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Paper 6 Strategy 2. To preserve and conserve cultural heritages in the areas around and nearby Rattanakosin Island, as shown by thick outlined area in Figure 4. This strategy is mostly implemented by means of building control.

Figure 4: Implementation of Strategy 2 Source: City Planning Dept, BMA

Strategy 3. To set up effective land use for future public transportation networks, and other public utilities and infrastructure nearby public transportation nodes/stations. These are shown in Figure 5 below, as represented by red dots.

Figure 5: Implementation of Strategy 3 Source: City Planning Dept, BMA

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Strategy 4. To set up the special development areas (Chaeng Wattana Government Center, Bangsue Commercial Center, Rama III Special Development Area, as shown in Figure 6) to reduce the pressure on central business district.

Figure 6: Implementation of Strategy 4 Source: City Planning Dept, BMA

Strategy 5. To adjust the travel convenience by integrating all urban transport modes in Bangkok, through smooth transit system as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7: Implementation of Strategy 5

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Paper 6 Strategy 6. To promote the urban environment by encouraging urban parks, reducing air and water pollution, and undertaking appropriate solid waste management, as shown by green dot in Figure 8.

Figure 8: Implementation of Strategy 6 Source: City Planning Dept, BMA

Strategy 7. To promote the balance between workplaces and residential zones, by promoting mixed land uses, as shown by yellow hatched area in Figure 9.

Figure 9: Implementation of Strategy 7 Source: City Planning Dept, BMA

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Strategy 8. To promote urban containment in order to reduce urban sprawl by encouraging major developments are undertaking inside the outer ring road frame. This is shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10: Implementation of Strategy 8 Source: City Planning Dept, BMA

These strategies indicate that there had been a great emphasis on developing a poly-centric city so that people and traffic are not converging into the city center. In other words BMA has been very conscious in solving the traffic problem that plague the city and thereby reduce the air pollution level through a series of land use planning and urban development strategies. The strategy 5 above tries to adjust the efficiency of the transportation system by integrating all urban transport modes in Bangkok, through smooth inter-modal changes. 2.3 Current Status of Transportation in Bangkok Bangkok has been expanding from Bangkok as a city (BKK) to Bangkok Metropolitan Area (BMA) and also expanded physically to be the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). The BMR consists of Bangkok Metropolitan Area (BMA) and its five peripheral provinces, viz; Samutprakarn, Nonthaburi, Pathumthani, Nakhon Pathom and Samut Sakhon, covering 7,758 km2. There are various public transport modes available in BMA. In terms of approximate contribution to passengers kilometre travelled, city buses are the largest contributors. Thereby this transport mode contributes significantly to either improvement or degradation of the urban air quality in Bangkok. Improvement of urban air quality would be accomplished with appropriate policies on city buses. In the same fashion, private cars are the biggest

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Paper 6 contributors in terms of vehicle-kilometre travelled. This indicator signifies that private cars play an important role in the improvement of urban air quality in Bangkok Metropolitan. The passenger-kilometre travelled and vehicle-kilometre travelled of different transport modes in 2005 are shown in Table 1. Table 1: Passenger-kilometre Travelled and Vehicle-kilometre Travelled per Year for Various Transport Modes in Bangkok of 2005

Transport Mode

Capacity (Passenger)

Taxies Tuk-tuk BTS Sky train City Buses Microbus/Van Express Boat MRT-Subway Motorcycle Taxis Private Cars Motorcycles

4 3 1,000 35-60 12 100 1,000 2 4 2

Number of Fleets 53,000 7,500 40 8,177 5,519 47 44 50,000 1,700,000 2,300,000

Vehiclekilometre Travelled per Year 286,200,000 20,286,000 2,032,380 288,036,000 238,400,000 472,320 1,944000 28,800,000 1,834,560,000 1,490,400,000

Passengerkilometre Travelled per Year 572,400,000 40,500,000 1,728,000,000 6,623,370,000 2,384,208,000 28,350,000 972,000,000 57,600,000 3,672,000,000 1,490,400,000

Source: Thanaprayochsak (2005)

Passenger-kilometres travelled (PKT) and Vehicle-kilometre travelled (VKT) are illustrated in Figure 11 and 12. Figure 11 shows that city buses contribute to the total PKT in BMR for about 37.7 percent, while private cars as the second largest contributor has 20.9 percent share. In terms of vehicle-kilometres travelled as shown in Figure 12, private cars contribute about 43.8 percent and motorcycles 35.5 percent. The phasing out of leaded gasoline, the use of CNG for private cars and taxis, limiting the age of taxis to 3 years, converting some fleet of public busses to NGV vehicles, and banning of two-stroke motorcycle engines have all significantly contributed to the improvement of urban air quality in Bangkok. From the figures 11 & 12 it is apparent that city buses and private car users are potential shareholders to be handled for alleviating congestion problems and air quality issues. Prior to take this action, expansion of excellent but affordable public transport and integration of all public transport modes with smooth transit system are indisputable to compensate the comfort that has been sacrificed by private cars users. The elevated light rail and the subway have shown encouraging signs that some car uses have changed these transport modes. This is very visibly indicated by popularity of the park and ride facilities near some rail stations. Therefore, the park-and-ride system needs more promotion and expansion to attract more car users to mass transit systems.

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Figure 11: Passenger-Kilometre Travelled per Year in Bangkok in 2005

Figure 12: Vehicle- Kilometre Travelled per Year in Bangkok in 2005

The Transportation Network in Figure 13 shows different types of transportation modes either planned or existing. The Bangkok Transport Network is back-boned by BTS sky-train that serves two lines: Sukhumvit Lines and Silom Lines with total length is 24.0 km. While Chaloem Rachamongkhon Line MRTA subway connects Bangsue and Hua Lamphong, with total length of 20 km. As shown in table 1, city buses, both air conditioned and non-air conditioned, are the most contributors of transport modal splits in terms of passenger kilometer with more than 6.6 billion passenger kilometres in a year. Microbus Van and BTS sky-train are the second and third largest contributors of public transport in Bangkok Metropolitan Region. With the introduction of ďŹ ve more LRT lines, BMA is expecting to reduce trafďŹ c congestion further. Presently one of the existing lines is extended while a new route linking the new airport and the city center is under construction (No.7 line).

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Paper 6

Figure 13: Bangkok Transportation Network Source: www.bangkokpost.com

Public transport system in Bangkok was drastically changed when the Bangkok’s first subway was opened on July 3, 2004; while in the same year on December 5, the sky train (BTS) celebrated its fifth anniversary. The sky train’s ridership is currently around 380,000 per day, and is expected to top 500,000 trips per day, in order to attain minimum number of passengers for break even point. However, passenger volume has risen steadily from 150,000 a day in its first year. Proceeds from the operator’s fare-boxes and advertising have also climbed steadily and are now sometimes as high as eight million baht a day compared with just about three million baht when it was launched. There is a proposal to reintroduce a bus transit system as feeder system for the LRT and MRT. Some existing bus transport routes, especially the routes served by micro (van) busses serve that purpose now. These routes have become more popular due to the variety of routes they offer and the links they make with the BTS sky-train or MRT subway. These public transport modes are key determinants on the state of urban air quality in Bangkok; thereby continuous improvement of public transport towards smooth transit systems in Bangkok would eventually reduce the use of private cars and then lessen air pollution generated by these sources. Presently, it seems that continuous improvement of quality and variety of public transport services does not directly reduce the use of private cars. It is because of the following reasons: development plan that prioritises road investment that encourages citizens to have their own private cars, high affordability of the citizens with relatively inexpensive price of the cars, nonexistence of smooth inter-modal transit systems, absence of pedestrian friendly environment, and discouragement of non-motorised transport. Provisions of good public transports and investments on road construction are competing with the increase of number of vehicles in Bangkok. The growing numbers of vehicles would release more emissions. This situation would eventually lead to the degradation of urban air quality. To what extent transportation sector affects urban air quality? The following section elaborates air quality and transportation nexus in Bangkok.

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2.4 Urban Air Quality in Bangkok It is indisputable that transportation is one of the potential sources of urban air pollution. The pollutants related to transportation that causes air pollution include Nitrogen Oxides, Ozone, Carbon Monoxide and Sulfur Dioxide. Other important emissions generated by transportation and directly affect air quality in Bangkok are PM10, TSP, and Lead. The Pollution Control Department has regular monitoring activities to assess the extent of those pollutants. The records during the last ten years indicate gradual decrease in concentration as discussed below. Nitrogen Oxides: Nitrogen oxides, including NO2, are mainly produced by fossil fuel combustion in urban areas. They play a major role in the formation of ozone, PM, and acid rain. Short-term exposure, even less than three hours, to low levels of NO2 may lead to changes in lung function in individuals with pre-existing respiratory illnesses and can increase respiratory illnesses in children. Long-term exposure to NO2 may increase susceptibility to respiratory infections and cause permanent alterations in the lung. Some transport modes, particularly diesel-powered vehicles, are some of the major contributors to NOx emissions in urban areas. Emissions from power generation and industry are also significant sources in Thailand (Thailand Environment Monitor, 2002). 250 max

NO2 (ppb)

200

standard

150

100

50

0

average

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

Figure 14: Concentration of NO2 in Bangkok (all sites combined) Source: PCD, 2002. Data came from 10 sites

In 2000, ambient and roadside measurements of NO2 in Bangkok were typically 20 percent of the national standard. As shown in Figure 14, from 1999 to 2001, ambient NO2 measurements were somewhat stabilized. NO2 concentration levels in Bangkok’s suburban provinces were similar to those recorded in the city. This achievement is due particularly to cumulative effect of the improvement of urban transportation systems. The change of fossil fuel to natural gas has also significant impact to the air quality improvement in Bangkok Metropolitan. Ozone: Ozone is a highly reactive gas formed by the reaction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and NOx in the presence of heat and sunlight.

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Paper 6 Ozone: Ozone can cause a range of acute health effects including eye, nose and throat irritation, chest discomfort, coughing and headaches. Children who are active outdoors when ozone levels are high are most at risk. Ozone also affects vegetation and ecosystems, decreasing yields of commercial crops and plantations and lowering the aesthetic value of national parks. In 2000, measurements of ambient ozone in Bangkok showed that while average concentrations are low at all monitoring stations, maximum values exceeded the standards significantly and frequently, as shown in Figure 15. High ozone concentrations are normally observed in the suburban areas downwind from center of Bangkok. Similar trends have been observed in Bangkok’s adjoining provinces and throughout other urban areas in Thailand. Rising emissions of VOCs and NOx, which are precursors for O3 along with meteorological conditions, are causes of increasing maximum levels downwind of urban centers. However, several studies indicated that O3 problem in Bangkok is controlled by VOCs not by NOx. This means that VOCs emissions will have to be reduced in order to lower the levels of O3 (Thailand Environment Monitor, 2002). Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide is an odourless, invisible gas, formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. The inhalation of CO can disrupt the supply of essential oxygen to the body’s tissues thus posing a major health risk. Those who suffer from cardiovascular disease are most at risk. At high levels of exposure, CO can be fatal. Automobiles are the largest source of CO emissions. Lesser sources include industrial processes, non-transportation fuel combustion, and natural or manmade fires. Peak CO concentrations typically occur during the colder months of the year, when automotive CO emissions are greater and night-time inversion conditions are more frequent. Roadside measurements from 1988 to 2001 show a steady reduction in CO over the 13-year period as shown in Figure 16. In Bangkok’s adjoining provinces, average concentrations were similar to those observed in Bangkok. This decline is due to the catalytic converters on automobiles, which were mandated in 1993 after introduction of unleaded gasoline (Thailand Environment Monitor, 2002). Average and Maximum 1-hr Ambient Ozone at All Sites in Bangkok 1996-2001 (ppb) 400 350

Ozone (ppb)

300

max

250 200 150 standard

100 50 0

average 1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

Figure 15: Average and Maximum Ozone Concentration at All Sites in Bangkok Source: PCD, 2002. Data came from 8 sites

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Roadside CO (8-hr average) All Sites Combined in Bangkok 1988-2001 (ppm) 35 max

25 20 15

standard

10

average

5

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1991

1990

1989

1988

0

min 1992

CO (ppm)

30

Figure 16: Concentration of Roadside Carbon Monoxide at All Sites in Bangkok Source: PCD, 2002. Number of site varied from 10 sites to 21 sites from 1998-2001 Note: Standard is 8 hr average standard

Lead: Lead is a highly toxic element that can result in damage to the brain, kidneys, blood, central nervous system, and reproductive system. Children who are exposed to high levels of lead may experience slowed cognitive development, reduced growth, and other health effects. Lead in ambient air is not an issue in Thailand any more, since Thailand’s complete phase-out of leaded gasoline at the end of 1995, observed lead levels have fallen to almost nil, as shown in Figure 17. A recent study found that since the early 1990s, there has been a statistically significant decrease in blood lead levels in school children and traffic police, two groups that face the risk of lead exposure (Thailand Environment Monitor, 2002). 7

5

max

4 3

average

2 1

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1990

1989

min

1988

0

standard

1991

Lead (mg/m3)

6

Figure 17: Roadside Lead (24-hr average) in mg/m3 1988-2001 All Sites Combined, Bangkok

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Paper 6 3.0 CONCLUDING REMARKS The improvement of air quality in Bangkok is attributed to the introduction of various synergistic policies and strategies since the late 1990s. Along with the land use and urban planning policies, the following strategies have greatly contributed to the improvement of air quality in Bangkok. • • •

• • • • •

Shifting from leaded to unleaded gasoline in Thailand, and fully phased out in 1995. This programme has contributed to the purity of urban air quality by diminishing toxic substance from the air. Introduction of van transit system for ride sharing in 1995. This system has contributed to the improvement of air quality through the reduction of number of vehicles on road. Shifting from two to four-stroke engines of motorcycles programme in 1997 nationwide. This programme has a significant impact to the improvement of air quality in Bangkok and in other cities in Thailand, since motorcycles are predominant mode of transport with respect to number. The use of low emission fuels e.g. NGV for vans and buses and LPG for taxis and other private transport. This programme has been able to remarkably reduce carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxides from urban air, and improve Bangkok air quality. Operation of Sky-train (BTS) to provide full capacity of services for public transportation system in 1999. This programme is able to reduce the use of private transportation. Introduction of park-and-ride system to complement BTS operation in 1999. This programme has reduced traffic congestion, improve energy efficiency used by transportation, and improve air quality. Operation of subway (MRT) to complement integrated public transportation system in Bangkok in 2004. Construction of elevated toll-ways and expressways to improve the travel speed and reduce congestion.

Air quality in Bangkok has been remarkably improving due to the synergistic programmes of urban development and transport sector improvements. The compatibility of National and city level policies are important to ensure the sustainability and consistency of the programme implementation. Despite the improvement of urban air quality, Bangkok is indisputably cardependent city. Despite the improvements in both transport sector and air quality, Bangkok is still known for its chronic traffic congestions. The efforts to improve urban air quality in Bangkok would be exceptional if car-dependency is reduced. Continued improvement of air quality would invariably contribute to achieve the sustainable city that Bangkok aspires to be.

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References 1.

Carter, H (1995). The Study of Urban Geography, London: Arnold, Fourth Edition Field, Barry C. (1997) Environmental Economics: an Introduction, McGraw Hill, New York, Second Edition.

2.

Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (1997). Guideline for the standard of pedestrian and street design for the Disable and the Pedestrian. Design Division, Department of Public Works, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration.

3.

Department of Land Transport (2006). Number of Vehicle Registered in Bangkok 1995-2005).

4.

Panitchpakdi, Kundoldibya (2004). Exploring Multi-Habitation Along the Eastern Corridor of Bangkok Metropolitan. UEM-AIT and Center for Sustainable Development, Toyo University.

5.

Simmons, Matthews R. (2000). Revisiting Limit to Growth: Could the Club of Rome have been Correct After All?. Potomac Associated Book

6.

Thanaprayocksak, Worawan (2005). Application economic instruments to inďŹ&#x201A;uence peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision on choice of transportation mode towards reducing car use in Bangkok Masters Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology.

7.

USEPA (2001). Our Built and Natural Environments: A Technical Review of the Interaction between Land Use, Transportation and Environmental Quality. Report #231-R-02-002, Development, Community and Environment Division (1808), Washington DC.

8.

World Bank (2003). Thailand Environment Monitor 2002

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Paper 6 World Town Planning Day Convention, 88-10 November, 2006, Kuala Lumpur

Improving Urban Air Quality by Integrating Land-Use and Transport Policies:

A Case Study of Bangkok Metropolitan Area Ranjith Perera, Perera, PhD Urban Environmental Management Field of Study Asian Institute of Technology Bangkok, Thailand

������������ ������������ 1. 2. 3. 4.

Salient Features of Bangkok Metropolitan Socio Economic Condition of BMA Land Use in Bangkok Transportation and Land Use related Development Strategies 5. Development of the Transportation Sector 6. Reduction of Greenhouse Gases Emission

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�������������������� �������������������� BMR

BMA   

Area: 1,568.7 km2 Population (2005): 7,081,000 Density: 4,514 p/km2

BMA

BMR

   

Area: 7,758 km2 Population (2005): 11,543,000 Density: 1,487 p/km2 BMR = BMA and five surrounding provinces (Samutprakarn (Samutprakarn,, Nonthaburi, Nonthaburi, Pathumthani, Pathumthani, Nakhonpathom and Samutsakhon) Samutsakhon)

B M A

SOCIO -ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF BANGKOK METROPOLITAN

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Paper 6 ���������� POPULATION OF BANGKOK METROPOLITAN 9,000,000

# of Population

8,000,000 7,081,000

7,000,000 6,000,000

5,876,000

5,000,000

6,320,000

4,711,000

4,000,000 3,077,000

3,000,000 2,000,000

2,136,000

1,000,000 0 1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

Year Source: Pornchokchai (2003) and Other Sources

Percent

PERCENTAGE OF BANGKOK TO TOTAL THAI POPULATION 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Other Prov inces Bangkok

8.95

8.13

1960

1970

10.51

1980

10.77

1990

10.96

10.43

2000

2005

Year

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INCOME LEVEL Average Monthly Expenditure (Baht)

Average Monthly Income (Baht)

Year

Average Household Size

19751975-1976

5.5

1,928

2,004

1981

4.5

3,378

3,374

1986

4.3

3,631

3,783

1988

4.0

4,106

4,161

1990

4.1

5,625

5,437

1992

3.9

7,062

6,529

1994

3.8

8,262

7,567

1996

3.7

10,779

9,190

1998

3.7

12,492

10,389

1999

3.7

12,729

10,238

2000

3.6

12,150

9,848

2001

3.6

12,185

10,025

Source: National Statistical Office of Thailand (http://www.nso.go.th)

0

1980

1985

1990

9,190

8,262 7,567

6,529

5,625 5,437

4,106 4,161

2,000

3,631

4,000

3,783

6,000

3,378

8,000

3,374

Baht

10,000

7,062

12,000

10,389 10,238 9,848 10,025

10,779

14,000

12,492 12,729 12,150 12,185

MONTHLY INCOME AND EXPENDITURE

1995

2000

2005

Year Monthly Income

Monthly Ex penditure

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Paper 6

LAND USE IN BANGKOK

BANGKOK COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 2006

Source: Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (http://www.bma.go.th)

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OBJECTIVES OF BANGKOK COMPREHENSIVE PLAN (2006 Revision)  To conserve the historical and cultural heritages and to maintain the national identity.  To preserve valuable environmental resources in order to improve the quality of life;  To create knowledge-based economy;  To improve the city's accessibility by improving an efficient mass transit system;  To plan more efficient land use in outer city to accommodate future growth.

TRANSPORTATION AND LAND USE RELATED DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

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Paper 6 STRATEGY 1 To develop polycentric city by strengthening existing business centers that are located in the heart of the city and to develop other business and community centers which are scattered around outskirt areas

Business Centers

STRATEGY 2 To set up the land use schemes to be ready for the future public transportation networks, public utilities and infrastructure in and nearby public transportation nodes.

Transport Nodes Source: City Planning Department, BMA

STRATEGY 3 To set up the special development areas for future CBD where a convenience transport is highly required such as Chaeng Wattana Government Center, Bangsue Commercial Center, and Rama III Special Development Area.

Special Development Areas

STRATEGY 4 To improve the traveling convenience by integrating all urban transport modes in Bangkok, through smooth transit system.

Source: City Planning Department, BMA

Transportation Networks

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STRATEGY 5

STRATEGY 6

To promote the urban environment by encouraging urban parks, reducing air and water pollution, and undertaking appropriate solid waste management.

To promote the balance between workplaces and residential zones, by promoting mix land uses.

Mix Land Use Promotion

Urban Parks Source: City Planning Department, BMA

STRATEGY 7

STRATEGY 8

To promote urban containment and reduce urban sprawl by encouraging major developments undertaking inside the outer ring road frame.

Encourage urban containment within green belts

To promote greengreen-belt for urban containment as well as flood containment by keeping and preserving the rural and agricultural areas.

Source: City Planning Department, BMA

Greenbelt for urban and flood containment

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Paper 6

DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRANSPORTATION SECTOR

MAJOR TRANSPORT NETWORKS OF BANGKOK (existing and proposed)

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PUBLIC TRANSPORT MODES IN BANGKOK Characteristics of each transport mode in Bangkok

Transport Mode/ Capacity

Fare (as of May 2006) Bt. 100.00 per person

Airport Buses (30(30-50)

- Bt. 35.00 for first 2 km. - From airport add Bt. 50.00.

Taxi (3)

- Fare must never be more than Bt. 200.00 per trip.

TukTuk-tuk (2)

Starts from Bt.10.00 to Bt. 40.00 per person.

BTS and MRT (1,000) City Buses (35(35-60)

Start from Bt.3.50 up to Bt. 18.00.

Microbus/Van (12)

Bt.25.00 per person.

Express Boat (100)

Start from Bt. 5.00 up to 15.00.

Trains (>1,000)

Reasonable prices

Motorcycle Taxis (1)

Fare must never be more than Bt. 200.00 per trip.

PassengerPassengerkm per year

Average Freq (min)

# of Fleets/ Operation Time

10,000

30

20/ Available 24 hours/

1,272,000

None

53,000/ Available 24 hours/

75,000

None

7,500/ Available 24 hours/

644,000

10

40/ From 6:006:00-24:00

9,812,000

1515-25

8,177/ From 5:005:00-22:00

1,108,000

1515-25

5,519/ From 5:005:00-22:00

70,500

3030-60

47/ From 5:005:00-20:00

NA

Varies

44/ Three trips per day

150,000

None

50,000/ Available 24 hours

NUMBER OF REGISTERED VEHICLES IN BANGKOK

6,253,904

5,288,468

5,481,160

4,464,158

4,496,618

4,016,594

2,000,000

3,872,327

3,000,000

3,549,082

4,000,000

4,162,846

5,000,000

5,399,153

6,000,000

3,241,081

# of Vehicles [unit]

7,000,000

1,000,000 0 1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

Year

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Paper 6 PASSENGER - KILOMETER TRAVELED IN BANGKOK 2005 Motorcy cles

1,490,400,000

Priv ate Cars

3,672,000,000

Motorcy cle Tax is

57,600,000

MRT-Subw ay

972,000,000 28,350,000

Microbus/Van

2,384,208,000

City Buses

6,623,370,000

BTS Sky train 40,500,000

Tax i

572,400,000

6,000,000,000

5,000,000,000

4,000,000,000

3,000,000,000

2,000,000,000

864,000

0

Airport Buses

1,000,000,000

Tuk-tuk

1,728,000,000

7,000,000,000

p-KT

Ex press Boat

OVERALL PLAN OF MRT AND BTS (Rail Transport Network)

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LAND TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT [In Million Baht] Year

Type of Infrastructure

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Roads and Bridges

3,216

2,527

1,711

1,611

2,732

Expressways

5,388

4,921

10,697

9,288

0

8,604

7,448

12,408

10,899

2,732

115

130

165

5,650

4,976 126

Total Road Development

Mass Rapid Transit Authority State Railway

57

30

191

NA

Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS)

3,196

2,770

5,883

4,976

0

3,368

2,930

6,239

10,626

5,102

126

115

130

165

195

Total Railway Development

Bus Transport Note (as of 2005): • Road length in Bangkok: 4,076 km • Bridge: 18,000 meter

REDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSION

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Paper 6 STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE AIR QUALITY IN BANGKOK  Shifting from leaded to unleaded gasoline and fully phased out in 1995;  Introduction of van transit system for ride sharing in 1995;  Shifting from two to fourfour-stroke engines of motorcycles program in 1997 nationnation-wide;  The use of low emission fuels e.g. NGV for vans and buses and LPG for taxis and other private transport;  Operation of SkySky-train (BTS) to provide full capacity of services for public transportation system in 1999;  Introduction of parkpark-andand-ride system to complement BTS operation in 1999;  Operation of subway (MRT) to complement integrated public transportation system in Bangkok in 200.

TRENDS OF AIR QUALITY  Air quality in Bangkok is steadily improving due to reduction of all greenhouse gases emission and PM concentration over years, particularly since 1996;  Average PM concentration is declining since 1996 (below standard);  Visibility is improving since 1996, from 7.5 km (1996) to 9 km (2000);  Lead concentration significantly reduce and below standard since 1993;  Average ground level Ozone concentration is below standard since 1996 and maximum concentration is significantly reduced since 1997;  Maximum concentration of Carbon Monoxide is significantly reduced since 1997 and below standard since 2001;  Sulfur dioxide concentration is reduced since 1997.

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Annual Trends of PM10 Concentrations (24(24-hr average) in Bangkok, 19961996-2001 (ďż˝ g/m3)

Variation in Ambient TSP Concentrations by Month in 1999, Huay Kwang, Kwang, Bangkok (mg/m3)

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Paper 6 Annual Average Visibility at Bangkok’ Bangkok’s Don Muang Airport 19641964-2001 (kilometer)

Improved

Roadside Lead (24(24-hr average, All Sites Combined in Bangkok 19881988-2001 (� (� g/m3)

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Average and Maximum 11-hr Ambient Ozone at All Sites in Bangkok 19961996-2001 (ppb)

Roadside CO (8(8-hr average) All Sites Combined in Bangkok 19881988-2001 (ppm (ppm))

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Paper 6

Average Annual Ambient SOs levels in Mae Moh (Lampang), Lampang), 19921992-2000

IMPACTS

PM10 and Respiratory Patients

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CONCLUDING REMARKS  Bangkok provides good examples on how urban air quality is improved amid car - dependent metropolitan..  Road development policies in Bangkok have in fact encouraged citizens to own private cars;  However, synergistic interventions in urban development and transport sectors have contributed to improve urban air quality in Bangkok;  The reduction of travel demands seems to be possible by promoting growth centers and mixed land - uses in mid - city and outer city areas.  Promotion of pedestrian friendly environment in the city center areas could also support the reduction of travel demand.

Thank you for your attention

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REGENERATION OF THE INNER CITY AREA – THE EXPERIENCE OF MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND Madam Maimunah bt. Mohd. Sharif DIRECTOR OF DEVELOPMENT PLANNING, DEPARTMENT OF DEVELOPMENT PLANNING, MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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Paper 7

Abstract

REGENERATION OF THE INNER CITY AREA – THE EXPERIENCE OF MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND (MPPP) Just like any other cities in the world, the City of George Town in Penang Island experiences phenomena of an old city such as decreasing population growth, increasing traffic congestion, conflicts of building use and generally leading towards decreasing in quality of life. Realising these changes, the Council has embarked many programmes in line with national and state policies. Eight urban renewal projects were implemented in George Town since 1986. The principle of ‘liveable and safe city’ has been the main vision of MPPP in these projects. These include segregating traffic and pedestrians and giving back the space to the people to encourage them to have their activities in the city centre of George Town. This paper will demonstrate the urban renewal projects aimed at regenerate, rehabilitating and rejuvenating the city of George Town again. Apart from implementing these project ourself with the assistance of the Ministry of Tourism and the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, MPPP also encourages the private sector to rejuvenate or regenerate the development in the city of George Town. MPPP works closely with the private developers to create or to attract people back into George Town through the concept of ‘in-fill’ development in the ‘brownfield’ areas. Through this private – public partnership, MPPP hopes to create a living heritage in the city of George Town and bring back life to the city and ultimately to be the next liveable city in Malaysia by 2010. The state of Penang and MPPP have worked very closely towards listing George Town in the World Heritage List under UNESCO. As a conclusion, MPPP aims to achieve the status of the most ‘liveable city’ in Malaysia.

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R

EGENERATION OF THE INNER CITY AREA

MPPP MPPP MPPP MPPP MPPP

�THE EXPERIENCE OF MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND (MPPP)'

by

�� ����� �������� �� � �� ���� � � � �� ��� ��� � � � �� �� �� �� � ������ �

�� ���� ��������� ����� ������ ���� ����� ���� ��� �� ��

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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Paper 7

�� ��� �������� ���������� ���������� ����� ��� � �� � �� � ������ � �� �� � � �� ������ � �� � ���������� � ��

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

� �� ����� ���� ����� ��������� MAJLIS PERBANDARAN PULAU PINANG (MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND)

Total Area : 29,965 hectares ( 299.65 sq.km / 113.0 sq.miles ) Population : 595,270 people Population growth : 1.58%

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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ENANG ISLAND STRUCTURE PLAN 1987

GOAL...

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

Chapter 14.3.3 : Urban Form, Townscape And Landscape To impose standards and guidelines for good urban design and provision of civic amenities. Among the measures recommended by the Structure Plan to be included in the guidelines are : Provide pedestrian environment and civic such as plazas, concourses, conversed walkways, landscaped areas, tree planting and street furniture.  Provide facilities and equipment in public areas for the Handicapped Provide residential neighborhood that are more conducive for community development and interaction among the residents. MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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Paper 7

THE HERITAGE VISION Social Fabric Housing

Beautification & Cleanliness

Religion & Traditions

HERITAGE CONSERVATION & REDEVELOPMENT

Arts & Culture

Tourism

Traffic Management

Commercial

LIVING CULTURE/ LIVEABLE CITY MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

ENANG STATE STRUCTURE PLAN 2005 - 2020

GOAL ... “ ENHANCING SUSTAINABLE PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE A DEVELOPED STATE AND VISION 2020 ” MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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.P.P.P LOCAL PLAN

GOAL ... “ PENANG ISLAND TOWARDS THE MOST LIVEABLE CITY, 2020 ” TO ACHIEVE A LIVEABLE AND SUSTAINABLE CITY TO ACHIEVE A LIVEABLE ANDAND SUSTAINABLE CITY STATUS IN ECONOMY, SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS IN ECONOMY,ASPECTS SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

TTRACTIONS & ASSETS FOR PENANG ISLAND BEACHES HILLS FLORA & FAUNA CULTURAL HERITAGE TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENT HERITAGE BUILDING & ENCLAVE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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Paper 7

P ENANG OUTER RING ROAD AND MONORAIL

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

C OMPONENTS OF LIVEABLE CITY INDICATOR INDICATOR •FREEDOM •FREEDOM OF OF POLITICS POLITICS •FREEDOM •FREEDOM OF OF RELIGION RELIGION •CULTURE •CULTURE & & TRADITION TRADITION

STABILITY STABILITY

HEALTH HEALTH INDICATOR INDICATOR •ENVIRONMENT •ENVIRONMENT •EDUCATION •EDUCATION •RECREATION •RECREATION •FOOD •FOOD

SECURITY SECURITY INDICATOR INDICATOR •CRIME •CRIME •RISK •RISK •DANGER •DANGER THREAT THREAT •SENSE •SENSE OF OF COMMUNITY COMMUNITY

LIVEABLE CITY

ECONOMY ECONOMY INDICATOR INDICATOR •EMPLOYMENT •EMPLOYMENT •BUSINESS •BUSINESS OPPURTUNITY OPPURTUNITY

PROTECTION PROTECTION (HOUSING) (HOUSING) INDICATOR INDICATOR •HOUSING •HOUSING •BASIC •BASIC NEEDS NEEDS MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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RBAN RENEWAL PROJECTS IMPLEMENTED BY MPPP

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

RBAN RENEWAL PROGRAMMES

U RBAN RBAN DESIGN DESIGN PLAN PLAN FOR FOR INNER INNER CITY CITY AREA AREA OF OF GEORGE GEORGE TOWN TOWN CIVIC AREA

AX IS

WELD QUAY WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENT AREA

P

CULTURAL ENCLAVE SHOPPING & CIVIC CENTRE

IS AX FINANCIAL S ES DISTRICT IN

CU LT UR E

P

AX IS

CU LT UR E

SHOPPING AREA

P

S BU

P

LEGEND : MAIN PEDESTRIAN AXIS PRIMARY LINKAGE SECONDARY LINKAGE

P

COMMUNITY STREET PROPOSED CAR PARK BUILDING

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Paper 7

RBAN RENEWAL PROGRAMMES

D ESIGN OF PEDESTRIAN NODES IN GEORGETOWN (PN21) OBJECTIVES OF PN 21

“PN 21” is established based on the above mentioned directions of the “URBAN DESIGN PLAN” and to enable an effective implementation of the improvement plan in the inner city of George Town. Objectives are identified as follows: 1. To improve tourist attractions in City 2. To promote George Town’s historical and cultural areas 3. To promote George Town’s Pedestrianization Network

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

RBAN RENEWAL PROGRAMMES PEDESTRIAN NODES NODES 21PEDESTRIAN

CU LT UR E

AX IS

ES SIN BU

S

IS AX

LEGEND : PEDESTRIAN NODE MAIN TOURIST ROUTE SECONDARY TOURIST BUILDINGS & PLACES OF INTEREST

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RBAN RENEWAL PROGRAMMES

TOURIST ROUTES AND PEDESTRIAN NODES N

PUSAT SIVIK

TANPA SKALA

ZON PESISIRAN PANTAI

ZON PENDIDIKAN

KOTA CORNWALLIS ZON PEMULIHARAAN

ZON MEMBELI - BELAH

PENGKALAN SWETTENHAM

ZON PERNIAGAAN

� �

� � ENKLAF BERSEJARAH DAN KEBUDAYAAN

KOMTAR

ZON JUALAN BORONG

KAWASAN PELABUHAN

TERMINAL FERI

RBAN RENEWAL PROGRAMMES

P ROJECT ROJECT & & PROGRAMMES PROGRAMMES IN IN THE THE INNER INNER CITY CITY OF OF GEORGE GEORGE TOWN TOWN UPPER UPPER PENANG PENANG ROAD ROAD

79 6 51 4

16 3 15 3

78 6

LITTLE LITTLE INDIA INDIA

PENANG PENANG GOLD GOLD BAZAAR BAZAAR

LEBUH LEBUH CAMPBELL CAMPBELL

LEBUH LEBUH PANTAI PANTAI

PASAR PASAR LEBUH LEBUH CAMPBELL CAMPBELL

LEBUH LEBUH ACHEH ACHEH & & LEBUH LEBUH ARMENIAN ARMENIAN

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Paper 7

D EVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES •

To improve the streetscape environment of the area by providing a unified landscape treatment that blend the various building units into a specific identity that ties to the main character of the prominent building nearby.

To encourage more potential shoppers into the area that will improve and protect the existing economic base, by creating and upgrading the provision of parking facilities.

• To create a conducive ambience for commercial and shopping activities with aesthetically pleasing and adequate landscape facilities. • To serve as a venue for occasional cultural and religious festivals with appropriate landscape features that will highlight the Penang historical enclave while retaining and enhancing the sentimental value of the area. MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY

CAMPBELL STREET SEMI PEDESTRIAN MALL

Site Detail : Site Detail : Distance Of Street = 677m Distance Of Street = 677m Building Involve = 184 units Building Involve = 184 units

Site Plan MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY CAMPBELL STREET

SEMI PEDESTRIAN MALL

Executive Summary Fund

: Ministry Of Culture, Art & Tourism Malaysia (7th Malaysian Plan Budget) Cost Project : RM 2.4 million Date Of Site Possession : 9th November1998 Completion Date : 30th August 1999

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY

CAMPBELL STREET

SEMI PEDESTRIAN MALL

Before

After

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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Paper 7

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY �������������������� Executive Summary Fund

: Ministry Of Tourism Malaysia (8th M’sian Plan Budget)

Phase 1 Cost Project : RM 5.2 million Date Of Site Possession : 29th August 2002 Completion Date : 8th February 2004

Site Plan

Phase 2 Cost Project : RM 1.2 million Date Of Site Possession : November 2005 Completion Date : December 2005

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY �������������������� LEBUH QUEEN

LEBUH KING

LEBUH PENANG

LEB UH PAN TAI

JALAN MASJID KAPITAN KELING

LORONG CHE EM

LEBUH PASAR LEBU H CH INA

Site Plan

Site Detail: Site Detail: Area = 566,280 sq. m. Area = 566,280 sq. m. (13 acres) (13 acres) Building involved = 350 units Building involved = 350 units No. of stalls = 43 units No. of stalls = 43 units

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY

��������������������

‘Safe City Concept’

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY ������������������ Executive Summary Fund : Ministry Of Tourism Malaysia (8th Malaysian Plan) Phase 1 Cost Project : RM 4.9 million Date Of Site Possession : 2nd May 2003 Completion Date : 1st January 2004 Phase 2 Cost Project : RM 3.3 million Date Of Site Possession : 15th September 2005 Completion Date : 15th April 2006

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

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Paper 7

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY

������������������

Before

After

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY

������������������

Before

After

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P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY ����������������������������� ������� Site SiteDetail Detail: : Area ==4.2 Area 4.2hectar hectar Building BuildingInvolve Involve ==290 290units units

Executive Summary Fund

: State Government & Municipal Council Of Penang Island Cost Project : RM 6.2 million Date Of Site Possession : 26th May 2003 Completion Date : 25th November 2003

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY

Location plan

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Paper 7

P ROJECT & PROGRAMMES IN THE CITY �������������������� Site Detail : Site Detail : Distance Of Street = 433m Distance Of Street = 433m

Executive Summary Fund

: State Government & Municipal Council Of Penang Island Cost Project : RM 2.441 million Date Of Site Possession : 26th May 2003 Completion Date : 25th November 2003

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

�������������������� Site Detail Site Detail Length Of Street = 433m Length Of Street = 433m

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UPPER PENANG ROAD JUNCTIONS ’A’ TO ’E’ FARQUHAR STREET TO CHULIA STREET

Site SiteDetail Detail: : Distance DistanceOf Of Street Street== 482m 482m Building Involve Building Involve ==166 166units units

Executive Summary Phase 1 Fund Cost Project Date Of Site Possession Completion Date

: Ministry Of Housing & Local Government : RM 4.877 million : 26th September 2004 : 25 February 2005

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF PENANG ISLAND, MALAYSIA

SURFACES - Specification Road Surface - for calmed traffic zones, surfaces should be of interlocking herringbone pattern pavers.

UPPER PENANG ROAD

JUNCTIONS’A’TO’E’ FARQUHAR ST.-CHULIA ST.

Curbs - to be of homogeneous colour in contrast to the road surface. Pavements - to be of single coloured material. Braille blocks placed along a walkway, to be coloured yellow closer to areas of hazard, such as crossings. Lines for direction, dots for hazard.

Design Elements – SURFACES - simple, hardy, replaceable

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Paper 7 UPPER PENANG ROAD

JUNCTIONS’A’TO’E’ FARQUHAR ST.-CHULIA ST.

SAFE JUNCTIONS & CROSSINGS

UPPER PENANG ROAD

JUNCTIONS’A’TO’E’ FARQUHAR ST.-CHULIA ST.

Proposed New Landscape in front of Shop Houses A section showing the connection of proposed landscape, street furniture and pedestrian walkway and existing road.

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UPPER PENANG ROAD

JUNCTIONS’A’TO’E’ FARQUHAR ST.-CHULIA ST.

UPPER PENANG ROAD

JUNCTIONS’A’TO’E’ FARQUHAR ST.-CHULIA ST.

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World Town Planning Day 2006 - Convention Proceedings  

World Town Planning Day 2006 - Convention Proceedings. National Convention

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