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MALAYSIAN

townplan

SEMENANJUNG MALAYSIA

Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Ministry of Housing and Local Government, Malaysia

JPBD June 2004: Malaysian Townplan. Copyright @2004 by The Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Ministry of Housing and Local Government, Malaysia. All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any other means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing of the publisher. ISSN 1975-7629. Published in Malaysia by The Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Ministry of Housing and Local Government, Malaysia.


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MALAYSIAN

townplan 02 M A L A Y S I A N

Contents T O W N P L A N

This Journal is a publication of The Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Ministry of Housing and Local Government, Malaysia. Jalan Cenderasari 50646 Kuala Lumpur. Tel: 603-26992146/26915472 Fax: 603-26933964 Webpage : http://www.townplan.gov.my E-mail : kamalruddins@townplan.gov.my A D V I S O R S Dato’ Haji Abd. Mutallib Jelani Mohd. Fadzil Hj. Mohd. Khir Dato’ Haji Zainul Ayob C H I E F E D I T O R Kamalruddin Shamsudin C O O R D I N A T O R Mohamed Jamil Ahmad E D I T O R I A L B O A R D Dr. Dolbani Mijan Dr. Dahlia Rosly Mohd. Nasir Shaari Wan Hassan Wan Ismail Norimah Dali Lilian Ho Yin Chan Nazirah Mahmud Sanisah Shafie Nor Zaliza Mohd Puzi Chua Rhan See Mohd Faizalnizam Md. Zain Yong Chee Kong Suraya Badaruddin E D I T O R I A L S T A F F Saifuddin Ahmad Noraziah Abdul Aziz Mohd Nasir Kamin Zahrah Md. Salleh Khatijah Che Embi Norzahriyati Aini Abd Majid Mohd Azahari Abd Rahman E D I T O R I A L P O L I C Y The contents of this Journal do not necessarily reflect the view of The Federal Department of Town and Country Planning nor are they official record. Manuscripts or articles submitted which do not conform to the conventions of the Journal may be returned to the authors for revision.The Editorial Board will not take any responsibility for any information published in this journal for their authenticity. M A L A Y S I A N J u n e 2 0 0 4

EDITOR’S JOTTINGS

04

FEATURES INTEGRATED LAND USE ASSESSMENT (ILA) MODEL : ' What if ' Approach

05

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM AND THE LAW: Some points for consideration

15

SISTEM MAKLUMAT GEOGRAFI DI JPBD NEGERI

19

TRANSFORMASI SISTEM INFRASTRUKTUR KEBANGSAAN bagi Tanah (NaLIS) kepada Pusat Infrastruktur, Data, Geo-Spatial Negara (MyGDI)

24

PELAKSANAAN SISTEM MAKLUMAT GEOGRAFI

29

WHAT IF

38

PLANNING TOOLS UPDATE THE APPLICATION OF MULTIPLE CRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS IN THE KLANG VALLEY INTEGRATED LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION STUDY

40

PALAVER GIS GOOBLEDIGOOK

56

REVIEW BOOKS: Editor’s Choice

64

UPDATES PLANNING UPDATES

66

BLAST FROM THE PAST

68

T O W N P L A N ISSUE 01 / VOL. 02 / JUNE. 2004

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T h e

G I S

E v o l u t i o n

Editor’s Jottings On Geographical Information System (GIS).. Planners and GIS proponents are strange bedfellows.The planning community have an ambivalent attitude towards GIS. There exist a real gap between theoretical advancement and practical application…we languish the disparity. In this issue of Townplan, we have drawn together planners and GIS proponents, to illustrate efforts from the planning academia and public sector planners towards closing this gap. To appreciate the whys and wherefores of GIS, we have put together a number of GIS articles covering regional monitoring, development control, legal aspects, data warehousing (national and departmental), historical development, and applications in planning studies. New to GIS? Our permanent column, 'Planning Palaver' introduces and welcome readers to GIS.The GIS books recommended under Editor's Choice provides further reading. On Planning Tool Up-dates.. This new column up-dates readers on new tools for town planning application. Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), greets and welcome readers to the world of decision science, theory and application.The design and selection of the future rail corridors for the Klang Valley is illustrated using MCDA tools and softwares. It is co-written with MCDA gurus from the Netherlands. Its

C O V E R

strength over conventional planning decision tool is obvious from its transparency, participatory model, sensitivity analysis and reasoning support tool capability. What Readers say about Townplan.. A small number of respondents, but with good enough feedbacks were received for the first issue of Townplan. You have asked for future publication to look into planning theory, planning practice, development planning and planning law.To realise these, we encourage researchers from local and international planning institutes to keep on submitting articles on new development in planning theory, research and practice. Our heartfelt thanks to all contributors who have accommodated suggestions to their original articles. We hope more planners will hit the keyboard, letting their planning thoughts flow into the computer screen and ultimately into printed pages for the next issue.

Kamalruddin Shamsudin Chief Editor

D E S I G N

The front cover features a local delicacy called kuih lapis (layer cake) in its glorious classic pink and white. When the subject of GIS is being discussed didn’t we often hear a suggestion that ‘planners need to think in layers?’.The back cover design includes a tea spoon used as a tool to fulfill the kuih lapis’s destiny.This signifies that GIS is above all just a tool for planners. IT’S HOW ONE USES IT THAT MATTERS. Concept: Sanisah Shafie.

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Design: A&I Network


GIS Features

INTEGRATED LAND USE ASSESSMENT (ILA) MODEL : ' What if ' Approach Ahris yaakup, Susilawati sulaiman, Siti Zalina abu bakar email: b-haris@utm.my Unit GIS dan Perancangan, Biro Inovasi dan Perundingan, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor

The ILA Model is dynamic in approach, providing flexibility for users in manipulating the selection criteria and organizing them on priority basis for development of scenarios. The assessment technique in ILA adopts the GIS spatial analysis technique combined with the weighting and sequential techniques.

ABSTRACT The dynamic nature of planning and monitoring of development in the Klang Valley region needs a 'tool' for a continuous evaluation and analysis of the current environmental situation as well as the capacity for future development. ILA is a new concept recently introduced within AGISwlk, aimed at developing an integrated spatial analysis model with the ability to generate development scenario alternatives by integrating physical and socio economic information.The introduction of ILA as an integrated land use planning approach that applies the GIS analysis capabilities while supported by the use of planning support systems is seen as a good alternative for achieving better and more rational decisions.'What if' is one of the software that is used to overcome the GIS limitation by responding to development growth. Its underlying structure, relationship and assumption enable development scenario alternatives to be generated that can serve as guide for decision makers in choosing the suitable alternatives and identify their impact on the area. This paper discusses the management approach and strategy of regional development, ILA concept and adoption of the 'What if' approach in generating development scenario alternatives.

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Features The need for planning and monitoring of land use at the regional level is emphasized by the government due to the rapid urban land use expansion in the Klang Valley influenced by the drastic increase in population growth with the rate of 3.6% between 1991 and 2000, increase in urbanisation showing 4 folds of built up areas in 1998 as compared to 1988, increase in status of living and individual mobility (BKWPPLK, 2002). Relative to the rapid land use growth, various issues and problems arise especially those pertaining to environmental pollution, land use conflicts, as well as the availability of land for future development.The changes that occur necessitate continuous monitoring to ensure sustainable development in the environmental as well as socio-economic aspects. Assessment of these changes is crucial not only to understand and review current development scenarios, but also to predict changes that will occur, formulate

policies and strategies, as well as control the urban development.The Federal Territory Development and Klang Valley Planning Division (BKWPPLK) as the coordinator in the planning and development of Klang Valley requires a tool capable of facilitating the monitoring, management, analysis and generation of development scenario alternatives of the region which consequently ease the process of policies and development strategies formulation.

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THE URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING APPROACH

The land use planning system is also considered a positive and innovative method.The preparation of development programmes adopted a continuous, cyclical system approach based on certain stages such as identification of needs and goals, the formulation and evaluation of alternative courses of actions and monitoring of adopted programmes. In contrary, planning programmes also provide opportunities for public participation.The Appeal Board is also established to avoid the abuse of power by the responsible planning authority. As much as the issues in planning which are sometimes too complicated and 'wicked', planners are responsible in managing the environmental changes. As managers, planners should adopt effective management approach in the planning process to arrange, control as well as lead changes (Bruton and Nicolson, 1987). Planners

should thus adopt incremental and contingency approach to address current issues and pressing changes. In confronting these complex problems, planners have to resolve to consensus and bargaining measures to limit scenario pertaining conflict of interest. Due to the scope, process and methods involved in land use planning, a development programme does not only need a broad set of data and

information but they should also be easy to be processed and manipulated based on requirement and situation. Data and information that need to be analysed will be coming from various sources either in the primary or secondary forms.This has set the need for planning agency to develop a planning information system appropriate with its urban and regional planning and monitoring functions. INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR REGIONAL PLANNING AND MONITORING

Given the dynamic nature of planning and management, it is particularly important to have a well conceived information system, which can serve as the eyes and ears to a regional development planning and monitoring process. It provides for the monitoring and surveillance of compliance with planning regulations and it serves as an early warning system with regard to sources of friction, imbalances, shortfalls and failures in the process of planning and management

(Yaakup, Johar and Dahlan, 1997). Up-to-date, reliable information is therefore needed at the management level to facilitate administrative procedures, policy planning and implementation as well as development strategy. It is a necessity for forecasting, modelling and evaluation of current situation and changes that are in progress.The activity of planning should be seen as a process (McLoughlin, 1973: Chadwick, 1971) and not be carried


........it is particularly important to have a well conceived information system, which can serve as the eyes and ears to a regional development planning and monitoring process. out just once and for all.Thus, the plan making procedures may have to move in a direction that would substantially improve its ability to use information systems.This philosophy is based on the concept of feedback of information to evaluate plans and the plan making process (Geddes, 1949). In the plan making process, Calkins (1972) suggested that, 'better planning will be achieved through better information, and better information will necessarily flow from an

information system'.The major functions of information system in planning should include as follows: i. The descriptive function

Information should help to describe situation:

iii. The normative function

The information system can also contribute to improved action by reducing the cost of actions with known consequences of actions already taken or about to be taken.

ii. The cognitive function

Information system also contribute to improved understanding of regional problems by providing the key factors and variables that can be analyzed using regional modelling and other statistical techniques; ISSUE 01 / VOL. 02 / JUNE. 2004

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Features

GIS

Much of regional planning activities have to do with the use of land and how the different types of land use relate to one another. As such, spatially referenced data including parcel boundaries, buildings, ownership of land and so forth are a fundamental part of an information-based approach to regional planning.This information combined with socio-economic data such as the population consensus and environmental data, provides more meaningful information for planners and decision makers. This approach also brings increasing rationality to the decision making process. Since geographic information is stored in its primary form, analysis becomes more quantitative and rational.The modelling stage which is called for in planning process, requires planners to make explicit their criteria for the selection of alternative programmes.This encourages the selection of objective criteria, based on real data about the area under study. The Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is seen as the most appropriate solution to addressing spatially referenced data. GIS provide the facilities to deal with the data requirement for the functions mentioned earlier. One important GIS capability is in handling both digital cartographic data and the associated databases of attribute information for map features (Healey,1988).

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GIS systems can store the map coordinates of point locations, linear and area features.These features have attributes that must be stored in the database. Once all the data are stored, both the digital map and the database can be manipulated simultaneously.This is particularly important in many land use planning applications, which require data on a wide variety of physical and environmental attributes. GIS has proven to be an invaluable tool for evaluating alternative solutions to urban planning problems. Planning database can be extensively interrogated to generate several alternative solutions to urban strategic planning problems. Various scenarios which take into account the socio-economic characteristic of urban dwellers, the constraints of physical development, availability of land and land suitability for different kind of development can be generated. With rational planning approach, the quality of planning and decision making process can be substantially improved through data appropriately and efficiently handled. Information from a well-conceived database can be used to generate various scenarios taking into account the socioeconomic aspect, physical development constraint and location suitability by applying criteria that can be easily adapted to suit the situation.The development scenario alternatives can be generated using the GIS spatial modelling method. The

development scenarios can then be evaluated through employment of various evaluation techniques such as the cost-benefit analysis, the development goal achievement matrix analysis, the policy achievement and development strategy analysis, and some others (Figure 1).These techniques will enable comparison of proposed development based on the scenario alternatives to be made and thus produce a more practical and reliable development plan. GIS APPLICATION FOR THE KLANG VALLEY REGION

The recent advancement in the field of information technology has provided vast opportunities for testing new approaches to computer processing of geographically referenced data, thus adding new dimensions to data management, data analysis, generation of current scenarios and data presentation which is essential in the process of planning and decision making. GIS which come as a complete package with the capability in capturing, storing, updating, manipulating, analysing and displaying of all forms of geographically referenced information, is proven an appropriate tool for regional planning and monitoring. In response to the current need for application of information technology, BKWPPLK has developed a comprehensive database and GIS-based planning application under the project named "Application of Geographical Information System for the Klang Valley


“The Application of Geographical Information System for Klang Valley Region (AGISwlk) project was first initiated in 1995 with mission to develop database and 10 planning applications”.

INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR REGIONAL PLANNING AND MONITORING

Region (AGISwlk)" to be used as a planning support tool for formulating and evaluating development policies and strategies as well as coordinating and monitoring the development of Klang Valley.The Application of Geographical Information System for Klang Valley Region (AGISwlk) projectwas first initiated in 1995 with the mission to develop database and 10 planning applications.This project is considered successful and significantly contributes to the understanding of the development characteristic of the Klang Valley region and thus helps in planning, coordinating and monitoring the database and utilising every potential of the system mainly as a decision support tool in planning and monitoring the development programmes of the area.

In BKWPPLK's decision making system, AGISwlk is seen/able to help improve the decision making process pertaining the planning and monitoring of the Klang Valley region. AGISwlk as one of the products within the system involves two components which are ILA and 10 sector-based planning applications. Figure 2 illustrates the relationship within the development products in the decision making system of BKWPPLK. The GIS capabilities as a regional planning and management tool is further enhanced through integration with a Planning Support System especially in generating development scenario alternatives that can serve as the basis for the formulation of more rational and effective development policies and

strategies. Within AGISwlk, an integrated landuse approach called ILA was employed in order to integrate AGISwlk's sectoral-based analyses previously undertaken and simultaneously translate them into a model that enable the generation of scenario alternatives. Based on the importance and need for ILA in regional planning, a pilot study was undertaken through implementation of the ILA model for generating scenario alternatives which can be used as guidelines and reference in formulating more effective policies and strategies.

PLANNING OBJECTIVE

MODELLING

GIS

Analysis

Data

Modelling Procedures

Infrastructure - Land - Environment - Physical

USING ‘WHAT IF’ Scenario

1

2

3

4

Criteria For Evaluation

Modification Evaluation Accepted Yes Result

Figure 1 : Planning Assessment Process Using GIS (Source :Yaakup and Healey, 1994)

Project Implementation

No

PLANNING PROCEDURES

Logical Expression

Database

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Figure 2 : Relationship within Decision Making Systems in BKWPPLK AGISwlk APPLICATION OF GIS

PELAWI

FOR THE KLANG VALLEY REGION

(THE KLANG VALLEY PERSPECTIVE PLAN)

INTEGRATED LAND USE

1. Projection

ASSESSMENT (ILA)

2. Policy & Strategy

Sub Models

3. Planning Strategy

A. Land Resources B. Land Capacity C. Land Assessment

APPLICATIONS 1.Land use, Built-up Area & Physical Characteristics 2.Green & Recreational Area 3.Industries & Commerce 4.Population & Socio-economy 5.Low-cost housing & Squatters 6.Environment 7.Public amenities & Utilities 8.Transport Planning 9.Geohazard 10.Tourism

PLANNING ASSESSMENT

DECISION

IMPLEMENTATION

“The Land Capacity Assessment involves four deriving factors including Construction Suitability (Terrain map); Carrying Capacity for River Basin,Transportation as well as Public Facilities; Development Plans; and Population Carrying Capacity.”

INTEGRATED LAND USE ASSESSMENT (ILA) The Concept Of ILA

The concept of integrated approach in ILA is focused on the aspect of integration of the applications previously developed in AGISwlk, which are more towards sector-based. ILA emphasizes on the concept of integration whereby relationship exists between the database developed in AGISwlk and implementation of application-based analyses, with the use of planning support systems. Integrated Land use Assessment (ILA) is an approach which integrates the physical and socio economic information and undertaken to produce an integrated spatial and non-spatial analysis model that enables the generating of scenario alternatives for development through the use of planning support systems. The main purpose of developing ILA is to create a relationship and subsequently integration between the sector-based applications in AGISwlk in generating the development scenario alternatives.The need for ILA is basically as follows: To act as a development planning mechanism at the regional level, with BKWPPLK using it as a guideline and reference for defining the suitable type of development in the future. To support land development control and provide a direction for development in the Klang Valley through analysing the forecasted development scenarios.

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Features

Figure 3 : The Land Resource Assessment and the Land Capacity Assessment - The ILA Model.

A

B

LAND RESOURCES

LAND CAPACITY

A1. Environmentally Sensitive Areas

B1. Construction Suitability B2. Carrying Capacity

A2. Locality Factors

B3. Development Plans B4. Population

C LAND ASSESSMENT Current Scenarios C=SS1 C=SS2 C=SS3

Figure 3 : ILA Model

Model Development

The dynamic nature of planning and monitoring of development in the Klang Valley region needs a continuous evaluation and analysis of the current environmental situation as well as its carrying capacity for future development. Planners should be able to identify and make adjustments to deriving factors as well as evaluation criteria to develop scenarios for generating development alternatives to support the decision makers.The choice of deriving factors should include the aspect of land resources and land capacity. The ILA Model is dynamic in approach, providing flexibility for users in manipulating the selection criteria and organizing them on priority basis for development of the scenario.The assessment technique in ILA adopts the GIS spatial analysis technique combined with the weighting and sequential techniques. ILA involves two types of assessment namely Land Resources Assessment and Land Capacity Assessment (Figure 3). Land Resources Assessment aims at evalu

ating potential land resources for development in terms of suitability by considering two deriving factors, which are Environmentally Sensitive Areas and Highly Accessible Areas based on locality factors. Meanwhile, Land Capacity Assessment evaluates the extent of acceptable development in terms of supply to ensure that the environmental quality is not degraded. The Land Capacity Assessment involves four deriving factors including Construction Suitability (Terain map); Carrying Capacity for River Basin, Transportation as well as Public Facilities; Development Plans; and Population Carrying Capacity. Land Assessment generally shows all the scenarios alternatives of land available for development derived after taking into account the land resources and capacity based on the deriving factors and selection criteria. Using Multi Criteria Evaluation Method

Evaluation is essential in the planning process especially in selecting the appropriate development scenario

alternative to be implemented. As such, in this phase, it is necessary for decision-makers to define the suitable planning evaluation model so that the development scenario chosen could cater for future planning and its implementation is beneficial to the public. In defining the planning evaluation model, the development scenario alternatives should satisfy various criteria such as taking into consideration the planning objectives proposed and measuring all the costs and benefits for every sector. In the case of ILA study, a table of deriving and selection factors based on the ILA model was prepared while at the same time allowing users the choice and flexibility of redefining the factors to generate the scenario alternatives subject to the different policies, weight and rating concerned (Refer Table 1 on the next page).

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Table 1 : Selection Factors for ILA Model FACTOR

DERIVING FACTOR

SELECTION FACTOR

SPECIFIC SELECTION FACTOR A111. Historical, monument and archaeology A112. Biodiversity

OUTPUT

Buildings Hills Caves Villages Archaeology Sites Reserved Forest Wild Life reserves Unique Rock

A11. Heritage

A113. Geology

Ex-mining area

Hot Spring Area A. Land Resources

A1. Environmental Sensitive Area A12. Geohazard Risk

A114. Landscape

Public recreation Park

A121. Landslide A122. Flood A123. Land Subsidence A124. Erosion

Hill Area Natural retention area Limestone, ex-mining land

A131. Fresh Water Supply

A13. Life Support

A132. Food

A133. Energy and Building Materials Resources

Limestone Hill Sedimentary rock

1.Very Critical 2.Critical Major Coal Mine (Batu Arang) 3.High Sensitivity Biggest & deepest mine (Sungai Besi) 4.Medium Sensitivity Major Tin mine (Perigi Tujuh 5.Low sensitivity Serendah)

1.Very Critical 2.Critical 3.High Sensitivity 4.Medium Sensitivity 5.Low sensitivity

Beach River Pond Island Groundwater Dam Drainage System - River

1.Very Critical 2.Critical 3.High Sensitivity 4.Medium Sensitivity 5.Low sensitivity

Aquaculture area - Resources Crops area - Resources Poultry area - Resources Agriculture Industry Center Research Station - institution Mineral Metallic

Tin Sand

Industrial mineral resources area

Aggregate rock Clay

A21. Accessibility

A211. Main road A222. Main Railways A223. Main Junction A224.Transit Station

A22. Proximity

A221. Built up area A222. Committed Development A223. Public Amenities A224.Town Centre A225. Main River A231. Land Reserve A232. Land Ownership

A2. Locality Factors

A23. Land Status

B1. Construction Suitability (Terain Map)

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low 1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.Class 2.Class 3.Class 4.Class

B11. Slope B12. Elevation B13. Activity B14. Erosion & Stability

B211. Road

Main road Traffic Volume (Traffic demand) Capacity (Road capabilities to support number of vehicles) Volume/ capacity ratio

B21. Transportation B212. Junction

B2. Carrying Capacity

B213. Public transportation

B22. Public Amenity Carrying Capacity

B. Land Capacity

B23. Basin Capacity

B3. Development plan

B4. Population

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B31. National Physical Plan B32. Klang Valley Perspective Plan B33. Selangor State Structure Plan B34. DBKL Structure Plan B35. District Local Plan B41. Enumeration Block B42. Census District B43. Local Authority B44. District/area B45. County B46. Planning Zone B47. Town

Geometry & Configuration Types of control Volume by direction

I II III IV

Level of Services (LoS) 1.Class A 2.Class B 3.Class C 4.Class D 5.Class E 6.Class F Service level

Types of public transportation

Usage choices B221. Educational Centre B222. Religious Centre B223. Recreational area B224. Healthcare centre B225. Police station B226. Fire Station B231. River Basin Capacity B232. Drainage Capacity - River, Retention pond

Carrying Capacity base on population

Carrying Capacity base on development

Land use zone

Population density, distribution, etc


The study was divided into three main stages.The methodology was developed and organised based on the GIS spatial analysis process and planning support system framework.The stages can be simplified as follows:

Features

METHODOLOGY OF STUDY

STAGE 1 : IDENTIFY POLICY AND STRATEGY

Figure 4 : Study Area ILA STUDY - THE USE OF WHAT IF? PLANNING SUPPORT SYSTEM

The ILA study was implemented on the sub-river basins of Batu and Gombak, covering about 7,508.2 hectares in the District of Gombak in the Klang Valley (Figure 4). In this study, the ILA model was applied to generate development scenario alternatives. Both types of assessment which are the Land Resources Assessment and Land Capacity Assessment were implemented but due to certain constraints not all the selection factors were used.The Land Resources Assessment was carried out by considering two deriving factors, which are Environmentally Sensitive Areas and Highly Potential Areas based on locality factors while Land Capacity Assessment only involved one deriving factor which is Construction Suitability (the terrain map).This is a preliminary study to design a model based on an integrated approach in generating development scenario alternatives while considering land resources and land capacity factors.

This stage involves identification of policy and strategy to be used as guideline and direction of study in achieving the desired output. STAGE 2 : COLLECTING DATA FOR ANALYSIS

The second stage involves identifying data in AGISwlk database to be used to create Uniform Analysis Zone (UAZ) based on predetermined selection factors. UAZ are GIS generated polygons, which are homogeneous in all respects considered in the model (Figure 5). For instance, all points within a UAZ have the same slope, are located in the same municipality, are within the same distance of an existing or proposed highway, and so on (Klosterman R.E., 2001). STAGE 3 : ANALYSIS AND MODELLING

The analysis and modelling stage involves the process of creating Uniform Analysis Zone (UAZ), designing project file and conducting suitability analysis.The process of creating UAZ layer includes combining of GIS data layers.The GIS functions involved in the process are the overlay function, classification and measurement. Designing the project file is most important because it influences the suitability analysis and affects the resulting output. The suitability analysis involves three steps which are selecting the suitability factors, specifying factor weights and specifying factor ratings. In this study, a mathematical formula was applied for all factors considered in generating the development scenarios. n

y= where

ÎŁ wi ri i

y = Score wi = Weight of suitability factor ri = Rating of factor category Figure 5 : Example of Uniform Analysis Zone (UAZ)

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Features CONCLUSION

Figure 6 : Scenario 1 of Land Assessment

Land Assessment

Figure 7 : Scenario 2 of Land Assessment

Two scenario alternatives were generated using different weight and rating appropriate to two different policies.

suggests more land available for development but the environmental impact will be inevitable such as pollution and quality degradation.

Scenario 1

Scenario 2

In Scenario 1, the policy encourages development even in environmentally sensitive areas and potential areas based on locality factors. Scenario 1 shows 13.4% of land is suitable, 32.2% of land is moderately suitable, 40.9 % of land is less suitable while 13.5% of land is not suitable for development (Figure 6).This means 45.6% of land is suitable for development but the environmentally sensitive areas has to be sacrificed for development purpose.The scenario

In Scenario 2, the policy outlined that no development shall be carried out in Environmentally Sensitive Areas. Scenario 2 shows 15.1% of land is suitable for development, 21.3% moderately suitable, 50.1% less suitable and 13.5% not suitable for development. This means 36.4% of land is suitable for development and at the same time the environmentally sensitive areas are conserved (Figure 7).

In realising an integrated and sustainable development, BKWPPLK needs to play an active role in grabbing the opportunities provided through the advancement in information technology towards a better regional planning and monitoring process. Formerly, the policies and strategies are formulated only in the form of statements and thus had made it difficult for decision makers to assess the impact in spatial form. However, the adoption of ILA will enable the spatial assessment of the policies applied and amendment be made based on the generated set of predicted scenarios. Adoption of ILA as an integrated landuse planning approach through the use of GIS analysis capabilities supported by a Planning Support System resulted in a more integrated planning and serves as a good alternative in producing more rational decisions.The use of ILA at different stages of planning and monitoring would assist decision makers in evaluating different decision options.

AHRIS yaakup Prof. Dr. Ahris is currently a lecturer and Head of the GIS Laboratory, at the Department of Urban and Regional Planning. He also head the GIS and Planning Unit, Bureau of Innovation and Consultancy, University Technology Malaysia. Ahris is considered a pioneer in incorporating GIS Planning to local authorities as well as other agencies. He has been involved in more than 40 researches and consultancy projects in the field of Planning and Information System. Member of the Asian GIS and Spatial Analysis Organization and Panel Advisor for GIS to the State Government and Local Authorities. SITI ZALINA abu bakar Siti Zalina is currently a planner and GIS spatial analyst in the GIS and Planning Unit, Bureau of Innovation and Consultancy, University Technology Malaysia. Her research interest includes land use and development planning through application of Multcriteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods and incorporation of Planning Support System (PSS) in spatial analyses. SUSILAWATI sulaiman Susilawati is a GIS analyst and documentation manager in GIS and Planning Unit, Bureau of Innovation and Consultancy, University Technology Malaysia, since 1998. She is involve in various GIS research and consultancy projects including Application of GIS for Klang Valley Region (AGISwlk). REFERENCE: 1. BKWPPLK (2002) Pembangunan Sistem Dan Aplikasi, Laporan Akhir Tahun 1: AGISwlk 20012005 2. BKWPPLK (2003) Peningkatan Konsep Dan Rekabentuk, Laporan Kemajuan 1: AGISwlk 2001-2005 3. BKWPPLK (2003) Pembangunan Sistem Dan Aplikasi, Laporan Kemajuan 2: AGISwlk 20012005 4. BKWPPLK (2003) Pembangunan Sistem Dan Aplikasi, Laporan Kemajuan 3: AGISwlk 20012005 5. Brown, A.J. and Sherard, H.M. (1956) Town and Country Planning, Melbourne University Press, Australia. 6. Bruton, M.J. dan Nicolson, D.J. (1987) Local Planning in Practice, Hutchinson, London.

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7. Chadwick, G. (1971) A System View of Planning, Pergamon, Oxford. 8. Calkin, H. (1972) An Information System and Monitoring Framework for Plan Implementation, (Tesis Ph.D unpublish), University of Washington, Seattle, USA 9. Ibrahim Wahab (1991) Pangkalan Data untuk Sistem Perancangan, DBP, KL. 10. Keeble, L. (1969) Principles and Practice of Town and Country Planning, Estates Gazette, United Kingdom. 11. Klosterman R.E. (2001) 'What if?', Community Analysis and Planning System, Inc, USA. 12. Klosterman R.E. (1998) The 'What if?' Collaborative Planning Support Sytem, Environment and Planning, B : Planning and Design, 26 (1999) : (pp. 393-408)

13. Klosterman R.E (2001) The What if? Planning Support Sytem' dlm Richard K.Grail dan Richard E. Klosterman (eds) Planning Support Sytem. ESRI Press, Redland, California. 14. McLoughlin, J.B. (1969) Control and Urban Planning, Faber and Faber Ltd. London. 15. Royston, M.G. (1982) The Modern Manager and the Human Environment, Proceedings of the Symposium of the Malaysian Environment in Crisis, The Consumer Association of Penang, Malaysia. 16. Yaakup, A.B., Johar, F. and Dahlan (1997) GIS and Decision Support Systems for Local Authorities in Malaysia, in H. Timmermans, Decision Support Systems in Urban Planning, E & FN SPON, London, pp. 212-228.


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GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM AND THE LAW: Some points for consideration SARAH aziz and SHAHARUDIN idrus email: saziz@pkrisc.cc.ukm.my, dinn6358@pkrisc.cc.ukm.my Institute of Environment and Development (LESTARI) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Bangi, Selangor

“To date in Malaysia there is no one law or statute specifically regulating GIS, its development, use and application. Instead there are a number of statutes that can be linked to GIS�

ABSTRACT Information has become a fundamental requirement in development, and in the advent of Geographical Information Systems, the need to better control the use and generation of information is a priority. The requirement for a regulatory framework to be put in place to ensure that generation and usage of such information will not result in adverse impacts on development, environment and the welfare of society will have to be considered.

INTRODUCTION

In this cyber age, information has indeed become a valued and much sought after commodity. Apart from fuelling quests for domination and power, it has become imperative for better and improved decision-making, planning and management, particularly in the light of the Malaysian sustainable development agenda.The geographical information system (GIS) has become an increasingly useful tool in that the system facilitates the packaging of data in a manner that is comprehensive, dimensional with diverse potential applications.There are however causes for concern, ranging from the need for a regulatory framework specifically for GIS, to the legal implications in its development, use and application.This paper will briefly look into the issues and discuss the possibility of remedying them.

This article is intended to generate discussion and provide general information. It is not intended to provide legal advice. Opinions, findings, conclusions and/or recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of LESTARI and/or Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

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DEFINITIONS: GIS AND LAW

GIS in reality is not easily defined, as it can be seen amongst others, as a geographically orientated computer technology or an information system that captures, stores, manipulates, analyses and displays data that are spatially referenced or a manual or computer based set of procedures to store and manipulate geographically referenced data or a system with advanced geomodelling capabilities (Maguire, 1991). The various definitions touch on subject matter and activities, but the common theme is geographical and or spatial information.The terms spatial and geographical have been used interchangeably throughout most of the definitions of GIS, though there is a distinct difference between the two, with

the former referring to information about the location, which can include engineering and remote sensing and cartographic information, while the latter refers to locational information about the surface or near surface at real world scales and space (Frank, 1988 in Maguire, 1991). 'Law' on the other hand at its simplest are a set of rules and or rights that have been accepted and adopted by society, as embodied in a legal instrument, which is enforced through a set system and mechanism until it is abolished or repealed. Law is the instrument that facilitates the protection of society and all that it provides for, including rights and benefits from harm, danger and abuse.

THE LAW AND GIS

To date in Malaysia there is no one law or statute specifically regulating GIS, its development, use and application. Instead there are a number of statutes that can be linked to GIS as selected and shown in Table 1. THE ISSUES AND POINTS FOR CONSIDERATION

The discussion forthwith will be divided into 5 sections : Definition Data and information GIS : the system, software and hardware Use and application of GIS Privacy

Table 1 : A selected summary of statutes and its brief objective STATUTE

OBJECTIVE An Act to make provisions for patents and other matters connected

Patent Act 1983 Computer Crimes Act 1997

Copyright Act 1987

Official Secrets Act 1972

therewith An Act to provide for offences relating to the misuse of computers and other matters connected therewith An Act to make provisions for copyright and other matters connected therewith An Act to consolidate and revise laws relating to official secrets

Land and Mining Plans and Documents

An Act to provide for the validity of photographically produced plans,

(Photographic Copies) Act 1950

copies of plans and documents

National Archives Act 1966

Penal Code 1997

Printing Presses and Publications Act 1984

An Act to provide for the custody and preservation of public archives and public records and other matters incidental thereto An Act relating to criminal offences

An Act to regulate the use of printing presses and printing, importation, production, reproduction, publishing and distribution of publications and for matters connected therewith

Public Authorities Protection Act 1984

An Act relating to the protection of persons acting in the execution of a statutory and other public duties

Statistics Act 1965

An Act relating to statistics

Sale of Goods Act 1957

An Act relating to the sale of goods An Act relating to merchandise marks, misdescription of goods provided in

Trade Description Act 1972

Town and Country Planning Act 1976

An Act for the proper control and regulation of town and country planning and purposes connected therewith

Communications and Multimedia Act

An Act to regulate converging communications and multimedia industries

1998

and related matters thereto

Deposit of Library Material Act 1986

Government Proceedings Act 1956 16

the course of trade, false or misleading statements of service and others

MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN

An Act to make provision for the collection, conservation, bibliographical control and use of library materials published in Malaysia An Act relating to proceedings by and against the Federal Government and the governments of the State


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“How do we determine, and protect ourselves from harm if standards to ensure the fitness for purpose of the GIS system, software and hardware are not clearly put into place? “ a. DEFINING GIS: A QUESTION OF SCOPE AND JURISDICTION

As stated earlier there is no one clear definition for GIS which renders it difficult to pinpoint a particular statute that can govern it in entirety, unlike matters such as digital signatures (Digital Signatures Act 1997). Only until an appropriate and practical definition of the term can be agreed to and adopted for Malaysia, can a legal framework to regulate the development, use and application of the system and related matters be drawn. A practical definition that provides a clear scope of what it is that encompasses GIS would also facilitate easier regulation and monitoring.This is important so as to ensure that users and suppliers of information for example can be protected from harm, and matters such as accountability and liability can be determined. In the light of the fact that information can to a certain extent stretch beyond traditional administrative boundaries, as can be seen in the problem of cyber space policing, designating an authority to regulate matters related to GIS is an immediate imperative.

c. GIS: THE SYSTEM, SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE

b. DATA AND INFORMATION The most crucial aspect of GIS is data, but the problem arises when there is: Ownership and uncertainty of the source of data: a question of whose data? Reliability of such data at the source; Reliability, certainty and accuracy of data upon manipulation; Liability as to the application itself, the information or data generated; Issue of privacy: whose privacy and to what extent? (see point ‘e’ next page) Ownership, Reliability and Liability In Malaysia some data and information particularly that of the governments' fall within the Official Secrets Act 1972. The question now arises as to the ownership of data, if it is clearly designated, for example cadastral maps that fall within the purview of the Survey Department, then it is clear that it belongs to the government. But what happens to data rightfully obtained then manipulated to whom does the revised or improvised data or information belong to, does it belong to the 'manipulator' or still to the government? Does change have to be substantial before ownership passes?

Another factor worth noting is that GIS often tiptoes along the thin line that is everyone's right and intellectual property rights. And what of the issue of liability to wrongful, misleading or inaccurate data or information, where should the finger point ? It is much easier, but not necessarily less painful if it only gives rise to 'pecuniary or fiscal-like damages', but once it involves human life, nature or property destruction then where should the chain of causation start ? For example, information about an area, the topography, land use and settlement is fed into the GIS system and with additional information, the idea is to determine the hazard risk of the area, and through the system it is deemed low risk. Development then takes place based on such information and within a year a massive landslide occurs and lives were lost, property and environment damaged. How does one even begin to determine the cause of the tragedy and calculate the damages and compensation due, let alone begin to remedy the situation?

Usually the system, software and hardware becomes an issue when things go wrong or when it fails to live up to certain expectations.The advent of globalisation has brought the world market literally to our doorstep, albeit via the cyber portals.This would mean that there is a huge market for different systems, software and hardware that lay claim the ability to perform certain functions, applications and uses that is meant to simplify all aspects of human life, from decision making right up to monitoring.This is an attractive offer indeed, since if we can do with less tedious work we can actually go on to do more and accomplish more at shorter lengths of time and money. This is sometime true but there have been cases particularly in the United States where things have gone horribly wrong (Onsrud, 1999). It would be logical to say that if a system or software or even hardware is defective the chances of the information or data generated being accurate will be pretty slim. How do we determine, and protect ourselves from harm if standards to ensure the fitness for purpose of the GIS system, software and hardware are not clearly put into place. And how far are the manufacturers or producers liable for such defect?

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Features d. USE AND APPLICATION OF GIS As can be seen from Table 1 above, there is no one law that regulates the use or application of GIS, which would mean that liability and accountability pretty much lies with the person who can prove his or her case the strongest. If GIS is used for public good, chances are the level of acceptability of use and application will be higher and the end would sometimes justify the means, but if it were otherwise and skirts the issues of intellectual property rights and privacy, then the situation becomes more complex. There is a need indeed for a regulatory body to be set up to look into this matter.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

GIS indeed is a useful tool that can facilitate better decision making, planning, management, enforcement and monitoring, basically oiling the wheels of governance, both public and corporate towards a better good.The flipside however, there are still issues that lay 'unattended' to, who actually functions as the GIS 'police', where can we go to when things go wrong and what can we do about it. Perhaps the following points can be taken into consideration: i.

ii. iii.

A body (existing or otherwise) should be established to look into the regulating and monitoring of GIS from the development, manufacturing and the production of the system (software to hardware) right up to the use and application of the product and other related matters. In this way the issues of harm can be dealt with efficiently; A proper review of what is GIS and how it benefits or harms should be conducted to facilitate such regulation; and A network to be developed within the Region or beyond (depending on the scale and capacity) between Malaysia and various countries to help better understand and regulate GIS use and application so as to avoid abuse of sovereignty.

SARAH aziz Sarah Aziz is currently a Research Fellow at the Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. She is currently involved in various multidisciplinary research projects conducted by LESTARI, both relating to sustainable development and ecosystem health. Her current areas of research includes ecosystems governance; assessment and control of the Kundasang landslide complex; regulations and construction industrial wastes; and regulations and persistent organic pollutants. She has a legal background, having obtained her LL.B (Hons) and LL.M (Environmental Law) from the United Kingdom. She was called to the English Bar in 1993, and admitted as an advocate and solicitor of the High Court of Malaya in 1994. Prior to joining LESTARI, she was practising as an advocate and solicitor with a legal firm in Kuala Lumpur. Her interests and areas of research are focused on the use of law and legislative processes in addressing issues related to sustainability governance.

e. PRIVACY Unlike the United States of America, Malaysia does not have a strict privacy law but this does not negate the fact that citizens are entitled to some privacy. GIS is often used to integrate information on a geographical and or spatial scale, which would mean information about the individual may be incorporated into such a system and then be used for various purposes. One would assume (cautiously) that if such purposes were to serve for a greater and public good, safety for example, such an 'invasion' of privacy then would be acceptable. But what if, such information so generated by GIS is used to secure 'the market' by the retail industry, would it be acceptable? Where do you draw the line between acceptable invasion and unacceptable invasion of privacy?

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REFERENCE & BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Maguire D.J., (1991) An overview and definition of GIS in Maguire, D.J., Goodchild, M.F., and Rhind, D.W. (eds.) 1991, Geographical Information Systems: Principles and Applications. Volume 1. Longman, London. pp 9-20 2. Onstrud, H.J., (1999) Liability in the use of geographic information systems and geographic datasets in P. Longley, M. Goodchild, D. Maguire and D. Rhind (eds.), 1999, Geographical Information Systems: Vol.2 Management Issues and Applications. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. pp 643-652 3. Sarah Aziz dan Shaharudin Idrus, (2002) Isu-isu perundangan dalam sistem maklumat geografi (GIS) di Malaysia in Shaharudin Idrus and A Harman Shah (eds.), 2002, LESTARI Round Table Dialogues No. 11: Kelestarian Sistem Maklumat Geografi (GIS) di Malaysia. LESTARI Publications. pp 85-92 4. Malaysia, (1997) Computer Crimes Act 1997. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur 5. Malaysia, (1998) Communications and Multimedia Act 1998. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur 6. Malaysia, (1987) Copyright Act 1987. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur 7. Malaysia, (1986) Deposit of Library Material Act 1986. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur 8. Malaysia, (1950) Land and Mining Plans and Documents (Photographic Copies) Act 1950. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur

9. Malaysia, (1956) Government Proceedings Act 1956. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur 10. Malaysia, (1966) National Archives Act 1966. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur 11. Malaysia, (1972) Official Secrets Act 1972. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur 12. Malaysia, (1983) Patent Act 1983. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur 13. Malaysia, (1997) Penal Code 1997. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur 14. Malaysia, (1984) Printing Presses and Publications Act 1984. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur 15. Malaysia, (1984) Public Authorities Protection Act 1984. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur 16. Malaysia, (1965) Statistics Act 1965. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur 17. Malaysia, (1957) Sale of Goods Act 1957. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur 18. Malaysia, (1972) Trade Description Act 1972. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur 19. Malaysia, (1976) Town and Country Planning Act 1976. Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur


Features

SISTEM MAKLUMAT GEOGRAFI DI JABATAN PERANCANGAN BANDAR DAN DESA SEMENANJUNG MALAYSIA MOHD ALI abu bakar email: aliab@townplan.gov.my Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa, Semenanjung Malaysia.

ABSTRAK Sistem Maklumat Geografi (GIS) telah wujud dalam tahun enam puluhan. Sistem tersebut mula digunakan bagi tujuan kajian, pengurusan dan pemantauan alam sekitar di Kanada dan Amerika Syarikat. Pada peringkat awal model yang digunapakai adalah dalam bentuk ‘raster’ di mana maklumat permukaan bumi di wakili menggunakan sel empat segi dan setiap satunya ditentukan nilai berdasarkan ciri yang diwakili. Oleh kerana bidang perancangan bandar juga mempunyai unsur-unsur alam sekitar maka ianya juga sesuai digunakan dalam bidang ini.

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Features digunakan bagi projek-projek baru seperti Perancangan Universiti Commonwealth Malaysia pada tahun 1996. Sepanjang tempoh tersebut juga beberapa pegawai Jabatan telah melanjutkan pelajaran di luar negara mengikuti kursus GIS. Sekembali mereka tercetuslah hasrat untuk mengguna GIS di JPBD secara serius.

GIS PERANCANGAN BANDAR

Bidang perancangan bandar dan wilayah banyak menggunakan teknik peta tapisan dalam analisis perancangan dan manupulasi maklumat. Kegunaan GIS model ‘raster’ ini sesuai bagi Perancangan wilayah berskala makro. Perkembangan GIS model ‘vektor’ pada tahun lapan puluhan telah membawa dimensi baru dalam penggunaannya dalam bidang Perancangan Bandar. Dengan adanya model ini, data spatial bercorak tempatan telah dapat digunakan bagi tujuan penganalisaan dan pengurusan maklumat terperinci. Model ini lebih menarik kerana ia menyerupai data yang lazim dipakai untuk tujuan Perancangan Bandar. Pembangunan perisian GIS dan perkembangan pembangunan teknologi perkakasan telah sedikit sebanyak mempengaruhi sejarah penggunaan GIS di Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia (JPBD). BERMULANYA DI SINI

Penggunaan GIS di JPBD boleh disifatkan sebagai kebetulan pada tahun 1993. Ketika itu Jabatan sedang menyediakan konsep awal Perancangan Pusat Pentadbiran Persekutuan yang baru iaitu Putrajaya. Pusat pentadbiran tersebut kini sedang giat dibangunkan. Perunding yang turut sama terlibat dalam membuat Perancangan tersebut ialah IGD Consultant dan syarikat tersebut telah memperkenalkan perisian ‘MapInfo versi 1’ kepada sebahagian kecil kakitangan Jabatan

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disebabkan oleh ‘user friendly’nya bagi tujuan pemetaan mudah. Walaubagaimana pun, pada peringkat ini penggunaan perisian ‘MapInfo’ adalah bagi tujuan persembahan peta semata-mata dan tidak menggunakan unsur data kedua iaitu ‘atribute’. Pada tahun yang sama juga, Rancangan Tempatan Parit Buntar dan Bagan Serai mula disediakan. Dalam penyediaan tersebut, GIS telah dibangunkan untuk memudahkan dan mempercepatkan proses penyediaan pelan-pelan di dalam Kajian Rancangan Tempatan. Di samping itu, data-data GIS telah diguna untuk mempermudahkan dan mempercepatkan kerja-kerja Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan di dalam menjalankan aktiviti yang berkaitan dengan proses perancangan dan kelulusan permohonan kebenaran merancang. Sistem tersebut dikenali sebagai SMaRT (Sistem Maklumat Rancangan Tempatan) bagi Majlis Daerah Kerian, Perak. Pembangunan sistem tersebut dibuat sepenuhnya oleh perunding. Kakitangan sokongan Jabatan cuma dilatih kaedah memasukkan data sahaja. ‘VENDOR DRIVEN GIS’

Ekoran dari itu, JPBD telah dikunjungi oleh pengedar-pengedar perisian GIS. Antara perisian GIS yang didedahkan ialah seperti ‘Terrasoft’, ‘PA Maps’, ‘MapInfo’ dan ‘ArcInfo’. Beberapa pembelian perisian telah dibuat oleh beberapa unit di JPBD secara berasingan. Selepas itu perisian GIS telah

Dalam tender pada tahun 1995, perisian dan perkakasan GIS telah dibeli. Perisian ‘Arc/Info versi unix dan DOS’ telah diperolehi melalui tender tersebut. Pada tahun 1996 perancangan Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) telah dimulakan dan pada waktu ini penggunaan perisian GIS bagi tujuan Perancangan teruji. Penggunaan GIS pada peringkat ini dibuat bersama dengan perunding Sepakat Sdn. Bhd. Pengendalian sistem memerlukan kemasukkan arahan garisan (line command) dan sistem operasi yang asing (unix) daripada kebiasaan telah mempengaruhi pengunaan di Jabatan. Disebabkan oleh kerumitan untuk mengendali perisian tersebut yang memerlukan kemahiran yang tinggi pada waktu itu dan bilangan unit yang terhad ianya tidak popular di kalangan kakitangan Jabatan. Pada waktu yang sama penggunaan perisian GIS, ‘MapInfo’ semakin berkembang di Jabatan walaupun tidak secara sistematik. Penggunaan Perisian GIS lain terpinggir disebabkan oleh kekurangan pengguna. Seperti juga kursus perisian komputer yang lain, Jabatan dari masa ke semasa juga menganjurkan kursus ‘MapInfo’ berkonsepkan rakan bimbingan dibuat mendedahkan penggunaan perisian tersebut oleh kakitangan yang pernah menggunakannya. Kandungan kursus hanya tertumpu kepada kaedah kemasukan data serta pemetaan dan melibatkan kumpulan sokongan sahaja. Potensi GIS tidak dieksplotasi sepenuhnya disebabkan kurangnya minat dan pengetahuan dari pegawai-pegawai peringkat Pengurusan dan Profesional pada waktu itu.


Features

‘INFORMATION SYSTEM PLANNING’

Pada tahun 1997, JPBD telah menyediakan satu Pelan Induk Perkomputeran Jabatan yang dikenali sebagai ‘Information System Planning’ (ISP). Salah satu peluang penggunaan Teknologi Maklumat dan Komunikasi yang dikenalpsti ialah penggunaan GIS dalam Perancangan Bandar. Pada tahun yang sama JPBD mula mengatur langkah untuk memperkembangkan penggunaan GIS dalam bidang Perancangan Bandar. Kurikulum kursus GIS yang lebih mantap telah diadakan.Tiga modul telah diperkenalkan iaitu modul pemahaman, modul analisis dan modul eksekutif. Sepanjang tahun 1997 hingga tahun 1999 hanya modul pemahaman dilaksanakan untuk memberi kefahaman asas kepada semua lapisan kakitangan di Jabatan. Selain kursus, beberapa siri taklimat berhubung dengan konsep dan penggunaan GIS telah di adakan melalui Seminar dan Bengkel kepada Penguruspengurus projek Kajian Rancangan Struktur dan Rancangan Tempatan. Selain dari itu, kepentingan mewujudkan pangkalan data GIS untuk menyimpan maklumat-maklumat yang dikumpul dan dijana dalam proses penyediaan Rancangan Pemajuan tersebut turut disampaikan. Sebagai usaha untuk menggalakkan penggunaan GIS dalam bidang perancangan, beberapa ‘roadshow’ telah di buat oleh Unit Bank Data JPBD(IP) pada masa itu (sekarang Bahagian Teknologi Maklumat) ke pejabat-pejabat projek. Bengkel juga telah diadakan untuk mempromosikan kegunaan GIS dalam penyediaan Rancangan Pemajuan. Untuk memberi kefahaman kepada kumpulan pengurusan dan profesional beberapa kursus modul eksekutif telah diadakan di pejabatpejabat projek. Namun sambutan dari kumpulan pengurusan dan profesional tidak menggalakan kerana beranggapan GIS hanya alat pemetaan untuk kumpulan sokongan sahaja.

GIS DALAM PENYEDIAAN RANCANGAN PEMAJUAN

Sebagai persediaan untuk menggunapakai GIS dalam penyediaan Rancangan Pemajuan Unit Bank Data menyediakan garis panduan pelaksanaan. Sebagai langkah awal, sebelum sesebuah Rancangan Tempatan disediakan, peta asas berdigit perlu disediakan. Peta asas tersebut perlu dijadikan sebagai asas bagi semua sektor kajian yang dibuat. Pada pertengahan tahun 1999, satu projek perintis menggunakan garis panduan tersebut telah dijalankan. Kawasan yang terpilih ialah Rancangan Tempatan Tasik Gelugur, Pulau Pinang. Hasil dari rancangan tersebut adalah amat memberangsangkan. Pengumpulan dan penyimpanan maklumat adalah lebih tersusun dan lebih sistematik berbanding dengan kaedah sebelumnya. Syabas diucapkan kepada Pasukan kajian dan perunding yang terlibat dalam kajian tersebut. Lanjutan dari projek perintis tersebut dan beberapa kajian lain yang meyusur selepasnya, garis panduan format struktur pangkalan data GIS dan klasifikasi gunatanah yang menjadi kor kepada aktiviti Perancangan Bandar telah diperkemaskan. Pada tahun 2001, pindaan terhadap Manual Penyediaan Rancangan Tempatan telah dibuat. Garis panduan penggunaan GIS telah dimasukkan sebagai salah satu komponen dalam penyediaan Rancangan Tempatan. Bermula dari Rancangan Malaysia Ke Lapan semua penyediaan PROSES PENYEDIAAN RT

PROSES PENGGUNAAN GIS

Ringkasan Projek

Liputan Kawasan Kajian (Syit Piawai yang Terlibat)

Asas Rujukan

Asas Rujukan Penyediaan Peta Asas Berdigit Penyediaan Peta Asas Berdigit

Rancangan Pemajuan (Rancangan Struktur Negeri dan Rancangan Tempatan Daerah) perlu menggunakan GIS sepenuhnya. Satu sektor khas berhubung penggunaan Sistem Maklumat Geografi telah diwujudkan. Penggunaan sistem maklumat geografi dalam proses penyediaan Rancangan Pemajuan telah disepadukan bermula dari peringkat pengumpulan maklumat hingga ke peringkat penghasilan peta cadangan. Maklumat-maklumat yang dikumpul dan yang dihasilkan sepanjang kajian akan diserahkan kepada Pihak Berkuasa Perancang Tempatan setelah kajian tamat untuk dikemaskini dan ditambah nilai. Disamping itu, satu Sistem Maklumat Eksekutif disediakan untuk memudahkan pengguna membuat rujukan terhadap cadangan-cadangan yang dikemukakan, disokong dengan pangkalan data yang komprehensif. Di samping itu, GIS turut digunakan dalam penyediaan Rancangan Fizikal Negara pada tahun 2000. Pada peringkat awal pelaksanaan banyak rungutan yang diterima, terutama bagi mereka yang tiada pengetahuan dan pengalaman dalam bidang GIS. Walaubagaimana pun, dengan tunjuk ajar dan panduan yang diberi mereka telah mula berkeyakinan dan mendapat manfaat dengan penggunaan GIS dalam membuat Perancangan gunatanah. Keputusan yang dibuat adalah lebih mantap hasil dari analisis yang objektif disokong dengan data.

Pengumpulan Data Analisis Data (Technical Documents) Pelan-pelan Grafik Sokongan Peta Cadangan

(Laporan Awalan) Metodologi Kajian Skop Kajian dan "Data Volume"

Pernyataan Bertulis (Garispanduan Penggunaan Dan Piawaian Perancangan)

Input Data Spatial dan "Attributes" "Data Processing" dan Analisa Data Data Presentation Data Storage (For updating and further application) Customised Application (Executive Information System)

Rajah 1 : Proses Penyediaan Rancangan Tempatan Menggunakan Sistem Maklumat Geografi

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GSARD

‘DATA WAREHOUSING’

Menyedari keberkesanan penggunaan GIS bagi dalam membuat analisis data geospatial, satu program telah diperkenalkan. Program tersebut dikenali sebagai ‘Geotechnical Analysis Research and Development’ (GSARD). Peserta program adalah terdiri daripada pegawai dari pelbagai bahagian di JPBD(IP) dan pejabat projek. Objektif program tersebut adalah untuk memperkembangkan penggunaan GIS dalam bidang Perancangan dan membuat penyelidikan terhadap kaedah analisis data geospatial yang boleh digunakan dalam proses penyediaan Rancangan Pemajuan. Disamping itu juga, peserta program dilatih menggunakan GIS dan teknik-teknik analisis dengan harapan, mereka ini dapat menyebarkan pengetahuan dan melatih kakitangan yang lain di tempat masing-masing.

Salah satu lagi program yang dikenalpasti dalam ISP ialah ‘data warehousing’. Oleh kerana data-data Perancangan ada kaitan dengan ruang, data format GIS telah dikenalpasti paling sesuai digunakan untuk menyimpan maklumat jenis ini. Sehingga kini data-data asas Perancangan berskala makro telah tersimpan dalam ‘data warehouse’ yang telah diwujudkan. Sebahagian besar adalah dari kajian-kajian yang dijalankan oleh Jabatan terutamanya Kajian Rancangan Fizikal Negara. Di samping itu, data dari Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia dibeli dari masa ke semasa oleh Jabatan untuk menambah kuantiti data. Selain data vektor Jabatan turut membeli data-data satelit Landsat TM, Spot, Quickbird dan Ikonos . Datadata tersebut telah mula mendapat tempat untuk dijadikan sebagai data rujukan dalam menjalankan kajian Rancangan Pemajuan kebelakangan ini. Program ‘data warehousing’ tersebut dikenali sebagai JPBD DataWARE (Gedung Pangkalan Data Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa). Objektif pembinaan pangkalan data adalah seperti berikut;

Perbincangan Anggota GSARD

CABARAN JPBD

Oleh kerana buat masa ini penyediaan Rancangan Pemajuan banyak disediakan oleh perunding, kemampuan kakitangan JPBD masih lagi menjadi persoalan. Kalau dulu kakitangan JPBD dikatakan lebih memahami GIS daripada perunding, apakah statusnya sekarang dan akan datang? Adakah kakitangan JPBD mampu untuk setanding dengan perunding? Untuk mempastikan JPBD tidak terkebelakang, semua kakitangan perlu membuka minda mempelajari dan menggunakan GIS sebagai alat perancangan (planning tools) dan mengaplikasikannya dalam kerja-kerja Perancangan Bandar di samping memantau dan menyelaras kerja-kerja yang disediakan oleh perunding.

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MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN

- Untuk mengumpul maklumatmaklumat yang berhubung kait dengan kerja-kerja perancangan dan juga aktiviti-aktiviti Jabatan, - Meningkatkan produktiviti: Maklumat-maklumat lazim sedia untuk diguna atau ditambah nilai, - Pangkalan data dinamik: pengumpulan dan penyimpanan maklumat diintegrasikan dalam proses kerja / aktiviti Jabatan. Tumpuan buat masa ini adalah untuk mengumpul data-data geospatial yang ada hubungkait dengan perancangan dan aktiviti jabatan. Data-data pangkalan data digital boleh dikategorikan kepada tiga iaitu data sejarah, data operasi dan data luaran.

Data sejarah terdiri dari data-data projek yang telah disediakan oleh Jabatan dalam bentuk Rancangan Pembangunan. Sebahagian besar data-data ini asalnya dalam bentuk cetakan (hardcopy) yang telah dan akan didigitkan menjadi digital dan disimpan dengan menggunakan sistem maklumat geografi. Projek-projek yang telah dikenalpasti ialah Rancangan Tempatan, Rancangan Pengumpulan Semula Orang Asli / Penyususunan Semula Kampung dan Pusat Pertumbuhan Desa. Mengikut pendekatan semasa, semua kajian Rancangan Pembangunan perlu disediakan dengan menggunakan sistem maklumat geografi. Semua data-data yang dikumpul dan dijana sepanjang kajian adalah merupakan data yang dikategorikan sebagai data operasi. Setelah kajian tersebut tamat atau bila difikirkan perlu akan di simpan dalam pangkalan data digital yang diwujudkan. Kategori data yang ketiga ialah data luaran. Data ini bersumberkan lain-lain agensi seperti Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia, Jabatan Pertanian dan agensi-agensi lain. Salah satu aktiviti yang telah dibangunkan dalam program JPBD DataWare ialah TPlanGd (Town Planning Geodatabase). Pangkalan data yang terkumpul dalam TPlanGd diperolehi dari pelbagai sumber. Dengan adanya pangkalan data ini, akan memudahkan warga Jabatan mengetahui maklumat yang terdapat di JPBD (IP) dan menggunakan maklumat tersebut dalam menjalankan tugas harian dengan lebih produktif. Semua warga Jabatan adalah digalakkan mengguna dan menyumbang data yang telah ditambah nilai kepada pangkalan data ini.


Features

PENUTUP

Rancangan Fizikal Negara

DOA

JPBD

Rancangan Struktur

warehouse

JUPEM

Rancangan Tempatan

Rancangan Desa

LAIN-LAIN AGENSI

MACRES

Rajah 2 : ‘Data Warehousing’

Sumber Data Data Operasi

Data Sejarah

Data Luaran

Perancangan adalah aktiviti pemprosesan maklumat. Perancangan Bandar menggunakan banyak data geospatial bagi tujuan penganalisaan. Oleh itu, semua jururancang tidak kira dari sektor awam atau swasta perlu memahirkan diri untuk menggunakan GIS sebagai alat perancangan. Bahagian yang paling getir dalam mengguna GIS adalah penyediaan data digital. Bahagian getir tersebut telah hampir berlalu. Data GIS telah mula mudah diperolehi bukan sahaja di Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa malah di agensi kerajaan lain yang turut menggunakan GIS untuk menyimpan maklumat mereka. Kewujudan Infrastruktur Data Geospatial Malaysia (MyGDI) perlu dipergunakan sepenuhnya untuk memperolehi dan berkongsi data digital. Melalui kaedah ini, produktiviti kerja dapat ditingkatkan dan penjimatan masa diperolehi. Di samping itu kualiti Perkhidmatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa di Malaysia akan dapat ditingkatkan.

Transformasi / Integrasi Meta Data

Data Warehouse

Pekerja Berpengetahuan

Rajah 3 : Struktur ‘Data Warehouse’

MOHD ALI abu bakar Beliau adalah seorang Pegawai Perancang Bandar dan Desa yang berkhidmat di Bahagian Teknologi Maklumat di Jabatan Perancangan Bandar Dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia sejak dari tahun 1997. Beliau berkelulusan MA GIS dari University of Leeds tahun 1996. Mewakili jabatan dalam pelbagai Jawatankuasa berhubung dengan pembangunan GIS di Malaysia seperti MyGDI dan JUPEM dan juga selaku tenaga pengajar dan jurulatih kursus GIS Jabatan. Berpengalaman dalam perancangan Luar Bandar, Rancangan Struktur dan Rancangan Tempatan sebelum ditempatkan di Bahagian Teknologi Maklumat. Ditukarkan ke Pejabat Projek Kuala Lumpur mulai Mei 2004. RUJUKAN:

Pangkalan Data Geospatial JPBD

Tambah Nilai

Guna Data

1. Sepakat Computer Consultant Sdn. Bhd. (1977) “Information System Planning, Final Report 1997”. Tidak diterbitkan. 2. Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia (2001) “Manual Penyediaan Rancangan Tempatan (Pindaan 2001). MS ISO 9001. Sistem Kualiti Perkhidmatan Bagi Penyediaan Rancangan Tempatan”. Tidak diterbitkan. 3. Mohd Ali b. Abu Bakar (1999) “Kepentingan mewujudkan Pangkalan Data Kajian Rancangan Tempatan Dalam Format Sistem Maklumat Geografi”, Kertas kerja dalam Bengkel Rancangan Tempatan bagi Pengurus-pengurus Projek Kajian Rancangan Tempatan, Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa, 29 Mei 1999, di Strait Meridian Hotel, Bandar Melaka. Tidak diterbitkan. 4. Henk J. Scholten and John C. H. Stillwell, eds.. (1990) “Geographical Information Systems for Urban and Regional Planning”, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Rajah 4 : Memperkaya Pangkalan Data

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Features Features

TRANFORMASI SISTEM INFRASTRUKTUR KEBANGSAAN BAGI TANAH (NaLIS) KEPADA INFRASTRUKTUR DATA GEOSPATIAL NEGARA (MyGDI) LILY HAMMADAH ramle email: hammadahr@townplan.gov.my Penolong Pengarah, Seksyen Penyelidikan dan Pembangunan, Pusat Infrastruktur Data Geospatial Negara (MaCGDI), Kementerian Tanah dan Pembangunan Koperasi

LATARBELAKANG PEMBANGUNAN MyGDI

Pembangunan Sistem Infrastruktur Kebangsaan bagi Tanah (National Infrastructure for Land Information System) atau lebih dikenali sebagai NaLIS telah bermula dalam RMK7 bagi membolehkan pengguna-pengguna maklumat tanah mendapat maklumat tanah dengan cepat dan tepat dengan menggunakan kemudahan teknologi maklumat. Memandangkan skop dan tugas bagi melaksanakan aktiviti pembangunan infrastruktur data geospatial amat besar meliputi perkara-perkara berkaitan polisi, standard, teknologi, peraturan, perundangan, keselamatan serta pembiayaan termasuk penyediaan data di agensi-agensi di peringkat Persekutuan, Negeri dan Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan, maka Pusat Infrastruktur Data Geospatial Negara (Malaysian Centre For Geospatial Data Infrastructure) MaCGDI telah diluluskan penubuhannya bagi menggantikan Sistem Infrastruktur Kebangsaan Bagi Maklumat Tanah (National Infrastructure for Land Information System) NaLIS.

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MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN


Features

Selaras dengan penubuhan MaCGDI pada 1 Disember 2002, Sistem Infrastruktur Kebangsaan bagi Maklumat Tanah (NaLIS) telah diubah namanya kepada Infrastruktur Data Geospatial Negara (MyGDI). Objektif pembangunan dan pelaksanaan MyGDI adalah: 1. Untuk menyediakan mekanisma bagi memudahkan penggunaan dan perkongsian data geospatial di kalangan agensi pembekal dan pengguna. 2. Untuk mewakili kepentingan agensiagensi di peringkat nasional dan antarabangsa berkaitan pengendalian data geospatial. 3. Untuk menggalakkan penggunaan data geospatial yang lebih meluas di peringkat negeri dan nasional. 4. Untuk meransang dan mempertingkatkan kesedaran terhadap nilai data geospatial dan teknologi yang berkaitan. 5. Untuk bekerjasama ke arah pembangunan data geospatial negara yang kukuh.

MyGDI ‘CLEARINGHOUSE’

MyGDI beroperasi di dalam konsep sistem clearinghouse di mana agensiagensi pembekal data membekalkan data mereka kepada clearinghouse MyGDI negeri berkaitan bagi membolehkan aktiviti perkongsian data dilaksanakan. Bagi agensi-agensi kerajaan negeri, adalah digalakkan penempatan data dibuat di clearinghouse MyGDI negeri secara berpusat. Kaedah ini dilaksanakan bertujuan untuk memudahkan pengurusan sistem aplikasi, data dan masalah rangkaian . Bagi agensi-agensi persekutuan di negeri-negeri, peralatan MyGDI di tempatkan di agensi berkaitan untuk penempatan data selain dari pembekalan terus dari ibu pejabat masing-masing.

MyGDI national clearinghouse server yang berfungsi sebagai pusat sumber rujukan bagi data geospatial terletak di Pusat Insfrastruktur Data Geospatial Negara (Malaysian Centre for Geospatial Data Insfrastructure) MaCGDI, Kementerian Tanah dan Pembangunan Koperasi. Manakala MyGDI state clearinghouse server terletak di UPEN atau pusat komputer negeri-negeri. Konsep perkongsian data melalui clearinghouse rangkaian MyGDI adalah seperti rajah di bawah:

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Features DATA MyGDI

Data Geospatial juga dikenali sebagai data spatial ataupun maklumat geografi. Ianya merujuk kepada maklumat semulajadi (natural) dan buatan manusia (man-made) serta sempadan di bumi yang dapat dikenalpasti lokasi geografinya. Data ini diperolehi melalui teknologi-teknologi pemetaan dan pengukuran, foto udara dan remote sensing. Data non-spatial pula adalah data berbentuk tekstual seperti data statistik, pemilikan dan hasil tanah, penilaian dan percukaian. Kategori Data MyGDI termasuklah :-

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Maklumat yang terdapat dalam kategori ini adalah Peta Guna Tanah yang berasaskan kadaster termasuklah maklumat kediaman, perniagaan, industri, pendidikan, keagamaan, rekreasi, perkuburan serta kawasan pembangunan yang kebanyakannya disediakan oleh Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan serta Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan.

Menunjukkan maklumat berkaitan sempadan hakmilik, sempadan pilihanraya, pelan perancangan, lot-lot tanah, penilaian harta dan demografi yang disediakan oleh Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan, Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa, Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan, Jabatan Penilaian dan Perkhidmatan Harta, Jabatan Perangkaan dan Pejabat Tanah dan Galian.

Merupakan data persempadanan kelas unit geologi dan kandungan mineral, maklumat hidrologi serta kejuruteraan geologi. Data-data tersebut disediakan oleh Jabatan Mineral dan Geosains.

Built Environment

Demarcation

Geology

Hydrology

Hypsography

Soil

Meliputi data-data pesisiran pantai, struktur garisan pantai, perikanan, jeti dan pelabuhan, inland water body serta laut lepas. Data-data tersebut disediakan oleh Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan dan Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran serta Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan.

Meliputi maklumat peta topografi pelbagai skala termasuk garisan kontor, embarkment, titik aras, lurah, cerun dan sebagainya. Data-data berkenaan disediakan oleh Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan.

Mengandungi maklumat-maklumat berkenaan tanah seperti kesesuaian tanah, maklumat jenis tanah dan peta hakisan tanah yang disediakan oleh Jabatan Pertanian.

MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN


Mengandungi maklumat-maklumat jalinan jalan raya persekutuan, negeri dan pihak berkuasa tempatan, jalan keretapi, komuter, ERL, LRT dan juga Monorail. Data-data ini disediakan oleh Jabatan Kerja Raya dan Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan.

Mengandungi maklumat spatial berkaitan bekalan elektrik, bekalan air, telekomunikasi, minyak dan gas, sistem kumbahan, pengurusan sisa pepejal serta broadcasting. Maklumat-maklumat tersebut dibekalkan oleh agensi-agensi pembekal utiliti seperti Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Syarikat Telekom Malaysia, Perbadanan Air Negeri, Indah water, Petronas dan Radio Televisyen Malaysia.

Data yang terkandung di bawah kategori ini termasuk maklumat land use, zon pertanian, indeks hujan, rizab hutan serta kawasan kering dan berair. Data ini disediakan oleh Jabatan Pertanian, Jabatan Perhutanan dan Jabatan Kajicuaca.

Transportation

Utility

Vegetation

General

Aeronautical

Special Use

Mengandungi maklumat titik kawalan, tanda-tanda sempadan bandar, daerah, negeri dan antarabangsa. Data-data tersebut disediakan oleh Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan.

Mengandungi maklumat berkenaan dengan Pengangkutan Udara seperti lapangan terbang, landasan kapal terbang, helipad dan sebagainya. Data-data tersebut disediakan oleh Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan.

Kategori data ini mengandungi maklumat-maklumat data tambah nilai yang telah diperolehi hasil daripada penjanaan terhadap data asas geospatial seperti digital terrain model (DTM), orthophoto dan seumpamanya. Maklumat ini kebanyakannya dihasilkan oleh Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan.

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Features KEMAJUAN PEMBANGUNAN MyGDI

Sehingga tahun 2003, pembangunan MyGDI telah dilaksanakan di 6 buah negeri iaitu Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Sabah, Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan, Perlis, Kedah dan Melaka. Agensi-agensi yang terlibat dalam pembangunan MyGDI adalah :Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur (14 agensi) Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia (JUPEM) Jabatan Kerja Raya Jabatan Pertanian Jabatan Perhutanan Jabatan Perangkaan Pusat Remote Sensing Negara (MACRES) Jabatan Mineral dan Geosains Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan WPKL Pejabat Tanah dan Galian WPKL Jabatan Penilaian DBKL Jabatan Penilaian dan Perkhidmatan Harta Jabatan Perancang DBKL Jabatan Pengangkutan Bandar DBKL Sabah (10 agensi) Jabatan Tanah dan Ukur Sabah Dewan Bandaraya Kota Kinabalu Jabatan Pertanian Jabatan Perhutanan Jabatan Kerja Raya Jabatan Perangkaan Cawangan Sabah Jabatan Minerals dan Geosains Cawangan Sabah Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Jabatan Perikanan Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Wilayah Perlis (5 agensi) Pejabat Tanah dan Galian Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Unit Perancang Ekonomi (UPEN) Majlis Perbandaran Kangar Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Kedah (7 agensi) Pejabat Tanah dan Galian Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Unit Perancang Ekonomi (UPEN) Majlis Perbandaran Sungai Petani Majlis Daerah Kubang Pasu Majlis Perbandaran Kota Setar Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa

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MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN

Melaka (7 agensi) Pejabat Tanah dan Galian Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Unit Perancang Ekonomi (UPEN) Majlis Bandaraya Melaka Bersejarah Majlis Daerah Jasin Majlis Perbandaran Alor Gajah Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan (3 agensi) Jabatan Tanah Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Perbadanan Labuan Pembangunan bagi negeri-negeri lain iaitu Pulau Pinang, Perak, Selangor, Kelantan,Terengganu, Pahang, Johor, Sarawak dan WP Putrajaya akan dibuat pada tahun 2004-2005.

LILY HAMMADAH ramle Mula berkhidmat di Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia pada November 1997 sebagai Pegawai Perancang bandar di Pejabat Projek Kuala Lumpur. Beliau terlibat dalam penyediaan beberapa kajian rancangan pembangunan dan Kajian Penempatan Semula Orang Asli. Antaranya ialah Rancangan Struktur Negeri Perak, Rancangan Tempatan Pendamaran, Rancangan Tempatan Cheras, Rancangan Tempatan BangiSemenyih dan Beranang, Rancangan Tempatan Kuala Kangsar, Rancangan Tempatan Daerah Sabak Bernam dan Kajian Penyusunan Semula Kg. Orang Asli Kg. Sawah. Pada bulan Mei 2003 sehingga Mac 2004, telah bertugas sebagai kader JPBD di Bahagian Pusat Infrastruktur Data Geospatial Negara (MaCGDI), Kementerian Tanah dan Pembangunan Koperasi sebagai Penolong Pengarah Seksyen Penyelidikan dan Pembagunan. Bermula 1 April 2004, bertugas sebagai Penolong Setiausaha di Kementerian Wilayah Persekutuan, Putrajaya. Telah mengikuti beberapa kursus dalam dan luar negara melalui program ‘Geotechnical Analysis Research and Development’ (GSARD) bagi meningkatkan kemahiran analisis spatial dalam penyediaan rancangan pembangunan. Antaranya kursus-kursus ArchView dan ArchGIS di UTM, Expert Choice dan AHP di UIA dan kursus Spatial Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM) selama sebulan di International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (ITC), Enschede,The Netherland pada tahun 2002. RUJUKAN: 1. Laman Web http://www.macgdi.gov.my 2. Kertas kerja dan brosur yang dikeluarkan oleh MaCGDI


Features

PELAKSANAAN SISTEM MAKLUMAT GEOGRAFI DI JABATAN PERANCANGAN BANDAR DAN DESA NEGERI, Kepentingan, Dilema dan Potensi Melaksanakannya MOHD. NAZRI abdullah, email: nazri@townplan.gov.my Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa, Semenanjung Malaysia.

Kertas kerja ini merupakan kertas kerja yang diubahsuai daripada pembentangan bertajuk Pelaksanaan Sistem Maklumat Geografi di dalam Pembangunan Negeri Kedah pada Seminar Sehari Bersama MyGDI, di Swiss Inn, Sungai Petani, November 2003.

ABSTRAK Penggunaan GIS sudah bertapak hampir satu dekad di negara ini. Bidang perancangan bandar dan desa mempunyai potensi yang besar di dalam menggunakannya. Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa (JPBD) Negeri adalah pihak yang sangat memerlukannya di dalam menjalankan tugas di dalam mengawal pemajuan gunatanah di negara ini. Kertas kerja memberi contoh penggunaanya di dalam melaksanakan Sistem ‘charting’ dan Maklumat Rancangan Pemajuan di JPBD Negeri Kedah.Walaupun masih menggunakan fungsi-fungsi ringkas perisian GIS tetapi ianya banyak memberi manfaat. Malah pelaksanaannya di JPBD Negeri Kedah telah diiktiraf dengan menjadi Johan Pertandingan Inovasi Peringkat Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa, Semenanjung Malaysia tahun 2003.

PENGENALAN

Sistem Maklumat Geografi (Geographical Information System - GIS) mula hangat diperkatakan di Malaysia sejak tahun 1980 an lagi. Penulis masih ingat lagi pada tahun 1991, di mana rata-rata para akademik, pegawai-pegawai kerajaan dan swasta begitu sibuk memperkatakan tentang GIS. Di dalam tempoh 10 tahun tersebut, GIS ini sepatutnya telah mencapai tahap matang dari segi pelaksanaannya. Walaupun begitu, sehingga kini khususnya Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa (JPBD) sama ada di peringkat persekutuan, negeri mahupun Bahagian Perancangan di Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan, kejayaan GIS kurang diketahui kecuali segelintir JPBD Negeri dan Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan. Apa yang lebih banyak dihebahkan adalah pembelian-pembelian perisian GIS terkini yang ditawarkan, peralatan komputer, pembelian atau pembikinan peta-peta digital serta kajian-kajian sistem perkomputeran termasuk GIS.

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Masalah untuk mendapat dan menyediakan data juga merupakan masalah utama. Pelbagai sumber data dengan kualiti yang berbeza-beza akan menyebabkan berlaku kegusaran di dalam pelaksanaan GIS

GIS merupakan satu bentuk sistem maklumat khusus yang digunakan untuk memproses data geografi bagi menghasilkan maklumat. Maklumat yang dihasilkan melaluinya biasanya berbentuk peta (peta biasa atau peta tematik), model dan statistik. Apa yang penting mengenai GIS ini menggunakan data spatial (geographically referenced data) dan juga data bukan spatial serta termasuk semua operasi yang menyokong analisis spatial. Satu definisi yang relevan kepada bidang perancangan bandar dan desa adalah dengan mentakrifkan GIS sebagai satu sistem yang mengandungi perkakasan, perisian, prosedur-prosedur yang direkabentuk bagi menyokong pemerolehan, pengurusan, manipulasi, analisis, permodelan dan paparan data geografi (spatial dan bukan spatial) untuk menyelesaikan masalah-masalah perancangan, pengawalan, pemantauan serta pengurusan yang kompleks. Definisi di atas disokong oleh pendapat bahawa GIS itu terdiri dari empat (4) sub sistem iaitu : i) Data input ii) Simpanan data iii) Manipulasi dan analisis data iv) Pemaparan maklumat

DATA Data merupakan input ke dalam sistem yang berupa data spatial atau bukan spatial. Sumber data adalah foto udara, peta, imej satelit, pelan, laporan dan sebagainya.Teknik kemasukan data adalah berasaskan 'keyboard', pengimbas, 'digitizer' dan lain-lain. Kualiti data bergantung kepada ketepatan, terkini dan keutuhan. Data-data ini akan menjadi pengkalan data kepada GIS; MAKLUMAT Merupakan output dari GIS yang berbentuk peta, model statistik dan laporan; PROSEDUR Prosedur ini melibatkan proses-proses kemasukan data, penyimpanan data, pemprosesan data, pemaparan maklumat, pengurusan sistem dan penyelenggaraan sistem; PERKAKASAN Perkakasan ini melibatkan tiga peringkat iaitu perkakasan untuk kemasukan data (digitizer, keyboard, pengimbas), perkakasan memproses data (CPU), perkakasan penyimpanan (disket, zip, cakera padat) dan pemaparan (plotter, pencetak); PERISIAN Melibatkan semua perisian untuk menggerakan Sistem GIS.Terdiri daripada sistem operasi (Window 97, Window NT, Unix dan lain-lain), Sistem Pengurusan Pangkalan Data (Dbase, Microsoft Access, Oracle dan lain-lain) serta Perisian GIS (MapINFO, ArcINFO, AutoDeskWorld, Geomedia dan sebagainya); MANUSIA Melibatkan semua pihak yang terlibat dengan perlaksanaan GIS; APLIKASI Aplikasi ini bergantung kepada bidang kerja. Contohnya Perancangan Bandar dan Desa memerlukan aplikasi seperti 'Development and Planning System, Planning Monitoring System, Planning Approval System' dan lain-lain.

PROCESS

INPUT

30

Di dalam menggerakkan empat (4) sub sistem di atas, GIS umumnya mengandungi tujuh (7) komponen untuk memproses data geografi bagi pelbagai tujuan.Tujuh komponen tersebut seperti berikut :-

OUTPUT

DATA

SIMPANAN

MANIPULASI &

PEMAPARAN

INPUT

DATA

ANALISIS DATA

MAKLUMAT

MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN


Features

Secara mudah, dapat difahami bahawa perkara penting di dalam melaksanakan GIS adalah DATA. Data merupakan input ke dalam sistem GIS yang berupa data spatial dan bukan spatial. Keperluannya sama ada dari segi kualiti, kuantiti dan sumber data sangat bergantung kepada skop dan matlamat sistem GIS yang hendak dicapai. Ahliahli GIS bersependapat bahawa kejayaan GIS banyak bergantung kepada data. Data ini merupakan sumber yang dinamik iaitu berubah mengikut peredaran masa dan keperluannya. Manakala kepakaran, perisian, perkakasan, tenaga kerja, kaedahkaedah penyediaan pangkalan data dan penyelenggaraan sistem merupakan jentera pengoperasian GIS. Maklumat merupakan hasil akhir yang dicapai oleh matlamat pelaksanaannya. Berdasarkan kepada ringkasan definisi di atas, dapat dibuat kesimpulan bahawa penubuhan GIS banyak bergantung kepada DATA. Ianya boleh diibaratkan sebagai bahan mentah untuk menggerakkan GIS. Sebaliknya, jentera pengoperasian (perisian, kepakaran, peralatan, tenaga kerja dan lain-lain) merupakan pemandu kepada sistem GIS.

POTENSI PELAKSANAAN GIS DI JABATAN PERANCANGAN BANDAR DAN DESA, NEGERI (JPBD NEGERI).

Sebagai seorang pegawai yang bertugas di JPBD Negeri, penulis yakin pelaksanaan GIS di JPBD Negeri mempunyai ruang penggunaan yang amat besar tetapi sehingga kini pengisiannya pelaksanaan adalah terhad sekali. Adalah jelas sekali, penggunaan pelan, peta (maklumat spatial) dan maklumatmaklumat bukan spatial di dalam kerjakerja harian di JPBD Negeri amat banyak. Di Negeri Kedah contohnya, kerja-kerja harian melibatkan 454 syit piawai skala 1 in : 8 rantai, 76 syit piawai skala 1 in : 1 rantai dan juga peta rupabumi Siri L7030 skala 1 : 250000. Ini tidak termasuk pelan-pelan tatatur induk, pelan pengezonan dan tidak terkecuali Peta Cadangan Rancangan Pemajuan (Rancangan Struktur dan Rancangan Tempatan). Pelan-pelan atau peta-peta yang dimaksudkan ini adalah merupakan sumber utama untuk melaksanakan GIS. JPBD Negeri umumnya merupakan jabatan teknikal penting yang melaksanakan perancangan guna tanah masa hadapan di dalam pembangunan sesebuah negeri. Di dalam menjalankan tanggungjawab tersebut, pelbagai jenis data (spatial dan bukan spatial) amat diperlukan sama ada data-data yang lepas (data-data ini adalah banyak dan rumit), data-data semasa mahupun data-data yang akan datang. Semua data-data ini perlu diuruskan secara baik untuk membolehkan peranan yang dimaksudkan di atas dapat diberikan dengan baik dan berkesan. Bagi JPBD Negeri Kedah, antara kerja-kerja yang sangat bergantung kepada peta-peta

dan data-data berkaitannya adalah seperti berikut :, ‘Charting’; Pertanyaan Kaunter; Pelan Tatatur Induk (mungkin di negeri lain menggunakan istilah yang lain); Pelan Pengezonan dan Rancangan Pemajuan; Projek-projek Khas; Data-data kemudahan awam dan infrastruktur; Pelan Tekanan Pembangunan dan lain-lain lagi. Justeru itu, penulis berpendapat GIS merupakan alat yang berkesan di dalam membantu membuat keputusan perancangan pembangunan. Kajian 'Information System Planning' yang telah dibuat bagi penyediaan Pelan Strategik Teknologi Maklumat oleh JPBD Ibu Pejabat (Bahagian Teknikal Maklumat dengan kerjasama pihak perunding) telah mencadangkan Sistem Aplikasi Teknikal yang perlu dilaksanakan di JPBD Negeri seperti berikut :, Development and Planning System; Planning Monitoring System; Planning Approval System; Counter Service System; Appeal Board System; SPC Decision Support System; Data Warehousing and Executive Information System. Berdasarkan kepada penerangan di dalam Pelan Strategik Teknologi Maklumat tersebut, boleh dikatakan hampir 80 % daripada sistem di atas berasaskan kepada penggunaan GIS. Gambaran ini menunjukkan bahawa JPBD Negeri tidak boleh lari daripada melaksanakan GIS sebagai alat untuk membantu melaksanakan tugas-tugas harian.

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31


APLIKASI GIS YANG DIPERLUKAN OLEH JABATAN PERANCANGAN BANDAR DAN DESA NEGERI Pengalaman JPBD Negeri Kedah.

Di dalam melaksanakan GIS di JPBD Negeri, kejelasan matlamat perlaksanaan GIS, peruntukan kewangan yang besar serta berterusan, kepakaran di dalam bidang GIS, sokongan pihak atasan, tenaga kerja yang mencukupi serta rangka program pelaksanaan memainkan peranan yang penting. Di dalam pelaksanaan GIS di JPBD Kedah, memandangkan kesukaran mencapai syarat-syarat dinyatakan di atas maka pendekatan bersesuaian dengan kemampuan digunapakai. Ini bermakna, pelaksanaan GIS dijalankan mengikut peruntukan, kepakaran dan tenaga kerja yang sedia ada dan terhad. Walaubagaimanapun, visi dan matlamat GIS dan rangka program kerja diutamakan. Secara umumnya, perancangan pelaksanaan GIS di JPBD Kedah adalah berasaskan kepada Model Sistem Pengkalan Data Maklumat Perancangan yang terkandung di dalam Pelan 'Information System Planning'. Model umum ini, diubahsuai mengikut keperluan JPBD Kedah. Memandangkan kekurangan tenaga kerja, kepakaran dan peruntukan kewangan, JPBD Kedah telah memutuskan untuk memberi penumpuan kepada dua Aplikasi Asas GIS iaitu : 1. 2.

Tujuan : Menukar Sistem 'Charting' sedia ada iaitu 'charting' berasaskan Syit Piawai berskala 1 in : 8 rantai dan 1 in : 1 rantai kepada 'charting' digital menggunakan peta kadastral berdigital.

'Charting' bagi JPBD Negeri Kedah merupakan maklumat terpenting yang berkaitan rekod fail-fail permohonan perancangan yang diproses. Memandangkan masalah syit piawai yang mengandungi maklumat-maklumat penting tersebut yang kerap mengalami kerosakan, kehilangan dan sukar dibaca maka Jabatan telah memutuskan untuk memindahkan maklumat-maklumat tersebut ke dalam bentuk digital menggunakan peta kadastral digital. Di peringkat awalan, hanya maklumat-maklumat asas 'charting' dikemaskini. Walaubagaimanapun, lapisan-lapisan maklumat yang membentuk Sistem Maklumat 'Charting' (KeCHART) yang berasaskan dan diubahsuai dari Aplikasi Sistem Pengkalan Data Maklumat Perancangan. Pengoperasian Sistem KeCHART yang berasaskan perisian MapINFO Ver 6.5 memudahkan pencarian 'charting' dan juga memplot 'charting'. Walaupun masih menggunakan menu-menu yang terdapat di dalam perisian MapINFO (tidak ada customization) kerja-kerja yang biasanya dilakukan secara manual dapat mengurangkan masa semasa melaksanakannya.

Sistem Maklumat 'Charting' (KeCHART) Sistem Maklumat Rancangan Pemajuan (KeDAP)

Sistem ini dilaksanakan terlebih dahulu memandangkan ia banyak melibatkan peta-peta terutamanya syit piawai dan kegunaan yang terlalu kerap serta kepentingan yang tinggi. Kedua-dua aplikasi di atas kebanyakannya menggunakan arahan-arahan analisis 'query' dan 'find' ke atas maklumat di dalam bentuk peta dan maklumat tekstual. Walaupun menjalankan analisis yang ringkas tetapi kaedah ini amat berguna di dalam membantu kerjakerja penting di JPBD Kedah yang melibatkan 'charting' dan maklumat rancangan pemajuan.

32

Sistem Maklumat 'Charting' (KeCHART)

MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN

Contoh Kaedah Penggunaan KeCHART a. Kaedah 1: Pencarian Lot / 'Charting' Menggunakan SQL / 'Query' berasaskan Peta Kadastral 1. Pencarian Nombor Lot berasaskan Peta Kadastral Jabatan Ukur & Pemetaan. Jika tiada, akan dicari melalui Nombor Lot di atas Peta Kadastral yang disediakan oleh JPBD Kedah. 2. Lot yang di kehendaki telah dijumpai melalui kedua-dua peta kadastral diatas. 3. Lot atau lot-lot yang ditemui akan di'charting'kan (jika belum ada) atau 'charting' yang sedia ada. Semua maklumat 'charting' perlu dimasukan ke dalam Peta Kadastral Digital untuk mendapatkan 'charting' yang lengkap.


Features

Senarai Lapisan Aplikasi GIS: KeCHART dan KeDAP Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Negeri Kedah PENTADBIRAN

PETA ASAS

KEMUDAHAN

NEGERI DAERAH MUKIM

JUPEM JPBD SEMENTARA

AGAMA PENDIDIKAN KESIHATAN

SEKSYEN SYIT PIAWAI

PLOT MMK PLOT PBT

POLIS BOMBA

SALIRAN

SIRKULASI

SUNGAI

JALANRAYA LEBUHRAYA KERETAPI

SG SINGLE TERUSAN

GIS

FIZIKAL TOPOGRAFI KECERUNAN JENIS TANAH

JPBD KEDAH

UTILITI GAS RENTIS TNB

SATELIT IMEJ

KeCHART

LANDSAT PHOTOUDARA

CARTA UTAMA SEMENTARA PERTANYAAN

GUNATANAH

KeDAP

RT RTD

RT RS

RSN RFN

PELAN 'ZONING' KWS PBGN

SATELIT

Rajah 1 :

1

Senarai Lapisan Aplikasi GIS: KeCHART dan KeDAP Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Negeri Kedah

2

3

ISSUE 01 / VOL. 02 / JUNE. 2004

33


Rajah 2 : Pencarian menggunakan arahan 'Query' terhadap Syit Piawai yang dikehendaki

Contoh Kaedah Penggunaan KeCHART b. Kaedah 2: Pencarian Lot / 'Charting' Menggunakan 'Query' berasaskan Syit Piawai / Piawaian 1. Pencarian menggunakan arahan 'Query' terhadap Syit Piawai / Piawaian yang dikehendaki. 2. Syit Piawaian yang dikehendaki telah ditemui dan lapisan-lapisan berkaitan dibuka untuk carian terperinci. Menggunakan kaedah ini memerlukan banyak elemen lain untuk membantu carian seperti jalan, sungai, kemudahan awam dan utiliti. Kebiasaannya ia melibatkan pencarian plot-plot baru. Selain daripada mempunyai Peta Asas yang berkaitan lot, Sistem KeCHART ini perlu mempunyai lapisan-lapisan sokongan untuk membantu dan memberi maklumat kepada sistem ini.

Rajah 3 : Syit Piawaian yang dikehendaki telah ditemui dan lapisan-lapisan berkaitan dibuka untuk carian terperinci

Dengan berteraskan kepada Aplikasi Sistem Pangkalan Data Maklumat Perancangan, sistem KeCHART ini berupaya untuk diperkembangkan terutamanya untuk diintergrasikan dengan Pelan Tatatur Induk Digital yang dijalankan menggunakan perisian CAD. Ini bertujuan untuk melengkapkan

34

MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN

Sistem Maklumat Perancangan yang dicadangkan berikut :, Development and Planning System; Planning Monitoring System; Planning Approval System. Selain itu, dengan tersedianya data dan maklumat 'charting' ini akan membolehkan 'customization' dibuat pada

masa hadapan apabila mempunyai peruntukan kelak. Inovasi dari pelaksanaan KeCHART adalah masa melakukan 'charting' dapat dijimatkan dan maklumat-maklumat yang diperlukan untuk memproses fail permohonan perancangan dapat dipaparkan di peringkat awal lagi.


Features

2. SISTEM MAKLUMAT RANCANGAN PEMAJUAN (KeDAP)

Tujuan : Menukar maklumat-maklumat yang terkandung di dalam Cadangan Gambarajah Utama (maklumat spatial) dengan disokong maklumat tekstual (maklumat bukan spatial) mengikut keperluan JPBD Kedah ke dalam bentuk digital. Ini melibatkan data spatial (Cadangan Gambarajah Utama) dan maklumat cadangan perancangan utama.

Rancangan Pemajuan (Rancangan Tempatan dan Rancangan Struktur) dan Pelan Pengezonan merupakan sumber rujukan utama di dalam memproses permohonan perancangan dan juga pertanyaan kaunter. Di dalam keadaan semasa, Peta Cadangan Gambarajah Utama dan maklumat-maklumat perancangan berkaitannya adalah di dalam bentuk 'hardcopy'. Penggunaan Peta Cadangan Gambarajah Utama mengalami kesukaran kerana peta tersebut kerap tersalah letak, hilang, koyak, maklumat di dalam bentuk yang berbeza dan maklumat perancangan di dalam bentuk laporan akan mengambil masa untuk disemak. Selain itu, penterjemahan yang berbeza terhadap Rancangan Pemajuan oleh pegawai-pegawai yang memproses fail atau layanan kaunter kadang kala memberikan maklumat yang tidak konsisten kepada pelanggan. Pembangunan Sistem KeDAP ini merupakan titik permulaan bagi menggunapakai maklumat-maklumat Rancangan Pemajuan sebaik mungkin. Walaupun ia merupakan satu aplikasi yang ringkas

dan asas, ianya tetap mempunyai ruang yang luas untuk diperkembangkan dan dipertingkatkan di masa hadapan bergantung kepada kepakaran dan juga peruntukan kewangan. Dua aplikasi di atas, merupakan aplikasi yang mudah, ringkas dan ditahap asas. Walaubagaimanapun dari segi kegunaannya, ia mampu meringankan tugastugas harian terumatamanya dari segi penjimatan masa. Malah penggunaan GIS secara lebih mendalam dan menyeluruh terutamanya pemakaian alat-alat analisis secara keseluruhannya di dalam proses automasi pejabat akan membuatkan kerja-kerja akan menjadi lebih mudah dan cepat. Jika berdasarkan kepada Pelan 'Information System Planning', didapati keperluan Aplikasi 'Planning Approval System' adalah sangat penting. Walaubagaimanapun, penyediaannya memerlukan peruntukan kewangan yang tinggi kerana melibatkan data yang lengkap, menyeluruh dan tepat serta 'customization'.

Rajah 4 : Pencarian lot atau lot-lot di dalam kawasan Rancangan Tempatan menggunakan SQL atau 'Query'.

Rajah 5: Lot atau lot-lot yang dikehendaki telah ditemui.

Rajah 6 : Menggunakan arahan 'Hotlink' untuk menyambungkan ke maklumat berkaitan Blok Perancangan Kecil (BPK) Rancangan Tempatan berkaitan.

Rajah 7 : Paparan Maklumat BPK di dalam perisian MS Word. Maklumat berkenaan boleh terus dicetak.

ISSUE 01 / VOL.02 / JUNE. 2004

35


Features “Hanya akan tinggal kenangan.�

MASALAH PELAKSANAAN GIS DI JABATAN PERANCANGAN BANDAR DAN DESA NEGERI.

Umumnya, masalah utama pelaksanaan GIS di JPBD Negeri tentunya berkaitan dengan peruntukan kewangan. Peruntukan kewangan yang disediakan hanya meliputi skop pengurusan, manakala peruntukan aktiviti pembangunan hanya melibatkan peruntukan penyediaan Rancangan Pemajuan. Walaupun permohonan peruntukan berasingan khusus untuk pembangunan GIS boleh diajukan tetapi ianya tertakluk kepada kemampuan kerajaan negeri. Walaupun dari segi perolehan peralatan mampu diusahakan tetapi kos yang tinggi untuk perisian, perolehan data-data tepat dan 'customization' terhadap aplikasi sedikit sebanyak boleh membataskan pelaksanaan GIS dengan baik. Selain itu, masalah utama yang perlu diberi perhatian adalah kurangnya perancangan pelaksaan pembangunan ICT. Pelan 'Information System Planning' yang

36

MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN

disediakan adalah amat baik sekali. Tetapi dengan kurangnya pendedahan akan isi kandungan pelan tersebut bermakna kajiannya tidak dapat dimanfaatkan di peringkat negeri. Malah kebanyakan JPBD Negeri terkapai-kapai untuk melaksanakan aplikasi-aplikasi yang dicadangkan. Berkaitan dengan perkara di atas, ketiadaan tenaga pakar yang mahir di dalam bidang GIS turut menyumbang kepada masalah pelaksanaannya. Pelaksanaan GIS memerlukan perancangan dan program tindakan yang bersepadu dari pandangan pakar yang khusus di dalam bidang GIS. Walaupun tidak mempunyai tenaga pakar di JPBD Negeri sendiri, sekurang-kurangnya JPBD Negeri boleh merujuk kepada pasukan pakar tertentu. Malah jika, Pelan 'Information System Planning' diberi penerangan selengkapnya maka ia akan banyak membantu perancangan dan pelaksanaan GIS. Penubuhan pasukan atau unit khusus untuk melaksanakan GIS adalah pent-

ing. Dengan kekurangan tenaga kerja semasa ditambah dengan pengetahuan yang ada, tentunya penubuhan pasukan atau unit ini akan menjadi 'tidak popular' dan kurang bermotivasi. Penubuhan pasukan atau unit berkaitan GIS perlu melibatkan pegawai-pegawai dari kumpulan sistem maklumat dan juga memerlukan pegawai 'data entry' dan 'field survey' yang banyak. Masalah untuk mendapat dan menyediakan data juga merupakan masalah utama. Pelbagai sumber data dengan kualiti yang berbeza-beza akan menyebabkan berlaku kegusaran di dalam pelaksanaan GIS. Contohnya, peta asas syit piawai di JPBD Kedah menggunakan dua sumber iaitu dari Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia dan disediakan sendiri. Kedua-dua sumber ini mempunyai kualiti dan kuantiti (lengkap atau tidak) yang berbeza. Masalah sumber data ini kebiasaanya timbul disebabkan oleh skala, format dan ketepatan data yang berbeza-beza.


Features

Apa yang perlu dijawab mengenai pelaksanaan GIS di JPBD Negeri bukanlah kesukaran GIS itu sendiri. Tetapi persoalan pokok yang perlu dijawab, adakah kita mahu melaksanakan tugas dengan cara yang sama seperti yang kita lakukan pada masa lalu di dalam dunia yang serba canggih dan moden ini?

PERLUKAH GIS DIGUNAKAN PADA MASA HADAPAN?

Perlukah JPBD Negeri mengubah sistem kerja manual sedia ada kepada kaedah-kaedah digital (iaitu GIS bagi setengah-setengah aktiviti) sedangkan sumber-sumber untuk melaksanakannya adalah terhad? Sejauh manakah baiknya GIS berbanding dengan kerja secara manual ataupun melakukannya dengan perisian CAD? Untuk melaksanakan GIS, mungkin pelbagai persoalan timbul terutamanya untuk mengubah cara kerja semasa yang dilakukan dengan baik (yang pada pendapatnya boleh berjalan seperti biasa dan tiada masalah). Jawapan yang terbaik untuk menjawab persoalan tersebut adalah langkah untuk mempromosikan JPBD Negeri yang telah berjaya melaksanakannya. Ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan betapa tertinggalnya cara kita bekerja. Malah, penulis juga turut merasakan bahawa apa yang dilaksanakan di JPBD Negeri Kedah adalah jauh ketinggalan dari JPBD Negeri lain yang berjaya melaksanakannya. Apa yang perlu dijawab mengenai pelaksanaan GIS di JPBD Negeri bukanlah kesukaran GIS itu sendiri. Tetapi persoalan pokok yang perlu dijawab, adakah kita mahu melaksanakan tugas dengan cara yang sama seperti yang kita lakukan pada masa lalu di dalam dunia yang serba canggih dan moden ini? Dunia yang segalagalanya banyak menggunakan kaedah digital. Mungkin peta-peta yang menggunakan kertas sekarang ini hanya menjadi bahan simpanan di rak-rak pelan pada masa hadapan. Ini samalah seperti penggunaan telefon talian tetap sekarang ini lebih mirip menjadi bahan perhiasan berbanding dengan penggunaan telefon bimbit.

MOHD. NAZRI abdullah Memulakan karier di JPBD pada Mac 1995.Telah bertugas di Unit Latihan dan Perancangan Sumber Manusia (1995 - 1998), Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Negeri Kedah (1999 - 2003) dan sekarang bertugas di Bahagian Rancangan Pemajuan, Pejabat Projek Alor Star. Semasa di JPBD Negeri Kedah, beliau terlibat dengan pembangunan Bank Data dan GIS.Telah berjaya membawa JPBD Negeri Kedah memenangi dua anugerah inovasi iaitu Sistem Maklumat Perancangan (KESIP) pada tahun 2000 dan Sistem Maklumat Charting Berkomputer (KeCHART) dan Rancangan Pemajuan (KeDAP) pada 2003. Kertas kerja ini merupakan kertas kerja yang diubahsuai daripada pembentangan bertajuk Pelaksanaan Sistem Maklumat Geografi di dalam Pembangunan Negeri Kedah pada Seminar Sehari Bersama MyGDI, di Swiss Inn, Sungai Petani, November 2003. RUJUKAN: 1. CGIA, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dan NaLIS (2000) “Pengenalan Sistem Maklumat Geografi: Kursus Pendek untuk Agensi Berkaitan Tanah”. 2. Ishak Endan (2000) “Pelan Strategik Teknologi Maklumat JPBD di Mesyuarat Pegawai Perancang Bandar dan Desa Malaysia Ke XIII”. 3. MapINFO Corporation (2001) “MapINFO Professional: User's Guide”

ISSUE 01 / VOL.02 / JUNE. 2004

37


What if ?

aniste ‘04 b r u L’


Planning Tools Update

THE APPLICATION OF MULTIPLE CRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS IN THE KLANG VALLEY INTEGRATED LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION STUDY 1

2

3

MOHAMMED ALI sharifi1 alisharifi@itc.nl,, LUC boerboom2 boerboom@itc.nl,, KAMALRUDDIN shamsudin3 kamalruddins@townplan.gov.my

INTRODUCTION

Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis "MCDA" method has recently been applied to assist decision makers in the design and evaluation of several rail corridor options in the Klang Valley.This study is a follow-up of the Klang Valley Perspective Plan II (2000-2020) completed in 2001. Among the proposals in the plan was the need to identify suitable future rail corridors to enhance the usage of public transportation facilities to serve a projected population of 7 million people by the year 2020. The application of MCDA in the Malaysian setting, in particular, the design and evaluation of transportation facilities at the regional level, is believed to be the first of its kind (at least from regional development perspective).This therefore puts social and environmental concerns on par with economics and engineering concerns in the design and evaluation process, as the latter two concerns were traditionally given greater attention at the expense of the two former aspects in any (conventional Four Step approach) transportation studies. This article illustrates the application of MCDA technique to support the planning of an integrated land use and transportation system for the Klang Valley. In this process, a new preference assessment method was developed and applied.The method, called structured pair-wise comparison, is a slight variation of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) (Saaty, 1980). AHP uses pair-wise comparisons to derive ratio scale priorities, which is relatively difficult, time consuming and even sometimes tedious on the participants; especially when participants are not familiar with the Saaty scale. On the other hand structured pair-wise comparison method applied in this study has proven its ease of use within a limited time-constraints participatory framework. In this study, MCDA has been used as a framework for design, and evaluation of alternative rail-network in order to: i) Guide the preliminary design of potential alternative rail-networks, which matches the existing, and future socio-economic and technical requirements of the Klang Valley region. ii) Study the pros and cons of the potential networks from different perspectives, considering proper indicators in order to improve the designs. iii) Selection of proper transportation network through evaluation of potential alternative networks from different local authorities perspectives through considering relevant socio-economic, environmental and engineering criteria and indicators. Such preferred network shall be subjected for further detailed design and development. 1. Department of Urban Regional Planning and Geoinformation Management, International Institute for Geoinformation and Earth Observation (ITC), Netherlands. 2. Department of Urban Regional Planning and Geoinformation Management, International Institute for Geoinformation and Earth Observation (ITC), Netherlands. 3. Research and Development Division, Federal Department of Town & Country Planning, Ministry of Housing and Local Government, Malaysia.

40

MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN


BACKGROUND TO MCDA

MCDA is a transparent way to systematically collect and process objective information, express and communicate subjective judgements concerning choice from a set of alternatives affecting several stakeholders. Such a systematic, rational, and transparency of judgements most probably leads to more effective and efficient decisions by individuals or groups of decision makers.Value judgement4 is essential in comparisons of 2 or more alternatives/criteria. Such value judgement in MCDA is also expressed in the form of value function when handling criterion performance besides also in setting appropriate weight settings etc. Historically, Multiple Criteria Evaluation methods were developed to select the best alternative from a set of competing options.These included single criteria methods for example cost benefit analysis, decision tree analysis and payoff tables, and many other methods of Multiple Criteria Decision Making methods "MCDM". During its early development MCDM devoted itself to the core issue of formalizing decision methodologies within the analytical tradition.The emphasis was on developing and testing procedures for criteria measurement, weight evaluation, integration of partial views, and option selection. Several comprehensive surveys of these technical issues of spatial decision analysis were produced during the 1980s and early 1990s (Jean-Claude Thill, 1998). Over the years, these methods have evolved into a diverse range of decision aid techniques that can be 4. Values are subjective evidence specific to the problem.These are opinions, views, attitudes, prejudices, assumptions and interpretations that are difficult to measure but have important influences on the decision-making process.They are often used to test desirability and answer the question "is the decision right?" (Luc Boerboom and Ali Sharifi, 2002). Research on improving the assessment techniques for value function are still in progress (Marjan van Herwijnen, 1999).

used in many different decision making processes to: - structure the decision problem and improve the understanding of the main issues involved in the decision; - identify and assess the effect and impact of policy alternatives in various forms; - identify pros and cons of various management processes to support feed back and feed forwards; - identify pros and cons of various management options, and support the evaluation of multiple policy alternatives; - transparent and effective presentation of the choice of options and priorities - support reasoning in negotiations; and - analyse the sensitivity and robustness of options with respect to the selected criterion. DECISION MAKING PARADIGMS AND APPROACHES

Before describing the actual process of MCDA application, it is useful to mention the two main paradigms for decision-making 5 and their related decision models. i) Objective rationality (substantive rationality) where decision process results in selection of the best solution i.e. selection of an optimal course of action. It is also known as multi-objective decision making (MODM). It is sometimes viewed as a natural extension of mathematical programming, where single or several objective functions are considered simultaneously. ii) Procedural rationality (bounded rationality) where procedure to reach the best solution is optimal i.e. search for satisfied alternative rather than

Planning Tools

...a new preference assessment method...called structured pair-wise comparison, is a slight variation of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) (Saaty, 1980). AHP...is relatively difficult, time consuming and even sometimes tedious on the participants; especially when participants are not familiar with the Saaty scale.

optimal alternative.Therefore, selection of a course of action, which is only good enough, is the objective.This is supported by simulation and multiattribute decision-making (MADM). The objective and procedural rationalities can be related to two types of decision models i.e. normative models (prescriptive) and descriptive models. Normative models (as in MODM) indicate how to make a class of decisions (example engineering and economic criterion for selection among alternatives are handled through optimization). Decision makers seek to maximize profit or utility and are infinitely sensitive to differences among outcomes. On the other hand, descriptive models (as in MADM) indicates how decision maker actually makes decision, through a limited search for a few satisfactory alternatives which satisfies decision makers aspiration level (satisfice). This article essentially focus on such satisficing concerns and thus deals with MADM methods 6. Decision-making is a process, involving a sequence of activities that starts with recognition of a decision problem and ends with recommendation for a decision.The quality of the decision depends on the sequence and quality of activities that are carried out. Depending on the situation, there are a number of ways that the sequence of activities can be organized. According to Keeney (1992), two major approaches can be distinguished, the alternative-focused, and the valuefocused approach.The alternativefocused approach starts with development of alternative options, specification of values and criteria, then evaluation and recommendation of an option.

5. Failing to differentiate such understanding will result in users applying MCDM within a cookbook paradigm. Relevant expert knowledge in translating such criterion thresholds into a value function curve is a requirement. 6. For a related descriptive theory, see “Prospect Theory� (1979) concerning decisions under risk. It explains how and why our choices deviate from the normative model of expected-utility theory.

ISSUE 01 / VOL. 02 / JUNE. 2004

41


Figure 1 : Hierarchy of goal, objectives, criteria, indicators and Rail Network option

The value-focused approach on the other hand, considers the values as the fundamental element in the decision analysis.Therefore it first focuses on the specification of values (value structure), then considering the values feasible options are developed and evaluated based on the predefined value and criteria structure.This implies that decision alternatives should be generated in such a way that values specified for a decision situation are best achieved. In other words, the order of thinking is focused on what is desired, rather than evaluation of alternatives. In fact alternatives are considered as means to achieve the more fundamental values, rather than being an end. Naturally, in decision problems which alternative options have to be developed and then evaluated, the value-focus approach can be much more effective, however if the decision problem starts with choice of option, the alternativefocused is more relevant.

APPLIED MCDM METHODOLOGY TO THE KLANG VALLEY

The objective of the Klang Valley Integrated Land use and Transportation Study was to design and recommend the proper rail-network, which together with the other existing and planned transportation infrastructure meets the socio-economic, environmental and technical requirements of the people in Klang Valley region up to the year 2020. Considering the objectives, the decision-making paradigms and approaches, procedural rationality and value-focused approach was selected to be used in the study. In this context after careful study of the case and discussion with various members of the consortium of local consultants involved in the study, the following

42

MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN

Social

Institutional

Max Employment Linkages

Min Disruption

Max Mobility

Strategic Centres Linkages

Max Connectivity

Land Acquisition

1

2

3

4

5

6

Ext. Linkages

7

Branch

1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

procedure was planned and carried out: i) Identification of the goal, objectives and purpose of the integrated transportation and land use system. ii) Development of basic principles for the design and evaluation of the transportation network.This was developed through detailed specification of the characteristics of ideal transportation network, so called "sustainable transportation system". Such system shall meet the engineering requirements as well as the future socio-economic and the environmental requirements of the Klang Valley region up to the year 2020.This leads to identification of criteria and indicators, which could be

Gross floor area [1/2 km radius]. Extent residential area split by rail corridor. Serve high density population area. Access to disadvantage areas. Access to shopping complexes. Access to educational areas. Access to tourism attractions. Nos. strategic centres linked to network. Nos. connection to existing public transportation system.

used to measure performance of the designed network. iii) Such characteristics was hierarchically structured in the so called “criteria tree� which includes, goal, objectives, criteria, indicators, closely related to the overall goal and objectives of the project. iv) The criteria structure after being approved by the Project Technical Committee and the Steering Committee was used as a basis for development and evaluation of the transportation networks. v) Considering the above desired characteristics (presented in the criteria structure) and the existing studies, 3 potential alternative transportation rail


Planning Tools

Hierarchy for the Rail Network Choice Problem

8

9

Min Emisson

10

Radial

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Min Noise

Constructability

11

12

Max Efficiency

13

Max Economic

14

Loop

Length of network through private land. Nos. of centres in outer Klang Valley within 400m. Minimum intrusion into conservation, forest reserves, water catchment and historic area. Power consumption per vehicle. Emission of CO, NO2, particulates. Minimum noise for hospitals, residential, schools . Minimize distance passing through problemmatic areas

networks which complement the existing networks and meets the future demands of the people in the Klang Valley were designed. vi) Presentation, review and finalization of the conceptual networks with related stakeholders, through workshops and technical meeting sessions.The members of the Technical Committee, Steering Committee, the eight local authorities, and the related expert groups were considered as the main stakeholders. vii) Assessment of the socio-economic, environmental, and engineering performance/impacts of each of the above networks by different experts and stakeholders group. Some of the

Criteria

Min Energy

Economic

Indicators

Min Intrusion

Engineering

Rail Network Option

Environmental

Main Objective

Goal

13. 14.

Develop faster network [less passenger hr]. Minimize nos. of transfer station. Less distance travelled [less passenger km] Maximize feasible economic return. Benefit/cost ratio. Economic internal rate of return. Net present value. First year rate of return. Total Cost [construction, operation & maintenance].

impacts and performance indicators were estimated through transportation model "simulation" (Transcad software), some through surveys, and others through application of GIS spatial queries (through ArcView buffering tool). viii) Selection of proper transportation network through multi criteria evaluation.The evaluation was carried out based on the impacts and performances of different networks on each criterion and indicators as well as their relative importance as perceived by different stakeholders. ix) Preference assessments exercises was conducted with all eight local authorities in the Klang Valley (with

complete response from seven local authorities), the Selangor Town and Country Planning Department, and further assessment by the local consultants for second, third and forth weights levels. x) Presentation of the evaluation results to the Technical Committee for feedback and supporting the final discussion and decision on the proper rail network.

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43


Planning Tools

Efficiency of land use objective should be achieved by maximizing the access of residential areas to shopping, service and recreational centers. Such system serve highly populated areas; and particularly disadvantaged areas (low cost settlements); increase access to tourism attraction areas; minimize disruption to neighbourhood communities; and maximize linkages to major employment areas

BASIC PRINCIPLE AND DESIGN OF RAIL NETWORK

To implement the selected valuefocused MCDA approach, a largely top down method was used to define the goal, objectives, and their related indicators of the required transportation network. After several rounds of discussions involving the consulting team, Technical Committee members and local authority officials, a criteria structure as presented in Figure 1 was accepted and used as a base for development and evaluation of the rail-network.The various elements of this structure are briefly defined as follows: MAIN OBJECTIVES AND CRITERIA

i) Economic objective Economic objective seeks to maximize feasible economic return in investment from the network. A number of criterion were used to measure how well an alternative performs on each indicators, e.g., benefit/cost ratio, first year return, internal rate of return, net present value, construction cost and operation cost. ii) Engineering Objective This objective looks at three main concerns i.e. efficiency of the network, construction issues, and effective use of the network for work and non-work trips.

44

MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN

The criteria used to measure extent of such achievement by networks are as follows: - Efficiency is measured by examining the minimum number of transfer, (whereby an alternative with excessive transfer will score low for this criteria), network which contribute to a reduction in travel time compared to time spent in the vehicular traffic will score high or be beneficial; and the more distance covered by rail will be considered a plus compared to a shorter area of coverage; - From the construction aspect, alternatives which have rail routes passing through problematic area like utility lines, high density built-up areas, commercial area, industrial area and institutional areas, will be considered to score low for this criteria. iii) Environmental Objective The designed network should minimize disturbance to the environment.This can be materialized by i.e. reduction in energy consumption, low emission level, minimum intrusion into environmental sensitive areas, reduction in noise impact to sensitive land use (such as hospital, residential and school). iv) Institutional Objective This objective is to look into the match between the networks and Spatial policies of the federal and state governments, e.g. to provide good facilities to link the city centers with those outside of the Klang valley; maximize connectivity to existing public transport systems; maximize linkages to strategic

growth centers (as designated/proposed in structure and local plans); and minimize land acquisition. v) Social Objective The network should increase social mobility by way of easy access to existing and future settlement.This is measured by forecasting passenger/km reduction for residential to employment area, and residential to educational institution.The local authority should have a good idea where immediate future settlements will be (including proposed employment and educational institution). Efficiency of land use objective should be achieved by maximizing the access of residential areas to shopping, service and recreational centers. Such system serve highly populated areas; and particularly disadvantaged areas (low cost settlements); increase access to tourism attraction areas; minimize disruption to neighborhood communities; and maximize linkages to major employment areas/centers. CRITERIA AND INDICATORS

To further support the design and evaluation of the rail-network, the objectives had to be further broken down into criteria and their corresponding indicators.The indicators are further used to measure the performance of each alternative rail network on each objective. The whole criteria structure is presented in Figure 1.


DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE RAIL NETWORK

Considering the set goal, objectives, related criteria and indicators, 3 alternative competitive rail networks with three different design approaches were developed.The network design was an iterative process, guided by the set criteria structure. It took some iteration to come up with the three networks that are potentially good networks, although, each has its own pros and cons.The three networks as presented in Figure 2 are:

i) Branch network "Branch-option This network pattern is designed to meet the overall development pattern proposed by various structure plans in the Klang valley.The rail corridors in Kuala Lumpur are radial and its key features is the use of the current KTM rail corridor from Klang to Kuala Lumpur as the main spine, with branches into Subang Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang. However this preliminary design has no branch for Petaling Jaya.

Existing Rail Networks

Branch - Option

Radial - Option

Loop - Option

Figure 2 : The existing rail network and 3 new options.

ii)Radial network "Radial-option" This option is designed to meet the overall development pattern in its current form.The rail corridors in Kuala Lumpur are radial and its key feature is the continuation of the radials in the western direction towards Klang. Kuala Lumpur continues to be the major commuting direction bypassing town centers of Shah Alam and Petaling Jaya.

iii) Loop network "Loop-option" This option is a combination of all the different rail proposals that have been proposed in the past.This includes the Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan, the on-going Selangor Structure Plan and local plans. Generally it has elements of a wider coverage beyond the Klang Valley but not directed at connecting Shah Alam and Petaling Jaya town centers.

ISSUE 01 / VOL. 02 / JUNE. 2004

45


Preference Assessment at the Petaling Jaya Municipal Council.

EVALUATION OF THE NETWORKS (MCDM PROCESS)

The multiple criteria evaluation of the networks was carried out based on the performances of each network on various defined indicators "objective data" and the relative importance of each indicator, criterion and objectives in relation to the other indicator, criterion and objectives "subjective data". The objective data was estimated using GIS, transportation modelling and where necessary through survey.The result of this process is given in the so called "effect table" which is presented in Table 1.This table contains the objective data (the last columns) representing the performances of each network on each indicator (efficiency, effectivity) and impact indicators of the networks in 2020.The objective data is derived through the following activities: - Translation of the conceptual

network designs into the actual GIS maps (Figure 2). - Assessment of the land use and environmental impacts of each network using GIS and surveys. - Transportation modelling to assess the effectivity, efficiency and impacts of the designed networks on year 2020 using Transcad software. - Assessment of the land use and environmental impacts of each network using GIS analysis tecniques. Analysis of the performances of different networks on different criterion shows that there is no option that absolutely dominates the other. In fact that was expected, as the designed networks should be compatible and comparable.Therefore each of the alternatives have got their own positives and

Weights

0.94

0.90

0.98

0.88

0.91

0.91

0.91

0.90

0.88

0.95

0.81

Result

negatives, e.g. Loop-option is performing better than the others on construction costs, on linking center with outer Klang Valley, disturbance to the neighborhoods, noise disturbance to residents, schools and hospitals and minimum passage through problematic areas. In the same way Radial-option is performing best in intrusion to historical, forest and conservation areas, access to disadvantaged areas, energy consumption, and speed, and for all the other indicators the Branch-option performs best. It is also observed that if only the technical relative importance of the criteria and indicators are considered to have the same importance, then the Branch-option will still perform the best (Figure 3).

Economic Objectives Engineering Objectives Environmental Objectives Institutional Policies Social Objectives

Economic Objectives

Engineering Objectives

0.65

Environmental Objectives

0.96

0.88

0.79

Institutional Objectives 0.97

0.88

0.79

Social Objectives

Figure 3 : The overall performance of each alternative on different objectives (equal weight for each objective). Branch Option

46

MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN

Radial Option

Loop Option


Preference Assessment at the Selayang Municipal Council.

PRIORITY ASSESSMENT

The subjective information however relates to the view and perception of various stakeholders on the related issues.This includes the relative importance of various objectives criteria and indicators presented in the criteria structure (Figure 1), and Table 1 as seen by different stakeholders.To achieve these, two groups of stakeholders were identified as follows: - Those involved in planning, decisionmaking and political side of the process.These stakeholders were asked to make judgments on the relative importance of the main objectives (level 1), e.g., economic, engineering, environmental, institutional and social objectives.This included all the municipal councils in the Klang Valley and other members of Technical and Steering Committees. - Those involved in the technical side of the process.They are mainly experts in various fields, which are able to make expert judgments on the relative importance of the technical indicators (level 2-4) e.g., the relative damages of various emissions to the environment. This included the relative importance of all indicators (lowest level of the criteria structure), and the relative importance of the criteria (second level of the criteria structure). The subjective information, which relates to the relative importance of objectives, criteria and indicators were then elucidated in a series of meeting of consultant with each stakeholder group using the structured pairwise comparison 7 method. In this process,

relevant stakeholders were asked to make judgments on the relative importance of the main objectives, e.g., economic, engineering, environmental, institutional and social objectives. Stakeholders includes the Department of Town and Country Planning of the State of Selangor, Kuala Lumpur City Hall, Shah Alam City Council, and the Municipal Councils of Selayang, Petaling Jaya, Ampang Jaya, Subang Jaya, and Klang. In almost all cases, appointed councilors and government officials of the local authorities were involved in preference assessment exercises. For this process the following procedure was used: (i) In each meeting a briefing was given relating to the basic principles of the network design, its objectives and the hierarchy of criteria and indicators, which were used to measure the efficiency and effectivity of the networks. Then each member of the stakeholder's group were asked to rank the importance of the main objectives of the networks as seen by each member as presented in a table. (ii) The facilitator used the Borda-count method and summarized the results of the group ideas on the relative importance of the objectives. Where this was not possible the chairperson would rank the main objectives through consensus. (iii) Finalization of the ranking.The stakeholder's group was then asked to comment on the order, whether it is agreeable to all, or there is a strong reason for modifications. (iv) Identification of the strength of the order of importance between each of

the 2 consecutive priorities.The Group was then asked to identify the relative strength (weak or strong importance) of the ranked objectives, over the next in the rank order.Table 2, represents the outcome of the meetings with various stakeholders groups. (v) Using the above information in a structured pairwise comparison technique (eigen value of the highest eigenvector, AHP method, Saaty, 2001, Sharifi and Herwijnen 2004), the relative importance of the objectives, criteria and indicators for each stakeholder were derived.Table 3 presents the relative importance of the main objectives as derived from Table 2. After completing the objective and subjective information (Tables 1 & 3) the three networks were evaluated using an additive utility function. As it can be seen in Table 1, the indicators used to measure the performance of each alternative have different units of measurement with varying magnitudes. Before any further processing they need to be put on the same scale (a standardization procedure), reflecting the partial attractiveness of each alternative networks. At the next step the standardized criteria scores "utilities" of the alternatives were aggregated into a composite index representing the overall attractiveness of each alternative network.The 'Weighted Sum' decision rule was used to aggregate the partial attractiveness into the overall attractiveness of each alternative network. These overall performance scores are used to rank the different network options.

7. This was especially developed and applied in the course of this study.

ISSUE 01 / VOL. 02 / JUNE. 2004

47


Table 1 : Effects table showing performance of each network option. C/B

UNIT

BRANCH OPTION

RADIAL OPTION

LOOP OPTION

B B C B

Ratio % RM (x billion) %

3.4 15.2 0.6 17.9

3.2 13.6 0.3 19.7

3.3 14 0.3 19.2

C C

RM (x billion) RM (x million) / annum

19.293 274.72

19.128 265.06

17.902 283.44

C C C

Passenger hours (x million) Number of transfer stations Passenger km (x million)

3.897 11 25.815

3.697 13 23.524

3.904 17 24.016

C C C C

Km Km Km Km

154.3 11.3 15.5 25

156.9 11.8 13.7 25.5

127.9 7.6 8.9 20.2

C

Km

40

37.1

79.2

C

Km

15.3

11.1

46.6

C

Km

0

0

3.6

C

Km

3

0

2

C

Kwh

845

815

871

C C C

Tons/day Tons/day Tons/day

211.5 70.6 0.3

222.6 74.3 0.31

236.5 78.9 0.33

C C C

Number of hospitals Number of hospitals Number of hospitals

10 3 5

10 2 3

3 0 1

C C C

Km2 Km2 Km2

1018.5 1000.2 993.9

1054.4 1047.7 1047.5

905.6 890.9 890.7

C C C

Number of schools Number of schools Number of schools

20 22 19

23 24 19

18 5 12

B

Number of centers

13

11

8

B

Number of connections

20

19

18

C

Km

234.4

226.3

227.1

B

Number of centers

2

2

4

B

Number of people

746943

734549

613836

B

km2

59.222

61.402

51.904

B

Number of complexes

14

9

9

B

km2

5.458

4.244

1.544

B

Number of attractions

4

1

1

B

km2

22.188

20.611

19.34

C

Km

107.1

110.6

91.1

Economic Objectives Maximize feasible economic return Benefit/Cost ratio Economic internal rate of return Net present value First Year Rate of Return Total cost Construction cost Operation and maintenance cost Engineering Objectives Maximize efficiency Develop faster network (Less Passenger hours) Minimize number of transfer stations Less distance traveled (Less passenger kilometers) Minimize distance passing through problematic area Distance through high-density built-up area Distance through commercial area Distance through institutional area Distance through industrial area Environmental Objectives Minimize intrusion into environmentally sensitive areas Minimize intrusion into conservation areas Extent of linear exposure in conservation areas Minimize intrusion into forest reserve areas Extent of linear exposure in forest conservation areas Minimize intrusion into water catchment areas Extent of linear exposure in water catchment areas Minimize intrusion into historic areas Extent of linear exposure in historic areas Minimize energy consumption in the network Power Consumption per vehicle Minimize emission levels of pollutants Emission of CO Emission of NO2 Emission of particulates Minimize noise impacts Minimize noise for hospitals Number of hospitals within 0-50 meter buffer Number of hospitals within 50-150 meter buffer Number of hospitals within 150-300 meter buffer Minimize noise for residential areas Residential areas within 0-50 meter buffer Residential areas within 50-150 meter buffer Residential areas within 150-300 meter buffer Minimize noise for schools Number of schools within 0-50 meter buffer Number of schools within 50-150 meter buffer Number of schools within 150-300 meter buffer Institutional Objectives (conformation to government policies) Maximize linkage to strategic growth centers (structure & local) Number of strategic centers linked to the network within 400m Maximize connectivity to existing public transport systems Number of connections to existing transport system Minimize land acquisition Length of network through private land Facilitate linkages to centers in outer Klang valley Number of centers in outer Klang valley within 400m Social Objectives Increase mobility Serve high density area population Population served within 400m buffer area Provide access to disadvantaged areas Low cost housing areas within 400m buffer area Maximize access to shopping centers Number of shopping complexes within 400m buffer area Maximize access to educational institutions Educational areas within 400m buffer Increase access to tourism attractions Number of attractions within 400m buffer area Maximize linkages to major employment centers in 0.5km radius Amount of gross floor area (GFA) in 1/2km radius area Minimize disruption to neighborhood communities Extent of residential area split by rail corridor

48

MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN


Weakly

Strongly

Weakly

Strongly

Weakly

Strongly

Weakly

Strongly

DTCP

More

More

More

More

More

More

More

More

Selangor

Important

Important

Important

Important

Ampang Jaya Important

Important

Klang

Institutional

X

X

Social

X

Social

Social

X

X

Engineering

X

Economic

X

Environment

X

Institutional

X

Institutional

X

Environment

X

Selayang Social Institutional

Environment

X

Environment

Engineering

X

Engineering

Economic

X X

Economic

Economic

Important

Important X

Engineering

Weakly

Strongly

Weakly

Strongly

Weakly

Strongly

Weakly

Strongly

More

More

More

More

More

More

More

More

Shah Alam

Important

Important

Petaling Jaya

Important

Important

Subang Jaya

Important

Important

Institutional

X

Social

X

Economic

X

Institutional

X

Social

X

Environment Economic

X X

Social

X

Engineering

Environment

X

Environment

Engineering

X

Engineering

Economic

X X

Klang 2

Important

Social

X

Economic

X

Institutional Environment

Institutional

Important

Planning Tools

Table 2 : Structured Pair-wise Comparison Method (focusing on the relative importance as perceived by each stakeholders of the various objectives).

X X

Engineering

Table 3 : Weights Translations as perceived by each stakeholders. Weight DTCP Selangor

Level 1

Weight

Weight

Weight

Selayang

Level 1

Ampang Jaya

Level 1

Klang

Level 1

Institution

0.428

Social

0.510

Social

0.490

Social

0.490

Social

0.275

Institution

0.255

Engineering

0.226

Economic

0.226

Environment

0.176

Environment

0.119

Environmental

0.141

Institutional

0.141

Engineering

0.081

Engineering

0.077

Institutional

0.087

Environment

0.087

Economic

0.041

Economic

0.039

Economic

0.056

Engineering

0.056

Petaling Jaya

Level 1

Subang Jaya

Level 1

Klang2

Level 1

Weight Shah Alam

Level 1

Weight

Weight

Weight

Institution

0.445

Social

0.428

Economic

0.427

Social

0.514

Environment

0.294

Institutional

0.275

Social

0.273

Economic

0.260

Economy

0.133

Environment

0.176

Environmental

0.173

Institutional

0.126

Social

0.086

Engineering

0.081

Engineering

0.076

Environment

0.059

Engineering

0.042

Economy

0.041

Institution

0.051

Engineering

0.040

Note :Translation is made through the usage of DEFINITE software, using the AHP pair-wise tool.The same results can be obtained using Expert Choice Software.

RANKING OF ALTERNATIVES ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES

For each stakeholder, the objective and subjective information related to all three options were aggregated using a weighed linear utility function in the process of a multicriteria evaluation. In this process the utility performance of each option on each indicator is combined with its relative priority and aggregated to derive the overall utility of each option.The 3 options were then evaluated from the perspectives of each of the stakeholders.The result of evaluation is graphically presented in Figure 4. Since priorities on main objectives were different for the various stakeholders (Table 3), the scores in Figure 4 differ between the stakeholders. From Figure 4 it can be concluded that the preferred option is the Branchoption. As this option in the opinion of all stakeholder in all objectives except

environmental objective dominates the others. In the same way the Radialoption is dominating the other two in the environmental objective. The Radial-option performs close to the Branch-option, and in the opinion of all stakeholders it ranks second with rather high overall utility, and the Loopoption although performs quite well on economic and engineering objectives it ranks last. It can be seen that each stakeholder could choose the branch option as his first option based on his own reasons. Although different municipalities weighted the objectives of the transportation system quite differently, e.g., economic objective weighed between 4-43%, institution weighed between 543%, the environmental objectives weighed between 6-29%, the Social objectives weighed between 9-51%, and the engineering objective weighed between 4-23% (Table 3), the Branch-

option appeared to be most attractive by all the municipalities. The loop option performs somewhat better than the other options on most of the economic criteria, but economic criteria were not considered of major importance in the evaluation by stakeholders. Suprisingly, RM1.4 billion (close to 8%) in investment money, and the RM18 million difference in the annual operational costs (close to 7% of requirement) is not considered important by a number of decision makers (Table 1). Also, except for the noise criterion the loop option under-performs compared to the other options on environmental objectives. On the social objectives, which are considered important by most stakeholders, the loop option under-performs compared to the other objectives.This is one of the main reasons for the loop option to be outperformed by the other two options.

ISSUE 01 / VOL. 02 / JUNE. 2004

49


Planning Tools

Table 4 : The overall weight sets for each of the stakeholders .[Criteria contributing more than 4% to the total weight, i.e. the most important criteria, are marked as brown boxes]

Economic Objectives Maximize feasible economic return Benefit/Cost ratio Economic internal rate of return Net present value First Year Rate of Return Total cost Construction cost Operation and maintenance cost Engineering Objectives Maximize efficiency Develop faster network (Less Passenger hours) Minimize number of transfer stations Less distance traveled (Less passenger kilometers) Minimize distance passing through problematic area Distance through high-density built-up area Distance through commercial area Distance through institutional area Distance through industrial area Environmental Objectives Minimize intrusion into environmentally sensitive areas Minimize intrusion into conservation areas Extent of linear exposure in conservation areas Minimize intrusion into forest reserve areas Extent of linear exposure in forest conservation areas Minimize intrusion into water catchment areas Extent of linear exposure in water catchment areas Minimize intrusion into historic areas Extent of linear exposure in historic areas Minimize energy consumption in the network Power Consumption per vehicle Minimize emission levels of pollutants Emission of CO Emission of NO2 Emission of particulates Minimize noise impacts Minimize noise for hospitals

DTCP Selangor

Shah Alam

Selayang

Petaling Jaya

Ampamg Jaya

Subang Jaya

Klang

Klang 2

0.014 0.008 0.005 0.003

0.047 0.028 0.016 0.010

0.014 0.008 0.005 0.003

0.014 0.008 0.005 0.003

0.020 0.012 0.007 0.004

0.150 0.089 0.051 0.031

0.079 0.047 0.027 0.016

0.091 0.054 0.031 0.019

0.008 0.003

0.025 0.008

0.007 0.002

0.008 0.003

0.010 0.003

0.080 0.027

0.042 0.014

0.049 0.016

0.033 0.018 0.010

0.017 0.009 0.005

0.031 0.017 0.009

0.033 0.018 0.010

0.092 0.050 0.028

0.031 0.017 0.009

0.023 0.012 0.007

0.016 0.009 0.005

0.011 0.005 0.002 0.001

0.006 0.003 0.001 0.001

0.011 0.005 0.002 0.001

0.011 0.005 0.002 0.001

0.032 0.015 0.006 0.004

0.011 0.005 0.002 0.001

0.008 0.004 0.002 0.001

0.006 0.003 0.001 0.001

0.038

0.064

0.026

0.038

0.031

0.038

0.019

0.013

0.023

0.038

0.015

0.023

0.018

0.022

0.011

0.008

0.013

0.022

0.009

0.013

0.011

0.013

0.006

0.004

0.008

0.013

0.005

0.008

0.006

0.008

0.004

0.003

0.049

0.081

0.033

0.049

0.039

0.048

0.024

0.016

0.015 0.008 0.005

0.025 0.014 0.008

0.010 0.006 0.003

0.015 0.008 0.005

0.012 0.007 0.004

0.015 0.008 0.005

0.007 0.004 0.002

0.005 0.003 0.002

Rank 1

Rank 2

Rank 3

Total

Table 5 : Probability of different options obtaining different ranks due to score uncertainty.

DTCP

Rank 1

Rank 2

Rank 3

Total

Selangor

50

Ampang Jaya

Branch

0.75

0.23

0.01

2.72

Branch

0.77

0.22

0.01

2.76

Radial

0.25

0.75

0

2.25

Radial

0.23

0.77

0

2.23

Loop

0

0.01

0.99

1.01

Loop

0

0.01

0.99

1.01

Shah Alam

Rank 1

Rank 2

Rank 3

Total

Subang Jaya

Rank 1

Rank 2

Rank 3

Total

Branch

0.67

0.32

0.01

2.66

Branch

0.83

0.16

0.02

2.83

Radial

0.33

0.67

0

2.33

Radial

0.17

0.83

0

2.17

Loop

0

0.01

0.99

1.01

Loop

0

0.02

0.98

1.02

Selayang

Rank 1

Rank 2

Rank 3

Total

Klang

Rank 1

Rank 2

Rank 3

Total

Branch

0.8

0.19

0.01

2.79

Branch

0.83

0.15

0.02

2.81

Radial

0.2

0.8

0

2.2

Radial

0.17

0.83

0

2.17

Loop

0

0.01

0.99

1.01

Loop

0

0.02

0.98

1.02

Petaling Jaya

Rank 1

Rank 2

Rank 3

Total

Klang 2

Rank 1

Rank 2

Rank 3

Total

Branch

0.78

0.2

0.02

2.76

Branch

0.85

0.12

0.03

2.82

Radial

0.22

0.78

0

2.22

Radial

0.15

0.85

0

2.15

Loop

0

0.02

0.98

1.02

Loop

0

0.03

0.97

1.03

MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN


UNCERTAINTY AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS: PROBABILITY OF MAKING THE ‘WRONG’ DECISION

In order to study, the stability and robustness of the ranking, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were conducted. This analysis were carried out to see the effect of the potential error which may exist in the estimation of the networks performances (objective information as presented in the effect table), and the subjective information representing the relative importance of the criteria and indicators as derived from experts and the relative importance of the objectives as derived from different stakeholders (decision makers; members of the Technical Committee). This included the following analysis: - Uncertainty analysis, which assumes certain percentages of random error in estimation of the objective and subjective data, and then study the

robustness of the ranking. In another words, assuming so much errors in the objective and subjective data do we still get the same ranking or not? - Sensitivity analysis, which tries to study the stability of the ranking with respect to the most important elements in the objective and subjective data. In another words, how much some elements in the subjective and objective information should change in order to change the ranking of the networks. For uncertainty analysis of the "objective information" consultants have assessed an error margin, between 1530% for different indicators.The error margins were used to perform Monte Carlo analysis for each stakeholder, whereby data scores were randomly varied within the error margins.The results of uncertainty analysis are pre-

sented in Table 5, Figure 4 and Figure 5, as probability of each option scoring different rank, e.g., DTCP Selangor, in 75% of the 2000 calculations the branch option ranks first position, in 23% second (allowing for round off error), and in 2% in third position (Table 4). Figure 5 provides a visually attractive overview of the content in Table 4.The size of the circles indicates probability of the option taking up the first, second or third rank. The probability of making the 'wrong' choice due to possible data errors, i.e. choosing the branch option whereas the data warrants a choice for the radial or even loop option, ranges from 15% (Klang2) to 33% (Shah Alam), with an average over the different stakeholders of some 22%.These probabilities were derived from 2000 calculations, which were carried out for each stakeholder, therefore expected to be rather close

Figure 4 : Comparisons of the overall performance of all alternative from different perspectives (In the graph MCA 1: Evaluation based on equal weight for the main objectives; MCA 2 Evaluation based on the perspective of DTCP Selangor; MCA 3 Evaluation based on the perspective of Shah Alam; MCA 4 Evaluation based on the perspective of Selayang; MCA 5 Evaluation based on the perspective of Petaling Jaya ; MCA 6, Evaluation based on the perspective of Ampang Jaya; MCA 7 Evaluation based on the perspective of Subang Jaya; MCA 8 Evaluation based on the perspective of Klang A; MCA 9, Evaluation based on the perspective of Klang B, Evaluation based on the perspective of Kuala Lumpur City Hall )

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Figure 5 : Overview of data uncertainty analysis. DTCP Selangor

Ampang Jaya

Branch option

Branch option

Radial option

Radial option

Loop option

Loop option

1

2

3

1

Total

2

3

Total

3

Total

3

Total

3

Total

Position

Position

Subang Jaya

Shah Alam

Branch option

Branch option

Radial option

Radial option

Loop option

Loop option

1

2

3

1

Total

2 Position

Position

Klang

Selayang

Branch option

Branch option

Radial option

Radial option

Loop option

Loop option

1

2

3

1

Total

2 Position

Position

Klang 2

Petaling Jaya

Branch option

Branch option

Radial option

Radial option

Loop option

Loop option

1

2

3 Position

Total

1

2 Position

Note : Size of the circles indicates probability of the option (y-axis: dark green = Branch, light green = Radial, brown = Loop) taking up the first, second or third rank (x-axis).

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Planning Tools

Figure 6 : Sensitivity Analysis for Rank Reversals. DTCP Selangor : Institutional Objectives

Klang A : Social Objectives

Subang Jaya : Economic Objectives

Shah Alam : Institutional Objectives

Sensitivity of rank reversals between the branch (red line), radial (green line) and loop (blue line) options, due to changes in priority (weight) of the most important main objective for each stakeholder.

to the actual probabilities. For achieving higher certainty (if it was deemed necessary) more accurate data are required. However one could economize data improvement by improving quality of only those items that carry considerable weights (priority) and therefore contribute more to the overall error. In the case of this project this relate to the following (Table 4): Institutional criteria: - Number of strategic centers linked to the network within 400 m. - Number of connections to existing transport system.

Social criteria: - Population served within 400 m buffer area. - Low cost housing areas within 400 m buffer area. - Amount of gross floor area (GFA) in 1/2 km radius area. Economic criteria (to a lesser extent): - Benefit/Cost ratio. - Economic internal rate of return. - Construction cost.

this process for each stakeholder group, the most important objectives were selected and sensitivity of the ranking with respect to change in that priority "weight" was studied.The result showed robust ranking and no rank reversal in almost all the cases.This confirmed the superiority of the Branch-option to the other two options.The results of the sensitivity analysis are presented in Figure 6.

For sensitivity analysis the relative importance of the objectives as seen by each stakeholder were analyzed. In ISSUE 01 / VOL. 02 / JUNE. 2004

53


DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

The value-focused approach MCDA, applied in this study, helped design, evaluate, and improve the three alternative networks that meet the overall development trends and pattern of people in the Klang Valley region up to 2020. It also served as a forum for discussion, negotiation, exchange of knowledge and final selection of a railnetwork option, that is closest to the economic, engineering, environmental, institutional and social objectives as seen by the relevant municipalities, the town planning authorities and the related experts (major stakeholders). Decomposition of the goal to objectives, criteria and finally into various measurable indicators, enabled designers and decision makers to see how different option performs against such criteria considering priority and tradeoffs (financial and political) warranted to operationalize the future rail network for the Klang Valley. As a result of this process the Branchoption appeared to be the most effective and efficient option, even with considering large error margins in the assessment of the impact/performances and priority of various objective, criteria and indicators.The uncertainty and sensitivity analysis showed that although different groups of stakeholders, and planning authorities, had their differences in the importance of various objectives, they were all agreed upon the dominance of the Branchoption over the others.This was a lucky situation that made further analysis and negotiation not necessary. As it appeared, this option is closest to the future needs and requirements of people in the region with least negative impacts on the environment.Therefore, it was recommended for further detailed analysis and adjustment.The adjustment will be based on the feedbacks from the Local Councils, and the other stakeholders to further refine the Branch-option in such a way that it considers the local and regional concerns and maximize the related objectives.

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Some limitation of this value-focused approach is worth discussing. Firstly, the efficient operation of feeder bus services was not included as a criteria. It is debateble whether all the three options would perform equally well for these criteria; would topography, traffic conditions, socio-economic and attitudes towards public transport usage influence each of the options for these criteria? Further, such sequential approach i.e., first, deciding on desired rail network, then attempting to optimize feeder bus services at a later phase, could have improved if the criteria had been used at an earlier stage of the MCDA. In particular the value function curve of feeder bus services (which is an important consideration by almost all local authorities) and the degree the decision makers are willing to trade-off between re-routing certain lines and related operation cost (for buses and train) would have to be factored in the decision process. Secondly, having only 3 rail networks as options, and considering only one scenario (projection of current trends on every aspect), obviously lends itself to gross simplification in term of physical design/pattern possibilities, needs, impacts and performances.They certainly will not provide opportunity to explore more possibilities (options) and further understanding of their behavior in the future (their performances under different scenarios) compared to when there were more options (say 5 to 7 options, perhaps variants of the original 3 options and other creative rail routing pattern) assessed under different scenarios, e.g., different population growth rate and rail technologies. Such larger number of options performing under different possible scenarios would allow better understanding of choice between options from the different perspective, thereby understanding better the options that were dominated and characteristics of the non-dominated options within the 'efficient frontier' analysis (Goodwin and Wright, 2004). Thirdly, the present evaluation process has largely used linear standardization method (row-max in the absence of

value function curve) where for example, the trade-off for a number of strategic centers not served, but are regionally and administratively important for some stakeholders, are not analyzed. A value function curve indicating the level of appreciation of the State and Federal Government concerns towards such strategic centers vis-Ă -vis various administrative and economic functions could have clarified the level of trade-off required when balancing with other criteria.The latter issue is particularly important to Shah Alam and Petaling Jaya, as both are capital and regional centers respectively, with no direct rail connection linking each other. Fourthly, although the structured pairwise comparison technique is relatively simpler and easier to apply compared to the original AHP weighting procedure, it nonetheless encounter certain real participatory problem; in particular, the limited time allotted to the participatory session (about 20 minutes per council in most cases); as such session were slotted within existing council meetings with other standing agenda. This has not permitted fuller elaboration of the main objectives (main criteria); and where we did obtained the preference and strength of the main objectives it was largely due to an extended time and the ability of the chairperson to allow for such discussion. Fifthly, in applying the structured pairwise comparison method, the translation of the qualitative strength of the ranked objectives requires careful summation of the strong and weak numerical scores. When using this information together with new judgment of participants (stakeholders) to determine the relative importance of each consecutive criteria and indicators, some problem may occur.This problem relates to the linear assumption in converting the ranked indicators into Saaty scale, e.g., the difference between weak and strong preference is always "one" and will accumulate across comparisons of all criteria.


The above limitations is understandable as the approach undertaken, within a bounded rationality framework, only addresses a limited area of interest within a complex rail-based and land use environment; in particular criteria relating to the feeder bus services, and increasing the number of rail options beyond three, would certainly improve the MCDA ouput. Despite these weaknesses, it has given due attention to key social, environmental and institutional considerations (besides economic and engineering consideration) and within a multiple stakeholder perspectives, which otherwise would not be possible within conventional transportation studies. It has raised consciousness about the issues involved, enhanced communication and understanding between different stakeholders. It has what Phillips (1989) emphasized: "…a framework for thinking that enables different perspectives on a problem to be brought together with the result that new intuitions and higher-level perspectives are generated".

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors wish to thank the Klang Valley Planning Secretariat (Ministry of Federal Territory) for usage of study materials. The data used has been adjusted to allow for general readership and may not reflect actual performance obtained.The preference assessment was conducted by Kamalruddin Shamsudin and application of the DEFINITE software by Dr. Ali Sharifi and Dr. Luc Boerboom of ITC, Netherlands.The modeling of transport related data and GIS analysis were undertaken by local consultants to the study.

Planning Tools

Lastly, as all stakeholders ranked the main objectives from their own perspective (whether statewide (Shah Alam), local (all local authorities) or holistically (especially State Town Planners)), and despite all stakeholders agreeing upon the dominance of the Branch-option over the others, this does not necessarily benefit equally all local authorities.This point would require further detail investigation to seek possible changes to the Branch-option. Such adjustment and rerouting of alignment should be undertaken at the local level with relevant stakeholders participation (comprising local populations and concerned parties) and further iteration and modeling undertaken. Doing so would enhance better location of rail stations vis-à-vis its immediate (transit-oriented) surrounding, a more realistic appreciation of local constraints and a more coordinated design of access to such stations by various modes (buses, car, walking, cycling etc), and related traffic demand management (TDM) to support it.

MOHAMMED ALI sharifi Dr. Mohammed Ali Sharifi was born in Teheran, Iran, on 30 December 1944. In 1967 he obtained an MSc degree in agricultural engineering from the University of Teheran. After that, he moved to the Netherlands, where in 1973 he obtained an MSc in photogrammetric engineering at the International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC). In 1992 he obtained a PhD. degree in agricultural and environmental sciences from the Agricultural University of Wageningen in the Netherlands. Since then he has worked at ITC. His current position is Associate Professor in Decision Support Systems and Land Use Planning, Department of Urban Regional Planning and Geo-Information Management. LUC boerboom Dr. Boerboom has an MSc. degree in Tropical Land and Water Management from Wageningen University and Research Center in the Netherlands with specialization in soil and water conservation. He was a research assistant with the International Service for International Agricultural Research. He holds a doctoral degree in agronomy from theUniversity of Georgia (USA). He developed a collaborative decision support tool for watershed optimization of farm profitabilty and soil erosion. For the last five years he has been an assistant professor on Spatial Planning and Decision Support Systems at the International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation. His research interest is especially on spatial risk and uncertainty management, mathematical programming, and institutionalization of spatial planning and decision support systems, with applications in urban and regional planning. KAMALRUDDIN shamsudin Kl'din current interest includes assessing urban planning efforts, planning theories and applications, planning history, application of decision science and spatial analysis, collaborative and participatory planning.To-date he has produced more than 50 articles on planning related issues for local and international conferences, book chapters, journals and newsletters.These are bounded into a book entitled, “In The Service of Town and Country Planning 1978-2003: A Collection of Writings and Remembrance (2003)”. On his own time, he conducts research for two book publications (about contemporary planning and the contribution of Charles Reade). He obtained his degree in planning from ITM, Shah Alam, MPhil. from University of Newcastleupon-Tyne, and Postgrad. Urban Renewal from IHS, Holland. He is currently Director of Research and Development, JPBD. REFERENCE: 1. Expert Choice, Inc. (2000), Advance Decision Support Software. Pittsburgh. USA. 2. Goodwin P., and Wright G., (2004), Decision Analysis for Management Judgement (Third Edition). Wiley. 3. Janssen, R., Herwijnen, M., V., Beinet, E., (2000) “DEFINITE Software”. Vrije Universiteif Amsterdam / IVM. 4. Jean-Claude Thill (Ed.) (1998), “Spatial Multicriteria Decision Making and Analysis : A Geographical Information Sciences Approach”. Ashgate. 5. Keeney, R. L., (1992), “Value Focused Thinking”. Harvard University Press. London. 6. Marjan van Herwijnen (1999), “Spatial Decision Support for Environmental Management”. Vrije Universiteit. Geboren te Amsterdam. 7. Phillips, L. D., (1984), “A Theory of Requisite Decision Models, Acta Psychologica, 56, 29-48, quoted in Goodwin P., and Wright G. (2004) Decision Analysis for Management Judgement (Third Edition)”. Wiley. 8.Phillips, L. D., (1989) Decision Analysis in the 1990's, in A. Shahini and R. Stainton (eds) Tutorial Papers in Operation research (1989), Operational Research Society, Birmingham. 9. Saaty, T.L., (1980), “The Analytical Hierarchy Process”. McGraw Hill. New York. 10. Sharifi, A., Herwijnen, M., V., (2003), “Spatial Decision Support Systems. International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC)”. 11. Simon, H. A.,(1960), “The New Science of Management Decision”. Harper and Row, New York.

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Palaver

GIS

Goobledigook

Compiled by: SANISAH shafie, email: sanisahs@townplan.gov.my National Physical Plan Division, Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia.

*To be frank, GIS is not really my cup of tea, but with some help of relevant websites, books and friends, here's the gist of GIS (definition, history, selected terminologies and illustrations) that we - the planning fraternity, might find useful.

DEFINITION GIS is, in the strictest sense, a computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating and displaying geographically referenced information.

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MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN


Palaver

HISTORY In the context of the world, the history of GIS has its beginning in the 1960s, whereby in 1962, Roger Tomlinson of the Canada Land Inventory developed the Canada geographic Information System (CGIS), the first system to be called a ‘geographic information system’. It was designed for more than just one specific application, of which its major application was to store digitized map data and land-based attributes in an easily accessible format for all of Canada.The Canadian Geographic Information System was implemented in 1964, one year after the first conference on Urban Planning Information Systems and Programs. This conference led to the establishment of the Urban and Regional Information System Association (URISA). Later, the New York Land Use and Natural Resources Information System was implemented in 1967 and the Minnesota Land Management Information System was implemented in 1969. In addition to the beginning of commercial GIS development, the 1970s saw significant developments in remote sensing and image processing systems.

Through various international and bilateral funding, this new digital mapping process was eventually introduced by the World Bank and other United Nations (UN) agencies such as United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), in the developing countries throughout Asia and the Pacific, particularly for the purpose of environmental and natural resource information management. In the context of South East Asia, the use of GIS only gained momentum in the mid-1980s. But by the late 1980s, a number of large scale GIS projects were either in the planning stage or were already developed, particularly in the more industrialised countries like Singapore.The Singapore Land Data Hub was conceived in mid-1989 as a multi-ministry effort to establish a central repository of accurate and comprehensive land data. Generally, GIS applications in this region can be classified under one of three headings resource management, urban and regional planning and cadastral. All in all, while GIS usage in this region is growing rapidly, applications are still relatively new - most of the existing GIS are still mapping-based in nature.

In Malaysia, efforts have been made since 1992 to establish a national infrastructure for a land information system, which culminated in success on January 1997, when the Chief Secretary to the Government issued a circular that offered guidelines on the establishment of the National Infrastructure for Land Information System (NaLIS). NaLIS would provide the technology, policies and standards necessary to acquire, distribute and improve the utilization of land information.The main objective of NaLIS is to provide timely access to land information, eliminate/reduce duplication of data capture and promote effective data sharing among related agencies.With the establishment of a NaLIS Clearinghouse, land data users would be able to browse through the data directory and dictionary, which provides - in the form of metadata - a description of available land data. Among the early users of GIS other than Department of Survey and Mapping (JUPEM) are Department of Agriculture in 1992, Malaysia Centrefor Remote Sensing (MACRES), Forestry Department, Geological Survey Department,Valuation and Property Services Department, Public Work Department, Economic Planning Unit and the Federal Department of Town and Country Planning in 1993. In the East Malaysia, available records tells that the Sabah Agriculture Department ventured into GIS in late 1993, while the Forest Department of Sarawak is in the process of procuring a GIS which was approved by the government in early 1995.

Lastly, in the context of Malaysia, the foundation for the development of GIS in the country was put into place by the move to create a Digital Cadastral Database (DCDB) and the National Topographic Database by the Department of Survey and Mapping in the mid-1980s. Since then various national and state initiatives were undertaken in a concerted effort to harness the power of GIS for the better management of the environment, natural resources and for macro-economic planning. Among the initiatives are the Penang GIS in 1992. This is the first across-the-board statewide GIS project in Malaysia.The implementation is known as PEGIS (Penang Geographic Information System). which came under the preview of Penang State Economic Planning Unit. Other early initiatives are the Computerized Planning Information System by Melaka City Council in 1994 and upgraded in 1996 and the Darul Ehsan GIS (DEGIS) (997) and AGISWLK (1997).

Now, on to semantics. The selection on the next page cap tures some of the active vocabulary that are used in most GIS meetings/discussions, and they are such elementary GIS that if one does not understand any of them then no amount of 'kuih lapis' can help him. After all, basics are “good” in the words of the Master Sleuth, "Elementary, my dear Watson!".

(Source: http:/www.malaysiagis.com/what_is_gis/)

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Palaver NOMENCLATURE A system or set of terms or symbols especially in a particular science, discipline, or art. (Source: Merriam-Webster Online)

α

3

2

1

βχδεφ

γηιϕκλµ

FEATURE CLASS 1) The type of feature represented in a coverage. Coverage feature classes include arcs, nodes,label points, polygons, tics, annotation, links, boundaries, routes, and sections. 2) The conceptual representation of a geographic feature. When referring to geographic features, feature classes include point, line, area, and surface.

(Source: 1. http://volusia.org/gis/glossary.htm 2..http://www.esri.com/library/glos sary/glossary.html)

* Simply, a type of expression or analysis that just involves a 'yes' or 'no’ decision.

νοπθρστ

Coordinate and topologycal files

(Source:http://www.esri.com/library/ glossary/glossary. html)

4

Database

i. DATABASE A logical collection of interrelated information, managed and stored as a unit, usually on some form of massstorage system. A GIS database includes data about the spatial location and shape of geographic features recorded as points, lines, areas, pixels, grid cells, or tins, as well as their attributes.

Linkgage between spatial and attribute data

Attribute tables

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MALAYSIAN TOWNPLAN

BOOLEAN EXPRESSION A type of expression that reduces to a true or false (logical) condition. A boolean expression contains logical expressions (e.g., DEPTH> 100) and Boolean operators. A Boolean operator is a keyword that specifies how to combine simple logical expressions into complex expressions. Boolean operators negate a predicate (NOT), specify a combination of predicates (AND), or specify a list of alternative predicates (OR). For example, DEPTH > 100 AND DIAMETER>20.

* In other words it contains a) spatial data (in coverages or grids), and; b) attribute data (in tables). Such hybrid data model can be illustrated as follows (left).


Entity

Attribute

Spatial Representation

Water Catchment

Name, Area

Polygon

Dam

Name, Capacity

Point

Example: Entity Relationship State

Water Catchment

District

Main Dam

Existing Dam

Proposed Dam

State

Dam

An entity An entity or relation attribute A relation between entities An inheritance relation Example: E-R Diagram for Water Catchment

ii. DATABASE DESIGN The formal process of analyzing facts about the real world into a structured database model. Database design is often characterized by the following three phases: requirement analysis/ conceptual data modelling, logical database design and physical design. 1) Conceptual data modelling identify data content and describe data at an abstract or conceptual level.This step is intended to describe what the GIS must do and does not deal with how the GIS will be implemented.The how is the subject of logical and physical design.

2) Logical design - translate the conceptual database model into the data model of a specific software system. 3) Physical design - representation of the logical data model in the schema of the software, e.g. a state represented by a polygon, a river by a line, and a heritage site by a point. iii. DATA MODEL 1) The result of the conceptual design process. A generalized, user-defined view of the data related to applications. 2) A formal method of describing the

behaviour of the real-world entities. A fully developed data model specifies entity classes, relationships between entities, integrity rules and operations on the entities. iv. ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM (E-R R DIAGRAM) A graphical representation of the entities and the relationships between them. ER diagrams are a useful medium to achieve a common understanding of data among users and application developers. (Source: http://www.esri.com/library/ glossary/glossary.html)

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Palaver

6

5

i. SPATIAL ANALYSIS The process of modeling, examining, and interpreting model results. Spatial analysis is the process of extracting or creating new information about a set of geographic features. Spatial analysis is useful for evaluating suitability and capability, for estimating and predicting, and for interpreting and understanding. In GIS there are four traditional types of spatial analysis: spatial overlay and contiguity analysis, surface analysis, linear analysis, and raster analysis.

i. RASTER 1) Cellular data structure composed of rows and columns for storing images. Groups of cells with the same value represent features. 2) Data displayed as discrete picture elements (pixels). ii. VECTOR 1) A coordinate-based data structure commonly used to represent linear geographic features. Each linear feature is represented as an ordered list of vertices.Traditional vector data structures include doubledigitized polygons and arc-node models. 2) A geometric element, stored as a point with x,y coordinates within a computer database. (Source: 1. http://www.esri.com/library/gIossary /glossary.html, and 2. http://volusia.org/gis/glossary.htm) The illustration on the left shows the difference between raster (above) and vector (bottom).

ii. SPATIAL MODELING Analytical procedures applied with GIS.There are three categories of spatial modeling functions that can be applied to geographic data within a GIS: geometric models, such as calculating the distance between features, generating buffers, calculating areas and perimeters, and so on; coincidence modeling, such as polygon overlay; and adjacency modeling such as redistricting and allocation. (Source: http://volusia.org/gis/ glossary.htm)

* GIS operations can be categorised under: a) Overlay operations (intersect, union, clip etc.) or b) manipulation operations (buffer, dissolve, proximity, reselect, etc.), and these can also be categorised under, c) Vector operations or d) Grid operations. Diagram on the left illustrates 'Spatial Overlay Operations’.

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Palaver

Illustrations of other selected GIS analysis operations are as shown below:

* Clipping / Intersect operation

* Union operation

Slope (Input)

Soil type (Overlay)

Erosion Potential

* Buffering operation

Road network (Input)

State boundary

* Spatial Join operation

Layer 1

Bufferring a point e.g. All area within 10km to a city

Result layer

Bufferring a point e.g. All areas within 1km to a road

Layer 2

Bufferring a point e.g. All areas within 500m of a building

Attribute 1

Attribute 2

Joined

Proximity operation-diagrams below illustrate proximity mapping in three different applications

i) proximate area to the dots

ii) dots serving the district

iii) level of proximity from dots

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Palaver Hazard Risk ESA

Union

Life Support Syatem ESA

Biodiversity ESA

ESA - Composite

Overlay

State ESA - Composite

State Boundary

Example of National Physical Plan’s (NPP) Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) (Composite ) Analysis

7 MAP PROJECTION A Systematic conversion of locations on the Earth’s surface from spherical to planar coordinates. Several of the more popular projections are: State Plane Coordinates (SPO) which uses feet for units of measure; Universal Transerve Mercator (UTM) which uses meters for units of measure; and latitude and longitude which uses degrees, minutes, and seconds of arc for units of measure. (Source: http://volusia.org/ gis/glossary.htm)

* Basically map projections are needed because we have a round earth, and flat maps; whereby projections are useful to compensate for distortions in large-scale imagery that cover a large earth surface, where distortions are produced from earth curvature. Although there are still distortions in relation to properties such as conformality, distance, direction, scale and area in all projections, some are removed or compensated for depending on the projection used.Three traditional rules for choosing a map projection are as follows (http://exchange.manifold.net/ manifold/manuals/5_userman/mfd50gui de_to_selecting_map_projections): - For low-latitude areas: cylindrical - For middle-latitude areas: conic - For Polar Regions: azimuthal

Malaysia, being in the low-latitude areas, are currently using cylindrical map projections, namely Cassini (or Cassini-Soldner), RSO (Rectified Skew Orthomorphic), and UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) projections. Note that cylindrical equal-area projections can have further variations by specifying latitude and longitude origin to center the projection. When the scale is true along the equator, the cylinder and resulting projection is normal; when the cylinder upon which the sphere is projected is at right angles to the poles (or the scale is true along the central meridian), the cylinder and resulting projection are transverse; and when the cylinder is at some other, non-orthogonal, angle with respect to the poles, the cylinder and resulting projection is oblique.

(http://www.colorado.edu/geography/ gcraft/notes/mapproj/mapproj.html)

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The Rectified Skew Orthomorphic projection also known as Hotine Oblique Mercator, is used for the national topographic mapping coordinate system of Malaysia, while the Cassini projection is used for the state level Ordnance/Cadastral Survey. In preparing the State Structure Plan using GIS, the issue of different projections from the National Physical Plan data (using RSO for its base map) and cadastral data from the individual states, has raised considerable concern for standardisation. Cassini projection is a Transverse Mercator projection that is neither conformal nor equal-area.This projection was formerly used by the Ordnance Survey throughout the United Kingdom and is still being used in a few countries for instance Cyprus, Denmark, Germany,Trinidad and Tobago. This projection was developed by C.F Cassini in the 18th century and J.G von Soldner in the 19th century. RSO projection is an Oblique Mercator projection that is conformal but not equal area.This projection is being used as the national coordinate system of a few countries for instance Singapore and Borneo.This projection was developed in 1900-1950 by Rosenmund, Laborde, Hotine and others. llustrations of the two projections are as shown below: (http://exchange.manifold.net/ manifold/manuals/5_userman/)

Normal cylindrical equal-area projections

Transverse cylindrical equal-area projections

Oblique cylindrical equal-area projections

Is there any problem when dealing with these two projections? Maybe not - because of the number of projection converter software (or extensions) around. A case in point being the Malaysia RSO-Casslni Projection Converter, which is an ArcView extension written using Avenue development language.This extension enable the conversion between Rectified Skew Orthomorphic (RSO) and Cassini-Soldner which are currently used in Malaysia.They are as follows: 1. Malaysia RSO to State Cassini 2. State Cassini to Malaysia RSO (http://www.malaysiagis.com/tech_center/map_projection/)

RSO

Cassini

A lot more information on GIS can be found in the internet. Just type

‘GIS’ on any search engine, and select your

subject of interest. Happy Learning!

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Review

Books: Editor’s Choice YONG chee kong email: yongck@townplan.gov.my Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Peninsular Malaysia

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR GROUP DECISION MAKING: TOWARDS A PARTICIPATORY, GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCE, Taylor & Francis Inc.

Jankowski, Piotr and Nyerges,Timothy (2001)

This book is a report of research activities between 1995-2000. It is meant to be an introduction to participatory, geographic information science as much as it is a report on the authors' research agenda for the past few years.The foundation of this book is built from a concerted effort to balance three research domains theory, methodology and substance. In chapter one, the authors discuss how these three domains, can be combined to set the research orientation of study. Much of this book is about the conceptual underpinnings of participatory decision making, which are elaborated in chapter two. While chapter three highlights the methods and tools that underpin Participation Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) as an extended set of capabilities to standard GIS capabilities. Chapter four is a comprehensive overview of how research strategies can be designed to investigate PGIS use in participatory decision making. Chapters five, six and seven present three studies that address substantive decision making concerns about public health, transportation and habitat restoration. The authors also use different research strategies to develop empirical findings. Lastly, chapter eight tries to reflect on how emphasis of the three domains was used and what prospects there are for future research.

Paul A. L, Michael F. G, David J. M, and David W. R (2001)

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND SCIENCE, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, England.

This is a book about geographic information systems, the practice of science in general, the principles of geographic information science (GISscience), and how information and communications technologies are helping the world of learning, as well as business, government and science. The authors have organized the book in four major but interlocking sections. It starts off with the definition, brief history of GIS and the impact on society.This follows up with principles like geo-referencing, geographic data, generalization, abstraction and metadata as well as techniques like data modeling, visualization, geographic query and analysis.The last part is on GIS practice and concludes with an epilogue. At the end of each chapter, the author includes references to other, easily accessible, books on special topics.This will help the readers to access greater depth, and more detail on many core topics and also to review other peripheral topics that have not been covered in this book.

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Malczewski, Jacek (1999)

GIS AND MULTICRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS John Wiley and Sons.

This book is intended for the GIS and decision analysis community and suitable for those studying and working with spatial decision systems.The intention of this book is to introduce the readers to the principles and use of spatial multicriteria decision analysis as well as the use of multicriteria techniques in GIS environments.

Geertman, S and Stillwell, J (2003)

PLANNING SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN PRACTICE Springer

The editors have done a magnificent job in presenting some of the best applications of Planning Support Systems (PSS) in theory and practice not only the state of the art but also in a more prospective way.

Basically this book is divided into three parts, which are Preliminaries, Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis and Multicriteria-Spatial Decision Supports System.The first part is introduction and overview of the major functions of GIS and a discussion of its relevance to the spatial decision making.The second part deals with the concept of evaluation criteria, as well as an overview of technique for generating a set of alternatives to be considered in a spatial decision as well as approaches for assessing criteria weights.The third part discusses how the GIS and MCDM methodologies can be integrated into multicriteria-spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSSs) and its real world applications to spatial decision problem.

It is divided into five parts, namely Systems and Technologies for Enhancing Participation in Planning Process,Tools for Supporting the Planning Process, Support Systems for Strategic Planning, Support Systems for Land Use and Infrastructure Planning, and Support Systems for Environmental Planning.This book has succeeded in containing the keys from the past and for the future. Readers can look forward to a wealth of new applications of PSS built around the experiences reported. From Malaysia, an article of the Klang Valley Regional Planning Support Systems (KVRPSS) was also included, jointly written by Dr. Ruslan (USM), Kamalruddin (JPBD), Nazery (UM) and Abd. Hadi (UKM).

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Updates

Planning Updates

News and Events For January 2004 - May 2004 Compiled by: RHAN SEE chua , chuars@townplan.gov.my & NOR ZALIZA mohd puzi, zalizamp@townplan.gov.my

JANUARY 2004 In conjunction with JPBD's 83rd anniversary on 18th January, a talk was delivered by En. Kamalruddin bin Shamsuddin, Director of Research and Development Division entitled "The Birth of Town Planning in Malaya and the Contributions of Charles Reade (1921-1929) : The First Government Town Planner, FMS� at Tanjung Meeting Room, JPBD Head Quarters on 19th January 2004. Audiance include planning staff and members of the Malaysian Town Planning Board. The Draft Report of the Survey of the Johor Structure Plan was made available for public inspection for one (1) month from 26th January - 25th February 2004.

FEBRUARY 2004 The Expertise Network for Spatial Planning Analysis Decision Support (Enspads) project meeting was held from 1st February 2004 - 8th February 2004 at ITC, Enschede, Netherlands. JPBD was represented by En. Kamalruddin bin Shamsudin, Director of Research and Development Division and En. Nor Sallehi Kassim of the National Physical Plan Division. The Draft Local Plan Of Bera District 2005 - 2015 is now exhibited for public objection for a month from 3rd February 2004 to 4th March 2004. The Seventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP-7), was held at Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC), Kuala Lumpur from 9th to 20th February 2004.The COP is the highest decision-making body of the Convention on Biological Diversity.To date the COP has held 6 ordinary meetings, and one extraordinary meeting to adopt Biosafety Protocol. Priority issues include the biological diversity of mountain ecosystems, the role of protected areas in the preservation of biological diversity, transfer of technology and technology cooperation, as well as implementation of the target set, to achieve a significant reduction in the rate of loss of biodiversity by 2010. The State Structure Plan (Malaysia) Meeting was held on the 9th - 10th February 2004, at Tanjung Meeting Room, JPBD (HQ) Kuala Lumpur, to process matters pertaining to issues and method to improve the preparation and implementation of the State Structure Plan (SSP).Two SSP i.e of Selangor and Johor were presented to kick off the meeting. 11 areas of concern were discussed by 4 groups of participants in the workshop. Some recommendations were presented on the second day of the workshop which was chaired by the JPBD Deputy Director General I.This meeting was organised by the Development Plan Division (Eastern Zone). The SPSS Workshop On Basic Introduction to Non-Parametric Statistic has been organized by the Research Centre, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) at the University Campus at Gombak, Selangor Darul Ehsan on the 12th February 2004. The International Council of Monuments and Sites in collaboration with Melaka State Government and Melaka Museum Corporation had organized a forum entitled "Shared Built Heritage" on 14th - 18th February 2004 at Century Mahkota Hotel, Melaka.This forum provides an opportunity for local experts and practitioners to learn how similar developments on shared heritage are addressed in other cities in the region and all around the world. Among the main activities are round table discussions, dialogues and site visit in Melaka Town. Three days training workshop on Updates And Technique From Worlds Leading Experts On Social Impact Assessments (SIA) was held on 24th - 26th February 2004 in Renaissance Hotel, Kuala Lumpur. International Experts namely Dr. Nick Taylor and James Baines have been invited to share their expertise on critical appraisal of SIA, basic principles of SIA as an integrated approach, and also institutional issues of implementing SIA, methods and techniques and a few others.

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Updates

MARCH 2004 Two talks entitled "Assessing the Benefits of Urban Risk Mitigation Measures" and "Prospect Theory and Its Application in Urban Planning" were organized by the Research and Development Division, on the 1st March and 3rd March 2004 at Tanjung Meeting Room, JPBD Head Quarters.These talks were given by Dr. Ali Asgari from The Universiti of Brandon, Canada. Malaysian Geotechnical Conference 2004 with the theme "Achievements In Geotechnical Engineering of Malaysia" was organized by the Institute of Engineers Malaysia at Sheraton Subang, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia on the 16th - 18th March 2004. For more information, please logon to: http//:www.iem.org.my. The NATIONAL PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE (NPDC 2004) was held from 9th - 11th March 2004 at Holiday Villa, Subang Jaya

MAY 2004 The Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design (KAED) International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), will be hosting the National Seminar on Built Environment II at Park Royal Hotel, Kuala Lumpur on the 6th - 7th May 2004. This Seminar aims to bring together the public and private sector towards achieving smart-partnership in built environment professions. For further information, please logon to: http://www.iiu.edu.my The 7th Seminar on GIS Capacity Building and Infrastructure (GISDeco) had taken place at University Technology Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru on the 10th - 12th May 2004.The Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Built Environment, UTM will organize the Seminar. For further information, please logon to: http://www.utm.my/gisdeco JPBD biannual national sports event (SUKNA) will be held at the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Kubang Kerian Campus, Kota Bharu, Kelantan from the 23rd to 27th May 2004. Participants in this event include all planning department staffs from 12 states (excluding Sarawak) and also representative from the Malaysian Institute of Planners. A National Symposium On The Dynamics Of Urban Society: Towards Achieving Sustainable Quality Of Life will be organized by the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences in, University of Malaya in collaboration with Urban Studies and Planning Programme at PJ Hilton, Selangor from 18th to 19th May 2004. The Eleventh Leadership Seminar of the South East Asia Centre of Environmental and Urban Management (SEACEUM), was organized by Institute Sultan Iskandar at Istana Hotel, Kuala Lumpur from 19th & 20th May 2004 with the theme Quality of Life-Challenges of Urban Living And Community Development. a Seminar on Kundasang Landslide Complex (Hazard Assessment Control) was organized by the Institut Alam Sekitar dan Pembangunan (LESTARI) of UKM and Jabatan Mineral dan Geosains Malaysia in Kota Kinabalu Sabah on 25th of May 2004 at Promenade Hotel Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. One of the objectives is to introduce methodologies and techniques for geohazard assessment and control in Kundasang area.

JUNE 2004 The Institution of Engineers Malaysia is organising an international conference on Remediation and Management of Contaminated Land: Focus on Asia on 8th & 10th June 2004 at Istana Hotel Kuala Lumpur. The quest to evaluate The Most Sustainable City in the Country was organized by the Department of Environment.The nominated cities being evaluated by a panel of judges are Shah Alam, Johor Bahru, Kuching Selatan, Kuantan, Georgetown and Melaka Tengah. Result of the inaugural award will be known by July 2004.

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JULY 2004 The Commonwealth Association of Planners (CAP) Conference 2004 with the theme "Place Making and Sustainable Communities In Urban Development" will be held in Renaissance Hotel Kuala Lumpur from 5th to 7th July 2004.This conference will be officiated by the Prime Minister at Putrajaya Convention Centre on 5th July 2004. In conjunction with the conference, an exhibition will also be held at Renaissance Hotel Kuala Lumpur on 6 & 7 July 2004. Conference On Great Parks, Great Cities will be held on 10 to 13 July 2004 in a variety of venues throughout London City. Among the major issues that will be touched on are livability and green space and also the importance of parks and open space on the social and economic health of the towns and cities.The Great Parks, Great Cities conference seek to introduce and explore these issues using UK based and international case studies. For further information, please log on to : www.greatparksgreatcities.com or www.pps.org .

AUGUST 2004 International Federation for Housing and Planning (IFHP) Urban Planning founded by Ebenezer Howard in 1913, will be organizing conferences, workshops and seminars on housing and planning issues within the IFHP network all over the world on August. For more information, please log on to : www.ifhp.org .

SEPTEMBER 2004 The International Network for Urban Development , INTA28 Congress, organised in cooperation with the Kuala Lumpur City Hall, will be held from 5 to 9 September 2004 in Kuala Lumpur.The Congress program is built around the issues of metropolitan development and development authorities and their impacts on urban and metropolitan development. With the theme "Metropolisation : Integration or Disintegration ?", this congress provides a platform for debates among world local leaders and practitioners on the critical issues of: 路 Social and Economic Integration of Metropolitan areas ; 路 Management of Metropolitan Growth and Sprawl ; 路 Mobility for Sustainable Development in Metropolitan Areas; and 路 Metropolitan Governance and Financing. For further information please log on to : http://www.inta-aivn.org/Inta28.htm The 19th Earoph World Planning and Housing Congress and National Housing Conference 2004 will be held in Melbourne, Australia from 19 to 22 September 2004.This year's theme is "Reform and Change In Housing And Planning - Towards Sustainability In Asia Pacific". Please log on to www.rmit.edu.au/earoph2004 for further information.

IIUM will organise an International Conference on Spatial Planning Decision Support System (SPDSS) from 7-8th September 2004 at the IIUM campus, Gombak. For detail contact nadiah@iium.edu.my

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Blast From The

ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS FROM THE PREVIOUS ISSUE: 1. Who is wearing the platform shoes Tuan Haji Hassan Basery b. Hamzah 2. Our chief editor is standing in the back row, ninth from the right (see insert above)

Blast

from the Past

SENIOR OFFICERS DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING, MALAYA ( 1960s) Sitting from Left to Right. - Mr. Soo Kim Choon, Inche Mohd. Rosli Buyong, Mr. Fong Chek Sam, Mr. W. Fairbank, Mr. F. Watkinson, Mr. Tan Soo Hai and Mr. Chung Weng Foo. Standing from Left to Right. - Mr. R. K. Paul, Mr. T. Mahesan, Mr. Chi Swee Guan, Mr. D. C. Eva, Mr. M. K. Sen, Inche Ishak bin Ariffin, Y. M. Raja Mohd Ali and Inche Ishak bin Ariff.

ISSUE 01 / VOL. 02 / JUNE. 2004

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Next Issue Next issue will give special focus on

“Sustaining Sustaina bility” “Ecological Footprint” “Safecity (Murninet)” “Strategic Environment Assesment” ..and many more exciting read.

Guide to Contributors Malaysian TownPlan welcome articles that would further the cause and development of the town and country planning service in this country. All planning agencies (public and private), local authorities and from the academia (local and overseas) are invited. Articles should be submitted to the following address: Chief Editor, Malaysian TownPlan Journal, Bahagian Penyelidikan dan Pembangunan, Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa, Semenanjung Malaysia, Jalan Cenderasari, 50646 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Submission should be in the form of a hard copy and a digital version. The editorial board reserves the right to select and edit articles submitted. Articles selected for publication will be made known to contributors and follow-up communication on fine tuning of article may follow. Feature articles should conform to conventional format i.e. abstract, main body of article, references (author, year, name of book etc, publisher). A short profile of contributor is required. Other submissions, example book review, planning updates, news, reader's column may be submitted. Follow-up communications are expected in some cases, so e-mail addresses and telephone numbers will be required. Successful contributors will receive two copies of Malaysian TownPlan. Potential contributors may contact any of the editorial board members (JPBD main line tel: 603 26989211) for further information, or e-mail to: kamalruddins@townplan.gov.my


Malaysian Townplan Journal 2  

A Journal by Federal Department of Town & Country Planning, Peninsular Malaysia

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