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a monograf

THE FEASIBILITY OF

SEQUENTIAL APPROACH IN THE DEVELOPMENT PLAN SYSTEM OF MALAYSIA

JABATAN PERANCANGAN BANDAR DAN DESA SEMENANJUNG MALAYSIA KEMENTERIAN PERUMAHAN DAN KERAJAAN TEMPATAN


T ÅÉÇÉzÜty THE FEASIBILITY OF

SEQUENTIAL APPROACH IN THE DEVELOPMENT PLAN SYSTEM OF MALAYSIA

JABATAN PERANCANGAN BANDAR DAN DESA SEMENANJUNG MALAYSIA KEMENTERIAN PERUMAHAN DAN KERAJAAN TEMPATAN


THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

1.0 ABOUT THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH 1.1

ITS DEFINITION

In essence, the Sequential Approach to Planning constitutes one of the techniques towards sustainable development. It is a method of monitoring physical development and in the planning system and process, ensures that physical development meets up with demand. The approach also ensures that “Brownfield” sites as well as previously

Greenfield land is a term used to describe a piece of undeveloped land, either currently used for agriculture or just left to nature. Brownfield land is an area that has previously been developed, such as a paved lot or the site of a demolished building.

developed sites, be given priority for development, over “Greenfield” areas. In this way, urban sprawl is minimized, there is no oversupply in development products (housing or commercial floor space), and existing infrastructures are fully utilized.

1.2

ITS HISTORY

This Sequential Approach in planning and development had been practiced in the UK since 1996 through the Planning Policy Guidance (PPG) No.6 issued by the Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions, on Town Centres and Retail Developments, and then followed by PPG 3, on Housing, in 2002.

For Town Centre developments, the manner of the Sequential Approach is first preference to town centre locations (inner city), then edge of town centres (outer city) and finally out of town centres ( peripheral areas). As an example please refer to Figure 1.0 the basic concept of the Sequential Approach.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH The Principles of the Sequential Approach have been described in the Planning Policy Guidelines (PPG) of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, United Kingdom, in particular PPG No.6. PPG No.6 (June 1996) relates to Planning guidelines for Town Centres and Retail developments, in which emphasise the plan-led approach to promoting retail, leisure and employment development.

It establishes a Sequential Approach …”with

preference to Town Centre locations, then edge-of-town centre and finally out-of-town centre.

This has been followed by PPG 3 (March 2002), which is a guideline on Housing. PPG 3 encourages “new housing to be provided in such a way as to promote sustainable forms of development, making the most efficient use of previously developed land. This is to be achieved by amongst other things, concentrating most additional housing development within urban areas; maximising the use of “Brownfield” sites and the conversion/re-use of existing buildings; and, securing minimum development densities of between 30-50 dwellings per hectare.”

Figure 1.0 The Basic Concept Of The Sequential Approach.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

1.3

OBJECTIVES OF THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH

Amongst the important objectives of Sequential Approach are:

To achieve sustainable development in reducing the encroachment of cities into valuable Greenfield areas;

To maximize land use within existing city or urban centres by developing on previously developed lands, or Brownfield sites;

To retain the city core as the most vibrant commercial centre, thus maximizing on the use of existing public transport and other amenities;

To bring back people into the inner cities so as to make city centre vibrant, reintroduce social places where people can live, work and play;

To integrate land use planning and transport by reducing the need to travel and promote increased accessibility to jobs, services and facilities;

To address the issue of property overhang due to speculation.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

1.4 HOW ITS WORKS Figure 1.2 explains diagrammatically as to how Sequential Approach work in Planning and Development

Figure 1.2: Methodology of Using Sequential Approach to Planning and Development

i.

Identifying areas and sites

All types of development plans should provide clear guidance as to the location of new developments so that it meets housing requirements in the most sustainable way, hence: 

At the regional level, major areas of growth in the region are identified and determined where housing provision is to be sought by structure plan with good accessibility.



at the strategic planning level or structure plans growth areas and distribution of additional housing areas likely to be required to district level should be identified; and

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH 

At the local level, local plans and Special Area Plans should identify sites for housing and buildings for conversion and re-use sufficient to meet housing requirements after making an allowance for windfalls and manage the release of land over the plan period.

In preparing development plans Local planning authorities should adopt a systematic approach to assess the development potential of sites, and the redevelopment potential of existing buildings, deciding which are most suitable for housing developments and the sequence in which developments should take place.

ii.

Allocating and Releasing Land for Development

In determining the order in which sites identified in accordance with the criteria set out, the presumption will be that previously-developed sites (or buildings for re-use or conversion) should be developed before Greenfield sites. The exception to this principle will be where previously-developed sites perform so poorly in relation to the criteria listed as to preclude their use for housing (within the relevant plan period or phase) before a particular Greenfield site.

Local authorities should manage the release of sites over the plan period in order to control the pattern and speed of urban growth, ensure that the new infrastructure is coordinated with new housing development and deliver the local authority’s recycling target. It is for each local planning authority to determine the form of such phasing policies but good practice guidance will be issued. One possible approach to manage the release of land for housing is to divide the plan into three phases, allocating sites for development in accordance with the set criteria and assumptions.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

1.5

REQUIREMENTS FOR IMPLEMENTATION

There are several factors and elements that are required the for the implementation of the sequential approach. These have been well outlined in Scotland’s NPPG8 as extracted below: i.

Support of Town Centres as the First Choice It has been recognized that the application of the sequential approach requires flexibility and realism from developers and retailers as well as planning authorities in preparing their proposals developers and retailers should have regard to the format, design, scale of the development, and the amount of car parking in relation to the circumstances of the particular town centre. In addition they should also address the need to identify and assemble sites which can meet not only their requirements, but in a manner sympathetic to the town setting.

ii. Action required -Development Plans In preparing development plans, planning authorities should take account of the broad forecasts of retail demand, deficiencies in retailing provision (if any), and how the retail sector is likely to respond to that demand over the plan period, by reference to location and type of retailing. Likewise, they should take account of the market demand for other related developments, such as commercial leisure developments.

They should, in consultation with business interests and the local community, seek to agree a framework for promoting the retailing and commercial leisure roles of town centres, co-ordinated with their policies on transport, car parking and regeneration. This should lead to a town centre strategy involving the private sector including retailers, leisure operators, property owners and

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH investors, and infrastructure providers, setting out the scope and policies for change, renewal and diversification. iii. Identify Qualities of the Town Centre Planning authorities should identify and build on the essential qualities of the centre and seek to ensure that it meets the needs of the community it serves. Important considerations will include:

iv

the opportunities for growth, improvement or redevelopment (including sites on the edge of centres) and the need to encourage the best use of existing facilities;

the scope for diversification of uses to broaden the range of town centre activities ;

accessibility, the impact of traffic, and the availability of public transport ;

the need to retain and improve open space and recreational opportunities;

The opportunities for housing and offices, particularly in mixed-use developments; and scope for adding to the quality of the urban environment.

Establishing Priorities Within that context it should be possible to establish the extent to which the town centre in the first instance, and edge-of-centre in the second instance, can satisfy that demand through development and change. As part of the overall provision, consideration should be given to the role of out-of-centre developments and whether there is a requirement for further such provision. If so, such developments should always be within the overall policy objective of giving priority to, and strengthening and safeguarding, the town centre. The scope for provision of any new out-of-centre development should satisfy all and should be incorporated in the development plan for the area.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

iv.

Likely Impact on Rural Areas Where appropriate, development plans should take account of the likely impact of major shopping proposals on rural areas. They should also ensure that their policies are compatible with the aim of encouraging sustainable development and generally seek to minimise travel demand for shopping in their locational decisions. In devising policies for the overall retailing and commercial leisure strategies, planning authorities should take account of the existing stock of recently developed floor space and the likelihood of other approved proposals being developed.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

2.0 ITS RELEVANCY AND APPLICABILITY IN THE MALAYSIAN CONTEXT 2.1

TRENDS AND PROBLEMS OF URBAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

2.1.1

Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Areas The most prominent case of rapid growth of the suburb or the urban sprawl is in the Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Area. While the rapid growth of Kuala Lumpur is undeniable, a closer look of population data, especially those starting from the 1980 Census showed that most of the urban growth in Klang Valley for the past two decades occurred outside of the city limit of Kuala Lumpur, i.e. the suburbs. Kuala Lumpur population growth was adversely affected by this development.

Kuala Lumpur’s population growth rate between 1980 to 2000 was much less than that of Malaysia as a whole. This is in contrast to its rate of growth since its establishments more than 100 years ago where the rate of population increase for Kuala Lumpur was much higher than the nation’s average. In between 1970 to 1980, population growth rate of Kuala Lumpur was at 3.50 percent where as Malaysia’s average was 2.30 percent.

During the five years period of 1986-1991, almost half of Kuala Lumpur outmigration to Selangor was to Hulu Langat District, followed by Petaling and FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH Gombak Districts. Due to the high migration rates, the Petaling District which was only a third the size of Kuala Lumpur in 1970 is now about the size of the city; Hulu Langat grew from only 20 percent of the size of Kuala Lumpur to about 75 percent of the size of the capital in the same 20 years period. This has led to the expansion of urban built-up in Klang Valley.

This urban sprawl trend which started in 1980 is expected to continue in the future as more lands are opened up in the Klang Valley and better transportation infrastructures are put in place. The trend of urban sprawl of Klang Valley is vividly shown by Ahris Yaakop in Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1: Urban Built-up Area Morphology in Klang Valley

Year 1988

Year 1990

Year 1994

Year 1996

Year 1998

Year 1999

Year 2002

Year 2004

Source: Ahris Yaakup et.al (UTM) National Planning Seminar 21 November 2005

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH 2.1.2

Penang and Georgetown

The City of Georgetown and its surrounding area is the second largest metropolitan area in Malaysia. The dominance of Georgetown as the main urban centre of Penang and the northern region was much evidenced ever since the founding of the city a few centuries ago.

Things began to change since the 1980s, however. The attractiveness of Georgetown and its dominance has started to wane off. Due to the high cost of living in the city as well as the relative

attractiveness

of

new

development outside the city, many people started to migrate out of Georgetown to newly opened areas. Districts outside of Georgetown started to attract more people and grew very rapidly since the 1980s.

Table 2.2: Population Ditsribution by District, Penang State, 1970-2000

1970

District

Population

1980 %

Population

%

Population

%

Population

North SP

161,524

Southern SP

63,626

8.23

71,558

7.94

84,771

7.97

117,722

9.56

North East

369,991

47.84

391,400

43.45

395,714

37.18

416,369

33.82

North West Pulau Pinang

60,711 773,327

7.85 100.00

76,390 900,772

8.49 100.00

122,764 1,064,166

159,129 1,231,209

12.93 100.00

20.89

199,449

22.14

224,647

22.20

21.11

11.54 100.00

294,051

%

117,475

17.98

236,270

2000

Central SP

15.19

161,975

1991

243,938

23.88

19.81

Source: Statistic Department Malaysia, 2005 cited by Zuwairi, 2006

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH Table 2.2 shows at the macro level the population trend in the state of Penang. One notable change is the reduced importance of the North East district, where Georgetown is located, as the centre of population concentration in the state. The percentage of the state population living in North East was reduced from almost half (48%) in 1970 to only 34 percent in 2000.

On the other hand, Central Seberang Perai (where Butterworth and Bukit Mertajam are located), Southern Seberang Perai (where Batu Kawan is located) and North West had increased their shares of the state population. The trend here shows that districts surrounding the North East District, i.e., North West, Central SP and Southern had increased their shares of the population while North East share had decreased. This may be one indication of urban sprawl phenomenon that had happened in the state.

2.2 CURRENT URBAN GROWTH ISSUES. The feasibility of the Sequential Approach and its application as well as adoption into the Malaysian Planning and Development System is actually determined by our very own urban growth issues faced in the local scenes especially in areas of:

i.

Trends and problems of urban growth, urbanization and development in Peninsular Malaysia.

ii.

The urban sprawl phenomenon.

iii.

Severity of property overhang.

iv.

Urbanites quality of living demands.

v.

The urban governance mechanisms.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH 2.1.1

The Urbanization Challenges

Our Urbanization challenges actually started since the '70s when the New Economic Policies was launched. Urban areas saw drastic in-migrations of the rural population into the urban areas. In 1991, 51% of the Malaysian population had resided in urban areas. Now, the urban population is 65% and by year 2020, it's expected that more than 75% of the population will live in towns especially in the metropolitan areas of Kuala Lumpur and Penang as identified by the National Physical Plan (NPP).

a) Unsustainable development Issues

An important aspect of planning for growth and development is hence to ensure that the goals and objectives are not only achieved but are also sustainable. Urbanization and the resulting urban

sprawl

have

The definition commonly used for “sustainable development” is “development that meets the

needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (Brundtland, 1987)

serious

implications on the goals of achieving

sustainability.

“Although this definition is more concerned with the rate of use of resources that will not enable the resources to be able to be replenished in the future, “sustainable development” encompasses sustainability of economic and social development as well as of environmental and ecological protection.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH Amongst the impact of urbanization and sprawl on the issues of sustainability are listed below. 

Impact of Depletion of Natural Land Resources

Urban Heat Island Effect

Urban heat island is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surroundings. As population centres grow in size from village to town to city, they tend to have a corresponding increase in average temperature (Wikipedia, 2006). The degree of the temperatures depends on the size of the metropolitan area.

Increasing Consumption of Energy A further consequence of sprawl that consumes land and reduces population densities is the growing consumption of energy. Figure 2.2 shows 17 cities around the world that reflect a consistent link between population densities and energy consumption. The lower population densities and high rate of energy consumption characterize the sprawl phenomenon. Transportation Another consequence of urban sprawl is the impact on transportation. Transportation is also related to energy use. However, the rate of energy consumption in cities depends on numerous factors including the nature of the rail and road network, level provision of mass transportation systems and the proportion between private and public transport. An increase in private transportation relates to energy consumption which in turn leads to an increase in the emission of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH If cities provide poor public transportation system, the use of private car increases and energy consumption increases (European Environmental Agency, 2006).

Loss of Natural and Protected Areas Urbanization also leaves an impact on natural resources. The natural environment is a vital part of the ecosystem functions that performs including the production of food, habitat for natural species, recreation, water retention and storage.

Land use

conversions from forest reserve to new development harm the natural ecosystem. The immediate impact of sprawl is the lost of agriculture and natural land or exploitation of forest, wetland, and other habitats. These inevitably will also give an impact on the quality of life and human health such as poor air quality and high noise level.

Socio – Economic Impact From the social point of view, urbanization and sprawl has generated social segregation of according to income. Unlike the middle and high income groups, people in the lower income group cannot afford to own private automobiles. The middle and high income groups are the ones who move out of the urban cores to avoid the expensive cost of living and the congestion. This has caused residential segregation between those in the urban cores and the suburban areas.

From an economic point of view, urbanization and sprawl has had an impact on the increase in household spending on commuting from home to work over longer distances, the cost to business of the congestion in sprawled urban areas with inefficient transportation systems and the additional costs of the extension of urban infrastructures including utilities and related services across the urban region (European Environmental Agency, 2006).

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH b)

The Urban Sprawl

One distinct phenomenon is the urban growth or sprawl which is marked by haphazard expansion of urban areas and city limits. Urban sprawl had become the trend in most towns. The old town areas were left out and outpaced by developments at its outskirts and around the centres.

With the advancement of highways and rapid train commuter services, more and more people prefer to stay away from city centres and would rather commute to work daily. However, this brought forth other problems like urban decays, Brownfield’s, abandoned developments, slow development, little retail businesses and uneconomic use of valuable town lands. Downtown areas soon found themselves deserted at nights, crimes and social ills and activities became more rampant. Aesthetically, the image of the old town became ugly and environmentally unkempt.

Other negative features of urban sprawl include sluggish economic activities,

scattered

developments, low densities and uneconomic use of urban lands. Urban

sprawl

extension

of

also

requires

roads

and

transportation and phenomenon of commuting population.

Inner City Outer City Peripheral Area

Figure 2.2 Penang City Boundary (a)

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH Urban

sprawl

problems

to

investments

had the

need

introduced new to

areas. be

put

new More into

Infrastructures, public amenities, social facilities and recreational facilities. Also they began to eat into or encroach into agricultural lands and the Greenfields. Please refer to Figure 2.2 and Figure 2.3 Inner City

which illustrates the evolution of the urban

Outer City

sprawl phenomena in Penang. Likewise

Peripheral Area

Figure 2.4 explains the similar trends of

Figure 2.3 Penang City Boundary (b) c)

urban sprawl as experienced by Seremban.

Property Overhang.

The NAPIC (Pusat Maklumat Harta Tanah Negara) Q1, 2007 report, states that the overhang of residential units in Malaysia have increased from 25,331 units in Q4 2006 to 26,045 units in Q1, 2007. Most of these overhang units have been in the market

Inner City

for more than 24 months. Two

Outer City

Towns were studied i.e. Penang

Peripheral Area

and Seremban.

Figure 2.2 Seremban City Boundary

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH 

Penang

Penang’s overhang situation is however amongst the lowest with some 433 residential units of overhang. Most of these units are located in Seberang Perai and the South West District which comprise of terraces, condominiums, apartments and some detached units.

Penang’s overhang situation is amongst the lowest with some 433 residential units of overhang. Most of these units are located in Seberang Perai and District Barat Daya comprising of terraces, condominiums, apartments and some detached units. There were no overhang shop units or industrial units in District Timur Laut according to the NAPIC Q1, 2007 report. The incident of overhang in Georgetown and its periphery is therefore a non-issue.

There were no overhang shop units or industrial units in the North East District. 

Seremban.

Seremban’s overhang

situation is currently at 1,940 of residential

units and 637

of commercial unit. Most of these units are located in the District of Seremban comprising of terraces, detached, condominiums and low cost flats. The District has a total of 1,369 units of residential overhang. The breakdown of overhang of residential properties in the District shows 28% were for low cost flats, 27% for 2 storey terraces, 15% each for 1 storey terraces and detached and 14% for condominiums. In comparison to Penang which has no overhang problems, Negeri Sembilan’s overhang in 2007 is said to be rather serious, especially as development trends in the District of Seremban, tends to be developed in the outskirts and a strong trend towards leap frog developments and urban sprawl. Property overhang in Seremban is evidenced by longstanding abandoned projects then. These include

commercial buildings, shopping complexes, hotels and

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH residential neighbourhoods which were found

outside the Seremban central areas.

Housing in Seremban 2 for example was mostly abandoned or were left uninhabited. Seremban 3 and Sungai Gadut housing too were mostly left vacant. d)

Urbanites Quality of living.

Quality of Living is not only about adequate facilities, amenities, infrastructure, housing, recreation, jobs, education, health and such like but more so in terms of its environment, easy and convenient mobility, clean air, clean water, peace and harmony.

In fact, Quality of Living covers a whole spectrum of human basic needs and wants. These should also be sustainable to be enjoyed by the present generations and generations to come. Therefore, Quality of Living is made possible when development is sustainable.

Sustainable development covers a very wide range of activities. Four key areas have been identified to render developments sustainable:i.

To achieve sustainable consumption and production:

ii.

To tackle climate change and energy depletion.

iii.

To understand the limits of the natural resources that sustains life, such as water, air and soil.

iv.

To create sustainable communities.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH e)

The Urban Governance Mechanism.

Issues pertaining to ineffective Urban Governance that are currently faced by Malaysia are:-

i.

Uncoordinated and unintegrated planning management approach. Different authorities have different procedures and priorities.

ii.

Lack of community participation and support in the development process. Even though there are provisions for public participation, but feedbacks have not been constructive.

iii.

Lack of Incentive-based and Performance-based Control Guidelines and Licensing Control.

iv.

Ineffective growth controls, incentives, tax policies and design controls.

v.

Inflexible development control methods and unviable Local Plan mechanism of Development Charges collection and the control of development Transfer of Development Rights.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

3.0 THE CURRENT TOWN PLANNING PRACTICES AND DEVELOPMENT PLANS SYSTEM To ensure good urban growth and development, we need good planning and management. We need to formulate effective plans for urban development and growth and to implement and manage the development and growth well, by adopting a good system and set of procedures for the preparation of these plans and for the control and management of growth. These processes include:-

i.

development planning, i.e. the formulation of plans and policies to guide

development; ii.

development control, i.e. the regulation of the development, use and

management of land; and iii.

plan implementation, monitoring and enforcement.

3.1

THE CURRENT TOWN PLANNING PRACTICES

3.1.1

DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

The current town planning practices are in the form of Development Plans. Development Planning is the process of formulating plans to guide, facilitate and coordinate the use, development and management of land in order to achieve the desired goals for the future growth of the area.

i.

The Development Planning Practices

Under the development planning system in Peninsular Malaysia these plans and policies are formulated at national, regional, and local authority levels, as provided for under The Town and Country Planning Act 1976(TCPA). These plans include:

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH a.

The National Physical Plan, prepared by the Director General of the Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, under section 6B of the TCPA.

As far as strategies which are related to urbanisation and the Sequential Approach, the NPP outlined two major strategies:-

That planning of urban-based economic activities shall adopt the concept of “Selective Concentration” for strategic urban centres for all States.

That identification and delineation of the Strategic Urban Conurbations should represent their specific Zones i.e. The Northern Conurbation, The KL Conurbation, The Southern Conurbation and The Eastern Conurbation.  For the Kuala Lumpur which is the National Growth Conurbation a 45 minutes travel time from the employment centres of core cities has been demarcated.  Whereas For all other conurbations travel time from the employment centre of the core city is 30 minutes demarcation.

Other parameters taken into consideration in the detailing of the delineation of conurbations have been: 

Committed Development.

Use of vacant land within the present built-up area, rehabilitation and redevelopment of existing building sites.

Physical: buildings based on concentration.

Exclusion of Prime Agricultural Areas (PAA) as designated by the NPP.

Exclusion of Priority Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESA) as designated by the NPP.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH b. The Structure Plan, prepared by the State Director of the Town and Country Planning Department, under section 8 of the TCPA.

The Structure Plan outline strategic framework such as:

set out the policy for supporting and enhancing town centers, including an assessment of how far the existing town centers might be able to meet the demands for new shopping floor space and other uses, while contributing to consumer choice and access

indicate whether, as part of the sequential approach, there is scope for retail developments with town centres; if so, indicate their scale and general location, ensuring co-ordination with expected housing, employment, or other planned developments, including transport infrastructure; and

Reflect the criteria set out in this guideline against which retail and commercial leisure development proposals with town centers should be assessed.

c. The Local Plan, prepared by the Local Planning Authority, under section 12 of the TCPA. Like the Structure Plans, elements of urban growth strategies and measures to develop the Town Planning Blocks and the Sub Planning Blocks in Local Plans are streamlined towards development priorities on existing urban centres .

Local plans provide local details and a sharper focus to the structure plan framework. These include:

assessment the performance of individual town centers indicate their potential for change, improvement or stability;

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH 

safeguard and support existing town centers and other retail facilities, such as local centers and village shops, which serve the local community well;

identify sites, including those suitable and available within a reasonable timescale, for new retail and commercial leisure developments within town centers, and, where appropriate, at the edge-of-centre;

provide guidance to developers who propose new developments out of the framework of preferred sites in the development plan, and indicate how such developments will be assessed; and

Include related policies for transport, car parking and for improving the environmental quality of town centers, retail and commercial leisure developments, and specify design criteria and standards against which proposals will be judged, including those in out-of-centre locations.

d. The Special Area Plan, prepared either by the State Director of Town and Country Planning or the Local Planning Authority as directed by the State Planning Committee under Section 16B of the TCPA.

A Special Area is an area planned for special and detail treatment by development, redevelopment, improvement, and/or conservation. The Local Plan can designate the agency or agencies to carry out the development and spell out the manner in which it is to be implemented. A Special Area Plan is hence a more detailed local plan for an area that has been ear marked for immediate or urgent development

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

e. The Comprehensive Regional Plan, prepared by the Regional Planning Committee under section 6A of the TCPA. The Comprehensive Regional Plan will cover for any area which covers two or more states, whose main function is to establish policies and to devise a Comprehensive Regional planning, to plan, guide and coordinate development and the provision of infrastructure and facilities in the region, to monitor the implementation of development standards, guideline and procedures, and to conduct research required for the planning of its region.

3.1.2

WEAKNESSES OF THE PRESENT DEVELOPMENT PLANNING PROCESS

However the weaknesses and problems in the preparation of development plans can be summarised as follows:

i.

The Plan Preparation Process Is Too Long And Costly.

The structure plan and local plan preparation processes follow a very comprehensive, systematic and meticulous process, incorporating survey, compilation and analysis of data, plan formulation and public participation and objection, as required under the TCPA.

ii.

The Planning Problems and Issues Are Not Well Identified.

Even with so much data collection, there are weaknesses in the analysis, identifying and understanding of certain important planning issues and problems in the planning area and the causes of these problems, especially the social and non-tangible issues, such as urban and rural poverty, unemployment and under-employment, inaccessibility to urban needs, increasing crime rates, increasing cost of living, widening of income gaps, social segregation, and other problems of non-sustainable development. This has often resulted in, at FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH the least, the issues and problems not being resolved, or worse, the problems further aggravated by inappropriate planning proposals and strategies in the development plan.

iii.

The Public Participation Process Is Not Effective.

The requirement for public participation in the preparation of structure plans and local plans is a positive step towards involving the people who will be affected by the plans for the better understanding and identification of problems and for better selection of planning options.

However the process takes a long time and has contributed to the delay in the plan preparation process. It has in many cases been found to be an ineffective process. The public participation in the structure and local plan preparation process often mainly involves a very small proportion of the people. Most of the people who may be affected by the proposals of the development plan are not even aware of the plan.

iv.

Development Plans Are Not Responsive and Effective

Many of the proposals and strategies in the structure plans and local plans are not directly responsive to the issues and problems and hence not effective in solving the problems. One main reason is that urban problems and issues, especially the social and non-tangible ones, are not easily translated into physical planning solutions. Another reason is that the development plans are still based very heavily on archaic approach of planning, such as fixed and rigid land-use zoning. Other more flexible but more responsive and effective planning approaches should be examined for adoption. A system to measure the effectiveness and responsiveness of development plan proposals and strategies need to be formulated.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH v)

Development plans are not action-orientated and time-specific.

Many structure plans and local plans are not sufficiently action-orientated and time-specific. They do not indicate the priority and the schedule for the release of land for development, thus allowing developers to carry out development at their own time, site and pace, resulting in urban sprawl, leap-frog development, insufficient infrastructure and facilities, and mismatch between demand and supply.

The Sequential Approach requires the adoption of more action-orientated and time-specific development planning. There should be an in-built control in the release of land for development and appropriate incentives given to ensure that growth and development are properly integrated and channelled into more suitable areas.

vi.

Development plans are too rigid or too vague.

Development Plans and planning guidelines should not be too rigid or too vague. A plan which is too rigid does not allow any room for innovative planning on the part of developers and consultants. On the other hand, if it is too vague, it will not provide a clear guide for developers and their consultants and the government decision-makers.

vii.

Planners and decision-makers preparing development plans are not made to feel responsible and accountable.

The quality of development plans depend very much on the quality and dedication of the people who are involved in the formulation and approval of the plans, be they external consultants, government officers, or the politician decision-makers. They should be made to feel responsible and to be FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH accountable to the people who will be most affected by the outcome of the plans and their decisions. On the other hand, they should be able to take credit if the plans or decisions create the expected benefits and gains to the people. A system of measuring and monitoring responsibility and accountability of decisions should be formulated.

viii.

Inadequate analysis of the impact of development proposals during the plan formulation process.

In the preparation of development plans and in the formulation of planning options, development proposals and strategies, there is often no adequate impact or cost-benefit analysis of the proposals and strategies. This leads to poor decision-making in the choosing of planning options and in the approval of the development plan. A form of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) can be formulated and applied for this purpose of aiding decision-making in the preparation of development plans.

ix.

Lack of Coordination and Integration among agencies and departments in planning

There is lack of coordination and integration among the planning of the various departments involved in the development and use of land, such as between Federal, State and Local agencies, between the government and private sector agencies, and between the Local Authorities and other departments and agencies in charge of roads and infrastructure development, schools and other facilities and services, traffic planning and management, and economic development and environmental protection.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

3.2

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL AND LAND MANAGEMENT

Development control is the day-to-day regulation and control of the development and use of land. Without development control development planning will be futile.

3.2.1

THE DEVELOPMENT CONTROL AND LAND MANAGEMENT PROCESS.

This involves various processes such as:-

i.

The Planning Permission Process. Section 18 of the TCPA prohibits any person to use any land or building if it is not in conformity with the local plan. Section 19 prohibits any person to carry out any development without the planning permission of the LPA, and section 21 spells out the process for obtaining a planning permission by any person proposing to carry out any development. Section 22 spells out the procedures for the consideration of the planning application by the LPA. Under section 23 of the TCPA, an applicant or an objector who is aggrieved with the decision of the LPA in the approval or rejection of the application can make an appeal to the Appeal Board against the decision of the LPA.

ii.

Variation of Conditions, Restrictions and Categories of Land Use Part Seven of the National Land Code (NLC), subjects all alienated land to implied and expressed conditions and restrictions. Under sections 115, 116 and 117, the implied conditions affect lands subject to the various categories of land use i.e. “agriculture”, “building” and “industry”, and, under section 119, to lands which contain expressions of “padi”. Section 124 empowers the State Authority, upon the application of the land owner, to alter of the category of land use of his land, to remove the expression of “padi”, “rubber” or “kampong” in the land title, or to impose and amend any expressed conditions. This process is carried out without referring to the LPA or SPC. Section 108 further states that where any condition

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH on the land title is inconsistent with any by-law or restrictions affecting the land imposed by any local authority or planning authority, the condition shall prevail and the local authority or planning authority by-law or restriction shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, cease to apply to the land.

iii.

Sub-division, Partitioning and Amalgamation of Land Under section 135 of the National Land Code (NLC), any land owner can sub-divide his land, with the approval of the State Director of Lands and Mines or the Land Administrator, as long as it satisfies a set of conditions spelt out in section 136 (1), which include the conditions that any necessary approval of any planning authority has been obtained, and that the sub-division would not be contrary to any plan approved by the State Authority for the development of the area, or the any decision of any planning authority of the area. There is no provision in the NLC for any authority to impose new implied or expressed conditions or restrictions or vary any conditions or restrictions or the category of land use of the land in the process of sub-division.

Similarly, under section 140, joint land owners can partition their land so that each new parcel is vested in the name of each of the land owners after partitioning. The same set of prerequisite conditions as in section 136(1) has to be satisfied.

Under section 146, a land owner can amalgamate his two or more contiguous lots, if the same set of prerequisite conditions is satisfied. However in the amalgamation of lands, the condition or restriction or category of land use of any of the land can be changed by the State Authority if necessary if there exist any dissimilarity between any of the original lots to be amalgamated.

vi.

Excision of Hill Lands and Degazetting from Forest Reserves Under the Land Conservation Act, hill lands are gazetted and protected from development. The State Authority has the power, however, to excise any gazetted hill land, and need not legally comply with the Structure plan or Local

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH Plan. On the other hand, if there is any inconsistency between the State Authority’s decision to excise a land from Hill Land and the proposal in the Structure Plan or Local Plan in relation to that land, the decision of the excision will prevail.

Similarly the State Authority has the power to degazette any forest land under the National Forestry Act, notwithstanding the proposals in the Structure Plan or Local Plan. Even the National Physical Plan may not have adequate enforcement means to ensure compliance in the degazetting of forest reserves or excision of hill lands by the State Authority.

v.

The One Stop Centre (OSC) System.

In April 2007, the Ministry of Housing and Local Government prepared a circular on the implementation of the One Stop Centre (OSC) system and, with the approval of the National Local Government Council, directed all state authorities and local planning authorities to adopt the new system.

The OSC is intended to shorten the time for the processing of the various applications for approvals of development by: 

increasing the number of staff in the processing of the applications in the LPA,

coordinating and monitoring the comments and requirements of all the relevant departments involved in the processing,

allowing all the plans for development to be submitted and processed concurrently,

given a limited time frame for all the stages of processing,

Replacing the planning committee with an OSC committee in every LPA.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH 3.2.2

WEAKNESSES OF THE PRESENT DEVELOPMENT CONTROL AND LAND

MANAGEMENT PROCESS

The weaknesses in the development control and land management processes are summarised as follows:

i.

The planning permission process is unnecessary tedious and time-consuming.

The procedures in the approval of planning permission as presently practiced in most local authority areas, is unnecessary tedious and time consuming. There are many causes of these delays, including: 

unclear development policies, plans and guidelines;

unclear and imprecise recommendations on the part of the planning officers;

lack of staff in the processing of applications, in both quantity and quality;

indecisions in the consideration of the applications by the committee;

too many irrelevant and unnecessary, and sometimes conflicting, requirements and comments from the technical departments;

too many departments and committees processing and considering the applications;

unclear system and procedures of processing of applications, some steps are unnecessary, overlapping and/or redundant;

ii.

the applicants and their agents are not competent;

Interferences from politicians.

Poor Understanding of Development Plans, Guidelines and the Planning Law in Development Control and Regulation.

There is often a gap, poor understanding and misinterpretation of the law, policies, plans and guidelines by the LPAs when applications for planning FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH permission are processed and considered. One of the reasons is that planning officers who are involved in the daily processing of applications for development were not involved in the preparation of the development plans or briefed well on the details of the development plans and control guidelines.

iii.

Approving authorities, officers and decision-makers do not feel responsible and accountable for the outcome of their decisions.

The authorities, officers and decision-makers, as well as the developers and their consultants, should be proficient and responsible and should be accountable to the people who are subsequently affected by the result of their proposals, recommendations and decisions.

The LPA is the authority responsible for granting planning permission, and the State Authority is responsible for the alteration of category of land use, varying of conditions and restrictions of land, excision of hill lands and “de gazetting” of forest reserves.

Whereas in the consideration for planning permission the LPA has to abide by the proposals in the Structure Plan and Local Plan, there is no such legal restriction for the State Authority to change the category of land use under the NLC, to excise “hill lands” under the Land Conservation Act, to de gazette from forest reserves under the National Forestry Act. There should be greater transparency in the approval process.

iv.

The Appeal Process Takes Too Long a Time

Although the objectors, as well as the applicants, have a right to submit appeals to the Appeal Board if they are unhappy with the decision of the LPA in approving or rejecting the applications of planning permission, the process of

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH being heard and considered by the Appeal Board takes a long time and is very costly to the parties affected.

v.

The use of IT systems and the internet is not adequately coordinated.

The use of appropriate computer and IT system and the internet will go a long way to reduce the tediousness, hasten the process, reduce the uncertainties, increase transparency, and to manage and up-date planning and development data in the development control process. However, although some efforts have been taken towards this, there is still a much room for improvement. There is as yet no concerted effort to coordinate all these efforts or to install a uniform system for electronic submission and consideration of applications of planning permission or land matters for all LPAs and other relevant departments.

vi.

There is no adequate method to assess the impact of proposed development.

A more precise set of criteria and indicators for sustainable development should be formulated, and a more precise and quick method of evaluating the environmental, social and economic impacts, as well as the costs and benefits of the proposed development under consideration should be made available. These will be invaluable for responsible and effective decision-making in the development control process.

vii.

Officers in the administration of land are not well versed with the NLC and the TCPA.

Offices in the Department of Land and Mines, in charge of processing and advising on applications for alteration of category of land use, subdivision, amalgamation, and other land related matters, under the NLC, are often not specifically trained in land laws, land administration, and planning laws, and are also not conversant with the objectives of good land administration and FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH management, good planning and orderly development. This has in some cases led to decisions that are contrary to the laws and the development plans.

viii.

No legal provisions for decisions on land applications to conform to the development plans.

There are no provisions in the NLC, the Land Conservation Act and the National Forestry Act, for State Authorities to comply with the proposals of the National Physical Plan, The State Structure Plan or the Local Plan in their approval of applications for alteration of category of land use, excision of hill lands, or degazetting of forest reserves. There have been cases where areas zoned for agriculture or hill land in the structure or local plan are approved for alteration of the category of land use to “building” by the state authorities.

ix.

LPAs do not consider the demand and supply situation in approving development.

The LPAs and the State Authorities in their granting of planning permission and the alteration of land use category from “agriculture” to “building” do not consider the situation of oversupply of development. They may be unable to do this due to lack of updated supply and demand data. The resultant overhang of housing and commercial floor space is due to over approval and over development.

3.3

THE PLAN IMPLEMENTATION, ENFORCEMENT

MONITORING

AND

After planning permission, other plan approvals and permits are required before the development can be carried out. These plans when implemented need to be monitored and followed through via the enforcement process and the list of relevant plans are as follows:

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

Road and Drainage Plan approval from the Local Authority (LA) as

required under the Street, Drainage and Building Act (SDBA),

Building Plan approval from the LA as required under the SDBA,

Structural Plan submitted to the LA as required under the SDBA,

Earthworks Plan approval from the LA as required under the SDBA,

Sub-division Plan approval by the State Director of Lands and Mines or the Land Administrator under the NLC.

3.3.1

WEAKNESSES

OF

THE

PLAN IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING

AND

ENFORCEMENT PROCESS

The weaknesses in the implementation, monitoring and enforcement process include the following:

i.

There is no control and coordination in the implementation of development projects.

The local authorities do not monitor or control the sequence and schedule of the construction / implementation of approved projects by private or government developers and agencies. Development is often on an ad-hoc basis, at the time, pace and site of individual developers, resulting in leap-frog development, urban sprawl and the overhang of developed properties. Even government and utility departments do not abide by the structure or local plans programme, but instead carry out their own projects based on the departments’ own budgeting and implementation schedules. This often results in situations of shortage or over-loading of utility services. The preparation of development plans often relies on external consultants while implementation and enforcement are carried out by the local council officers who are often not directly involved in the tedious plan preparation process.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH There is hence often a gap, poor understanding and discontinuity during the implementation and enforcement of the plans later on.

ii.

The local authorities and other government agencies do not play an active role in development.

Urban lands in Peninsular Malaysia are largely under private ownership. The local authorities and other government agencies have to play a more proactive role in the acquisition and amalgamation of land in order to apply the Sequential Approach to redevelop more appropriate sites like “brown fields” and inner-city areas, and to preserve “green field” areas.

iii.

Insufficient incentives given for developers to carry out development in more appropriate sites.

There are inadequate incentives to encourage developers to develop in more appropriate areas and to avoid the encroachment into “green field” areas. Local, state and central governments should introduce financial incentives such as giving discounts in development charges, taxes and fees, or non-financial ones like transfer of development rights, giving higher plot ratios and densities, and fast-track approvals.

iv.

Enforcement actions under the TCPA and the SDBA are slow and inadequate. 

Some parts of the law and by-laws are not clear, out-of-date or are inadequate;

The supervising officers and inspectors are short handed or inefficient; in most LPAs there are no planning inspectors, and hence offences and illegal development under the TCPA are not spotted.

The charging and conviction of offenders through the court of law are tedious and time consuming; there are often delay for cases to be heard and there is a

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH long back log. (there have been proposals to set up municipal courts to hear only local authority cases); 

The fines and penalties are not high enough to create a significant deterrence to potential offenders.



There are often interferences by politicians.

3.4 The Sequential Approach, Strengths and Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threat in the Malaysian context The Sequential Approach in planning accentuates the provision of the Structure Plans and Local Plans in that development should be undertaken within most suitable areas, from the city core outwards and preferably within areas of good public transport connectivity.

Based on the understanding of the mechanisms and implementation tools of the Sequential

Approach,

certain

strengths,

weaknesses,

opportunities

and

challenge/threat of the approach in the light of the situation in Malaysia have been identified:-

3.4.1

ITS STRENGTHS

i.

That priority of development is given to the existing town centres.

ii.

That development is brought back into the city centres. There are trends that city centres become quiet and workers leave the city for their suburban homes. With new developments of housing and commerce remaining within the centres, the city centre is thus revitalized.

iii.

Those compact development initiatives within city centres are exercised commerce and residential use can be developed within a single plot of land, vertical mixed use maximizes land use and other creative designs on limited

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH land area proved to be important stimulants to rejuvenate town centres. This is really a complete turnaround from the traditional single zone land use planning.

iv.

That many buildings worthy of heritage could be revitalized through rehabilitation into commercial use.

These indirectly encouraged greater

professional skills and creativity amongst planners, architects, designers, etc.

v.

That development became more orderly, in that developers are encouraged to build first within city areas before “leapfrogging� into Greenfield areas.

vi.

That there is negligible wastage on existing infrastructure and in the long run save on infrastructure costs.

3.4.2

i.

ITS WEAKNESSES

For Sequential Approach to really be attractive and work towards a win-win situation for the private sector, government (city authorities) and the community, one essential factor is the need for an integrated public transport system complete with extensive service coverage.

ii.

Need to initiate a pilot project in the city centres to provide an example of the project viability. It is usual that a pilot project be initiated on government land wherever possible. However, there may be limitations since most state or government lands within city centres are all built up for community facilities.

iii.

Need incentives for new ideas or development policy approaches and Local Authorities have to undertake this role.

iv.

Need close monitoring of development applications. However, such practices are still at the infancy stage in most cities in Malaysia.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

v.

Need to identify particular lots that can be developed or redeveloped, the permissible plot ratios, the allowable densities, setbacks, height of buildings, commercial and residential mix ratio, car parking standards, the entry and exit points of the plot, etc., At present Local Plans stage.

vi.

Need to formulate detail of historic site or building so that any developments will not be in contradiction with the Structure or local plan.

3.4.3

i.

ITS OPPORTUNITIES

To formulate detailed development guidelines for city centres which include height and densities, plot ratios, setbacks and built to line, vertical mix development ratios, parking exemptions, etc.

ii.

To preserve and rehabilitate buildings as well as areas of heritage value.

iii.

To expedite the development and implementation of a comprehensive integrated system of public transportation as the two goes hand in hand and is systemic of one another. Height and densities, plot ratios, setbacks and built to line, vertical mix development ratios, parking exemptions, etc.

iv.

To preserve and rehabilitate buildings as well as areas of heritage value.

v.

To expedite the development and implementation of a comprehensive integrated system of public transportation as the two goes hand in hand and is systemic of one another.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH 3.4.4

i.

ITS CHALLENGE/THREATS

The high cost of land in city centres, which will offset the profit margin of potential developers.

ii.

Great political commitment from policy makers, followed by extensive implementation by local councils in the form of guidelines and incentives (initially).

iii.

Lack of community facilities within city centres to support a large and mixed population that would be living therein.

iv.

In city centres have broken up communities living in it.

In conclusion Table 3.1 compares the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of the Sequential Approach in the Malaysian Context.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH Table 3.1:

Summary of the SWOT Analysis – Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

S T R

E N G T H

S

W

E A

K N E S S E

S

Compact city

Lack of incentives

mixed development

Public Transport

orderly growth

Transport network

Towards safe city

Lack of government/ municipal

savings on infra cost

Greater accessibility

No monitoring of development

Towards sustainability

Lack of sufficient control

Re-vitalisation of heritage buildings

Lack of database

Re-vitalisation of heritage buildings

Lack detailed implementation

land

strategy to achieve policies

O

P

P

O

R

T U

N I

T I

E S

T H

T S

High land cost in City Centres

developers

No political commitment

Huge private owned land bank

-

High densities

-

Built to lines

-

No parking provision

-

Mixed development

Preservation/Conservation of heritage

outside and inside City Centres 

Promotion/ upgrading of public

Re-vitalisation of City Centres

Malaysian preference for landed property

Restrictions for development by developers

transportation services 

E A

Creation of development guidelines for

building in City Centres 

R

Lack of community facilities to sustain city living

Traffic management in City Centres breaks the community.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

4.0 PROSPECTS OF THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH IMPLEMENTATION IN MALAYSIA The Sequential Approach when first formulated was to address the property overhang in many cities in the UK. However, as illustrated in the two Malaysia case studies, property overhang is not such a major issue in George Town but an issue in Seremban, due mainly to land speculation.

It also indicated that the approach may be an

inadequate tool for cities of different sizes, history and its own peculiar urban growth morphology.

However, prospect of Sequential Approach implementation in Malaysia would be good should following prerequisites are put in place.

4.1

Prerequisites Required For Implementation of the Sequential Approach

i.

Need for Strong Political Will

From the growth and the SWOT analysis of the two cities’, it can be implied that the most important criteria for the successful implementation of the Sequential Approach is political will. Without political will, most developers will not support the idea nor will implement such a strategy. Because private sector is about profits, any new policy that affects the profit margin of companies will be unpopular but with political support, the implementation of the approach will soon be realized and instituted.

ii.

Fiscal Incentives

Another element for the Approach to work will be the kinds of incentives to be given out. Fiscal incentives like company taxes and transfer of development rights should be

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH further explored. Fiscal incentives are only awarded by the Ministry of Finance and Bank Negara.

iii.

An Integrated Transport System

For the Sequential Approach to be implemented successfully in the country and within the major cities, the availability of an integrated public transport system is pertinent. Easy accessibility of the development with areas from outside the city as well as from within would be one of the factors that would make the development viable. iv.

Transparency and Publicity

Another major requirement for its successful implementation is that there must be clear implementation and execution strategies that are transparent and readily available for the public. These are important elements that would make the Sequential Approach readily understood and accepted by those who will implement as well as execute the development plans. These would include not just the developers but also the utility companies and agencies, and other related government departments. v.

Comprehensive and Extensive Data Base and Close Monitoring.

Local authorities must prepare a sound and comprehensive data base to manage and monitor the implementation of the Approach. Data such as location of the preferred sites, ownership, development rights and guidelines, must be made available. Once an application has been received, the progress of the application from planning approval stage to construction and completion stage must be closely monitored. Therefore data on demand and supply will be available as one of the objectives of the Sequential Approach is to avoid oversupply of properties or property overhang. vi.

Availability of State and Local Government Land and Brownfield Sites

For the Sequential Approach to take off there must be extensive state or local government lands or even Brownfield sites for pilot projects to be implemented. Private developers can participate to undertake and showcase the success of the Sequential Approach of these projects. FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH vii.

Amendments to Some Legislation.

For Sequential Approach to be implemented effectively, some related legislations need to be amended and they are:

Amendments to the Town and Country Planning Act 1976, especially pertaining to Local Plans and Special Area Plans. More detailed design guidelines will be included which will be based on property price analysis and trends.

Amendment to the Uniform Building Bye-Laws, especially with regards to building design. They are to be more flexible and allow for performance based standards rather than prescriptive regulations.

Strata Titles Act – The recent amendments to allow for landed properties as strata developments will encourage for more gated communities in areas outside of city centres. The Act will have to be re-studied and address the issue to allow and encourage for more intensive development in city centres.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

5.0 CONCLUSION Even though The Malaysian Planning System is rather complete with its hierarchy of National, State, Regional and Local Plans right down to The Special Area Plan at very localised level, the procedures as well as the processes of development plan approval at each stage are quite elaborate and systematic. However, there are strengths and weaknesses of the current system which could be improved especially pertaining to optimum use of land resources, environment and the property trends towards the realization of the attainment of Sustainable Development objectives. Many of the country’s Structure and Local Plans lack the detailed implementation strategy to achieve the objectives of the Sequential Approach. For sequential approach to work, further details of the local plan must be formulated. These should contain even more details such as the identification of particular lots that can be developed or redeveloped, the permissible plot ratios, the allowable densities, set-backs, height of buildings, commercial and residential mix, car parking standards, the entry and exit point of the plot etc. If the development to be undertaken includes a historic site building, then more details need to be formulated so that any development will not contradict with the Structure or Local Plans. All these details will have to work out within the current costs of land, development costs, current fiscal policies, etc. Generally, the issues of urban sprawl and property overhang by types and prices as well as location factors are symptoms of unsustainable developments that need to be attended to. To use the Sequential Approach, there is the need for close monitoring of development applications through detailed Data collection and Database system. Consequently, Sequential Approach alone may not be sufficient to manage urban growth and avoid urban sprawl in Malaysia. Other more encompassing approach is still needed to address Malaysian peculiar urban trends and manner urbanization. Therefore The Integrated Sustainable Urban Growth (ISUG) Management Approach is recommended as the comprehensive approach feasible to be used in the Malaysian Development Plan System to address our urban growth issues.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

1.0 THE ISUG APPROACH The Integrated Sustainable Urban Growth ( ISUG ) is an approach that address urban growth issues and development issues in an integrated, holistic, and sustainable manner that can be incorporated in the development planning system of Peninsular Malaysia. The ISUG approach, which is now widely adopted in the UK, Europe, USA and Canada, may be suitable to be emulated and practiced in Malaysia. In order to adopt this approach in the planning, implementation and monitoring of urban developments and the management of urban lives in the Malaysian context, this study had explored its applicability, strengths and ways for its successful adoption and practice.

1.1

IT’S DEFINITION

It refers to landuse and development practices that enhance the Quality of Life in urban communities preserve the natural environment and save public money over time. And most importantly the enjoyment of living in cities and urban areas should be sustained for the present until the future generations.

“ISUG ” is defined as the efforts

of

communities

to

According to Smart Growth BC (British Columbia,

manage and direct its urban

Canada (2002), a ‘Smart Growth” is a collection of

growth which puts emphasis

urban development strategies to reduce urban

on minimising damage to the

sprawl and that enhances the quality of life,

environment

protects the environment and use tax revenues

liveable towns and cities for

wisely.

them to enjoy.

while

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1.2

CRITERIA OF INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE URBAN GROWTH

Hence, in essence ‘ISUG’ is all about the following criteria or ideas that help define it in a comprehensive manner. They are:-

 Creating more compact developments via infill developments and new developments;  Encouraging infill development for more efficient use of existing urban assets and infrastructures.  Creating walkable, transit oriented and mixed use developments;  Providing a variety of transportation choices (walk, cycle, transit and private car);  Offering housing choices and mix of different type or cost of houses;  Promoting sense of community in new and expanding areas through quality design and active public participation;  Conserving environmental sensitive areas and natural resources;  Protecting sufficient agriculture lands and food production sector; and  Establishing and maintaining urban growth boundaries.

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1.3

COMPARISON BETWEEN INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE URBAN GROWTH (ISUG) AND CONVENTIONAL (SPRAWL) Table 1.1 summarise the comparison of the ISUG and the conventional urban sprawl development.

Table 1.1: Comparison of the ISUG or Smart Growth versus the Conventional Approach (Urban Sprawl)

ISUG TOPIC

Land supply, landuse and urban form

Natural resources and the environment

COMPARISON

SPECIFIC CONSIDERATION

ISUG

CONVENTION (SPRAWL)

Land consumption

More efficient use of land as a limited resource.

Not as efficient and generally a more excessive land consumption pattern, larger individual lots.

Directional focus of growth

Infill and redevelopment. Maximum use of existing developed areas.

Greenfield development. Expansion into new / undeveloped areas.

Density / intensity

Higher

Lower

Urban form

Compact and contiguous

Scattered, dispersed and leapfrogged

Landuse

Mixed-jobs and housing balance

Single function and separated

Values / ethics

Land as a resource; sustainability

Land as commodity; Satisfy market preferences.

Open space provision

Maintain, enhance and expand

Provide when supported by market force. Provide as per Malaysian Government requirement. Normally following the minimum requirement only.

Open space location

Proximate to all users; connected

Inaccessible; unconnected; include ‘remnant’ parcels of left-over pieces of land

Brownfield’s

Clean up and reuse

Abandon

Energy

Conservation

More consumptive due to separation of users and location in areas without

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH infrastructure Housing

Values / ethics

Choice; diversity; affordability

Provide what the market will bear.

Location

Disperse in all locations, especially in city/activity centres

Predominantly in exclusive residential areas (subdivisions)

Type of unit; mixes

Wider variety, mixtures of types

Predominantly detached, single-family; rigid separation of types and price

Cost

Sufficient for all incomes. Example, mixed income housing

Market fails to provide affordable units for all incomes Provide low cost housing as per Malaysia Government requirement. Normally, with poor location.

Transportation

Orientation

Multiple modes

Automobile-dominant

Road system and network pattern

Grid or network of streets

Hierarchy of arterials, collectors and local streets.

Accessibility

Interconnectivity encouraged

Separation encouraged

Predominant streets

Through streets with alleys encouraged

Cul-de-sac and collectors

Street pavement widths

Skinny; concept of street ‘diets’

Wide / more excessive than needed for functionality

Source: Jerry Weitz & Associates, Inc (2001) in Atlanta Regional Commission, “Smart Growth Audit”.

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1.4

The 7 Goals of ISUG On the whole, there are 7 goals of ISUG Approach:-

Goal 1: Promoting urban revitalization and a healthy working land base by rural preservation and by containing urban areas, channelling development into existing neighbourhoods and adopting integrated planning and management approaches. Goal 2: Incorporating green infrastructure into communities.

Goal 3: Creating compact complete communities by mixing landuses and using land more efficiently.

Increasing transportation choices through land that use. a diversity of Goal 4: 5: Creating inclusive neighbourhoods by ensuring housing types are accessible to a wide range of people of different age groups, family types and incomes

Goal 6: Maximising the enduring benefits of developments by using resources wisely on sites and in buildings that are tailored to specific neighbourhood conditions

Goal 7: Supporting municipal goals through cost recovery by ensuring that development cost charges and other taxes and fees reflect the true cost of different types of growth

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH Above all, in the long run this approach has the overriding goal of attaining Sustainable Development. “Sustainable Development is commonly defined as “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (Brundtland, 1987) However, the commitment to meet the needs of present and future generations has economic, social and environment implications which are closely interrelated and interwoven to reach sustainability. See Figure 1.1

Figure 1.1 Sustainable Developments

"Meeting the needs of the present" means satisfying: 

Economic needs – including access to opportunities for an adequate livelihood or productive economic activity, also economic security when unemployed, ill, disabled or otherwise unable to secure a livelihood.

Social, cultural and health needs - including a shelter which is healthy, safe, affordable and secure, within a neighbourhood with provision for piped water, drainage, transport, health care, education and child development, and protection from environmental hazards.

Political needs - including freedom to participate in national and local politics and in decisions regarding management and development of one's home and neighbourhood, within a broader framework which ensures respect for civil and political rights and the implementation of environmental legislation.

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1.4

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE ISUG APPROACH - THE MALAYSIAN WAY

In order that the ISUG Approach is adopted the main functions of the ISUG or Smart Growth Approach should be adapted in the Malaysian way and they include:-

To guide, coordinate and integrate goals, objectives and strategies of National Planning Policies with those of the existing state and district development plans which have been gazetted.

-

To function as an integrated and holistic approach for the planning, implementation, controlling, management and monitoring of urban growths in Peninsular Malaysia so as to achieve an overall sustainable development via new concepts such as Smart Growth, New Urbanism and Sequential Approach.

-

To guide the adoption of a more efficient, effective, responsive and accountable system and process for the planning, control and management of urban development and growth;

-

To ensure that appropriate and effective techniques and strategies of urban growth and management are implemented to achieve the desired outcomes.

Meanwhile, other salient features of this approach which are dynamic and should be incorporated into the present day Malaysian practice are:-

a) Ability to plan for and accommodate anticipated growth in economic activity, population and housing demand as well as on-going changes in demographics and lifestyles while protecting the environment. b) Ability to provide for a wide range of housing types to suit the needs, preferences and income levels of the community's diverse population. c) Adoption of a comprehensive landuse planning process at the local level that specifically identifies strategic landuses and meaningful open spaces.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH d) Identification and sourcing of a reliable means to finance and pay for the construction and expansion of roads, schools, water and sewer facilities and other infrastructures required to serve a prosperous community. e) Using land more efficiently by allowing higher density development and innovative landuse policies such as encouraging mixed use and pedestrian-friendly developments with access to open space and mass transit. f)

In revitalizing older suburban and inner-city markets and encouraging infill development.

1.5

RELEVANT ISUG STRATEGIES TO ADDRESS ISSUES AND WEAKNESS IN THE PREPARATION OF DEVELOPMENT PLANS

The identified issues and weaknesses in the present system and process of formulating development policies and preparing development plans are shown in Table 1.2, as well as the possible ISUG mechanism that can overcome weaknesses. Table 1.2: ISUG Strategies to Address the Issues and Weaknesses in the Preparation of Development Plans Weaknesses in the Present System i.

Plan preparation process too long and too costly.

ISUG Strategies Can be made faster and more efficient by adopting the ISUG Integrated Planning Management (IPM) Approach, the ISUG Database Management and Decision Support System (DMDSS), and the Community Participation and Support (CPS) mechanism. The ISUG Approach will also take into account macro and micro plans already prepared but only needs updating. Thus, adopting the approach will only need the strengthening of existing plans.

ii.

Planning problems and issues not well identified.

The adoption of the ISUG DMDSS and its mechanisms provides easier and more efficient compilation and analysis of data, more accurate identification of urban problems and issues, and the formulation of more effective and responsive proposals.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH Weaknesses in the Present System

ISUG Strategies The participation of stake-holders from the beginning of the plan preparation process by the CPS approach will also ensure that issues are identified in a holistic and in-depth manner. The ISUG IPM Approach ensures that urban issues and problems are looked at in an integrated and holistic manner.

iii.

Public participation process not effective.

The ISUG CPS process will ensure more effective participation of the various stake-holders at all stages of plan preparation.

iv.

Development plans not responsive and effective

The ISUG DMDSS and the adoption of an appropriate set of ISUG Indicators (ISUGI) will ensure that the proposals and strategies of development plans are more directly responsive to, and more effective in solving, the urban problems identified. The ISUG Development Control Guidelines (DCGs) are more flexible and allow developers to change their development proposals in response to social, economic and political changes. The Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) and Government Fiscal Incentives (GFI) also provide lee ways for developers to make their development more feasible.

v.

Development plans not action oriented and not time specific

The ISUG Sequential Approach ensures that the development plans are more action-oriented and time specific, as it provides the time frame for development by various agencies, authorities and private sector. The Transit Oriented Development approach ensures that urban growth and the development of public transport and other infrastructures are timed together.

vi.

Development plan too rigid or too vague.

The ISUG approach, with its many mechanisms allow for greater flexibility without sacrificing quality of development. The ISUG DCGs, like the Performance-Based and Incentive-Based Control Guidelines and the Planned Unit Development approach provide flexibility and encourage innovation in development by private developers. The Form-Based and Design-Based Control Guidelines, on the other hand, ensure that development achieve the expected vision.

vii

Planners and decisionmakers not responsible

The ISUG DMDSS and ISUGI, with Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Environmental Management System (EMS), Cost-Benefit

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH Weaknesses in the Present System and not accountable.

ISUG Strategies Assessment (CBA), prepared according to ISUG requirements will ensure that planners and decision-makers are meticulous and transparent during the plan-making process and can be monitored and checked and made responsible and accountable. Under the ISUG approach all development agencies can be made accountable for the impact of development. The ISUG CPS system, where plan preparation can be monitored by the public and stake-holders, the planners will feel more responsible.

viii.

No development impact analysis in plan preparation process

The adoption of the ISUG DMDSS and ISUGI will ensure that thorough assessment of impacts, risks, costs and benefits of proposed development will be done before the development plan is approved.

ix.

Lack Coordination and Integration among agencies and departments in planning.

The ISUG IPM approach will ensure that there is adequate integration and coordination at all stages among the various agencies and departments involved in the planning process.

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2.0 THE 9 STRATEGIES UNLEASHED The ISUG Approach combines 9 distinct strategies for the planning, controlling, implementing, managing and monitoring of urban growth and development. These 9 strategies as depicted in Figure 2.1 should be employed cohesively. Figure 2.1: The ISUG approach and Its Strategies INTERGRATED PLANNING MANAGEMENT

DEVELOPMENT PROPOSAL REPORT

GOVERNMENT FISCAL INCENTIVES

DEVELOPMENT CHANGES & TRANSFER OF DEVELOPMENT RIGHT

URBAN GROWTH BOUNDRARIES & GREEN RESERVES

INTERGRATED SUISTAINABLE URBAN GROWTH (ISUG)

INCENTIVES PERFOMANCE BASED DEVELOPMENT CONTROL

TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT COMPACT CITIES

SEQUENTIALN APPROACH

COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION & SUPPORT

ISUG DATABASE DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM

The importances of these 9 strategies are explained as below:i.

The Integrated Planning Management Approach aims towards an integrated and holistic planning and development. In general, integrated planning management aims to consolidate all related group of expertise to achieve ISUG strategies at all government administrative level (i.e. national, regional and local government) as shown in Figure 2.2.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH Figure 2.2: Flow Chart of Integrated and Planning Management Approach IMPLEMENTATION METHOD PUT INTO PRACTISE

(Thoroughly & Efficiently)

GOVERNMENT POLICY

OUTCAMES Constant Re-evaluation integration

APPROACH TO INTEGRATION Functionality Accountability Organization

INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT Central Agency Avoid Mismatch Policy TOOLS Policy making Integrated planning Funding Research & monitoring

ii.

RESOURCES Authorization Pricing Strategic asset Management Community Capacity Building

Urban Growth Boundaries (UGB) and Green Reserves (GR) is to attain balanced sustainable development and conservation.

Urban Growth Boundaries (UGBs) in the UK or Urban Containment Boundaries (UCBs) as they are called in the US acts as a ‘limit’ of urban development and growth. Its main purpose is to channel future urban development to urban areas and permanently retain green reserves, rural and country side areas. UGBs prevent suburban sprawl and encourage orderly development. Refer Figure 2.3.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH The processes involved in the designation of UGBs in a land use plan are as shown in Figure 2.3:

Figure 2.3Urban Growth Boundaries Principles

iii.

Transit Orientated Development (TOD) and Compact City Development (CCD) strive for better and more efficient urban living environment. Transport Oriented Development (TOD) concerns about the requirement to design viable land use patterns (but most preferable compact patterns), social integrity, infrastructure spending

priorities (fiscal), and environmental

protection. The major goals of the TOD is to increase ridership, promoting economic development, reducing infrastructure cost and rising revenues for transit properties and protecting the environment. iv.

Sequential Approach (SQ) helps to prioritize development areas. The sequential approach may be one of the mechanisms to slow down urban sprawl and at the same time, ensure that development projects is demand based and not the supply led as is the case in Malaysia, resulting in the oversupply of certain types of properties. The Sequential Approach is closely related with the brownfield development and urban revitalization mechanism such as:

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

v.

Involvement of the private sector.

Local authorities should manage the release of sites over the plan period.

Sufficient sites should be shown on the local planning authority’s development plan’s to accommodate at least the first five years (or the first two phases) of housing and other developments proposed in the plan.

vi.

Community Participation and Support (CPS) is for community-responsive planning and management of urban growth. Community participation in development process provides a source of special insight, information, knowledge, and experience gained (may not be seen by others) through discussion and representative of citizen consensus. Also participation can legitimize a program, its plans, actions, and leadership.

vii.

ISUG Database Management and Decision Support System (ISUGDM and DSS) is for more effective, transparent and accountable planning, management and monitoring. 

ISUG Database Management System - an integrated database management system for the collection, compilation, analysis, storage, retrieval, reviewing, up-dating, communicating and dissemination of information for planning and management of ISUG.

ISUG Decision Support System - an integrated computerised system to help in

decision-making

in

urban

development

planning,

control

and

management. 

ISUG Cost Benefit Assessment – a comprehensive analytical approach for the assessment of environmental, social and economic impacts and risks of proposed development in the formulation of plans and in development control and monitoring.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH viii.

Urban Form, Urban Design, Incentive-Based, Performance-Based, Licensing Control and Other Control Approaches are tools for more effective and responsive development control.

ix.

Development Charges (DC) and Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) are to promote the right development in the right place and lastly.

Table 2.1:

No 1

2

3

4

5

Summary of Urban Form, Urban Design and Incentive Based and the Approaches for Effective Development Control

Type

Contents

Urban Form, Urban Design Control Guidelines

Control form, massing, scale, design of new buildings to existing natural features and public spaces;

Incentive Based Control Guidelines

Regulating plans, public space standards, building form standards, environmental resource standards, architectural standards, landscaping standards, signage standards, etc. Higher densities, plot ratios, increased height, reduced setbacks, car parking, etc.

Performance based Control Guidelines Planned Unit Development Guidelines

Focuses on impact of development, provide flexibility on density and floor space Create a process to bend rigid rules in order to create a better environment.

Licensing Control Guidelines

Control building use and business activities.

Application Traditional neighbourhood developments, town centres, transit oriented development zones, urban heritage conservation areas.

Can be used to encourage infill developments, TOD and Compact developments; Can be applied with fiscal incentives, transfer of development rights and development charges. Can be used to supplement conventional landuse zoning. Town Centre, TOD areas and urban renewal. Licence control guidelines.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH x.

Government Fiscal Incentives are of course to encourage more favourable developments. National and State Governments must lend support to the ISUG Approach if the goals and objectives of sustainable urban planning, development and management are to be achieved.

Notice that each strategy is symbiotic of the other. No one strategy can stand alone as to implement one would mean the need for another supporting strategy and actions. Hence the integrated approach here means that, in order to achieve the desired outcomes for a more sustainable urban planning and development system all the 9 strategies should be equally emphasised and employed.

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3.0 INCLUSION OF THE ISUG APPROACH INTO THE MALAYSIAN PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT SYSYEM Suggested inclusion of the strategic policies in the 5 year Malaysia Plan especially in the NPP and the NUP can be summarized as in Table 3.1 and Table 3.2 below:-

Table 3.1: Incorporation of the ISUG Approach in the National Physical Plan

Existing NPP Provision

Recommended ISUG Incorporation

NPP 2 The planning of urban-based economic activities shall adopt the concept of ‘Selective Concentration’ for strategic urban centres for all states.

NPP 2

NPP 12

NPP 12

The individuality and physical separation of the cities, towns and villages within the conurbations shall be maintained.

The physical separation of cities and towns within conurbations shall be maintained through the adoption and implementation of the ISUG Approach.

The planning of urban based economic activities shall adopt the Integrated Sustainable Urban Growth Approach for all states.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH Table 3.2: The Relevant Strategies of the ISUG Approach to achieve the NUP Thrusts NUP thrusts

ISUG strategies to achieve the thrusts

Thrust 1: An Efficient and Sustainable Urban Development

a. Urban Growth Boundaries and Green Reserves b. Transit Oriented Development and Compact City Development c. Sequential Approach, Brownfield Development, Town Centre Development and Revitalization d. Integrated Planning Management Approach e. Community Participation and Support for Liveable Communities f. Development Charges and Transfer of Development Rights

Thrust 2: Development of an Urban Economy that is Resilient, Dynamic and Competitive;

a.

Thrust 3: An Integrated and Efficient Public Transport System;

a. Integrated Planning Management b. Transit Oriented Development and Compact City Development c. Sequential Approach d. Development Charges and Transfer of Development Rights

Thrust 4: Provision of Urban Services, Infrastructure and Utility of Quality

a. b. c. d.

Development Charges and Transfer of Development Rights b. Integrated Planning Management Approach c. Incentive-Based Control Guidelines d. Government Fiscal Incentives

e. f. g.

Thrust 5: Creation of a Conducive Liveable Urban

Integrated Planning Management Urban Growth Boundaries Sequential Approach Development Charges and Transfer of Development Rights Transit Oriented Development and Compact City Development Government Fiscal Incentives Incentive-Based Control Guidelines

a. Urban Growth Boundaries and Green Reserves b. Transit Oriented Development and Compact City

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH Environment with Identity

Development Sequential Approach for town centre development and revitalisation d. Form-Based and Design-Based Control Guidelines and Planned Unit Development Guidelines e. Community Participation and Support in the Development Process and for Liveable City c.

Thrust 6: Effective Urban Governance

a. Integrated Planning Management Approach b. Community Participation and Support in the Development Process c. Incentive-Based and Performance-Based Control Guidelines, Licensing Control d. Development Charges and Transfer of Development Rights

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4.0 IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES 4.1 THE 4 IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES. To implement successfully the ISUG Approach, there are 4 major challenges that need to be tackled by the Malaysian planning and development authorities and they are:4.1.1

Strong Political Support.

The political masters at federal, state and local levels must have the sincerity, and commitment to achieve sustainable urban growth and development. Therefore, this approach will have to receive not just endorsement by the National Physical Planning Council but also the Cabinet. Once the Cabinet has endorsed the approach, it shall be imperative for others to follow, as the Cabinet Instructions are taken very seriously by all departments and agencies. 4.1.2

Integration and Coordination.

Integration and coordination amongst all related ministries, agencies,

departments,

local authorities and utility providers is pertinent for the implementation of the Approach. Problems of compartmentalisation of government powers and jurisdictions should be overcome by the ISUG approach which is indeed a cross-department and cross-agency mechanism. 4.1.3

Capacity Building

There needs to be capacity building at all federal, state and local government levels especially in the form of monitoring. Capacity building shall be not just in the numbers of officers involved but also in the skill building, knowledge development and data management and upgrading. In the light of the One Stop Centre (OSC) approach to process development applications, the ISUG can be implemented in tandem with the OSC. When all policies and strategies are in place and applications meet up with the criteria and requirement of the ISUG, plan processing and decision making shall be more efficient.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH 4.1.4

Stakeholders Involvement and Participation

Community involvement must be supported by the willingness and sincerity of government agencies to include comments and suggestions from NGO’s, CBO’s and other stakeholders. It is imperative that there exists private-public sector partnership for ISUG to be effectively implemented and monitored. Land owners and developers begin to understand the philosophy, the ultimate goals and objectives of the ISUG and do not oppose its implementation.

4.2

FURTHER RESEARCHES AND STUDIES

It was suggested by the study team that before The ISUG Approach be adopted and implemented, further researches and studies are to be carried out on each of the 9 recommended ISUG strategies and mechanisms in order to:i.

Work out the working details of each of the strategies and mechanisms;

ii. Test the suitability and effectiveness of each strategy or mechanism on different real-life situations; iii. Work out how and where each of them can be adopted and implemented in the present urban planning and management system, organization and procedure, and alter any of the present system, organisation, procedure or law, wherever appropriate. Hence further studies and researches which need to be carried out in the next stage include:-

4.2.1

The Integrated Planning Management (IPM) Approach

This important approach is a prerequisite for sustainable development, as this calls for an integrated approach to the planning and management of the various social, economic and environmental sectors, land use and transport, housing and cost of

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH living, work and recreation, risks, costs and benefits of development, short term and long term, present and future needs and demands. The concept of “sustainable development� peculiar to the Malaysian context will have related to our Agenda 21, issues of climate change and global warming. Thus Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and Environmental Management System (EMS), and the ISUG Indicators (ISUGI), will have to be jointly studied. Meanwhile, Organization and management (O & M) studies should also be carried out to look into the integration, cooperation and coordination among the various government departments, semi-government agencies, government-linked companies, private agencies, non-government organizations, and other organizations, and the public. Also New approaches and methods for development planning, such as the Unitary Plan System and the Local Development Framework System being adopted and practiced in UK, should be looked into to determine whether they are improvements to the present system and whether they can better achieve a more holistic, coordinated, effective, efficient and transparent system for sustainable urban growth and development. Amendments to the Town and Country Planning Act, Street, Drainage and Building Act, Local Government Act, Compulsory Purchase Act and other related acts may then be necessary.

4.2.2

Urban Growth Boundaries (UGBs), Urban Growth Areas (UGAs) and Green Reserves (GRs)

Further studies on this strategy should be carried out to work out the precise format and method of incorporating UGBs, UGAs and GRs in the future review and amendments of the National Urbanization Policy, the National Physical Plan, approved structure plans and approved local plans, and in the formulation of new structure plans and local plans.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH 4.2.3

Transit Oriented Development (TOD) and Compact City Development (CCD)

Further research will need the involvement of the Ministry of Transport, The Ministry of Public Enterprises, The EPU as well as the Public Works Department, in order to work out the long term strategy for an integrated public transportation plan for all major cities in the country. This shall not involve just the physical provision but also the long term planning and management, in line with the NPP and the NUP. 4.2.4

Sequential Approach

Amongst the research that has to be carried out include the following:i.

The identification of possible areas for the approach to be implemented, including state and local government lands;

ii.

The zoning and development control guidelines such as the density and plot ratio allowable;

iii.

The preparation of more detailed local plans and that are prescriptive and performance based, with flexible development guidelines;

iv.

The readiness of LPAs with data and information systems on the areas and lands within the city centres that will be identified as priority areas for implementation of the Sequential Approach.

4.2.5

Community Participation and Support

For more effective public participation and community support, the following need to be undertaken:i. ii.

iii. iv. v.

Research and surveys on the community’s perception of government policies and strategies. Capacity building of facilitators and moderators at the public participation events to encourage interaction, communication, ideas, expression by the community; Employ other ways and means of getting people at all levels and ages to participate or provide views and opinions; The use of other forms of media and other activities for community to interact; Research on use of technology for effective community participation.

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH 4.2.6

ISUG Database Management and Decision Support System (ISUG-DMDSS)

Further studies are required to work out the details for setting up the components of the recommended ISUG-DMDSS, i.e. i.

the ISUG Database Management System (ISUG-DMS);

ii. the ISUG Decision Support System (ISUG-DSS); iii. the ISUG Indicators (ISUGI); and iv. The ISUG Cost Benefit Assessment (ISUG-CBA).

Common electronic formats for the entering, compilation, analysis, storage, retrieval, dissemination, presentation, and up-dating of all relevant data from the various departments and agencies are to be established.

The DTCP should also establish the formats and manuals for the ISUG Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA), Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA), and the Environmental Management System (EMS) and Cost-Benefit Assessment for development planning, development control and development management.

A complete set of ISUG Indicators for the assessment of environmental impacts and for ISUG Cost-Benefit Assessment and risk assessment of proposed development will be needed. The ISUG indicators should include: -

Geotechnical and land resources: land stability, land slide, soil settlement, erosion, flooding, land availability, land suitability;

-

Ecological: fauna and flora, natural biodiversity, forests and wetlands, rivers, marine resources;

-

Food production: agriculture, fishing, aquaculture;

-

Climate: Climate change, global warming, carbon emission, green house gases, trees and vegetation;

-

Air quality: air pollution, air qualitĂŠ index, noise pollution ;

-

Water quality: water pollution, water quality index;

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Public utilities: supply, demand and costs of water, electricity, sewerage, telecommunication, waste management services;

-

Economy and Income: employment, income, costs of living;

-

Traffic and Transport: traffic impact, public transport, cost of traveling;

-

Housing and living environment: housing demand and supply, costs of housing, clean neighborhood environment, safe, bicycle lanes, foot paths;

-

Community facilities and services: facilities for recreation, schools, no of teachers, health clinics and hospitals, no of doctors, police stations, no of policemen, shops;

-

Social: sense of place, sense of belonging, sense of community, sense of security;

-

Cultural: traditional practices, religious facilities, heritage, spiritual pursuits;

-

Design and Aesthetic: protection of vistas, urban design, arts, public realm design.

The electronic dissemination of planning information to the public along the line of the JPBD Land use Planning Portal is envisaged, as well as the setting up of permanent planning information centres and “operation rooms� in all departments and local planning authorities and for the National Physical Planning Council and the State Planning Committees.

4.2.7

Urban Form, Urban Design, Incentive-Based, Performance-Based, Licensing Control and Other Control Approaches

Further studies to look into the details and suitability of the various alternative development control approaches should be carried out.

The work should also look into the formulation of the various components of the control guidelines, such as the regulating plan, public space standards, building form standards, environmental resource standards, and architectural standards, landscaping standards, signage standards, incentive criteria and performance criteria for guiding new development. FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH 4.2.8

i.

Development Charges and Transfer of Development Rights

Development Charges

It is crucial that the Rules for Development Charges be prepared and adopted for all local planning authority areas, especially those that have local plans. The rules should specify the rates and method of calculation of development charges. The steps to be taken include:

Determine the base land / building use, density and plot ratio entitlement of various locations within the Urban Growth Areas,

Carry out a Land Valuation Exercise for the Urban Growth Areas, to determine the “Base Land Values” of the various locations,

Create the formula and rate for calculating DCs,

Draft and Prescribe the Development Charge Rules,

Establish an administrative system of imposing DCs by LPAs.

ii.

Transfer of Development Rights

The further studies to be done should look into the requirement and suitability of the Transfer of Development Rights in the plan area. The steps to be taken to establish the system in the plan area include:

Identify the “Sending Areas” and the “Receiving Areas”,

Carry out a Real Estate Market Analysis (REMA),

Determine the “Base Development Rights” of these areas,

Create a Formula for Calculating “Development Rights Values” or “Credits” in these areas,

Drafting the Rules,

Establish administrative procedures and setting up a TDR Register.

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH 4.2.9

Government Fiscal Incentives

The following are some examples of areas in which fiscal incentives need to be further researched upon:i.

Incentives that will encourage the development of more affordable housing in the city especially within transit planning zones;

ii.

Incentives to encourage the setting up of more colleges and universities within the CBD and around transit nodes;

iii.

Incentives that will encourage people to leave their private vehicles and use the public transportation systems;

iv.

Incentives to encourage small and medium scale services to locate in the city;

Incentives that will encourage more corporations to adopt and beautify the city’s

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

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THE SEQUENTIAL APPROACH -A MONOGRAPH

5.0 CONCLUSION As a conclusion it was found that Sequential Approach by itself will not be an adequate tool to manage urban issues. Hence, an integrated approach is needed more than one strategic mechanism or tool will be applied to render its adoption in the Malaysia context. The ISUG contains comprehensive mechanism from planning, design, management, community inclusion and fiscal strategies that will be required for a holistic urban management approach. It thus recommended that this approach be adopted into the Malaysian Planning and Development system.

Indeed, to ensure effective implementation of the ISUG Approach in Malaysia, further researches and studies on the 9 interrelated Mechanisms and Strategies need to be pursued .The effect and impact of these multi-dimensional instruments will consequently attain the ultimate goal of Sustainability and henceforth Sustainable Development for Malaysian Urbanisation and Urban Growth.

FEDERAL DEPARTMENT TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

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Monograf Sequential Approach  

Monograf Sequential Approach

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