WORLD TOWN PLANNNING DAY 2009 AND WORLD HABITAT DAY 2009
sustainable development – people first __________________________________ planning our urban future
PUTRA WORLD TRADE CENTRE 9 November 2009
SEMINAR SEMINARPROCEEDINGS PROCEEDINGS prepared by RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DIVISION FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA MINISTRY OF HOUSING AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT MALAYSIA MAY 2010
CONTENTS THE SEMINAR PROGRAMME WELCOMING SPEECH by Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd Fadzil bin Haji Mohd Khir Director General Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia OPENING SPEECH by Y.B. Dato’ Seri Kong Cho Ha Minister of Housing and Local Government KEYNOTE ADDRESS ‘Sustainable development – People First’. by Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd Fadzil bin Haji Mohd Khir Director General Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia SESSION 1 PAPER I Sustainability Planning : A Development Model by Mr Sufian b. Abdullah Head, Research & Development Innovation, Sime Darby Property Paper Summary PAPER 2 People-centric Planning: A Public Administrator’s Perspective and Experience by Y.Bhg. Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Abdul Aziz bin Mohd Yusof Chairman of the Elections Commission of Malaysia Paper Summary QUESTION & ANSWER SESSION 1
SESSION 2 PAPER 3 Public Involvement from an Islamic Perspective by Y.Bhg. Prof. Dato’ Dr. Mohd. Yusof b. Hj. Othman Director of Institut Islam Hadhari, UKM Paper Summary
PAPER 4 Planning for the Young Generation: Gen Y and Urban Planning by Ms. Mazrina bt. Dato’ Abdul Khalid Chairperson of Young Planners Group (YPG), Malaysian Instutute of Malaysia Paper Summary
QUESTION & ANSWER SESSION 2 PAPER 5 Planning for our Urban Future by Hari Ramalu Ragavan Programme Manager, UNDP Malaysia Paper Summary
CLOSING SPEECH by Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd Fadzil bin Haji Mohd Khir, Director General Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia
THE SEMINAR In conjunction with the official celebration of World Town Planning Day 2009 and World Habitat Day 2009 on 9 November 2009 at the Putra World Trade Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, the Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia continued its tradition of organising a national seminar for town planners and other related professionals in the private and public sectors, academicians and students, NGO representatives that attracted about 450 participants. The one-day seminar with the theme â€˜Sustainable Development - People Firstâ€™ had the following objectives: i.
to enhance public participation and direct public involvement in town and country planning to enable people-centric planning in creating sustainable communities, environment and development; ii. to create a harmonious and conducive living environment so that the people can achieve a better quality of life; and iii. to strengthen the contributions of the Department towards sustainable development through public participation at the various stages of planning and development. Paper presenters were invited to express their views on the theme. Participants were fortunate in hearing both the private sector and public service viewpoints, the Islamic perspective and that of the young generation. The seminar was conducted in two sessions, and saw a total of four papers, two in English and two in Malay being presented from the various perspectives to meet the objectives. The four papers have been written based on the presentations, or translations of the presentations, at the seminar. Also included in these proceedings are the two Question and Answer sessions, one in the morning and one in the afternoon, as well as the Keynote Address and Closing Speech by the Director-General of the Department of the Town and Country Planning, Peninsular Malaysia. A fifth presenter was unable to deliver his paper in person due to unforeseen circumstances, but fortunately, his paper on the UNDP perspective was made available for inclusion in these proceedings. All attempts have been made to capture the substance and spirit of the presentations and the personal styles of the presenters. However, editorial licence had to be taken in favour of relevance, language, clarity and space considerations.
PROGRAMME - 9 NOVEMBER 2009, PWTC KUALA LUMPUR 8.00 a.m. – 9.00 a.m. 9.00 a.m. – 9.05 a.m. 9.05 a.m. – 10.30 a.m.
10.30 a.m – 11.00 a.m
Participants’ Arrival o Arrival of the Minister of Housing and Local Government o o
Recitation of Doa Welcoming Address by Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd Fadzil bin Haji Mohd Khir, Director General of FDTCP o Opening Speech by Y.B. Dato’ Seri Kong Cho Ha, Minister of Housing and Local Government o Launch of MyJPBD o Launch of Habitat Magazine o Prize-Giving for the Photography Competition in conjunction with HHS 2009 Tea Break
11.00 a.m. – 11.30 a.m.
Keynote Address ’Sustainable development – People First’. by Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd Fadzil bin Haji Mohd Khir Director General of FDTCP
11.30 a.m. 11.45 a.m. – 12.15 p.m.
MURNInet Excellent Award 2009 Paper 1 Sustainability Planning : A Development Model by Mr Sufian b. Abdullah Head, Research & Development Innovation, Sime Darby Property
12.15 p.m. – 12.45 p.m.
Paper 2 People-centric Planning: A Public Administrator’s Perspective and Experience by Y.Bhg. Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Abdul Aziz bin Mohd Yusof Chairman of the Elections Commission of Malaysia
12.45 p.m. – 1.15 p.m.
Question & Answer Session 1
1.15 p.m. - 2.30 p.m.
2.30 p.m. – 3.00 p.m.
Paper 3 Public Involvement from an Islamic Perspective by Y.Bhg. Prof. Dato’ Dr. Mohd. Yusof b. Hj. Othman Director of Institut Islam Hadhari, UKM
3.00 p.m - 3.30 p.m.
Paper 4 Planning for the Young: Gen Y and Urban Planning? by Ms. Mazrina bt. Dato’ Abdul Khalid Chairperson of Young Planners Group (YPG), MIP
3.30 p.m. - 4.30 p.m.
Question & Answer Session 2
4.30 p.m. -5.00 p.m.
Closing Speech and Resolution by Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd Fadzil bin Haji Mohd Khir, Director General of FDTCP
Tea Break and End of Seminar
Cover â€“ welcoming speech
WELCOMING SPEECH by
Y. Bhg Datoâ€™ Mohd. Fadzil bin Haji Mohd. Khir Director General Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia Ministry of Housing and Local Government
Welcoming Speech by Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd Fadzil bin Haji Mohd Khir Director General of FDTCP
Chairperson of the Seminar Y. Berhormat Dato’ Seri Dato’ Seri Kong Cho Ha Minister of Housing and Local Government Y. Berbahagia Dato’ Ahmad bin Hj Kabit Chief Secretary, Ministry of Housing and Local Goverment Y. Berusaha En. Kamalruddin bin Shamsuddin Deputy Director General of Planning Town and Country Planning Department Peninsular Malaysia Y. Berbahagia Datin Wira Hamisah binti Ariffin Deputy Director General of Development, Town and Country Planning Department Peninsular Malaysia Chairperson of the Working Committee for the Celebration of the World Town Planning Day 2009 Heads of Departments and Agencies, Representatives of Departments and Agencies, Paper presenters and Participants. Seminar Participants Dato’-Dato’, Datin-Datin, Ladies and gentlemen. Assalammualaikum dan Salam 1Malaysia Welocme to the Official Convention of the World Town Planning Day 2009 and World Habitat Day 2009. I wish a ’Happy Integration and People’s Involvement’ to the particpants of the World Town Planning Day 2009 Convention. First of all, I wish to extend my gratitude to Y. Berhormat Dato’ Seri Kong Cho Ha, Minster of Housing and Local Government for his willingness to be present and to officiate at the Celebration of World Town Plannig Day 2009 and World Habitat Day 2009. Your presence is most meaningful today as it shows the spirit
of integration of the people from various social strata especially in national development planning.
I would also like to thank all the participants for their presence at the World Town Planning Day 2009 Convention. Your presence will act as a spur to those of us in the town planning profession to be mindful in all national development planning.
As you know, this official convention today is the joint celebration of two main events, that is, World Town Planning Day 2009 and World Habitat Day 2009. World Habitat Day is usually celebrated at the beginning of October each year. The theme for this year’s World Habitat Day is ’Planning our Urban Future’. This theme is to some extent related to the profesion of urban planning in ensuring that the urban environment is conducive and of a high quality for living. According to the Census statistics from the statistics Department 2008, 64% of Malaysians live in towns (17.62m out of a population of 27.73m are urban dwellers). The theme of ’Planning our Urban Future’ was chosen in conjunction with raising awareness on development and planning in major urban centres/ towns in facing the challenges of the 21st centrury. This theme also takes into account public interests, especially social, economic and environmental interests, in urban development.
Other than World Habitat Day 2009, World Town Planning Day is also being celebrated today. The celebration of WTPD 2009 this year is themed ’Sustainable Development – People First’. The emphasis on the interests and roles of the people in development planning is also highlighted in Local Agenda 21 in Section 3 in which the main emphasis is on the Roles of the Primary Groups in development such as chidren, youths, women, NGOs, corporate and private organisations/ bodies, local authorities and workers. This theme also
indicates the direction towards being people-centric in that the focus and aim of development planning is on the security and needs of the people. This theme is an extension of the theme for WTPD 2008, that is, ’Planning for Sustainability’. This year, the theme focuses on public participation/ involvement as an important aspect in development planning. In structuring quality planning and development, the human factor, people as dwellers and consumers, must be given the utmost importance and priority. In sustainable development, the term ’People First’ is regarded as the main aspect of
people’s involvement in
decision-making. The choice of the theme for this year is also in support of and the Department’s approach to the concept of the Prime Minister, YAB Datuk Seri Najib Tun Abdul Razak (1Malaysia: People First, Performance Now). In the fulfilment of this concept, the Prime Minister has underlined six national key result areas in which five out of the six KPI goals are underscored by taking into account the needs of the people and their involvement in development, that is, reducing crime rate, expanding access to quality and affordable education, raising the living standards of the low-income groups, strengthening infrastructure in rural and remote areas and improving public transport in the medium term. As a town planner, I wish to remind myself and the participants here, that we plan development for the harmony of the people from the political, social and economic as well as environmental perspective. Ladies and gentlemen,
I wish to touch briefly on the approach of TCPD and the field of planning in putting people first and public involvement. In planning, this aspect of taking public involvement and participation into consideration began in Britain in the year 1965 with the Planning Advisory Group (PAG) Report. Further attention was paid to this approach in planning when a special task force was set up to identify the best methodology for public participation in development plans (Skeffington
Report 1969). The methodology has been defined in detail in the Sherry Arnsteinâ€™s Ladder on public participation in planning in which eight levels of public participatuion have been identfied. Furthermore, in the Local Agenda 21, public participation has been determined as one of the important indicators in assessing sustainable development.
The Department supports these efforts, especially with regard to listening to and involving the participation of the people directly or indirectly. Among them is the establishment of the MISSION of the Department, which is that the involvement and interests of the people be taken into account in creating a living environment that is of a high quality and sustainable and in line with Vision 2020.
In fact, development planning that is well-designed in the National Physical Plan, State Structural Plan, Local Plan, Special Area Plan or in development studies should
emphasise the involvement of and the focus on the people and the
public. Direct public involvement in development planning studies can be, for example, through publicity and public participation as well as dialogue and Focus Group Discussions with the primary groups, with importance attached to taking into account public views in the planning.
In designing programmes too, public interests are protected by the Town and Country Planning Act, Act 172, provisions for Social Impact Assessment (SIA) and Sustainablity Assessment (SA), Safe Townships Programme, MurniNet, Town Profile Studies (provision of urban amenities/facilites), provision of guidelines for development planning and so on.
In strengthening the involvement of the primary groups and the public in particular, the Departmentâ€™s initiative in having broadcasts and holding briefings in schools, institutes of higher learning as well as federal departments and research institutes on information- sharing so that the shared knowledge can in fact be used for the benefit of the people.
With regard to the WTPD seminar, the Department wishes to express its utmost gratitude to the paper presenters with their various perspectives for their willingness to share their ideas and views with the participants of the seminar this year. Thank you, Yg. Bhg. Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Abdul Aziz Mohd Yusof (Chairman of the Elections
Programme(UNDP), Y. Bhg. Professor Dato’ Dr. Mohd Yusof Hj Othman (Director of Institute Islam Hadhari, UKM), Sufian b. Abdullah from Sime Darby Property and Ms. Mazrina bt. Dato’ Abdul Khalid,Chairperson of Young Planners Group (YPG), Malaysian Institute of Planners.
I believe that their strong
presentations and a combination of their ideas will open the minds of the planners in particular to new perspectives on public involvement in town planning.
To make World Habit Day a success this year, we have conducted several programmes. Among them are the Asset Management Workshop under Local Authorities which was held in Hotel Le Meridien on 12-13 October 2009, Community Harmony Programme in PPR Batu Muda on 31 October 2009 and a Photography Competition organised by the National Landscape Department on the theme ‘Planning our Urban Future’. The prize-giving ceremony for this competition will be held today. This year too in conjunction with the celebration of World Habitat Day, Habitat Magazine will be launched. Habitat Magazine is one of the Ministry’s efforts to stress the importance of and to raise public awareness with regard to the habitat
World Town Planning Day 2009 focuses on the paper presentations on the perspectives of the primary groups in the WTPD seminar. Other than that, the celebration of WTPD this year is most meaningful because the MyJPBD website
and Club are to be launched. The website and Club have been set up as a medium for those who are not in the planning field especially youngsters and youths to participate in national development planning. It will also serve as an alternative source of information in the field of planning for formulating policy, channeling information and encouraging public involvement.
Distinguished guests, My hope and the Department’s too in celebrating WTPD and World Habitat Day this year is to create awareness, be it among policy makers or the people as a priority and as receipients of the policy, on the necessity for understanding their respective roles and responsibilites in development planning. This hope has been extended with the setting up of the Club and MyJPBD website which, hopefully, will narrow the gap among the groups of people for mutual sharing of views and opinions in designing national development. This approach, it is also hoped, will open up the minds of the youngsters and youths to the fact that they are the generation that should provide the impetus for national development.
Finally, I would like to thank once again YAB Minister of Housing and Local Govenrment, Dato’ Seri Kong Cho Ha as well as our high-ranking officials, Directors of Departments and their representatives, students and participants of the WTPD seminar for your effort in bringing together ideas and constructive suggestions for national planning. My hope is also that the WTPD seminar this year will provide the spiritual platform for our young people, youths and students for voicing their opinions, raising questions and giving deas on each paper presented and henceforth to encourage people’s involvement in national development planning . Your voice is vital in driving the patterns of development so that they are in line with your heart’s desire as a citizen. That’s all. I end my speech with wabillahi taufiq walhidayah wassalammualaikum warahmatullahiwabarakatuh.
Cover â€“ opening speech
OPENING SPEECH by
Y. Bhg Datoâ€™ Seri Ong Ka Chuan Minister of Housing and Local Government Malaysia
OPENING SPEECH By YB Dato’ Seri Kong Cho Ha Minister of Housing and Local Government Introduction Good morning, Greetings and Salam 1Malaysia First of all, I wish to thank the organisers, the Town and Country Planning Department Peninsular Malaysia,
for inviting me to officiate at this
Convention this morning. I was informed that the Convention this morning is to celebrate jointly WORLD TOWN PLANNING DAY and WORLD HABITAT DAY 2009. World Town Planning Day Is an annual event organised by the Town and Country Planning Department Peninsular Malaysia, while the World Habitat Day celebration is a programme organised by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government. Theme of World Town Planning Day 2009 I was informed that World Town Planning Day is celebrated in November every year. This year the Town and Country Planning Department Peninsular Malaysia has chosen the theme of ‘SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – PEOPLE FIRST’. The World Town Planning Day 2009 celebration is centred on SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT which is the goal of Town Planning. For this year’s celebration, the choice of the theme focuses on PEOPLE FIRST in which the needs, wants and involvement of the people is a part of what has been interpreted as leading towards the achievement of the goals of sustainable development through the ‘1Malaysia, People First, Performance Now’ approach for the implementation of development by the government today.
With this theme, I feel that the Town and Country Planning Department has made an apt choice because the importance of sustainable development is a key element in national development, while PEOPLE FIRST is the governmentâ€™s approach today to ensure that the peace, security and harmony of the people of diverse religions, ethnicity and cultures can be nurtured and maintained as a society that is harmonious and advanced. Through the choice of this theme, I feel that the Town planning profession, be at the federal, state, local government levels or the private sector, will not be exempt from responding to the call of the government and will have equally important roles and responsibilities in the efforts towards the realisation of the 1Malaysia Concept. Sustainable Development â€“ from the Peopleâ€™s Corner From the Town Planning perspective, sustainable planning refers to development which fulfils the needs of the present society without adversely affecting the needs and wants of future generations. For the people in general, sustainable development means that the necessities of life such as housing facilities, employment, a place of worship, exercise/ recreational facilities and transport facilities for themselves and their families are fully available and that they can lead their daily lives in a safe and peaceful environment. Therefore, in the effort to fulfil the needs of the people, the government has identified six (6) National Key Result Areas comprising the following: i.
reducing crime rate
expanding access to quality and affordable education
raising the living standards of the low-income groups
strengthening infrastructure in rural and remote areas
improving public transport.
These six NKRAs are part of the sustainable development agenda which is the government’s priority in fulfilling the need for development centred on people’s interests. Hence, the Town and Country Planning Department should strive to ensure that every development that is implemented achieves the NKRA goal set by the government. People’s participation and involvement is part of the procedure for the implementation of sustainable development. Public involvement is important to ensure that every planning and development implementation is in line with and fulfils the needs and wants of the people in the decision-making. The New Approach that can be Implemented – People’s Interests Town Planning Approach with the People Every planning at the Federal, State and Local levels must be integrated to ensure that the allocation for development needs is more balanced in all locations including the rural areas. The approach which can be used is through cooperation between the implementing agency, the people and the NGOs and this must be created to determine effective mechanisms in planning development that will produce results. Importance of the Environment and People The relationship between the people and the environment cannot be ignored. Hence, the Town and Country Planning Department must play a more effective role to ensure that the planning development carried out takes into account the sensitiveness of the relationship between people and the environment so that disasters such as landslides and floods that can threaten the safety of the people do not occur.
Flexibility in Town Planning for the People In the national economic scenario which is uncertain at present due to the effects of global economic issues, town planning especially by the Local Authorities must be more flexible to help in setting up a local economy for the informal sector such as that for hawkers, night markets, farmers’ markets and so on. The flexibility that can be implemented among others is making approval of sites and businesses easier by removing bureaucratic red tape which people find difficult to deal with. Conformity with Development in the Interests of the People Every State and Local Authority has its own Development Plans which are being implemented. Monitoring and assessment processes have to implemented to ensure compliance with the prepared plans/ programmes. Through the monitoring and assessment processes, if there are people’s needs that are not in line with the 1Malaysia Concept and that cannot meet the NKRA target, then the relevant implementing agencies must take immediate action to make the amendments that are necessary for fulfilling the people’s interests. Transformation of the People’s Involvement in Town Planning People’s involvement in the planning process is an important factor in achieving sustainable development. The people must be provided with education, information and awareness that is broad about their role in the town planning process. The transformation of the people’s involvement so that it is more positive and active will produce suggestions and planning implementation which are more comprehensive and in line with sustainable development as well as determining the needs and wants of the people towards development as an advanced nation. Conclusion I was informed that the World Town Planning Day 2009 involves the participation of as many as 450 people comprising government officials at the Federal, State
and Local levels, and participants from Institutes of Higher Learning, statutory agencies and bodies as well as the private sector. Your presence is most welcome and indeed as the Minister of Housing and Local Government, I hope that you as town planners will discuss and share your experiences. I hope that today’s seminar will produce recommendations for improving the roles and responsibilites of Town Planning as well as the Ministry of Housing and Local Government towards achieving the goal of SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – PEOPLE FIRST so as to realise the 1Malaysia Concept. I will also take this opportunity to thank the Town and Country Planning Department Peninsular Malaysia for successfully organising the World Town Planning Day 2009. To all paper presenters, I take the opportunity to thank you for your willingness to present your ideas for discussion at this seminar. In conclusion, to all participants and attendees, I wish you an enjoyable seminar in conjunction with the celebration of World Town Planning Day 2009 on the theme ‘SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – PEOPLE FIRST’ which will be beneficial, conducted well and capable of producing results with its success. Salam Hormat dan Salam 1Malaysia ... Thank you.
KEYNOTE ADDRESS Sustainable Development – People First by Y. Bhg. Dato’ Mohd Fadzil bin Haji Mohd Khir Director General Federal department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia SESSION 1 : PAPER 1 Sustainability Planning : A Development Model by Mr Sufian b. Abdullah Head, Research & Development Innovation, Sime Darby Property PAPER 2 People-centric Planning: A Public Administrator’s Perspective and Experience by Y.Bhg. Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Abdul Aziz bin Mohd Yusof Chairman of the Elections Commission of Malaysia QUESTION & ANSWER SESSION 1 SESSION 2 : PAPER 3 Public Involvement from an Islamic Perspective by Y.Bhg. Prof. Dato’ Dr. Mohd. Yusof b. Hj. Othman Director of Institute Islam Hadhari, UKM PAPER 4 Planning for the Young: Gen Y and Urban Planning? by Ms. Mazrina bt. Dato’ Abdul Khalid Chairperson of Young Planners Group (YPG), MIP PAPER 5 Planning for our Urban Future by Dr. Hari Ramalu Ragavan Programme Manager UNDP Malaysia QUESTION & ANSWER SESSION 2 CLOSING SPEECH AND RESOLUTION
KEYNOTE ADDRESS: Sustainable development – People First
Y. Bhg Dato’ Mohd. Fadzil bin Haji Mohd. Khir Director General Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia Ministry of Housing and Local Government
Bismillahirrahmanirrahim Assalammualaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh and salam sejahtera First and foremost, let us express our gratitude to God for bringing us together this morning at this seminar held in conjunction with the official launch of the World Town Planning Day for the year 2009, which is themed, ‘Sustainable development – People First’. Dato-Dato, Datin-datin, ladies and gentlemen and distinguished guests, I wish to begin my speech by stating the goal of urban planning - which we reiterate every year – that is, to improve the profession of town and country planning. Goals of Urban Planning The goals of town and country planning, as mentioned earlier, are to create a harmonious and conducive living environment and to conduct activities that improve our economic standards, and provide better social amenities and infrastructure so that the people can achieve a better quality of life. The comfort and interests of the public must be given priority, as intended by the government through the 1 Malaysia concept. That is why the theme chosen for this year revolves around people, who are the beneficiaries of planning and development. It is the people who enjoy the results, and it is the people who benefit from what we do, which is planning. 1 Malaysia Concept The 1 Malaysia is a concept in which the people take precedence, in which achievements are stressed, and which is designed to strengthen national unity by centring it on the high values that should be upheld by every citizen. Unity among the various ethnic communities is the chief factor in guaranteeing the stability of the nation in order for us to achieve the desired goals of development. The Concept provides a balance, or is a complement, to existing national policies that have been formulated to achieve the same goal; that is, serving the interests of the people and the nation by creating a Malaysian nation that is united and putting people first in its development plans. In this context, the role of town and country planning is crucial in creating a supportive environment for promoting the unity that is desired. Indeed, the planning that is implemented embraces principles that underline the 1 Malaysia concept. The principles of ‘togetherness’ and ‘sense of belonging’ are evident in the current planning which is people-centric.
Based on a concept introduced in the New Model in Public Service in 1999, people are no longer seen as voters; they are no longer seen as clients or consumers in development and the provision of services. Instead, taking the views of the people into consideration has come to be regarded as the ‘strategic approach’ in determining the direction of development, with the help of professionals from the various related fields. The model embodies the practice of ‘think strategically, act democratically’. In the framework of development planning, the participation of the people from all walks of life has to be taken into account. This includes women, children, teenagers, youths, the physically challenged, veterans, corporate bodies, NGOs, business people, villagers, farmers, private sector employees and even leaders in the society. There should be no discrimination in planning - every member of society enjoys equal opportunities. Therefore, at the early stage, the people should be given the opportunity to voice their views and needs. This approach of involving the public provides the opportunity for decision-makers to understand the true needs and wants of the people and their capacity to enjoy the fruits of future development. As planners, you should understand your stakeholders in order to be able to deliver what they require. This approach will indirectly give prominence to the meaning of ‘People First’. Concept of ‘People First’ in Planning Dato-dato, Datin-datin, ladies and gentlemen, how does the concept of ‘people first’ work in planning? First, in people-centric planning, the needs and aspirations of the people are given the highest priority in the planning and decision-making processes. It is inclusive in the planning itself because people are encouraged to ensure that their needs and wants in society are satisfied. Urban planning practices in this country have long focused on people – this is provided for in the Town and Country Planning Act 1976, and also in the policies formulated, in the position taken by development planners and in the guidelines that are available. In the preparation of development plans - everyone knows the hierarchy of planning, which includes the national physical plan, structure plan, state plan, local plan, special area plans - the people element is at the heart of every plan that is drafted. From the earliest stage of research and extending to the stage of formulating strategies and recommendations, planning is based on the demographics of the inhabitants of the area concerned. However, at the same time, it ensures that the direction of development and planning of public amenities and utilities runs parallel to any potential increase in the population and needs of the people in that area. The International Association for Public Participation has provided guidelines incorporating the principles to be adhered to for effective public participation. It is esssential to follow these guidelines. First, ensure that public participation results in the voicing of various perspectives which are relevant, and which should be
taken into account in planning. Second, ensure that the dialogue sessions and public participation are of a high quality, and are not being conducted merely as a formality. Third, strengthen or intensify public participation. Fourth, ensure a sense of balance and continuity in the public participation process, that it is not merely a one-off session. Fifth, utilise the suggestions and early opinions obtained from the people and focus on the needs that require urgent attention. Sixth, encourage the people to share their views and knowledge through feedback and articulation of their dreams, aspirations and emotions. Finally, the process of public participation should be in accordance with good and effective methods of communication, such as active listening, and more dynamic leadership. These principles, as stated before, are the products of research that have proved successful and that serve as guidelines for more effective public participation. Public participation is based on the concept of empowerment whereby people are given the right and the opportunity to voice their concerns and to ensure that their views and suggestions are taken into account in planning for their environment. Planning in Malaysia incorporates these principles to a large extent and these are the principles that are stressed in the â€˜people firstâ€™ or people-centric approach. Various mechanisms have been utilised for encouraging more active and effective public participation, as you all know. Initiatives to encourage public participation in the preparation of plans begin with public announcements, such as publicity for the plans through advertisements in the newspapers. Through the advertisements, it is hoped that people, especially the local inhabitants, will attend, participate and provide feedback or suggestions based on the draft plans made available. An improvement to this has been made by using the technique of working with representatives from the public through meetings, or by way of prepared questionnaires. By using these two channels, the public are able to voice their concerns with regard to the draft development plans. Awareness of the importance of public participation and its early potential prompted its inclusion in the amendments to the Town and Country Planning Act 1976 in 2001. To ensure its full potential, public participation should be utilised from the early stage of identifying the issues and the potential of the research until the stage of formulating strategies and policies. Publicity programmes to ensure public participation through focus group discussions, or discussion with target groups. are being promoted more actively. The involvement of the local people is important in helping the local authorities (PBT) in identifying the current and potential problems and opportunities in a particular area, since it is the people who have a much better knowledge of the local environment and they are the ones most directly affected by the implementation of the development plans. In 2009, 24 publicity campaigns were launched as part of the Departmentâ€™s programme for five Special Area Plans and nineteen Local Plans that were being prepared. However, based on our evaluation, the level of public participation at present is not satisfactory. Only 1 -12 % of the local population attend the
publicity programmes for Local Plans, while only about 1-18% attend the publicity programmes for Structure Plans. It is difficult to ascertain the effectiveness of the public participation programmes that have been implemented. To date, no single comprehensive index study has been done on this. However, it may be said that there are several factors accounting for this state of affairs. One factor may be the pessimistic attitude of the public as well as a negative and apathetic attitude towards what is being planned for their environment. Another is that even if they are interested, they may lack the competency or skills to participate fully. It could be due to the failure of the local planning officers - which is the third factor - to evoke public interest and the awareness to participate. These are some of the contributory factors that account for poor public participation. Sustainable Development Distinguished guests, in the first part of my speech, I touched on the theme of the seminar, which is ‘sustainable development – people first’. Now, I will discuss ‘sustainable development’ because the agenda of putting ‘people first’ is synonymous with sustainable development. This is because in sustainable development, the element of fulfilling people’s present and future needs have to be addressed. The Town and Country Planning Act 1976, which I constantly refer to, defines sustainable development as ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. A balance between the economic, the physical and the socio-cultural aspects is the most important principle in the concept of sustainable development. To ordinary people, the word ‘sustainable development’ is synonymous with a peaceful and prosperous environment in which the facilities and opportunities to support their way of life are provided and are of a sufficiently high standard. Elements such as affordable housing, ample employment opportunities, excellent urban services and security that is guaranteed, as well as the provision of adequate and suitable amenities, such as recreational areas, health facilities and places of worship to meet the needs of people from all walks of life - these are constantly voiced by the people. This is what the people expect – they expect a safe and conducive environment. This, in simple terms, is what people believe is ‘sustainable development’. Policy-wise, these interpretations lead to the same conclusion – they refer to the needs of the people. Therefore, urban planning that is sustainable has to take into account basic human needs, public health, environmental awareness, space, time and social justice.
MURNInet Besides this, sustainable development has to be constantly measured and improved so that the quality of life of the local inhabitants is enhanced. It is now time for one more promotion for the Department – and the Ministry too. Since
2002, through MURNInet, which was implemented by the Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, the sustainability levels of towns throughout Malaysia have been continuously monitored. I think that over the past two or three years, I have announced the results of the sustainability of our towns at the official launch of World Town Planning Day, and this occasion is no exception. Before doing so, however, I would like to explain briefly what MURNInet is. MURNInet stands for ‘Malaysia Urban Indicator Network’. It is a network of the towns of Malaysia set up to monitor the sustainability of each town by identifying 56 indicators originally – which have since been reduced - encompassing11 main sectors that have been identified as contributing to the prosperity of a society. Among them are demography, housing, economic activities, infrastructure and public amenities. Through this network, the sustainability levels of every major town can be measured and this can benefit the urban population as well as the government authorities, especially the local authorities (PBT) concerned, in their efforts to improve their respective towns. It is not a competition to determine who wins and so forth. When a particular criterion or sustainability indicator shows a decline, the local authority can justifiably be called upon to improve the quality of that service. That is the intention behind the setting up of MURNInet. The implementation of MURNInet in 2009 involved 90 towns, of which 14 are major towns and 76 secondary townships. Unfortunately, only 47 towns could be assessed on an equal basis as they had entered the data for the requisite 38 indicators. As for the remaining towns, the information they had provided was incomplete, so they could not be included. The monitoring is carried every six months annually. In 2009, eight out of 47 towns were deemed to have attained sustainable status, while the remaining 39 towns were accorded moderate sustainability status. The highest score was 88.6%. The eight towns that are considered sustainable are, first, Shah Alam, followed by Melaka town, Jelebu, Jasin, Port Dickson, Kuantan, Alor Gajah and Dungun. It looks like the state of Melaka has three representatives: Melaka town, Jasin and Alor Gajah. Negeri Sembilan scored with Port Dickson and Jelebu, with one each in Trengganu (Dungun), Pahang (Kuantan) and Selangor (Shah Alam). This achievement signals a slight improvement, since in the previous year (2008), only six towns managed to achieve sustainable status. The difference in scores is 86.84% in 2008 compared to 88.6% in 2009. The Minister was supposed to present the awards, but unfortunately, you now have to receive them from the DirectorGeneral! The eight towns will receive the excellent award for sustainability. We will try to provide a monetary reward in the future. Unfortunately, the government did not approve any monetary reward for this year. Perhaps, we will be able to do so next year and perhaps backdate payment to the previous winners as well. In a short while we will be presenting the MURNInet Excellent Awards. National Key Result Areas (NKRAs) I wish to end my speech by discussing or making you think about the future in planning. The concept of sustainable development will be continued since it will
be the main thrust of sustainable urban and rural land-use planning. Planning for the future should focus not only on the physical, but also emphasise new initiatives to deal with the issues of globalisation. At the same time, attention should also be directed to government efforts to fulfil people’s needs. We should mention that to this point the government has identified six National Key Result Areas (NKRA) involving the following aspects: one, reducing crime rate; two, combating corruption; three, expanding access to quality and affordable education; four, raising the living standards of the low-income groups; five, strengthening infrastructure in rural and remote areas; and six, improving public transport. It is obvious from the NKRAs that the government is focusing on the important issues that affect the people, and these should surely be right in the thick of the planning – they should be part and parcel of any development planning. Public safety, for example, is high on the agenda and the Prime Minister at the launch of the NKRAs emphasised crime reduction and announced that the target for crime reduction has been set at 20% by 2010. Through the physical plan, the implementation of the 23 steps to combat crime in the safe township programme launched by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government will help achieve the target of establishing townships that are constantly well-maintained, so as to avoid creating a climate in which crime can thrive. For your information, a number of NKRA laboratories have been set up, including some specifically for eradicating crime. These laboratories are experimental and have been set up to find viable solutions. Several planners are involved in the laboratories. Planners also participate in the discussions to eradicate crime and I understand that the 23 steps have been discussed and improved upon - some have been consolidated and others improved. You should take note of these 23 steps. Besides safety or security, the target goals of the NKRAs are accessibility to education through the provision of schools in strategic locations, provision of a comprehensive transport system, improved infrastructure in rural areas and the provision of affordable housing for the poor. These are the issues that should be rightfully included in every plan and are consistent with the focus of the government on the interests of the people. The second most important area in planning for the future relates to tackling environmental issues. Our country is not exempt from damage to the environment - although we have only felt its tremors! For example, climate change, threat of flooding in coastal areas, landslides in highlands as a result of rapid development and unhealthy practices, inefficient use of energy resources, ozone depletion, excessive CO2 emissions from energy use - I am not the prophet of doom depicted in the movie ‘2012’ . These issues should be noted: awareness of the importance of conserving natural resources and preserving the environment; the need to find alternative sources of energy, and the need to control the negative effects of human activities on the environment. It is only fair that policies and development planning emphasise these aspects. The second
RFN , for example, has incorporated or taken into consideration these factors so that we are ready to face the changes that are anticipated. The third area is collaboration in the implementation of development proposals. The effectiveness of a plan depends on its implementation. Planning will remain on the books alone and not produce results. However, at times, there exists a gap between planning and implementation. This means that collaboration between the Ministry and federal and state departments and agencies is necessary. The implementation of such a programme will result in unified development plans, so that the plans prepared by the planning department, especially through RT , can be referred to because it is the proposal component of development that leads to delays in various sectors, specific sites or planning blocks. It should also include recommendations for the location of facilities for security, health, education, recreation etc. that can be used for implementation. For your information, the Economic Planning Unit (EPU) has recognised this fact, resulting in collaboration between planners and implementers being included in the plan preparation mechanism of the Malaysia Plan 2010. (You should expect a circular issued in October with reference to collaboration in certain matters, which we encourage you to follow.) The fourth area in planning for the future is Malaysia becoming an advanced nation or raising the income levels of the people. As we know, the government has proposed a new economic model that focuses on the tertiary level of service delivery. Among the recommendations is one that encourages and offers initiatives for the setting up of, for example, offices specifically at the Federal level, at the development convocations to attract the attention of outsource services. In line with this, town planners should be aware of spatial and opportunity planning that encourage patterns of development directed towards attaining a high-income economy. The fifth area is sustainable tourism. We know that the tourist industry is one of the sources of revenue for the country. Many of the main tourist destinations in the country are located along coasts that have been overdeveloped, such as Langkawi, Penang and Port Dickson. These areas are facing the pressures of development that encroach on sensitive areas and this affects the quality of the environment. Realising this, the preparation of RFN2 has emphasised the development of sustainable tourism. This new policy will help maintain tourism as one of the sources of revenue for the country. Finally, in planning for the future, it is necessary to Improve the implementation of public participation practices. We know that the approaches being used need to be improved. For implementation at the local level, new methodologies can be utilised. For example, the methodology of public appraisal can be used as part of the process to identify the wants and needs of the people. The information obtained can be utilised in the framework of community action planning. For example, a womenâ€™s safety audit programme has been used in this methodology
to formulate an action plan that includes the safety of women in urban planning to create safe neighbourhoods. Another example is participatory budgeting. Although our budgeting system is different from that proposed, it is one example of the methodologies used to determine planning and development allocations and expenditures. Development strategies can be formulated through discussion with the people by providing opportunities for them to determine how development money should be spent - that is, which development plan needs to be carried out. These are examples that can be considered for improving the system of public participation in development planning. Summary Dato-dato, Datin-datin, ladies and gentlemen, I have come to the end of my speech. We are all involved in planning; though not all are planners, I understand, but all the same, we are all involved in the development of the nation. We play a key role in realising the 1 Malaysia Concept â€“ whether you like it or not. Efforts should be made to ensure that planning is done with an emphasis on the interests of the people and the nation through planning and implementation that address the true needs of the people. Planning should by right simplify procedures and resolve problems. Collaboration between planners, implementers, and monitors must be enhanced in order to achieve sustainable development, which is aligned with the desire for a 1Malaysia and the â€˜sustainable development-people firstâ€™ concept, in order to become an advanced nation and a great nation by 2020. With that, I end my speech.
SESSION 1 The session was chaired by Y. Bhg. Dato’ Ghazali Bin Dato’ Mohd. Yusuff Entrepreneur and Executive Chairman, Nusantara Technologies Sdn. Bhd.
BIODATA OF THE CHAIRMAN
Y. Bhg. Dato’ Ghazali bin Dato’ Mohd Yusoff obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics and Geography from the University of Malaya and postgraduate qualifications in General Management from Henley Administrative College, United Kingdom. He has vast experience, having served in various capacities in a number of private companies. He is a successful entrepreneur and is currently the Executive Chairman of Nusantara Technologies Sdn. Bhd. He is also very actively involved in a number of welfare organisations.
Paper 1 :
SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING : A DEVELOPMENT MODEL En Sufian bin Abdullah Head, Research & Development Innovation,, Sime Darby Property
Paper 1 :
Sustainability Planning : A Development Model The first paper was delivered in English by En Suffian Bin Abdullah, Head of Research and Development Innovation at Sime Darby Property.
BIODATA OF SPEAKER
En Suffian bin Abdullah is the Head of the Research and Development Innovation at Sime Darby Property. He is an architect by profession, having graduated from the Canterbury School of Architecture. He has had 12 years of working experience in the United Kingdom and Malaysia as an architect and in media communications and property development. At Sime Darby Property, he heads the company’s development of innovative and value added products that focus on sustainability as part of the company’s marketing strategy. Prior to this, he was the Head of Business Development at the same company. More recently, he was appointed Head of the ‘Sime Darby Idea House’ Project, which is the showcase for the latest innovation in the field of eco-architecture, high-end design and modern construction methods.
Sustainability Planning : A Development Model En Sufian bin Abdullah Head, Research & Development Innovation, Sime Darby Property
Abstract By establishing new technologies, utilising new materials and construction methodologies and collaborating with cutting-edge technology providers, more sustainable and environmentally friendly products can be realised. And one of Sime Darby Property key initiatives in sustainable product development is the Sime Darby Idea House showcasing the latest in construction solution and system applications which will be an example of how green architecture, good design and sustainable living can work harmoniously.
The topic that I am going to talk about today is a very exciting one to us, in particular, as Sime Darby as one of the largest property developers in the country. Sustainable planning is a concept we hold close to our hearts. What I am going to focus on today, however, is a particular branch of sustainable development, that is, sustaining development through innovative building design. I am going to talk about the project we call the ‘Sime Darby Idea House’. I think this is one of the first few occasions where we are going to showcase it to the wider public. You are among the first people to see this, and how it relates to the whole concept of sustainable planning in the innovative design process. So we are not just talking about creating sustainable townships or sustainable master plans; we are also talking about how to get the exercise of sustainable and innovative development going. Sustainable planning To begin with, the concept of sustainable planning is very much a reactive concept and is a response to the wider public increase in transmigration from rural areas to the cities. You have seen that happening even in Kuala Lumpur, in the number of cars that increase every year and the number of people that move into the city. The future projection is that it will look extremely dense, to put it simply. High density living leads to urban sprawl. For example, Subang Jaya is a township that we built 30 years ago. This in many respects reflects our commitment not to turn away from the development that we have actually carried out. We would like to revisit our successes and failures - the impact of our own physical development - so it is not so much a process of ‘touch and go’. We would like to see how a community flourishes and how it blossoms as a
community, and from the lessons learnt to be able to improve our future development plans as well. Impact of Development In terms of resources, high density urban sprawl means that we are using our resources at an alarming rate. The resources we require to sustain our livelihood right now is equivalent to what would be required for three more Planet Earths – a staggering fact, a staggering number. The amount of fuel that we consume everyday is enough to fill five pyramids of Giza on a daily basis. If you can imagine five pyramids of Giza on a daily basis, 50 per month- that is a staggering number. When we look at the consumption of petroleum in relation to the carbon emissions from 1980-2006, over a period of 25 or 26 years, it had increased three-fold or by 300%. I can assure you that percentage is not an organic increase. Much of this has got to do with our own rapid development. In the early 80s there was the ‘Look East’ policy, when we began our rapid development of the country by building highways, infrastructure and so on. In the intense privatisation era in the mid-80s, highways, LRT, new ports, the Commonwealth games came into play. During the economic downturn, we saw a steady period, but that shot up again at the early turn of the century. The economic recovery also played a part in the construction industry. Our lifestyles have contributed to high emissions of CO2 as well. You can see that it relates to the amount of fuel that we consume. If you have the GDP number, you will see that it relates to that as well. Sime Darby Property and its Tagline From the Sime Darby perspective, as many of you know, we went through a major merger exercise last year. In property development alone, - I am not going to touch on how much we own in plantation land - we have 26,000 acres worth of development land bank across 10 townships, with an average of 800 to 2,200 acres across eight countries. About 80% of that is actually in Malaysia. That itself is a number we have to manage as a company and as a corporate citizen as well. We have this brand, and we have to fulfil our tagline of sustainable futures. We need to be able to do this, to show that we are fulfilling our brand promise, that we are going to be developing sustainable futures. But the thing is that when we talk about sustainable futures, nobody knows what it actually means and what it entails. What we do know that if we do get it wrong, we will actually end up having mitigation cost management. Our business is going to suffer, the value of our product is going to suffer, and the environment is going to suffer as it will endanger the ecological balance and the greater environment as well. Our brand will be diluted and our shareholders will be disengaging themselves from our company. In summary, what is at stake is our future - not just ourselves as a company, but the greater human race - if we don’t take this seriously.
Now in relating the business to the tagline, I am just going to focus on Sime Darby Property. We have always associated ourselves with developing townships, with developing communities. If we were to actually do sustainable futures, what we have to do now is to figure out is how to develop sustainable communities. What is important right now is that we need to realise that that our tagline is beyond the addition of green features or accessories on the roof that harness solar power and harvest rainwater and so on. It goes beyond that and I will explain to you what it actually means. It brings us back to the question: What are we going to do? The quick way is to label everything ‘sustainable’ and label Sime Darby as a sustainable company. We could do that; we could have done that. We could easily plug in a few solar panels on our houses and tell our customers that our houses are green and sustainable - because we have six solar panels, which is probably enough to power your toaster or your water heater. However, having a post-it label on your product is not going to solve the wider problem. We needed to have a greater solution to this. We realised that we needed a framework to achieve our target, that is, to create sustainable communities. We needed a framework that would put the message of sustainability across the value chain and across to our stakeholders as well. In order to do that, we needed to create a sustainable process as well. Framework for Sustainable Development Now I am going to touch briefly on the framework. The framework actually starts from the idea of creating sustainable communities. Now in general, if you ask the average person: ‘What do you mean by sustainable development?’; ‘What do you mean by a sustainable community?’ or a simple question like, ‘What do you mean by green architecture or green construction?’, that person will only relate to the greening of spaces, the green features on top of buildings and so on. Our framework touches on a greater deal than that. We wanted to look at how governance can help sustainability, transport and connectivity, the offering of services, the environment in general, social equity and so on. Now we are beginning to build the 1 Malaysia future, and we have the chance to actually relate that to sustainability, the economy in general, and the housing and built/build environment. You can see that the latter is only one-eighth slice of the pie, but it is usually the first issue that most developers usually tackle. And lastly, there is the social and cultural impact. We believe that these eight dimensions are critical fundamentals that we need to address. While this may look like it is a policy issue, we, as a corporate citizen, and the general public as a whole will need to relate to how these dimensions play a part in achieving sustainable communities. We extended that framework in detail to create our master plans, and perhaps our future township and our future growth as well. We looked at a double-tiered master plan of addressing very simple and basic questions about how the other slices of the pie could play a part. For example, in terms of transport and
connectivity, we asked whether they were available, and whether the public transport was green and sustainable. If they weren’t any, it was our duty to actually work towards the creation of that. We asked other questions. Would people be able to mobilise from Point A to point B, without emitting a high amount of carbon dioxide? How do we manage the communications infrastructure in the townships so that people don’t have to travel far to work, and whether they could work from home and be able to achieve the same productivity? These were the tools we used on a daily basis every time we headed to the drawing board in terms of creating the physical master plan that could offer them. The theoretic framework targeted the creation of sustainable communities. The framework itself was the eight dimensions. We needed to create a business process that would allow for those dimensions to work. More often than not, the business process is dissociated from the reality framework - ‘It is not possible to do that because the bylaws say that, or the regulatory framework says this’. However, we studied it in detail. When we took those eight dimensions and mapped them against the existing guidelines and the existing framework, there was a lot in the existing local guidelines, regulatory frameworks, and building acts and regulatory acts that did not address those dimensions. For example, there was the quality of mobility within the township, the quality of transport within the township, the performance quality of buildings inside the township on the whole. Those were the gaps that we saw in the existing guidelines. We took it on ourselves to address them. Innovative Building Design If I touch on the eight dimensions, it would probably take about a week, so I am going to touch on one particular aspect, that is, housing and the build/built environment. This is within the context of today’s theme of town and country planning and how innovative building design can actually help in sustainable planning. The key in sustainable planning to us starts from obviously the design process. We think that while there are existing guidelines and frameworks that we can work with, we still think that the design process should cater to a specific performance target. In order to do that, the traditional way of having technical meetings – ‘I am the client; you are the consultant and here’s the authority’ – is long gone. We believe that there should be an interdisciplinary approach and collaboration, whereby people can actually congregate and decide upfront on key decisions – they should not be afraid to get dirty, to roll out their papers and start drawing and sketching solutions that can actually work. We honestly believe that in the design process that we undertake, that is a good starting point - where we can actually engage local councils, local governments to come and be part of the discussion. Dare I say it? The traditional arrangement of ‘I’m a developer, I want to do something, so let us get a consultant to do something for us’ is like throwing
a bundle of sticks to a dog and asking that dog to fetch for us until we got the right one. But that would result in us being indecisive about the things we want to do, and after we have decided what we want to do, we still have to engage the local authority, which is the next level. This is time-consuming, resourceconsuming and so on. We believed that if we were able to bring everybody together at the same table, within the initial timeframe, a lot of decisions could be made effectively. Integrated Project Delivery We also looked at Integrated Project Delivery through Building Information Modelling. Information Modelling is the next big thing and is something that I think would replace how people actually do design. It produced BIM. For people who are not familiar with it, BIM is a platform whereby collaboration can take place, and all the information during the collaboration exercise is stored in a single virtual space. If you can imagine it, in a normal construction process you can have seven different disciplines working, from architects to engineers to planners, and each one of them will come up with something like 80 -100 drawings to produce one building. BIM would allow you to do that using just a single document and that document is shared by the different disciplines. How do we work? We work from the collaborative conceptualisation stage. The design is actually a collaboration exercise between the designers and the manufacturers and the builders as well because we need to know what works and what doesn’t. The implementation documents in terms of construction are all virtual documents that have proven to work. The construction actually refers to the same document, from the sketch to the drawing stage all the way to the end. The same information is used for facilities management as well. We then apply it on a larger scale, to the master planning. We apply that exercise in design workshops, where we lock everybody up for three days - with food and water – and get them to tackle the brief head-on. We have a facilitator, who is usually the master planner to list down all the issues and everybody contributes on the table there and then. There is no question of ‘let me get back to you later and we will meet again in two weeks’ time’. We found that by doing that, what usually took us 3-6 months could be achieved in three days. And time is money and resources is money - I don’t need to explain the other benefits. Typology Creation How is that applied in the microcosm of building design? We knew that we had the process established. Now we had to create a typology that would respond to the environment; that could be scaled up and down to the larger scale of the master plan; and that, we would able to say, is a high performance design as well. In doing that, we decided to look at none other than our own backyard, because the solution is in our own backyard. For long, the industry had looked elsewhere – ‘Let’s bring the Australian house over here’; ‘Let’s bring that Western
technology over here’; ‘Let’s bring that housing scheme that I saw in Florida and plug it in my 200-acre township and see whether that works’. But you see nothing works as well as a vernacular architecture that responds to the local environment - one that is designed for the local community. We looked at the typology that was created historically in the Malay houses and how it responds well to the environment, how it actually adapts to the local climate. More than that, we looked at how the Malay house actually fulfils user needs, user requirements. If we look at the history of Malay kampong housing, or traditional vernacular housing, even in Peranakan housing, you see there is always a centrepiece. The centrepiece is expanded according to user requirements. We thought, let us bring in this and reinterpret it in a more modern way, Now, the current thinking would probably be that we would be doing Malay houses from now on! What we actually did was we deconstructed the Malay kampong house and the Peranakan (Baba/Nyonya) house to see why it has worked so well for 200 years and why it can still be relevant today. For example, the Malay house is very functional in terms of spatial programming, in terms of fulfilling what the primary unit does, in terms of activities, in terms of expandability and contractibility - if you want more space, we just add another plug-in, another additional module. Believe it or not, modular construction has been here for the last 300-400 years. It was just that now we needed to be able to reinterpret this. Customer Expectations We still needed to manage customer expectations because a lot of our customers come to our showroom bringing along a copy of the American Architectural Digest or Architecture Australia or Home & Décor and think ‘I want to have a house that looks like that house in Florida’ or elsewhere. So we needed to study in detail how these different typologies work and why appeal so much to our customers. So we looked in detail at the spatial programming in the Australian house and the English house and how it is different from the Malay house to find a common line between the three typologies and how this could be offered. We also identified the key characteristics in terms of typologies, footprint, and how that should respond to the local dream, how it responds to the social structure and how it responds to the environment. So we decided to actually do an experiment, to see whether we could bring all these together in a single physical offering. We chose a site in a place called Denaya Alam in the Shah Alam area next to the Guthrie Corridor Expressway. We had a sketch and all we needed to do now was bring the sketch to realisation. The sketch was also expanded in terms of performance criteria. We knew that the building needed to have integration with landscaping because we had a lot of landscaping to offer. We needed to harness the power of the sun because we have an abundance of sunlight. We needed to address how rainwater is managed. We know that there is a lot of waste water
that is pushed back into the system. We wanted to see how all that can be used effectively as part of the building system. We have a lot of green as well. So we decided to see how that could be utilised as part of the building component. We wanted to integrate landscaping vertically, as part of a housing component rather than just as an aesthetic part, so that the landscape is a functional element of the building. Architects at the turn of the century forgot how to design for the moment that the air-conditioning unit was designed. The first air conditioning units rolled off the factory lines, but people forgot how to design better houses. Now we needed to see if there were prevailing winds available to see how that could be utilised to make it a well-ventilated building. We also knew that our customers like to upgrade. We donâ€™t mind them coming back and buying more houses from us! It is just that from an environmental point of view, we would need to carve out more land for buildings to accommodate people who had already bought houses. So we thought that we should look at modular construction and expandable spaces so that people could buy the houses that they could afford for what they need now and if they ever wanted to expand, to come back to us and get another module. That way, we can actually manage the expansions of land exploration, and the physical expansion of our land banks as well. So we started to put things in place. We took that sketch, and those ideas and performance and put them in the BIM system, where all the design decisions are stored in a single system, including costs, weights, performance data, structural data and energy data. We knew that while the house needed to have architectural and stylistic appeal, we wanted to make it more modularised and simplistic. The whole purpose was to make it more effective. While it may look complicated, every single space in the design actually runs on a grid of 4.2 by 4.8, which is based on the expandability set by Malaysian Standards 1064. Theoretically, or when we designed this, we thought if it was done to set standards, all the materials would fit nicely with absolutely zero wastage on site. Construction system Then we needed to look at the construction system. Because we knew that we had done the design stage in a very smart and efficient way, we wanted to look at how the construction part can be smart and innovative as well. There was no point for us to start with a blank sheet of paper. We had to look at how the conventional methods of construction actually work. We knew it was paperbased. We knew it was compartmentalised - the architects usually come up with the basic sketch, the engineers come in and fulfil their part and the architects get most of the accountability. It is very cost-based, not value-based. There are a lot of variables because the precision of the drawings and design is as good as the draughtsman, so if you miss anything out, you will probably get variations in the end. The risks are individually managed, and are usually fragmented. It is wet and messy, and it is time-consuming and very labour-intensive.
So we decided to look outside the industry. We looked at the aeronautical industry. We looked at how aeroplanes are actually being built. Most of you here may have already bought houses, so you know that your S &P usually lasts 24 months, and building contracts usually last 15 months. But a Boeing 777 can be built in eight months. So why is it that an aeroplane that has millions of moveable parts can be built in eight months while a static building that pretty much doesn’t have anything in it take about 15 months? These are the questions that we asked ourselves. How do we use the lessons that we learn from the other industries and apply to our own? We looked at the automotive industries, at how things are rolled out in a QC environment in precision by precision machines, which means that by using precision, we could actually eliminate the potential for variations. We looked at the Integrated Project Delivery that I mentioned just now. What it said was that rather than looking at the linear process, from architecture to M & E to structural to marketing, and to contract documentation, things could be done multi-layered and multi-dimensional. That way we would be able to address a lot of the issues upfront. We also looked at reducing the risks. While the impact costs are high, if we make the changes early, the actual risk of incurring costs is practically zero. What it means is that if at that stage you detect the clashes or the variations on paper, with a click of the mouse, you change things, rather than getting a sledgehammer and knocking down a wall – which will add to costs. We looked at multi-layered decision-making. While in the conventional design process, things are done sporadically, in a BIM process, things are decided upfront. ‘Sime Darby Idea House’ We also looked at contract document procurement. I am not going to dwell on this because it is rather complicated. But we will look at how substructure is actually done. It is basically done on site, coupled with the prefabricated superstructure system, coupled with the floor cassettes, which can be slotted in, slotted out as you want it. Then you add in the roof arm loop to put up the shelter and bring in the prefabricated wall panels and the glazing. The final composition is the ‘Sime Darby Idea House’. This house is actually the showcase house whereby we want to demonstrate the ability for good architecture, high performance building materials, and sustainable lifestyle to be actually gelled into one. We don’t need to be a green hippie to live green, and we don’t need to be a nerd to be a techie. All this can actually be rolled into one. What you have is a house which is self-sustainable. It runs on a negative power supply for the next twenty years which means for the first ten years, there is a surplus of power of about 12%, which is enough to offset the power that is consumed over the night. We don’t have batteries by the way. During the day, we
have powered the house entirely using solar cells. After the 10th year, these cells, as with other cells, will diminish by about 10%, but it will have a total of 20 years of being self-sustainable. It is run on a modular system, whereby the occupants can add or take out as many modules as they want and this is done entirely on a dry system. There is no hacking, there are no wet works and almost entirely, the components are prefabricated. It is like an over-glorified Lego set. When you want it, you plug it in and when you don’t want it, you take it out. What this house means to our customers is that if you are a young couple, say 25-30 and all you can afford is probably a studio apartment or state-subsidised low cost housing, this is an opportunity for you to buy a large house with minimal floor area at minimal cost which you can actually expand in the future. What it means is that there is no financial pressure on the occupants to expand. What it also means is that there is less expansion, less exploration of land, less utilisation of resources. That is what we really expect of sustainable planning. The house itself is wired-up by a high bandwave communications system whereby we allow the occupants to communicate freely and telework with the office base. So you don’t need to travel to the workplace just to have a meeting or you can run a conference like this virtually from your home. The materials run on a 60-40 ratio whereby 60% is demountable. It means that after this house has served its purpose - we don’t foresee it being in existence for more than three years - we will demount 60% of the materials to be utilised in another building. The other 40% is fully recyclable. So all in all, in terms of the life-cycle of the house, the whole house is actually demountable, deconstructible, and recyclable. The kitchen area is made entirely of glass which means that compared to what you have in a regular house whereby if you move, you have to get rid of the veneers and the plywood, once it has served its purpose, you just smash the glass kitchen. It is 100% recyclable as we can recycle the glass for other purposes. Life-cycle benefits In terms of lifecycle benefits, we knew that from the conceptualisation stage the architects and designers would know and would be able to project its extended life-cycle. The contractors and the builders would know what the potential problems are. During the design itself, we as the owners and developers, would know the cost impact and how to mitigate potential issues during the implementation. Because everybody is referring to the same document throughout, the issues can be resolved fairly quickly and there is hardly any variation. The construction is smooth, swift and clean because a lot of it is done off site and we already have a manual to operate that as well. How this is being applied is that it goes back to the concept of modularisation.
Conclusion This is the extent of the presentation today. Because the Idea House is modular, you can deconstruct the materials - the modules, the cassettes, the wall panels and so on. We could actually use the same set of materials to build terrace houses, semi-detached houses in various forms and also zero-lot types, regardless of where the doors and windows are. We could actually apply this to five different typologies. That means six different typologies, including the single attachment that we have, using one cost rate. From a developerâ€™s point of view, that is maximising cost efficiency. But at the same time, from a planning point of view, what can happen is that we would be able to actually anticipate the amount of acreage that is needed, the rate of expansion that is required, and also the potential life-cycle in terms of the next 10 to 20 years, that is, how people are going to be using this once we have identified who the buyers are. That means if you are selling this to a start-up couple or a start-up family, you will be expecting expansion to be done in the next ten years. If you are selling this to a mature family, you will probably see less expansion. So from a managing resources and land banks and the impact on the environment perspective, we would be able to anticipate how that can actually happen. We have done this application in Weifang, China in one of our projects whereby the house and the system and fundamentals were replicated - not the actual design but the process and principles that took place in the design of the first idea House. We applied that in the development swap. That is what we hope to see with the creation of the Idea House, that once we have identified the benefits, the fundamentals, the strategies and the principles that are applied to the design process, we would actually replicate that across all our future products. In summary, this is very much our future manifesto - of what our products are going to look like. With that, thank you very much.
Paper Summary Introduction The Speaker highlighted how Sime Darby Property, one of the largest property developers in Malaysia, approached the challenge of developing sustainable communities through an innovative building design. He touched on the ‘Sime Darby Idea House’, which is the product of this approach and emphasised its potential from an economic cost-cutting as well as eco-friendly perspective. Main Ideas Sustainable Planning The concept of sustainable planning is generally perceived as a reactive concept, as a response to population increase due to transmigration from rural areas to the cities. Sime Darby Property revisited its successes and failures, such as Subang Jaya: to analyse the impact of its physical development and to use the lessons learnt to improve its future development. Impact of Development High density urban development linked to the city’s infrastructure, construction industry and lifestyle changes have resulted in the utilisation of the country’s resources at an alarming rate with sharp increases in carbon emissions, e.g. 300 % from 1980-2006. Sime Darby Property and its tagline Sime Darby Property underwent a major merger exercise the previous year, resulting in 80% of its development land bank being in Malaysia. To fulfil its role as a responsible corporate citizen and its tagline of ‘sustainable futures’, SDP focused on: creating a framework for developing sustainable communities which looked beyond the addition of mere cosmetic green accessories, such as solar panels for powering water heaters. promoting the concept of sustainability across the value chain and to its various stakeholders.
Framework for Sustainable Development The framework started with the idea of creating sustainable communities:
by addressing the eight dimensions as critical fundamentals, and not just focusing on housing and the built environment dimensions as developers tended to do. then extending it in detail to create master plans for future growth of the company as well as townships. A double-tiered master plan was designed to accommodate all eight dimensions in the business process. Innovative Building Design The speaker explained that due to time constraints, he would focus on the housing and built environment since it is within the context of town and country planning. The key to sustainable planning starts with the design process: While it is possible to work within certain existing guidelines and frameworks, the design process should cater to a specific performance target. The traditional approach of having multi-level technical meetings with the developer, consultant etc was replaced with an interdisciplinary approach and collaboration whereby all interested parties met together to decide the key issues upfront within an initial timeframe. Integrated Project Delivery This Integrated Project Delivery framework was achieved through Building Information Modelling (BIM), a platform whereby all the information during the collaboration exercise is stored in a single virtual space. BIM allows the single document to be shared by the different disciplines from start to finish. A facilitator, usually the master planner, would list down all the issues and everybody contributes to the discussion there and then. It is both time and resource saving since what used to take three to six months could be achieved in three days. Typology Creation Next the typology had to be created: that would respond to the environment that could be scaled up and down to the larger scale of the master plan that could be a high performance design as well. To do that, SDP decided to look at our own backyard, i.e. the typology created historically in Malay houses and how it responds well to the local environment and fulfils user needs and requirements.
In the Malay kampong housing (or traditional vernacular housing or Peranakan housing) there is always a centrepiece, which is expanded or contracted according to user requirements by adding or removing a module. Modular design has been around for 300-400 years, but this had to be reinterpreted in a more modern way to meet consumer expectations. Consumer Expectations Malaysian consumers tend to favour Australian, American and English architectural designs. So the challenge was to identify how the different typologies work and why they appeal to Malaysian consumers in terms of their key characteristics, footprint etc. Construction System SDP decided to do an experiment by bringing their sketch to realisation at a place in Shah Alam next to the Guthrie Corridor Expressway. The sketch was also expanded in terms of performance criteria, by integrating landscaping vertically, as part of a functional element of the house rather than just as an aesthetic part. For example, solar power, rainwater, prevailing winds etc. were utilised in the design. All the relevant information was fed into the BIM system. The house should have architectural and stylistic appeal, but it needed to be more modularised, simplistic and more effective. Every single space in the design actually runs on a grid of 4.2 by 4.8, based on the expandability set by Malaysian Standards 1064 with theoretically zero material wastage on site. The conventional construction system is paper-based and compartmentalised with a lot hinging on the precision of the drawings and design. The risks were individually managed and fragmented and it was also wet and messy and timeconsuming and very labour-intensive. So SDP turned to the aeronautical industry to understand how an aeroplane with millions of moveable parts could be built in eight months while a static building took 15 months to build. It also looked at the automotive industry to see how by using precision, the potential for variations could be eliminated. The Integrated Project Delivery through its multi-layered and multi-dimensional approach made it possible to address a lot of the issues upfront. It enabled clashes or variations to be identified early on and rectified at the drawing board stage without incurring costs.
Sime Darby Idea House The Sime Darby Idea House demonstrates the ability for good architecture, high performance building materials, and a sustainable lifestyle to be combined in one: The house is self-sustainable as it runs on a negative power supply for the next 20 years which means for the first ten years, there is a surplus of power of about 12%. It is run on a modular system, whereby prefabricated modules can be added or removed and without hacking or wet works. It also means that there is less land exploration and less exploitation of resources, which is expected of sustainable planning. The house is wired-up by a high bandwave communications system whereby the occupants can even telework with the office base. The materials run on a 60-40 ratio whereby 60% is demountable and used in another building while the other 40% is fully recyclable. Even from the conceptualisation stage, the architects and designers would be able to project its extended life-cycle. The construction is smooth, swift and clean because a lot of it is done off site and there is an operations manual as well. Conclusion Because the Idea House is modular, all the materials can be deconstructed and the same set of materials used to create six different typologies. From a developer’s point of view, that is maximising cost efficiency. From a planning point of view, it is possible to anticipate the amount of acreage and the rate of expansion that is needed, and also the potential life-cycle in terms of the next 10 to 20 years depending on the purchaser’s needs. SDP has carried out this application in Weifang, China in one of its projects whereby the process and principles, but not the actual design of the first Idea House, were replicated in a development swap. SDP believes that once the benefits, fundamentals, strategies and principles in the design process have been identified, they can be replicated across all its future products.
Paper 2 :
People-centric Planning: A Public Administrator’s Perspective and Experience Y.Bhg. Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Abdul Aziz bin Mohd Yusof Chairman, Elections Commission of Malaysia
Paper 2 :
People-centric Planning: A Public Administrator’s Perspective and Experience Y.Bhg. Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Abdul Aziz bin Mohd Yusof Chairman, Elections Commission of Malaysia The second paper was delivered in Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) by Y Bhg. Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Abdul Aziz bin Mohd Yusof, Chairman of the Elections Commission Malaysia, BIODATA OF SPEAKER
Y. Bhg. Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Abdul Aziz Mohd. graduated with a Degree in Economics from the University of Malaya and a Master in Computer Science Applications from the University of Washington, DC, USA. He has had vast experience in the field of administration and management, having served in various positions as a government officer. He had served at INTAN, and had been a Financial Officer at the Ministry of Finance. He had also served as the State Secretary in the states of Melaka and Selangor and Chief Secretary in the Ministry of Internal Security and Ministry of Home Affairs. Owing to his outstanding service, as well as trust in his capabilities, he was appointed Chairman of the Elections Commission of Malaysia after his retirement from public service - a position he currently holds.
People-centric Planning: A Public Administrator’s Perspective and Experience Yg Bhg. Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Abdul Aziz bin Mohd Yusof Chairman, Elections Commission of Malaysia
Abstract The presenter’s objective is to share his 36 years of experience as a public administrator in various agencies in both federal and local governments in planning and national development. This paper will discuss the importance of planning by federal and state government agencies in relation to the laws, methodologies, and the circulars that are relevant to the decision-making process, which is aimed at serving the interests and needs of the people. This paper will also discuss the presenter’s experience in the decision-making process in relation to people-centric development aimed at safeguarding the peace, the implementation of federal projects, such as the construction of roads, pipelines and drainage, and places of worship, development of hill slopes, forest reserves and rivers, as well as privatisation. In doing so, the presenter hopes that the experience he shares will provide guidelines for improving efforts to achieve a more effective development of the nation and its people.
My paper is not technical like that of Mr Suffian from Sime Darby. My paper merely states my own experience in public administration, although I have retired from active service. The experience itself is mostly in state government, in Selangor and in Melaka as State Secretary, State Financial Officer in Selangor and State Secretary in Melaka. My experience in other areas like the Ministry of Finance, the Public Services Department and the Ministry of Home Affairs is not particularly relevant to my paper. I have had some 36 years of experience in the government sector, and I have mentioned the places where I served, but what is most relevant is my experience in Melaka and Selangor. However, I wish to stress here is the importance of planning in whatever you do, even the simplest thing. Everything that you want to do, whether individually or collectively, must start with a plan. We have to think first. When the element of thinking about what to do first, second and so on is included, that is planning.
Ministry of Finance
The Ministry of Finance and the Economic Plannng Unit (EPU) are closely interlinked. EPU is the central agency for planning. It is not responsible for sourcing funds, whether locally or from abroad. Once the planning is finalised, it is the duty and responsibility of the Ministry of Finance to source for funds. What happens is once we have planned a national project, be it the annual budget or a five-year plan, we have to first study the countryâ€™s revenue. When we plan, we understand the limits and constraints. The most important constraint is our revenue. So, therefore, at the Ministry of Finance, you have to think about sourcing for funds, either domestic or foreign, bearing in mind, that deficits should not be too high. My point here is the importance of planning. EPU cannot be incorporated as a department of the Ministry of Finance. At one time in the past, it was suggested that this be done. However, the two should not be consolidated as one entity. Planning and Finance are separate matters. Public Services Department My experience at the Public Services Department (PSD) also involved the element of planning. It is important for identifying future manpower or human resources demands â€“ what Malaysia needs for the next 10 or 20 years and so on. Through manpower planning, we can identify the fields or areas that we need to develop in Malaysia in the future, and it is the duty of PSD to determine the type of training that is appropriate. This also highlights the importance of planning. Ministry of Home Affairs The third aspect is when I was Chief Secretary at the Ministry of Home Affairs. If the nation is to advance, in whatever we do, such as implementing the Sime Darby idea house project, there must be peace and tranquillity. If our security is constantly threatened and the conditions are not stable, we cannot do much. That is why we have the Ministry of Home Affairs to maintain peace in the country. This is an important duty and responsibility. We probably take it for granted that everything will function smoothly, and think that there is little need for a police force or an army. In reality, it is the police force and army that safeguard the peace and protect our country in times of trouble. Elections Commission The function of the police is similar to what I do now, as the Chairman of the Elections Commission. There are three main duties of the Elections Commission. The most important is to register voters â€“ that is, citizens who are 21 years and above. If we want to plan the type of government for the country for every fiveyear period, it is your duty to register and vote, to elect whomever you want. It is
the same with the elections - planning is essential. Otherwise, there will be arguments or fights. We have to plan to ensure, for example, that Party A and Party B are no less than 100- 150 metres apart, so that they are not within shouting or missile-throwing range. In the past it was different. Elections were like a ‘raya’ (a celebration). It is ‘elections’ in English but, I used to wonder, why ‘pilihan raya’ in Malay? When I asked the older folks, they said that in the past, it was like ‘hari raya’ – it was fun and enjoyable then, but it is not so now. Planning What I want to say is that in whatever we do, there has to be planning. In my experience in decision-making, I learnt how important planning is. It may be people-centric or ‘people first’. But we have to realise that, if left to their own desires, a village may not remain a village, and a home may be turned into a factory. That is why we have to plan in advance. As individuals, we have our own wants and desires. If we have property, we want to do whatever we want with it and others are not supposed to interfere. It is the same with houses. We may wish to build wherever we like - by the roadside, next to drains, by the river and so on. However, in reality we cannot do that. Above all, we need to adapt ourselves to the values and culture of our surroundings, and beyond this, there are laws or rules and regulations that need to be adhered to. That is why planning is important. Otherwise, there will be chaos – it will be like ‘nasi campur’ or ‘dalcha’, our local dishes where we can add anything we want. Laws, Rules and Regulations In situations like these, if we want to implement what has been become a policy, my experience – it was five years ago and I hope it is still relevant – is that not everyone will agree. If we try to impose discipline, they resent it. If we tell them not to build a house by the river, they will persist in doing so because it is easy to dispose of wastes by dumping them into the river. They claim that their ancestors had been doing so and nobody had stopped them. However, we cannot allow people to continue using the excuse of past practices forever. What I mean is that in such a situation, proper laws have to be in place. To implement a policy, we must ask people to submit to the policy. At the early stage, it is difficult, so that is why we have to have laws. If everyone obeys whatever the authorities say, we will not need laws. There will be no need for traffic rules or housing plans. What happens is that when a person goes to the State Secretariat (SUK) or Local Planning Authority (JPT) or any other department for approval, the officer tells them what they have to do and they appear to agree to the conditions. In reality, this is not the case. People will always try to bend the rules for their own purpose.
Explanations and Clarification Ladies and gentlemen, if we have a new movement, a new construction or new themes in your plans, you must follow up with explanations. In the past, we had circulars on rules, methods etc. so that the officers really comprehend what is to be implemented. Sometimes at the level of the Director-General of the Town and Country Planning, there may be no problems. By the time, it reaches the bottommost level, for example, my village in Sabak Bernam, the situation could be different, because the instructions and explanations may not have filtered down to the people. Therefore, to ensure this does not happen, we must provide clear explanations or clarification in whatever form so that the implementing officers understand the rules or regulations and are able to enforce them. For example, the laws most relevant to Town and Country Planning are the National Land Code and the Town Planning Act. The two are interlinked. The Town Planning Act is relevant to what is being planned, while the National Land Code defines the procedures, rules etc., which must be adhered to by the planners. Enforcement At the same time, we must have enforcement officers. People may refuse to abide by the established rules, or deviate from the directions we give, despite all our explanations. That is why in many instances departments that work closely with the planning officers have enforcement officers. If houses are not built according to an approved plan, the enforcement officer will inform the party or parties concerned regarding the violation. It is therefore vital that the number of enforcement officers in the relevant agencies be adequate. Based on my experience, I know that the number of enforcement officers is usually insufficient. There are not enough local enforcement officers, for example, to prevent the theft of sand, to ensure that development in their areas is in line with established rules or regulations. Hierarchy of Planning There is also a new hierarchy for the monitoring and controlling of planning. At the Federal level, the national physical planning level, the main policies for the nation are discussed, such as where new townships need to be established urgently, where industrial zones have to be given prominence, where agricultural areas are to be prioritised and so on. These are set out in the National Physical Plan, which is chaired by the Prime Minister. The input comes from you, ladies and gentlemen. At the state level, we have state planning committees which are chaired by the Mentri Besar or Chief Ministers. Here, we concentrate on state matters. Even at the state level, areas have been demarcated for development for agriculture, industry etc, which must be taken into account by the Executive Committees in making decisions. Other than that, at the bottom are the local authorities, which interpret the policy decisions. Let me say that when I was in Selangor, the resources available to the local government were regarded as
being insufficient, The local councils constantly lacked resources, in comparison with other departments, despite being the frontliners in implementing the decisions made by the government at the physical plan level. Decision-making at State Level Now I will move on to some specific experience that I wish to share with you. How are decisions made at the EXCO level? It was some time ago but my experience may still be relevant today. First, when I was in Selangor – I was there for eight years - if you wish to develop a piece of land that was less than 50 acres in size (perhaps this is not relevant now), it was not necessary to obtain planning approval. The result was a deluge of applications to the EXCO to develop land that was less than 50 acres in size. After these plots of land had been developed separately, the combination of the 50-acre development programmes led to a number of problems. Five or ten years down the line, residents came to appeal for schools, places of worship, playing fields etc. The state government was left with the responsibility of providing for the residents’ religious, social, sports, educational, and security needs, such as providing a police station etc. This was because by developing 50-acre plots, the developers had managed to evade the encumbrance of addressing these issues. Therefore, if no conditions are imposed, it will obviously result in basic necessities not being provided in such areas. Another similar experience at the state level relates to the fact that at that time (it may be different now), the federal government did not have to consult the state government if facilities such as schools were to be developed on state land. However, once the schools were constructed, the problems began. Pipelines for the supply of water, access roads, drainage systems and power supply were lacking. The schools had desks and chairs and even teachers and students, but they could not be used because of the lack of supporting infrastructure. The state governments were asked to construct the access roads, the drains etc, although they had not planned for this. This problem has probably been addressed now, but in the past there were several problems like these. The state government was only informed after the construction had been completed. The third is regarding places of worship. This was also a problem. When I was serving in Selangor, I was the Chairman of the Religious Committee. The Committee discussed where places of worship should be located. In this country, we should not set up places of worship because of a dream. What I mean is that when asked why someone had set up a place of worship or shrine in a particular place, the answer was usually ‘I had a dream last night’. My response was usually to tell them to demolish it. We must plan where to locate the mosque, surau, temple, or church, so that we can live in harmony in our multi-racial society.
Next is the development of areas along rivers. The development of the Ampang River was vetoed by the JPS during my time. It had been gazetted it as a river reserve. However, it was not properly maintained â€“ it was full of garbage, weeds etc. But now if you look along the banks of the Ampang River, there is development - there are attractive shops and the river banks are well-maintained. This is an example of how we can make adjustments or modifications here and there, when the occasion arises. Besides this, there was the problem of hillslope development in Ampang. I understand that slopes are graded according to their gradient (grade 1, grade 2 and so on). Therefore, if the decision-maker or policy-maker allows development on slopes, the local authorities should abide by the existing rules, conditions and procedures. If not, there will be landslides and other disasters. It is the same with forest reserves. There is provision for states to set aside no less than 30% of state land as forest reserves. However, some states have less than that. Even forest reserves have been cleared for development and converted for other uses. It is the same with water resources. In many districts in Selangor, even water is being â€˜developedâ€™, although water is one of our basic necessities of life. Compromise between Decision-makers and Developers Therefore, many of these matters have to be discussed in detail, so that there is compromise between the decision-makers and the developers. Technical aspects do not fall into this category. Non-technical elements, however, have to be taken into account. For example, when we meet with the developers, they will try their level best to ensure that they are able to maximise profits but at the same time, we have to address the provision of facilities that would serve the interests of the local inhabitants. For example, when I was in Selangor, we wanted to allow TESCO to be set up on land belonging to the Selangor Sports Council. At that time, the report we received from the EXCO indicated that if TESCO were set up in that area, the result would be traffic congestion in Shah Alam. We got a second opinion from another group, which indicated that it could be done, but certain conditions had to be met. Now TESCO is located in that area and I have not seen any massive traffic jams. Another example is the development of flats and three-storey houses and other types of housing. In matters of this nature, we must not be too rigid. In the case of a local authority, the Council refused to entertain requests to build three-storey houses in areas where two-storey houses were the norm. We should not operate like that. We have to consider other factors before approving or rejecting proposals by developers. Now we have many two and three-storey houses in those areas and these do not adversely affect the traffic flow. Similarly, before developing an area, there are conditions stating that trees should not be cut down indiscriminately. However, what had happened in
Selangor was that the developers violated the conditions by felling trees before developing the proposed area. Looking at the overall plan, it is clear that the Shah Alam township is different from what was planned. There have been many changes â€“ but that is the reality of life. Recommendations So here are some of my recommendations to you, ladies and gentlemen, as planning officers. First, you have to be professional in your dealings. You must know what you are doing, understand what you are saying, and be sure of your goals. You are a professional, and you are trained in the field. But at the same time you must have integrity. You should not change your stand or position due to certain external circumstances. Planners have to work closely with consultants in the private sector etc., so you could be easily influenced. However, you must be professional: you must have integrity, take a firm stand and follow the procedures for planning. If there is a need for changes to be made, you should insist on certain terms and conditions. My second recommendation is that in anything you do, you must have consultation. As stated by the first paper presenter, you could have one team comprising officers from the Land office, PBT, JPS, Department of Wildlife, etc that meets for three days to discuss all relevant matters in detail so that the decision is agreed to by all the parties concerned before being implemented. The third recommendation is that we must constantly update our knowledge. We should not remain ignorant, refusing any change or modification to the status quo. Officers should therefore be sent abroad to learn about how hillslopes or hillsides, lakesides and river banks and so on are being developed, so that we do not have a closed mind, but are receptive to ideas that can be adapted to develop our country. Therefore, always update your knowledge and your skills. The fourth is sustainable development. I agree that this should be continued and should be appropriate for present and future development. I know that is easy to say but difficult to do. Still, you should hold firm to the concept of sustainable development. Finally, I hope that the doctrine of planning is continued. There has to be synergy between man and creator, man and man, and man and the environment. If we really understand this, we will not deviate from true and trusted practices and become good planners, which is what our country needs. That is all. Thank you.
PEOPLE CENTRIC DARI PERSPEKTIF DAN PENGALAMAN PENTADBIR AWAM Y.BHG TAN SRI DATO’ SERI ABDUL AZIZ BIN MOHD. YUSOF, PENGERUSI SURUHANJAYA PILIHAN RAYA (SPR) MALAYSIA
PEMBENTANGAN KERTAS KERJA SEMPENA HARI PERANCANGAN BANDAR SEDUNIA 2009 DI PUSAT DAGANGAN DUNIA PUTRA (PWTC) KUALA LUMPUR 9 NOVEMBER 2009
OLEH Y.BHG TAN SRI DATO’ SERI ABDUL AZIZ BIN MOHD. YUSOF PENGERUSI SURUHANJAYA PILIHAN RAYA (SPR) MALAYSIA
“ PEOPLE CENTRIC DARI PERSPEKTIF DAN PENGALAMAN PENTADBIR AWAM ”
PENDAHULUAN PENGALAMAN BEKERJA SELAMA 36 TAHUN DI SEKTOR AWAM MOF, JPA, KDN, NEGERI SELANGOR DAN MELAKA SERTA SEBAGAI PENGERUSI SURUHANJAYA PILIHAN RAYA (SPR ) MALAYSIA 4/23/2010
KEPENTINGAN PERANCANGAN DALAM SEMUA PENGALAMAN 1.
MOF DAN EPU (KEWANGAN DAN PERANCANGAN)
JPA (KEPERLUAN TENAGA MANUSIA DAN LATIHAN)
KDN (KEPERLUAN KESELAMATAN DAN KETENTERAMAN AWAM)
SPR (KEPERLUAN PENDAFTARAN PENGUNDI, PENENTUAN SEMPADAN DAN MENGADAKAN PILIHAN RAYA)
PENGALAMAN DALAM MEMBUAT KEPUTUSAN 1.
INDIVIDU V WANTS/NAFSU/NEEDS/RIGHT/KEPERLUAN COMMUNITY/SOCIETY/ORGANIZATION/NATION/WORLD
RELATIONSHIP/HUBUNGKAIT DIANTARA PERANCANGAN DENGAN UNDANG-UNDANG (LAW)/KAEDAH (RULES)/CIRCULAR/ECT. EX. NATIONAL LAND CODE VS AKTA PERANCANG BANDAR
AGENCIES PENGUATKUASAAN, PBT & PDRM
PERANAN JABATAN PERANCANG BANDAR DAN DESA
LEVELs and IMPLICATIONS
1. RANCANGAN FIZIKAL NEGARA – YAB PM (MAJLIS PERANCANG FIZIKAL NEGARA)
2. RANCANGAN STRUKTUR NEGERI – YAB MB/KM
3. RANCANGAN TEMPATAN – DAERAH/PBT (MAJLIS) 4/23/2010
PENGALAMAN PEMBENTANG KERTAS DALAM PERKHIDMATAN AWAM KHASNYA SEMASA BERKHIDMAT DI NEGERI SELANGOR DAN MELAKA
PEMBANGUNAN TANAH KELUASAN KURANG DARIPADA 50 EKAR. ISUISU-ISU SELEPAS PEMBANGUNAN 50 EKAR TIMBUL MELIBATKAN KEPERLUAN KETENTERAMAN AWAM, AGAMA, SOSIAL, SUKAN, PELAJARAN, SECURITY DAN SAFETY
(ii) PROJEK PERSEKUTUAN [EPU]/NEGERI/ KEPERLUAN JALAN, SALURAN PAIP DAN SALIRAN
(iii) JAWATANKUASA RUMAH IBADAT DAN KEPERLUAN KUIL, MASJID DAN TAMPLE DAN GEREJA
(iv) NILAI TANAH UNTUK PREMIUM V NILAI TANAH UNTUK JUALAN
(v) PEMBANGUNAN SEKTOR SUNGAI DAN TASIK (vi) PEMBANGUNAN TANAH CERUN (iv)
RISAB HUTAN DAN SUNGAI SERTA KAWASAN TADAHAN
PEMBANGUNAN BANDAR DAN SEMI BANDAR
PROJEK PENSWASTAAN DAN AWAM
ISU PENGUATKUASAAN UNDANG-UNDANG
KOMPROMI PEMBUAT KEPUTUSAN DENGAN PERANCANG BANDAR TEKNIKAL V NONNON-TEKNIKAL DAN WISDOM (MAKSIMUM PROFIT V OPTIMUM PROFIT
PEMBANGUNAN TESCO DI SHAH ALAM V TRAFFIC FLOW
RUMAH PANGSA, RUMAH 3 TINGKAT V RUMAH BENTUK LAIN
(iii) PEMOTONGAN POKOKPOKOK-POKOK DAN KEHIJAUAN/PEMOTONGAN TANAH (iv) PEMBANGUNAN BANDARAYA SHAH ALAM 4/23/2010
CADANGAN: 1. PEGAWAI PERANCANG MESTI PROFESSIONAL DAN BERINTEGRITI 2. KEPERLUAN CONSULTATION DENGAN AGENCIES LAIN 3. UPDATE KNOWLEDGE DAN SKILL 4. PEMBANGUNAN MAMPAN (SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT) 5. DOCTRINE PERANCANGAN - MANUSIA DENGAN TUHAN - MANUSIA DENGAN MANUSIA - MANUSIA DENGAN ALAM SEKITAR 4/23/2010
12. Q AND A
Paper Summary Introduction The speaker presented a synthesis of his experience in working in several government agencies both at state and federal levels from a people-centric perspective. His objective was to inform current planners about the key issues to take into consideration when planning for more effective development of the country and its people. Main points
Past experience The speaker had served in various capacities as a public administrator and wished to focus on his experiences as State Secretary in Selangor and Melaka and as Financial Officer in Selangor as well as in the Ministry of Finance, the Public Services Department and the Ministry of Home Affairs for 36 years until his retirement. He emphasised the role of planning in every aspect, which is basically thinking about what to do at various points in the process. A summary of his views: He stated that the roles of the Ministry of Finance and the Economic Planning Unit (EPU) should not be conflated: planning is the domain of EPU while that of the Ministry is to source for the funds to implement the projects EPU has decided on. Planning was elemental in his services in the Public Services Department to identify future manpower or human resources demands and to meet the demands by offering appropriate training. As Chief Secretary at the Ministry of Home Affairs, it was his role to guarantee peace and security so that the affairs of government could be carried out effectively through proper planning. He likened it to his current role as Chairman of the Elections Commission whereby he has to ensure that elections are conducted peacefully and conflict between rival parties is forestalled. Importance of Planning He emphasised the importance of ‘people-first’ because without the focus on getting the people on board, projects cannot be implemented properly. This entails an understanding of the local environment and culture, and at the same time, the need to enforce or adhere to laws, rules and regulations. He stated that: There is a need to counteract the excuse of past practices to justify present behaviour. However, to get people to submit to a policy, the laws
have to be implemented, since it is a human tendency to bend the rules to suit one’s own purpose. At the same time, there is a need for explanations and clarification so that the rationale for the policy is clear at the implementation level. While the reasons may be apparent at the federal level, it may not be so evident at the local authority level, leaving the implementing officers unclear or in a dilemma. The tools for planners are The Town Planning Act, which is relevant to what is being planned, and the National Land Code, which defines the procedures, rules etc. that must be adhered to by the planners. People may refuse to abide by the established rules, or deviate from the directions issued, despite the explanations. Hence, having a sufficient number of enforcement officers is crucial for proper implementation of the plans or projects.
Hierarchy of planning The Speaker then dealt with the hierarchy of planning: At the Federal level, the national physical planning level, the main policies for the nation are discussed, such as sites of new townships, industrial zones, prioritisation of agricultural areas etc. The meetings are usually chaired by the Prime Minister, while the input for the discussions comes from the planners. At the state level, the state planning committees (EXCO), which are chaired by the Mentri Besar or Chief Ministers concentrate on state matters. However, decisions made at the Federal level must be taken into account by the EXCOs in making decisions. At the bottom are the local authorities, which interpret the policy decisions. Unfortunately, the local councils constantly lacked resources, in comparison with other departments, despite being the frontliners in implementing the decisions made by the government at the physical plan level. Problematic Issues The Speaker dealt with problems that he encountered at the state level, though he reiterated that the problems may have been rectified: Approval of development plans for areas less than 50 acres often resulted in housing estates without the proper infrastructure or amenities such as schools, places of worship, playing fields, police station etc. which then became the responsibility of the state instead of the developer. Another problem was that the federal government did not have to consult the state government if any facilities, such as schools, were to be developed on state land. However, the state was responsible for the support infrastructure, such as access roads, water supply etc. The state often lacked the resources to provide such amenities.
Yet another was the construction of places of worship or shrines without authorisation as this could cause friction and disharmony in our multiracial society. Other problems include: o Unplanned development along rivers resulting in pollution. o Hillslope development that violated rules and regulations barring development on certain gradients and caused landslides and other disasters. States are required to set aside no less than 30% of state land as forest reserves. However, much of the forest reserves are being converted and cleared for development. Even water is being ‘developed’, although water is one of our basic necessities of life.
Compromise between decision-makers and developers may be necessary for sustainable development but only on non-technical matters. While developers have the right to try to maximise profits, they should provide the facilities that serve the interests of the local population. Sometimes planners may have to find ways of accommodating new development in existing areas by insisting on certain terms and conditions being met before approving or rejecting proposals by developers; for example, trees should not be cut down indiscriminately before the area is developed. Recommendations / Conclusion The presenter offered the following recommendations for planners: They have to professional in their dealings. Besides, professional training, they must have integrity and adhere to the rules pertaining to planning. If changes have to be made, in dealings with consultants in the private sector, they should insist on certain terms and preconditions. They must engage in consultation with all relevant parties to ensure that the decisions made are agreeable to everyone before being implemented. They must constantly update their knowledge and skills so that they do not remain ignorant and constantly reject any change or modification to the status quo. Training, including training abroad, should be provided, so that planners are receptive to ideas that can be adapted to develop our country. They must hold fast to the concept of sustainable development, although it may prove to be a difficult task. They must continue with the doctrine of planning that is geared towards a synergy between man and creator, man and man, and man and the environment. Good planners will not deviate from true and trusted practices and this is what our country needs.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
QUESTION AND ANSWER SESSION 1 Chairman’s Comments Thank you. I do not intend to summarise the presentations. What is important here at the end of the day is the concept of sustainability. Although it is a question of what is said to be building towards an ideal, we have to face reality and that reality is governed by value systems, and also by our responsibilities, first to God, no matter what our religion is. Our ethics, our morality must be given priority. Whatever we want to do, no matter how creative, for example, what Sime Darby is trying to do as stated by En Suffian, there must this trust in another human being, man to man. So the solution is interdisciplinary discussion and inter-sector collaboration. The third is integrity. Integrity does not mean just obeying the law; it is obeying what you yourself feel your relationship with God is. Unfortunately, this is not what many people would like to look at because they treat religion as different from everyday living. But as far as I am concerned, in anything we do, there is always the Almighty God, the belief in God that is the anchor of our value systems. This is briefly my point of view. Although the two speakers, you think, are speaking from different angles, they are actually speaking from what I would call a value system which is anchored by truth, morality, religion and societal norms. As for our societal norms, basically in Malaysia, we are a multi-racial country, so that is why we have to compromise a little, as mentioned by Tan Sri. We must give and take for the sake of the nation. That is my summary. Now I will open the discussion to the floor. Questions and Answers Question 1: Afsyam from PKNS I have a question about new materials for construction. This is a question for En. Suffian from Sime Darby. I just want to check with you. For this kind of building construction method, were there any incentives from the government to Sime Darby previously? Or should there be any incentives for this kind of sustainable development concept? My second question is that when you try to impose new things, new materials, new design, is it going to jeopardise your gross development value or is it going to increase your development cost? That’s all, thanks. Answer: En Suffian On the first question about incentives - when we started this project, less than a year ago we weren’t even thinking of incentives, to be honest. The whole philosophy of the Idea House originated from the fact that we wanted to develop
a high performance construction system, and we wanted to be able to translate that performance into the values that our customers subscribe to. The moment we bring incentives in, the whole philosophy will be out the window. Because we wanted to be sure that with our own capabilities and capacities, we would be able to actually roll out something that is high performance, energy efficient, environmentally friendly and able to adapt itself to any possible life-style, in any typical family scenario. We wanted to actually fulfil that brief first. I am aware that, under the new budget, incentives are available for builders and developers, which other players in the industry also enjoy. However, I think, again this does not work unless we have a clear performance target. The reason why we think that this particular project is under construction now, or is in the process of getting to the final stages of construction, is that we started off with a clear performance target. We wanted to make sure that the building is self-sustainable; we wanted to ensure that the building system is expandable and contractible; we wanted to ensure that the materials chosen are from sustainable sources and recyclable as well and be able to be reused in any place and in any scenario. So, I think, we are only looking at incentives now because of the rating system that is available through GPI (Genuine Progress Indicators). In fact, when we started this, we asked ourselves, ‘How do we actually validate the numbers?’ In the end, there weren’t any rating systems available that were local enough for us, until the creation of GPI last June. We started this way before that, so we ended up looking at various rating systems: USGBC link from the US, Breeam from the UK, Green Star from Australia, and Green Mark from Singapore. However, all these rating systems were not actually designed for the local climate, for the local environment, so we decided that we should ‘forget that, set the performance criteria, fulfil the performance criteria’ and, once we have actually achieved that, we think that we have done the job. Your question about new materials and whether it actually increases the gross development costs - I think the modern method of construction is no longer a cost-based scenario. We are actually looking at creating values. We believe while there is a cost to it, the cost can be translated into values that our customers and the wider population can actually appreciate. That, I think, is a better way of looking at it. There is no point in having something done in a cheaply fashion and sold at a higher price that nobody is going to buy. So we do have low gross development cost and high gross development value, but with a disposal rate of 10 to 20 years, that is really pointless. So what we are looking at is something that while there is a cost to it, there is a payback period associated with it that the customers can see the value of. They can see where their money actually goes to. Which is why with the ‘Idea House’, we actually looked at other places, other than those that the construction industry will look at, at how industrial components can be used as building components. Initially, we wanted to use aluminium like the ones that are being used in assembly lines and Proton, Perdua or Toyota as a construction material. We just couldn’t find the right R & D partner for that at the time, so we decided to go with the box standard, universal column beam typology. So what I could say is that while there is a cost, I think
what is most important is that we need to see the value in it. In the same breath I am probably open to whoever is in the industry to take up the challenge and invest in the R & D, and come work with us to explore new materials and potentials to new construction systems that can be applied as well. Thank you. Chairman Thank you, En. Suffian. Any other questions? If not, Tan Sri wants to share some views. Comment: Y Bhg. Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Abdul Aziz bin Mohd Yusof Because the participant [who asked the question] is from PKNS, I was reminded of an incident when I was Deputy Chairman of PKNS. At that time, there was a certain approach, a new approach of building houses and apartments called prefab. At that time, about 10 years ago, it was very new. We adopted that approach. We developed an apartment block in Shah Alam using the prefab methodology. But we forgot that in Malaysia, people like to wash their houses every month. If I am not mistaken, when the house was washed, water permeated through the material. It seemed that PKNS in adopting the technology from Australia forgot that people in Malaysia like to wash their houses. That’s one. The second is the complaint by the apartment dwellers to PKNS that it was impossible to hang pictures on their walls. Our people like putting up pictures on their walls, which however they cracked when the nails were hammered in. What I mean to say is that when we study an approach from abroad, we should study it in detail, and not make half-baked decisions. Now, I have learnt that the situation is different. It is possible to wash the apartments, even three times a day, and put up pictures on the walls. This means that we do learn from our mistakes. I am sure there are many other new technologies. My example is what happened when I was in PKNS. There were a lot of complaints from the purchasers then. Chairman Thank you, Tan Sri, for a very good interjection. There must be relevance to the situation. Any more questions? If not, just a last addition from En Suffian. Comment: En Suffian Just to add to what Tan Sri mentioned just now. I think the age where a lot of us like to go on business trips - we like to get on a plane, go to a country which has the technology and try to bring back that technology off the shelf and apply it here – those days are gone.
Again, this goes back to what kind of performance you want to achieve. I will give you an example. If you want to buy a house now, you will notice that the specifications or materials like the tiles, timber decking are always classified according to the purchase price. If you buy the cheapest house, you get ceramic tiles. If you buy a more expensive house, you will probably get marble tiles. But none of that addresses the simple basic thing– how does the regular Malaysian family live? For example, you want to purchase a kitchen. Probably if your house is less than RM150,000, you will get ceramic tiles. If the house is more than RM200,000, you will probably get homogenous tiles. If your house is more than RM500,000, you will probably get marble tiles. But none of this relates to how you cook, what kind of food you cook, or what kind of stain you get on the wall. So if you look at it from a performance point of view, we should come up with the material that addresses the way Malaysians cook - that all the grease from your curry, from your ‘belachan’ that sticks to your wall can be easily cleaned with a single wipe so that you don’t even need an extractor. If you work from that basis, then that’s how things can be related more to the customer or the end user. Then again from a regulatory perspective, at the local authority level (PBT), you can use that as a baseline in assessing the performance of the buildings you are vetting. Thank you. Chairman That is all for now. Once again on behalf of the organising committee, I would like to thank the speakers. Give them a big hand. On a personal note, I would like to thank the organising committee for inviting me to chair this session. Thank you.
SESSION 2 The session was chaired by Y. Brs En. Kamalruddin b. Shamsuddin Deputy Director General (Planning) Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia
BIODATA OF THE CHAIRMAN
Y. Brs En Kamalruddin b. Shamsuddin obtained formal education in the field of Town
Postgraduate Diploma from Institute of Housing Studies, Rotterdam, The Netherlands and Master of Philosophy from University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK. He has vast experiences of 31 years in Public Sector. During his services, he involves in the preparation of various Development Plans. He is also active in professional writing and working papers and up to date 79 were produced. He is currently the Deputy Director General (Planning), Federal department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia.
Paper 3 :
Public Involvement from an Islamic Perspective Prof. Datoâ€™ Dr. Mohd. Yusof Hj. Othman
Director of Institute Islam Hadhari, National University of Malaysia
Paper 3 :
Public Involvement from an Islamic Perspective Prof. Datoâ€™ Dr. Mohd. Yusof Hj. Othman Director of Institute Islam Hadhari, National University of Malaysia The second paper was delivered in Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) by Prof. Datoâ€™ Dr. Mohd. Yusof Hj. Othman, Director of Institute Islam Hadhari, National University of Malaysia BIODATA OF SPEAKER
Mohd. Yusof Hj. Othman is Professor of Physics at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and has been the DirectorGeneral of Insitut Islam Hadhari (UKM) since July 2007. He had also served as the Head of the Physics Department (1990-94), Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Science and Technology (1994-2004), and Director of the Centre for Management, Research & Innovation(2002-07) in UKM.
Prof Yusof has been involved in cutting-edge energy research for more than 25 years. His most important contributions have been in solar energy studies and solar, thermal and photovoltaic systems. This has included harnessing solar energy for powering water heaters and air-conditioners, and creating a solar water pump system, a photovoltaic system connected to a grid and, more recently, a system for harnessing thermal photovoltaic energy.
Prof Yusof has had an illustrious academic career. He was one of the academicians in UKM responsible for setting up the Solar Energy Research Group and was the Founding Secretary of the Institut Tenaga Malaysia (1992-
05). He has been a member of the council of the World Renewable Energy Network (WREN) since 1992. He served as a Visiting Professor at the Department of Engineering, University of Reading, UK (1994). He has been the joint editor of the International Journal of Renewable Energy since 2005, and an editor on the Review Board for the Scientific Journal International since 2007. He has also written more than 250 journal articles, proceedings and seminar papers in the field of renewable energy, physics and scientific research, including 21 books in the field of physics and for general reading.
Prof Yusof has been recognised internationally for his contributions to the field of renewable energy.
He received the WREN Pioneer Award from the World
Renewable Energy Network/Congress in 2004. His other awards include four from the Exhibition of Inventions, Geneva, Switzerland, three from the Seoul International Invention Fair, and three at the INPEX 2008 Invention & New Production Exposition, Pittsburgh, USA for his research studies since 1990. He was also the recipient of the Henry Goh Award 2000 for the Most Environment Friendly Invention 2000; the Environmental Protection Prize from the Swiss Society for the Protection of The Environment in 2001; a Special Award from the Taiwan Inventors Association at the Seoul International Invention Fair 2004; the International Federation of Inventorâ€™s Associations (IFIA), Geneva, Switzerland Gold Medal (2008), and a Special Prize from the Korea Invention Promotion Association for commendable efforts to create inventions exhibited at the INPEX 2008 Invention & New Production Exposition, Pittsburgh, USA.
On the local scene, Prof Yusof has received several awards. from UKM. These include the Excellent Service Award for 1990 and 1993, the Special Creativity and Innovation Award for academicians (1997), the Social Service Award for academicians (1998), and the Special Award for Academic Publications (2003). All in all, he has received eight awards from UKM and thirteen from the Ministry of Science and Technology and Innovation Malaysia. He has also served on several panels at Ministerial level.
Prof Yusofâ€™s contributions to the scientific world and Islamic scholarship have also been recognised on the national scene in different ways. He was the recipient of the Kesatria Mangku Negara (KMN) from DYMM Yang Dipertuan Agong and was conferred the title of Datoâ€™ Setia Negeri Sembilan (DSNS) by DYMM DiPertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan. He was awarded the Penghargaan Maal Hijrah (1426H) by the Malaysian Government and conferred the title of Tokoh Maal Hijrah by the state of Penang (1429H).
Public Involvement from an Islamic Perspective Prof. Datoâ€™ Dr. Mohd. Yusof b. Hj. Othman Director, Institute Islam Hadhari, UKM
Abstract Public involvement in the development of every aspect of life is crucial in the efforts to develop townships. Townships are the pulse of civilisations. An urban society is a society that comprises people of various and varied backgrounds. The people have different wants, so they need different infrastructure, employment opportunities, housing and social institutions. This means that they need social leaders who possess a vision and a mission, who are dynamic and who are responsive to the wants of the society. The 1 Malaysia concept also has huge implications for public involvement in national development. This presentation will attempt to shed light on the following questions: What is an urban community? What are its wants? How can leadership be nurtured in the context of the 1Malaysia concept?
Town and Country planning is not my field of expertise; mine is physics and my field of specialisation is solar energy, while at UKM as Director of the Institut Islam Hadhari, my role is to advance Islamic education, more specifically, Islam Hadhari. I have four questions and I will try to answer them Introduction As an introduction to planning, I would like to quote the Prophet from a popular hadith on how to build a country, how to develop a country. According the Prophet, the prosperity of a country relies on five main factors. Five Factors for Nation Building The first is the knowledge of the intellectuals. This is true. No civilisation has arisen without people who are knowledgeable. I am very confident that Shih Huang-ti could not have constructed the Great Wall of China without nurturing his intellectuals. And the Pharaohs would not have the capacity to build the Pyramids that have withstood the test of time without their intellectuals. That is why the Prophet has said that the chief factor in creating a prosperous civilisation and nation is the knowledge of its intellectuals.
The second is the sense of justice among the rulers or administrators. The downfall of the Pharaohs is not because they lacked intellectuals, but rather because the rulers and the administrators were not just or fair. The Koran states this in a simple Verse (surat), that when the Pharaoh declared himself the Almighty God, God told Moses to go before the Pharaoh and tell him that he had exceeded his powers. If we have a leader who is no longer trustworthy or honest, at that moment, we should leave. The downfall of Muslims in 1258 M, at the hands of Kubla Khan was not because they lacked knowledge If you refer to the texts of the time of Al-Farabi, Al-Kindi, Al-Razi, that era was more glorious than that of Nicholas Copernicus, Galileo and others. Words like â€˜algorithmâ€™, cornea and algebra are of Islamic origin. It is said the more than 70% of scientific terms are derived from Islamic sources. The downfall of the Muslims can be attributed to corruption among the rulers. Uncivilised peoples were then able to destroy such a great civilisation. The same happened when the Islamic civilisation moved to Andalusia. In 1451, the Muslims were defeated at Andalusia because there was infighting among the administrators. Many examples can be examined to understand the reasons for the downfall of the civilisation. And finally in 1924, the Othman empire collapsed, when in reality, in 1451-53, Sultan Mehmet Fatih had managed to conquer the city of Constantinople in Turkey, which later became the city of Istanbul. The third factor, according to the Prophet, is the trustworthiness of the merchants. We have many well-known merchants like Abdul Rahman bin Auf who followed good business practices, and who were able outperform the Jewish merchants in Medina, or the city of Yathrib, as it was known to the Jews. Therefore, if the merchants had not been trustworthy at that time, in reality, the Islamic civilisation would have collapsed there and then. The fourth is the advice of the professionals. If you want to build a building, you do not call in an ustaz (a religious teacher). The Koran says that you have to ask an expert if you do not understand something. This means that if you do not understand development, ask an expert. If you do not understand solar energy, look for a solar energy expert. If you want to know more about urban planning, send your officers overseas for training to learn how to build a city. That is knowledge. The fifth is the prayers of the devout. This is what the Prophet said: the development of a nation that is prosperous depends on the prayers of the devout. Even today, in reality, we are confronted with many global issues, which I will not go into. This is the first part, which I refer to as the introduction or preamble. Thus if we wish to develop a nation, a civilisation and townships, there are five factors to consider: first, the knowledge of the intellectuals; second, how just is the administration; third, the trustworthiness of the merchants; fourth, the advice of
the professionals who possess knowledge in their specific fields; and finally, the prayers of the devout. Wants, Needs and Rights and Decision-Making Now, I will move on to my first question: How are wants, needs and rights taken into account in decision-making in the planning process, be it urban planning or any other type of planning? We need to understand that a town is made up of many sorts of people. Towns mushroomed at the beginning of the Islamic civilisation. More specifically, the Prophet went to Medina and transformed it from a town called Yathrib, identified as a Jewish town, which was in fact, only an oasis town. The town existed because travellers stopped there en route from Yemen to Syria, to Damascus. The Prophet on his arrival renamed it Medina. The ‘din’ in Medina is derived from the word ‘din’, which means ‘a way of life’. The Prophet built a city with a certain way of life. From ‘Medina’, there emerged the society called ‘Madani’. There is dispute as to whether the word ‘Madani’ is synonymous with ‘civil society’. This is because a civil society is one with rules and regulations, but without religion. However, the difference is that the rules and regulations in ‘Madani’ were intertwined with the Laws of God. It is a long and interesting debate which you can read in the works of Al-Khaldun. I found it fascinating to read about the travels of ibn Battuta. What I would like to mention here is that when ibn Battuta arrived in Cairo, he stated that Cairo was a city where you could find the craziest people there. but if you were to look, you could also find the finest intellectuals there. In Cairo, he said, could be found many sorts of people, some who were knowledgeable, some who were wealthy, and some who were literate but uneducated, So in a city of various sorts of people, there are people who are literate but very uneducated – the modern-day thieves and robbers. There have been many books on this. A city is a society, a place which is populated by people professing diverse religions, of different ethnic origins, with different careers and professions; and with diverse wants, needs and rights because they are different. They also are of diverse economic status and there are also groups that are dominant in the city, that have influence in shaping a country or a city. The city is also a centre for conducting business or commerce. It is also a place for conducting knowledgebased or academic affairs. In the cities, there are universities, the centres of learning; there are cultural centres, which are the creators of culture in a society; and there are museums, places for storing the treasures of the past, which can preserved and studied. So a city is a place where all sorts of activities are carried out. It is in cities that we see the type of activities that we carry out like seminars, debate, dialogue etc. People’s wants are also diverse, and they come in different forms. Therefore, the question is: how can the leaders, who live in the city, fulfil the needs of the people?
I will not touch on the concept of leadership at this point, since time is short. Decision-making and Public Involvement The second question is: When the need to make a decision arises, should it be the absolute or sole prerogative of the government or should it involve the people? I will try to answer the question. In my view, in matters of this nature, it is not the absolute or sole prerogative of an individual or group. That is why we have what is termed syura, a council which meets, engages in dialogue, and discusses the matters. The Prophet, when asked whether to wage war inside or outside the city, did not make the decision himself. Instead, he referred the matter to those who were more knowledgeable. A new convert to Islam, known as Salman Al-Farisi from Iran, was consulted because he was an expert in warfare. He explained that it would be a problem to wage war inside the city because women and the old would be injured and property would be damaged, So it was decided that war would be waged outside the city. And because it would be a long-drawn out war, it was necessary to dig ditches - to make preparations. So the decision was made by way of syura, by way of discussion or musyawarah. To conduct a discussion according to musyawarah, there have to be rules. We have laws everywhere. We have Syariah, which, for example, forbids the drinking of alcohol by Muslims. There are certain prescribed limits. We also have a national legal system. The national laws will set the limits of our discussion. Although we are democratic, our democracy is different from that in England, US or Japan. I feel that we need to have discussion and the discussion must be in line with the laws and the Constitution of the country. However, not all matters of leadership have to be known to those below. According to the concept of leadership, if we cite Drucker, leaders must have followers. If a person has no followers, he cannot be regarded as a leader. In the past, leaders were likened to a bus driver who is able to see what is in front of him. Sometimes, he may have to apply his brakes because he has seen a pedestrian crossing the road, or he has to stop at traffic lights. His actions may be commented on by his passengers who do not see what is happening. The leader has to have a vision. It is not possible to be a leader without a vision, and the vision is what has been agreed upon in the discussion. Leaders have to confront many issues. The passengers/followers may ask all sorts of things but not everything can be brought to their attention, as this could lead to chaos. Sometimes the decisions made by the Prophet himself were controversial. In the colony of Muawiyah, the people who disagreed with him were Saidina Umar and Saidina Ali. When Saidina Abu Bakr was asked, whether he agreed with the
Prophet, he explained that since he was the Prophet and the Messenger, he had to be right, while they, as humans, might be wrong. However, he added that the Prophet had his reasons, which he did not have to make known to them. This is because in his estimation, the Quraisyians had made an agreement with the Prophet. Do you know what an agreement means? An agreement is an acknowledgment. For example, if I apply for a loan from a bank, the bank by virtue of its giving me a loan, is acknowledging that I have money, that I can repay the loan. To the naked eye, it is an acknowledgment. During the time of the agreement, we have to be at peace. Islam itself is ‘salam’, which means peace, prosperity. Some people may not see this, but you have to make an agreement there and then. Sometimes, leaders are faced with making decisions that may appear to lead to loss but, which in the long term, can be profitable. However, this may not be evident to the ordinary people. Compromise in Planning My third question is: What is my view about compromise in relation to people’s needs according to Islamic demands in urban planning? If we want to compromise, we need to ask what is it that we want to compromise? You cannot compromise your principles, the basics. We can compromise by wearing a tie and a jacket but not the concept of ‘aurat’, in my view. If we look at Islam, when Islam arrived in India, it did not Arabise the Indians, it just made them Muslims. They continued to wear their native attire. They retained their identity as Indians. It is the same with Malays. They are Muslims but they are still Malays. They have not been Arabicised. Islam is capable of adapting itself. The question is whether it is a compromise of principles or a compromise of people’s welfare? (maslahah), 1 Malaysia Concept My last question is regarding the concept of 1 Malaysia. I am compelled to talk about this. Besides, I had organised a closed door session with JAKIM on the 1Malaysia concept from an Islamic perspective. In this context, I would like to quote the Prime Minister: The 1Malaysia concept is based on the framework of the Constitution which guarantees the powers of the Federation and state powers, preserves the sovereignty of the Malay rulers and the DYMM Agung as the pillars of the Nation, safeguards the privileges of the Malays and the Malay language as the national language, and these shall not be disputed.
This was stated by the Prime Minister at the official launch of the 1 Malaysia concept. What is the Islamic view on this? To answer that, I would like to quote the Prophet. Al-Hujuraat (49):13: O mankind, We have created you from a male and a female; And We have made you tribes and sub-tribes that you may know one another. Verily, the most honourable among you, in the sight of Allah, is he who is the most righteous among you. Surely, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.
God made man and woman. I am a man and my wife is a woman and we are not the same. I do not know what it is like to be a woman and neither does my wife about being a man. I have to protect my identity as a man and my wife, her identity as a woman.. We argue or disagree, for example, on how to handle our children. The way we behave is also not the same. If we argue or quarrel, what do we turn to? We turn to the Hukum Keluarga (Islamic Family Law). The Prophet says, in the verse cited: ‘Just as I made you man and woman, I made you different races.’ God made me Malay, but there are also Chinese, Indians, Jews, Japanese and so on. A Malay has his or her own identity as a Malay; just as the Chinese as a Chinese, the Arab as an Arab and so on. If I speak like an Arab, behave like an Arab, does it mean I am an Arab? Of course, not. If we co-exist in a nation, if we disagree, we should turn to the Constitution. Let me explain. I set up the Institut Tenaga Malaysia. I was its first Honorary Secretary. In setting up the institute, why did we choose to call it Institut Tenaga and not Institut Tenaga Suria. (Institute of Solar Energy). It is because we wanted to bring together people involved in all types of energy – nuclear, conventional, fossil, solar energy, wind energy, wave energy, ocean energy. We wanted to consolidate all the types of energy . Of course, I would favour solar energy but if we disagree, what would we turn to? We turn to our Constitution. If MCA quarrels, it is their Constitution they turn to. If we are at loggerheads, if we argue about the nation, we turn to what we had agreed on collectively - which is the Constitution. The Prime Minister himself said that the 1 Malaysia concept cannot ignore what is in the Constitution. Now, let us go back to the question of input and suggestions for improvements based on experience and effective decision-making in fulfilling people’s wants through the 1 Malaysia approach. First, we need to have mutual recognition (ta’aruf)., that is, we need to recognise one another We have to recognise one another’s sensitivities. For example, the Chinese have their own sensitivities and their own taboos. The Malays too have their own sensitivities and taboos and so on. You should not play on these sensitivities, as it will lead to arguments and fights. Second, you must establish mutual understanding (tafahum), that is, you need to understand one another. 83
Third, there has to be a sense of balance among us (tawassul). Four, there has to be mutual cooperation (takaful) to create a prosperous nation. Thank you.
PENGLIBATAN AWAM DARI PERSPEKTIF ISLAM Y.BHG. PROF. DATO’ DR. MOHD. YUSOF B. HJ. OTHMAN PENGARAH INSTITUT ISLAM HADHARI, UKM
DR HARI RAMALU
PENGLIBATAN AWAM DARI PERSPEKTIF ISLAM Tel: 03-89216988 Faks: 03-89216990 Mel-e: email@example.com
Mohd Yusof Hj Othman Institut Islam Hadhari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Bangi, MALAYSIA
MUQADIMAH • Rasulullah saw pernah bersabda, ‘Kemakmuran sesebuah negara terletak kepada lima unsur utama – – – – –
Ilmunya para ilmuan Adilnya si pemerintah (pemimpin) Amanahnya si pedagang Nasihat para ikhtisas Do’a para ‘abidin
MUQADIMAH • Terdapat 3 komponen/pihak dalam perjalanan sesebuah misi yang setiap satu mesti berfungsi sewajarnya. – Perkakasan (hardware) – Perisian (software) – Sistem
• Setiap satunya mesti berfungsi secara sepadu, seimbang dan saling faham memahami.
Soalan a. Bagaimanakah kehendak (wants), keperluan (needs) dan hak (right) diambil kira oleh pembuat keputusan (dari aspek Perancangan Bandar Islam Hadhari bagi mewujudkan kawasan perumahan, tempat bekerja dan tempat rekreasi?
MASYARAKAT BANDAR • Siapa masyarakat bandar? – – – – – – –
Pelbagai agama, bangsa, kerjaya, profesion Pelbagai kehendak, keperluan dan hak Pelbagai taraf ekonomi dan taraf pendidikan Mereka adalah golongan dominans dalam pembangunan negara. Mereka pembina pusat perniagaan. Mereka pembina budaya masyarakat dalam negara. Mereka pembuat pandangan awam masyarakat (public opinion)
• Apa kehendak mereka? – pelbagai! • Apakah keperluan mereka? – pelbagai! • Apakah hak mereka? – peraturan dan perlembagaan.
PRASARANA MASYARAKAT BANDAR • Tempat kediaman – rumah teres, banglo, rumah plat, kondominium, atau apa? • Tempat kerja – pejabat awam, swasta, industri, kilang, pengangkutan awam dsb. • Rekreasi – taman, kelab, pengusaha sendirian dsb. • Institusi masyarakat – persatuan, masjid, koperasi, dsb • Kemudahan awam: Perpustakaan, muzium, kelab dsb.
Sebelum kita ke soalan selanjutnya.... Kita perlu fahami dulu apa itu kepimpinan
APAKAH KEPIMPINAN? • Sayidina Ali berpesan kepada Malik bin Ashtar, Gabenor ‘Ini adalah perintah daripada Ali kepada Malik bin Ashtar ketika dilantik sebagai pemerintah di Mesir, supaya mengumpulkan zakatnya, menjamin kesejahteraan dan menguruskan tanahnya. Dia memerintahkannya supaya takut kepada Allah... Engkau harus sentiasa merujuk kepada amalan menghukum dengan adil, tradisi yang mulia, dan contoh daripada Rasulullah s.a.w. Atau ketetapan daripada al-Qur’an dan ikuti contoh kami bagaimana mengamalkannya... Sesungguhnya kita akan kembali kepada Nya...’ Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas & Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud, 2007. ‘The ICLIF Leadership Competency Model (LCM): An Islamic Alternatif’, K. Lumpur ICLIF.
Kerangka Kepimpinan • Pembangunan Falsafah Pembangunan (Motivasi/matlamat). • Kepimpinan • Perlembagaan dan Peraturan • Pengurusan/pentadbiran/perundingan • Penguatkuasaan.
APAKAH KEPIMPINAN? • Sayidina Umar pernah berpesan kepada para pegawainya, ‘Ingatlah, aku tidak melantik kalian agar kamu menjadi penguasa kuku besi ke atas rakyat. Aku mengutus kalian sebagai pemimpin agar rakyat dapat mencontohi kalian. Berikanlah kepada mereka segala hak mereka...’ Syed Omar Syed Agil, 1998. ‘Umar al-Khattab: A model for leaders and managers’,Islamic Management for Excellence, K. Lumpur, Inmind. 28798
APAKAH KEPIMPINAN? • Selepas kematian Sayidina Uthman r.a., Zubir bin Awwam r.a. dan Thalhal bin Ubaidullah r.a. Mendatangi Sayidina ‘Ali k.h., dan menyebut, ‘Kami mempunyai pengikut di Kufah dan Basrah, lantiklah kami sebagai ketua mereka’ • Sayidina ‘Ali k.h., menjawab, ‘Kepimpinan bukan diminta, tetapi sekiranya diberi jangan ditolak’ Saidina Ali bin Abi Talib Al-Imam Muhtadiin (1995)
APAKAH KEPIMPINAN? • Sesiapa yang dilantik menjadi pemimpin manusia, hendaklah ia mula dengan mengajar dirinya sendiri terlebih dahulu sebelum ia mengajar orang lain. • Hendaklah ia mengajar dengan perjalanan hidupnya sebelum mengajar dengan lidah. • Orang-orang yang dapat mengajar dan melatih diri sendiri itu lebih layak dihormati daripada mereka yang mengajar orang lain. Saidina Ali bin Abi Talib Al-Imam Muhtadiin (1995)
APAKAH KEPIMPINAN? A leader is an individual in a group who is responsible to direct and coordinate activities of the group. Pemimpin adalah individu dalam suatu kumpulan yang bertanggungjawab untuk mengarah dan mengkoordinasi segala aktiviti kumpulan tersebut Sambungâ€Ś
APAKAH KEPIMPINAN? Islamically, the leader is also responsible to guide members in matters of iman, nafs, ibadah and ethics. Dalam Islam, pemimpin juga bertanggungjawab untuk memimpin hal-hal yang berhubung dengan keimanan, nafs, ibadah dan adab & akhlak. Hisyam At-Talib Training Guide for Islamic Workers (1991)
APAKAH KEPIMPINAN? â€˘ Mekanisme yang merupakan proses dan perlaksanaan kepimpinan untuk melahirkan kelompok manusia dan individu yang dapat memantapkan sikap dan pandangan mereka dari segi mental, fizikal, kejiwaan dan sebagainya. (Ismail Ibrahim)
APAKAH KEPIMPINAN? The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers. Some people are thinkers. Some are prophets. Both roles are important and badly needed. But without followers, there can be no leaders. Satu-satunya takrifan pemimpin adalah seseorang yang mempunyai pengikut. Sebahagiannya pemikir. Sebahagian lagi nabi. Kedua-duanya amat penting dan diperlukan. Tetapi tanpa pengikut, mana mungkin ada pemimpin Sambungâ€Ś
APAKAH KEPIMPINAN? An effective leader is not someone who is loved or admired. He or she is someone whose followers do the right things. Popularity is not leadership. Results are. Pemimpin yang berkesan bukanlah seseorang yang dicintai atau dikagumi. Dia adalah orang yang pengikutnya melakukan sesuatu dengan betul dan bijaksana. Kemasyhuran bukanlah kepimpinan. Tetapi pemimpin berkesan selalunya terkenal Sambung…
APAKAH KEPIMPINAN? • Leaders are highly visible. They therefore set examples. Pemimpin mempunyai wawasan yang tinggi. Dengan demikian mereka menjadi contoh atau model • Leadership is not rank, privilege, title, or money. It is responsibility. Kepimpinan bukanlah pangkat, keistimewaan, gelar-gelaran, atau wang. Ianya adalah tanggungjawab Peter F. Drucker The Leader of the Future, 1996 .
APAKAH KEPIMPINAN? To the CEOs (leaders), quality is not so much about numbers, statistics, or inspection – it’s more attitudes, beliefs, values, and lifestyles. Kepada ketua eksekutif, kualiti bukanlah nombor atau angka, statistik, atau pemeriksaan – ianya adalah sikap, kepercayaan, nilai dan gaya hidup S. Covey. In Search of Quality, 1996
PRINSIP KEPIMPINAN ISLAM 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Kuat dalam akidah Adil dan Jujur Berpandangan luas dan tidak fanatik kepada golongan Mengutamakan kepentingan rakyat daripada kepentingan golongan Mampu mewujudkan kesatuan dan kerjasama rakyat Bersikap terbuka dalam menerima idea, saranan dan kritikan Pemaaf dan memiliki sikap toleransi yang tinggi Berpengetahuan dan memiliki kemampuan dalam bidang yang dipimpinnya 9. Bertanggungjawab, amanah, telus dan tidak mementingkan diri sendiri (Ismail Ibrahim)
Soalan b. Membuat keputusan yang melibatkan rakyat, sama ada ia hak mutlak kerajaan ataupun perlu diadakan penglibatan awam?
Membuat Keputusan dalam Kepimpinan • Bukan hak mutlak sesiapa, tetapi perlu ikut polisi, dasar dan undang-undang. • Perlu ikut peraturan. • Tidak semua perkara dalam kepimpinan perlu diketahui orang bawahan. • Pemimpin macam pemandu: mereka berada di hadapan, mereka dapat lihat dengan pandangan yang lebih luas. Kadang-kadang tindakan mereka meresahkan orang bawahan. • Kalau difikirkan perlu dilibat orang awam, OK!
Adakah pendekatan ini diguna pakai dalam membuat keputusan oleh kerajaan masa kini? Jika ya atau tidak kenapa?
AMALAN KEPIMPINAN KINI • Saya kurang pasti. • Tetapi kita ada kabinet, parlimen, adun, malah mesyuarat agensi-agensi pelaksana di setiap peringkat. • Isunya, apakah motivasi pelaksanaan sesuatu tindakan yang diambil oleh pemimpin: Politik, agenda pembangunan, desakan rakyat atau apa..... • Dengan demikian, kadang-kadang orang awam tidak arif mengenainya selagi kita tidak dimaklumkan. • Dengan demikian, timbul keresahan.... yang kadangkadang menimbulkan fitnah.
Soalan c. Pendapat saya terhadap kompromi kehendak rakyat mengikut tuntutan Islam dengan aspek Perancangan Bandar sebagai asas terhadap keputusan yang diambil
Sistem Penyampaian Kepimpinan • Kompromi apa? – Apakah kompromi politik (parti) atau kompromi hasil desakan rakyat.
• Kepada saya penyampaian (deliverance) perlu ikut peraturan, walaupun kadang-kadang tidak disukai masyarakat awam. Contoh perjanjian Hudaibiyah • Dalam konteks bandar – bandar terdiri dari pelbagai manusia yang pelbagai ragam. Perlu tegas dalam mengambil tindakan mengikut saluran. • Perancangan hanya akan menjadi perancangan sekiranya tindakan tidak diambil.
Soalan d. Input serta cadangan bagi penambahbaikan berdasarkan pengalaman dan cara membuat keputusan yang berkesan bagi memenuhi kehendak rakyat melalui pendekatan Satu Malaysia
APAKAH SATU MALAYSIA?
Ucapan YAB Perdana Menteri sewaktu menerima pelantikan ‘Konsep 1 Malaysia perlu dibina berasaskan kerangka Perlembagaan Malaysia yang menjamin hak kuasa Persekutuan dan kuasa negeri, memelihara kedaulatan Raja-raja Melayu, DYMM Sri Paduka Baginda Yang Dipertuan Agong sebagai tonggak negara, keistimewaan hak orang Melayu terpelihara dan Bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan yang tidak boleh sama sekali dipertikaikan’
ISU 1 MALAYSIA • Konsep 1 Malaysia merupakan suatu slogan tanpa sebarang penjelasan lanjut dari segi pengisian. • Ada yang melihat 1 Malaysia sebagai evolusi daripada Konsep Malaysian Malaysia, semua orang hilang jati dirinya (agama, budaya, bahasa dll), wujudkan satu identiti baru Malaysia: sejarah diabaikan. • Ada yang mentafsirkan Konsep 1 Malaysia menerima semua agama, tetapi dengan amalan ritual yang berbeza – Malaysia harus hilang identitinya sebagai negara Malaysia yang berasaskan agama Islam dan perjuangan Melayu dan bumiputera (Sabah & Sarawak): kongsi tuhan. • Ada yang mengatakan semua sama rata - suatu retorik yang tak pernah berlaku di mana-mana; konsep keadilan yang perlu ditegaskan. • Ada yang mengatakan kita terima Perlembagaan Malaysia seadanya
MUKADIMAH 1M- PREAMBLE • Sejarah Malaysia, tidak sama dengan sejarah AS, Kanada, Australia atau New Zealand yang didominasi oleh pendatang, termasuk dalam proses membuat perlembagaan. – Di AS, Kanada, Australia, & New Zealand: kaum peribumi minoriti & tidak bertamadun – Di Malaysia: kaum peribumi majoriti & telah bertamadun sebelum penjajah datang
• Di Afrika Selatan bila kaum pendatang cuba mendominasi – berlaku perbalahan (rejim aparteid) • Sejarah Politik selepas merdeka: Tengku Abd Rahman, Tun Abd Razak, Tun Husein Onn, Tun Dr Mahathir & Tun Abdullah politik Melayu kuat: 1 Malaysia diumumkan ketika politik Melayu lemah.
MUKADIMAH 1M - PREAMBLE ‘Hai manusia, sesungguhnya Kami menciptakan kamu dari seorang lelaki dan seorang perempuan dan menjadikan kamu berbangsa-bangsa dan bersuku-suku supaya kamu saling kenal mengenal. Sesungguhnya orang yang paling mulia di antara kamu di sisi Allah ialah orang yang paling bertakwa di antara kamu. Sesungguhnya Allah Maha Mengetahui lagi Maha Mengenal’ Al-Hujuraat (49): 13.
MUKADIMAH 1M - PREAMBLE • Kewujudan lelaki dan wanita yang tidak sama, tetapi mesti bersatu. • Kewujudan pelbagai bangsa dan kaum yang tidak sama, tetapi mesti bersatu. • Kemestian saling kenal-mengenal (ta’aruf) yang mendatangkan kebaikan (ma’aruf) sebagai asas untuk bersatu. • Persoalannya apakah yang menyatukan kita? • Apakah asasnya yang melahirkan 1 Malaysia?
MUKADIMAH - PREAMBLE • Asas persatuan dalam keluarga – mesti ada norma, ada peraturan dan ada kerukunan berkeluarga. • Asas persatuan/perpaduan kaum – mesti ada norma, ada peraturan dan ada kerukunan bermasyarakat, yakni perlembagaan. • Pendekatan bukan politik, tetapi susunan dan aturan masyarakat yang berteraskan, – Saling menghormati kesamaan dan perbezaan, – Kembali kepada perlembagaan, – Mengenali sejarah negara dan bangsa.
Konsep 1 Malaysia hendaklah berpaksikan kepada unsur berikut 1. Konsep “Satu Malaysia hendaklah berpaksikan kepada unsur-unsur yang berikut: i. Undang-undang dan Perlembagaan Persekutuan Malaysia yang menekankan, – Islam sebagai agama Persekutuan dalam Perkara 3(1) yang membawa implikasi bahawa seluruh rakyat negara ini menjunjung Islam sebagai agama negara, walaupun masing-masing rakyat dibenarkan mengamalkan agama masing-masing. – Peruntukan berkaitan kerakyatan (Perkara 14) – Kedudukan istimewa orang Melayu dan Bumiputera Sabah dan Sarawak (Perkara 153) – Kedudukan Yang Dipertuan Agong sebagai ketua negara dan kedaulatan Raja-raja Melayu terus terpelihara. – Sejarah politik dan kemerdekaan negara – Akta Hasutan mestilah dikuatkuasakan sebaik-sebaiknya supaya unsur-unsur penting ini dapat dipelihara.
Konsep 1 Malaysia hendaklah berpaksikan kepada unsur berikut • Sebagai rumusannya konsep SATU Malaysia perlu dibina berasaskan kerangka Perlembagaan Malaysia yang menjamin hak kuasa Persekutuan dan kuasa negeri, memelihara kedaulatan Raja-raja Melayu, DYMM Sri Paduka Baginda Yang Dipertuan Agong sebagai tonggak negara, keistimewaan hak orang Melayu terpelihara dan Bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan yang tidak boleh sama sekali dipertikaikan.
Konsep 1 Malaysia hendaklah berpaksikan kepada unsur berikut •
Perpaduan dan persefahaman antara kaum diutamakan dan dipentingkan berasaskan semangat perlembagaan, dan sebarang dasar yang digubal mestilah dalam lingkungan ketentuannya. Strategi politik tidak boleh membelakangkan kehendak Perlembagaan. Nama Bahasa Melayu dikekalkan sebagai nama bahasa kebangsaan negara, seperti yang digunakan di dalam Perlembagaan Persekutuan, bukan dinamakan sebagai Bahasa Malaysia. Dasar penubuhan institusi pendidikan negara mestilah dirujuk kepada semangat Perlembagaan Persekutuan supaya generasi yang lahir daripada institusi itu akan selaras dengan konsep perpaduan dan persefahaman
Konsep 1 Malaysia hendaklah berpaksikan kepada unsur berikut •
Islam sebagai agama Persekutuan diasaskan pada arus perdana pemikiran Islam di negara ini, iaitu konsep aqidah Ahl al-Sunah wa al-Jama’ah. Konsep inilah yang menekankan prinsip ketaatan kepada uli-al-amri (pemerintah). Prinsip ajaran ini tidak mengizinkan tindakan anti-establishment, tetapi penyertaan bersama antara ulama dan umara dalam prinsip al-din al-nasihah amatlah dituntut. Nilai-nilai murni yang berasaskan nilai-nilai Islam mestilah menjadi dasar negara yang didukung bersama oleh semua kaum serta menjadi dasar amalan media elektronik dan media cetak negara dalam pelbagai genre. Memperkasa Yang Dipertuan Agung sebagai autoriti eksekutif Persekutuan (Perkara 39).
Konsep 1 Malaysia hendaklah berpaksikan kepada unsur berikut • Memperkasa umat Melayu sebagai umat teras yang menjadi anak negeri yang asal di negara ini seperti yang ditegaskan dalam semangat pembentukan Persekutuan. Perpaduan Melayu perlu diutamakan supaya umat menjadi teras perpaduan negara.
KESIMPULAN • Setiap orang ada peranannya dalam pembangunan sesebuah negara. • Setiap orang mesti mempunyai wawasan dalam kepimpinannya. • Setiap orang perlu menghayati dan melaksana tugas yang diamanahkan dengan nilai-nilai terpuji. • Sebenarnya sekiranya kita beramal dengan nilai terkeji, kita hanya merosak diri sendiri, keluarga sendiri dan negara sendiri.. • Sesungguhnya sanjungan dan pujian bukan matlamat kepimpinan, tetapi ianya adalah natijah daripada kepimpinan yang berintegriti, dengan nilai murni yang terpuji.
TERIMA KASIH WASSALAM Tel: 03-89216988 Faks: 03-89216990 firstname.lastname@example.org
Paper Summary Introduction The presenter quoted the Prophet from a popular hadith that the prosperity or development of a country depended on five main factors: the knowledge of the intellectuals. For example, China or Egypt would not have created their civilisations without knowledgeable people. the sense of justice among the rulers or administrators: The fall of a civilisation like Egypt’s was not because of a lack of intellectuals but because the rulers and the administrators were corrupt. the trustworthiness of the merchants. Many well-known merchants who followed good business practices were able to outperform the Jewish merchants in Medina (or Yathrib to the Jews) which led to the growth of the Islamic civilisation. the advice of professionals. The Koran says that you have to ask an expert if you do not understand something. If you want to know more about urban planning, send your officers overseas for training to acquire new knowledge. the prayers of the devout. This is what the Prophet said: the development of a nation that is prosperous depends on the prayers of the devout. Main ideas The Speaker moved on to deal with a number of questions related to planning. The first question focused on how wants, needs and rights of people are taken into consideration in decision-making in the urban planning process. His response: We need to understand that a town is made up of many sorts of people. Just as the towns, like Cairo, that sprung up at the beginning of the Islamic civilisation comprised intellectuals, the wealthy, the literate and uneducated, so do our modern cities. A city is a society with people of different religions, ethnic origins, careers and professions; and because they are different, they have diverse wants, needs and rights. Differences in economic status often create groups that are dominant in a city, that have influence in shaping the city or the country. The city is also a place where all sorts of activities are carried out. It serves as a centre for conducting business or commerce and knowledgebased or academic affairs. It may be a cultural centre with museums etc.
People’s wants are therefore diverse, and they come in different forms. Therefore, the question is whether the leaders, who live in the city, can fulfil the needs of the people. The second question is whether decision-making should be the absolute or sole prerogative of the government or whether it should involve the people. This is what the Speaker thinks: It is not the absolute or sole prerogative of an individual or group. In Islam, decisions are made by a syura or council which meets, engages in dialogue and discussions or musyawarah. Even the Prophet did not make decisions himself but consulted with others who were more knowledgeable, such as Salman Al-Farisi from Iran, who an expert in warfare. To conduct a discussion according to musyawarah, there have to be rules. Syariah prescribes the limits of social behaviour for Muslims. We also have a national legal system - our discussions must be in line with the laws and the Constitution of the country. Another relates to the concept of leadership. Drucker’s definition states that leaders must have followers. But a leader has to have a vision and the vision has to be agreed to in the discussions. Leaders have to confront many issues, which may not be obvious to the followers. Sometimes we have to abide by agreements we have made. An agreement is a form of acknowledgment, e.g. a bank loan is an acknowledgment that the person has money to service the loan. During the time of the agreement, we have to be at peace. Islam itself is ‘salam’, which means peace, prosperity. The third question relates to the Speaker’s own view about compromise in relation to people’s needs according to Islamic concepts in urban planning. According to him:
If we want to compromise, we need to ask what is it that we want to compromise? We cannot compromise our principles, the basics. For example, we can compromise by wearing a tie and a jacket but not the concept of ‘aurat’. The question is whether it is a compromise of principles or a compromise of people’s welfare? (maslahah),
The last question is regarding the concept of 1 Malaysia. The Speaker quoted the Prime Minister who at the official launch of the 1 Malaysia concept stated that the framework for the concept is in line with the Constitution – the protection of Federal and state powers, sovereignty of the Malay rulers and the Agong, privileges of the Malays and the Malay language as the national language. For the Islamic view on this, the Speaker quoted the Prophet. Al-Hujuraat (49):13 which states that mankind is made of all sorts of people, male and female as well
as different ethnic groups. We have to acknowledge that men and women behave in different ways, so to resolve arguments between married couples, you have to refer to an authority (eg the Hukum Keluarga on family matters). Malaysia is a nation of many races, so if there are differences, we should turn to the Constitution which has been agreed to collectively to resolve the issues. Conclusion The Speaker put forward a number of suggestions for improvements based on his experience. He recommended that for effective decision-making that fulfils people’s wants through the 1 Malaysia approach:
First, we need to have mutual recognition (ta’aruf). We have to recognise one another’s sensitivities and taboos and not play on these sensitivities, as it will lead to arguments and fights. Second, we must establish mutual understanding (tafahum), that is, we need to understand one another. Third, there has to be a sense of balance among us (tawassul). Fourth, there has to be mutual cooperation (takaful) to create a prosperous nation.
Paper 4 :
Planning for the Young Generation: Gen Y and Urban Planning Ms Mazrina Bt. Datoâ€™ Abdul Khalid, Chair of Young Planner Group (YPG), Malaysian Institute of Planners (MIP)
Paper 4 :
Planning for the Young Generation: Gen Y and Urban Planning Pn. Mazrina bt. Dato’ Abdul Khalid Chair, Young Planners Group (YPG), MIP The fourth paper was delivered in English by Ms Mazrina Bt. Dato’ Abdul Khalid, Chair of Young Planner Group (YPG), Malaysian Institute of Planners (MIP) BIODATA OF SPEAKER
Ms Mazrina Bt. Dato’ Abdul Khalid studied at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia from 1992 to 1996 and graduated with a Bachelor of Applied Science in Town Planning. She continued her studies at UITM from 2004 to 2005 for an Executive Masters of Business Administration (EMBA). She began her career with PECD Berhad (a branch of Peremba Malaysia) in 1997 and served until 2005. After 2005, Ms Mazrina worked as a town planning consultant with KW Associate Planners Sdn Bhd. In 2008, she was certified as a ‘corporate town planner’.
Ms Mazrina has also held various positions in non-governmental organisations (NGOs), one of them being Honorary Secretary of the Taiping Tourist Association (TTA). She was also appointed as a Council Member of the Malaysian Planners Association in 2009 and she currently holds the position of Chair of the Young Planners Group (YPG).
Planning for the Young Generation: Gen Y and Urban Planning Pn. Mazrina bt. Dato’ Abdul Khalid Chair, Young Planners Group (YPG), MIP
Abstract Who are the young generations? The Generation X, known as Yuppies, and Generation Y, also referred to as the Millenials or Next Generation, are the young generations and need to be focussed on. These are the groups of people that currently have a huge impact on the country; hence the need to consider them more seriously. This paper will however focus on Generation Y (Gen Y) Some consider this group to have special interests. The younger generation believes that they shoulder the responsibility for creating their own economic success and happiness and are not going to leave their fate in the hands of organisations that they do not trust. Career success for this group comes from building their own portfolios and capabilities. They are highly oriented to technology as a way to get things done and also as a way to connect with others. They are looking to make an immediate impact through the things they choose to become involved with, and are impatient with longterm approaches to making changes. This generation values a ‘balanced’ lifestyle – family life and personal fulfilment are as important as career achievement. The older Millenials are starting to marry and have children. Gen Y wants to be involved, but in different ways from previous generations. It has different needs and expectations. It is now becoming more influential in decision-making, either at work, in the community or even in the country’s general elections. Therefore, reaching out to this group in the right way is vital. To do so, we need to know what they want, need and expect from others.
The topic for my paper this afternoon announced earlier, was ‘What do we, the young generation, want?’. I have made some changes. My topic is now ‘Planning for the Young Generation’ and my subtopic is ‘Gen Y and Urban Planning’. Before we proceed with the topic, we need to know who the young generations are. Who are the Young Generations? There are two categories: there is Generation X and there is Generation Y. Generation X is generally defined as those born after the baby boom ended, extending from the 1960s to the late 70s. It was the first generation with widespread access to television during their formative years. As young adults, this 112
category was characterised as Yuppies or Young Urban Professionals and agewise, they are from 34 to the late 40s The next generation is Gen Y. There are many definitions of Gen Y as it is hard to define. It is also known as the Generation Next or the Millennials, and spans the period from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. Gen Y’ers are usually defined by their use of portable media devices, such as the Blackberry, and being ‘always connected’. The formative years of this generation saw the advent of personal computers and home video gaming systems. Their ages range from as early as 10 to the early 30s. Gen Y and Consumer Demand In Malaysia with a population of 27 million, 40 % or 11 million belong to Gen Y. In the US, with a population of 300 million, Gen Y represents 30% or 80 million. Given that the world population is projected to hit 2 billion by 2010, Gen Y will represent 33% of the total world population, which translates to about 26-30% of the total global consumer market, meaning trillions of dollars in business worldwide. Gen Y is the future. The sheer size of this demand is likely to shake up conventional business models (This information comes from The Star, 24 Oct 2009) So, what does Gen Y need in terms of the workplace, housing, and recreational amenities? Obviously, they will have their own needs and demands. Characteristics of Gen Y A book by Peter Sheahan entitled ‘Gen Y – Thriving and Surviving with Gen Y at Work’ is an important source of information if we want to develop the strategies to attract, manage and retain them as employees. But first, we have to understand what Gen Y is about. Gen Y at a glance The Gen Y’ers range in age from 10 to 34 in 2009. They like free content, telecommuting, all things social, ‘the right fit’, and wireless. They do not like anonymous mass-marketing or what is restricted. They are characterised as the most connected generation in history, and are exposed to a constant flow of information. While highly productive, they also attach critical importance to balancing work and life, placing high value on staying connected with friends and family. Their hobbies include googling, social networking, supporting a cause and creating global change. Their favourite hangouts include Facebook. Twitter and YouTube. Of course, it doesn’t mean that other generations don’t like to hang out at these places!
Other characteristics of Gen Y Gen Y’ers are street-smart, aware, lifestyle –centred, independently dependent, informal, technology-savvy, stimulus junkies, sceptical and impatient. In fact, according to a survey conducted by Robert Charles Lesser and Co, a distinguished real estate company in the US, Gen Y is the most civic-minded generation today: 61 % of them are responsible for making a difference in the world, while 81 % had actually volunteered in the past year. An underlying characteristic of Gen Y is ‘talent’, not ‘labour’. They like to be treated like they have talents; they don’t like to be treated as workers. They value work ethics, but with a different meaning. Comparison of Baby Boomers, Gen X and Gen Y Let’s look at the differences in terms of the influence of money, loyalty to employers, respect for one’s elders, change and technologies on the different generations. A comparison of Baby boomers, Gen X and Gen Y in relation to the various influences is shown in the table below (source: Peter Sheahan)
Baby Boomers Gen X
Give it to me
Loyalty to employers
Work my way to Short cut to the top Give me Saturday the top off or I’ll quit
It is not everything
Respect for elders Automatic
Ignorant of it
Feel in their gut
Gen Y and the Workplace What does Gen Y want from work? Gen Y wants the following: purpose and meaning, responsibilities, promotional opportunities, new challenges and experience, fair compensation and increased employability. What this means is that they want to learn as much as possible to include in their resumes so that they can advance themselves career-wise. They
will not remain very loyal to one organisation. They are also individualistic and very creative. What does Gen Y want from the workplace? Gen Y also has certain expectations of the workplace, such as flexibility and ethical business practices. At the same time, they want to have fun, to belong and to be engaged. They want to be given chances to do what they want. They are also passionate and optimistic. Hence, they want a workplace that is modern and edgy. According the US Survey by Robert Charles Lesser & CO, 83% will trust a company more if it is socially or environmentally responsible, and 69% will consider a company’s social and environmental commitment when deciding where to shop and what to buy. DEWG, a London- based consulting company conducted a survey in June 2006 that identified certain characteristics of the existing workplace culture in the NSW local authority which Gen Y did not find favourable. Among them were: no real change in 35 years; promotion within its own ranks; ‘dinosaur’ or obsolete technology, ‘silo behaviour’ (working alone), an arrogant attitude, and a reactive organisational culture. When they did the survey, they also asked the young people what they wanted. They wanted to cut down layering. They preferred two layers of management and if the management was inefficient, it should be removed and replaced. Innovative investment in technology is very important. They also wanted an interesting and challenging agenda of new work, They wanted a breakdown in reactive thinking, which they regarded as a toxic kind of environment. They didn’t want a ‘silo’ working condition and basically no politicking in the workplace. New funding for new initiatives should also be made available. Attracting and Retaining Gen Y If we are really serious about attracting and retaining Gen Y, the future generation, we should think about work opportunities that support talented people, skill development and early promotions. To retain Gen Y’ers, you have to invest in grooming, and training them. You shouldn’t wait too long to promote people who are actually capable. If they do something, they like to be acknowledged, so the work culture should praise and promote achievers. The culture of the workplace should be transformed so that it is a fun workplace. However, different organisations have different kinds of culture. So you have to talk to the young people, engage them in discussion and ask them what they want. You have to ask them what they think is fun, within limits, of course. You have to deal with the toxic elements in your working environment –which may be
different in different organisations. Your understanding of what your young employee wants from you is very important. As mentioned before, your Gen Y’er may not be that loyal to your organisation, like say ten years in one organisation, but if you are giving the right mentoring support and the right kind of support to them, I am sure they will stay for more than five years. The technology your organisation offers will play an important role. But the most important is the image of your organisation. Remember the main characteristic – Gen Y is a brand or image conscious generation, so the image of their workplace is important. Workplace of the future Existing workplaces may already offer purpose and meaning in their mission and vision statements, responsibilities and challenges and experience. But you may have to give Gen Y more challenges and experience and fair compensation. The workplace may, however, need to be reinvented to offer flexibility and fun, to provide an ethical working environment, to be modern and edgy, and provide passionate and optimistic work agendas and colleagues. How can you do this? You need to engage Gen Y - the key word is engagement. Gen Y and Housing Choice We will now look at Gen Y and housing choice. Currently, no research has been done on housing choices for Gen Y or Gen X in Malaysia. However, consumer research conducted by Robert Charles Lesser and Co. in the US in June 2009 based on a sample of 3200 respondents, 50% Gen X and 50% Gen Y, revealed a number of differences. What does Gen Y want? The Gen Y respondents indicated a willingness to ‘pay for walkability’. Their choices are driven by convenience, connectivity and a healthy work-life balance to maintain relationships. One-third of the respondents would pay more to walk to shops, work and entertainment, while two-thirds indicated that living in a walkable community is very important. Changes in their family structure would not affect their location. Seventy per cent did not see a reason to move to the suburbs once they have children. They still want to be in the city centre but believe that improving schools should be the community’s highest priority. However, it all boils down to affordability -whether they would stay in the suburbs or in the inner city. Gen Y favours diversity - diversity in housing types, styles, groups of people and household composition. The respondents indicated that they would not like to stay with all from Gen Y – they favoured a mixed household composition. Over half the respondents indicated that their purchase or renting decision would be influenced by whether the community and home design met certain ‘green’
objectives. Gen Y’ers are very environmentally concerned, very green in their way of life, purchase of housing and so on. The majority prefer an attached single family dwelling (35% small and 31% larger plots), which is equivalent to our link houses. About 11% favour condominiums, while 10% prefer townhouses. In reality however affordability comes into the picture. So at the end of the day, most of them would opt for condominiums, which is strata development. Hence, Gen Y prefers more urban infill locations in the city centre, because these are culturally and ethnically diverse, close to entertainment and accessible to public transport. However, high housing costs have resulted in a preference for smaller second and third tier cities as long as these areas offer them sufficient entertainment and recreational activities. In our case, places such as Subang, Shah Alam or even Putrajaya can be considered second and third tier cities. The end result is that we could see a trend of more high rise buildings in these cities in the next 10-20 years. A current trend is for Gen Y to delay marriage and having children as well as home ownership. Gen Y and Amenities Given the interest in community involvement and work/life balance, the amenities Gen Y values most are in contrast to much of what is being developed today. Even with all the internet connections etc, they still want libraries. They would like to be close to a library, and go to restaurants and cafés, They like the Main street village kind of commercial business, and they want recycling centres and fitness centres. Gen Y’s general concept of housing choice Gen Y’s general concept of housing choice may be summed up as a positive response to high rise strata development, urban locations, housing that fulfils their need for instant access and convenience, such as steel architecture, diversity and wireless hook-ups. They also favour the quirky, unique and different, seek diversity in all aspects of their lives and they prefer urban over suburban environments. Obviously, they do not favour big houses on big plots of land and being isolated from everything. Some Specific Design Criteria Housing design should meet certain criteria: it should appeal to their individuality by providing distinct architecture, bold colours, flexible floor space, ample amenities tailored to their interests (such as super fitness centres), and it should
also meets their demands for connectivity, both in terms of wireless hook-ups and transit options. Some Alarming Facts Through my research in Australia, based on documents on Gen Y in Australia and US, I discovered an alarming fact, that more single Gen Yâ€™ers are entering the housing market and that single-women households will replace married couples with children. I donâ€™t know if this is true in Malaysia but I hope such trends are not emerging in Malaysia as well. From the Australian perspective, more females are graduating from universities compared to males and therefore more females will be holding important positions. Housing needs will be transformed as there will be greater demand for safer locations and security. Implications for Planning The changing needs have implications for planning. Diversity, walkability and proximity to jobs will be key to site selection and premiums. Renters, instead of homeowners, will present a steady stream of demand as Gen Y will shift to ownership only in 2012, that is, once their incomes are more stable and they have enough savings. The product type would be smaller and more affordable and focused more on design. Suburbs would need to evolve to remain attractive to Gen Y â€“ there should be more walkable areas, including new and existing town centres. Master planning should consider communities with a greater variety of product types and connectivity. There are a few questions that we need to answer if we are seriously thinking about Gen Y and what they need in terms of housing or workplace. How should we modify the product offerings? Which location should be considered for Gen Y? Would it be urban infill vs affordability or suburbs vs connectivity? Or are there other issues we need to consider? In addition, what modifications can be made to current or planned communities to make them more appealing to Gen Y? How does this affect the current strategy? These are the questions that developers and the government need to address, from location and modifications to current strategy. But are we prepared to change or are we even ready for Gen Y? Recommendations Here are some of my recommendations. First, we need to undertake similar research and conduct a survey of Gen Y and their needs in Malaysia. We need to do this so that we can seriously consider what Gen Y really needs in Malaysia. The second is to engage a greater number of the Gen Y in urban planning and development. For example, at the Structure plan, Local Plan and Action plan and Special Area Plan levels, we should engage more focus groups and hold
discussions with them. The third is to allow second and third-tier cities to have higher density developments with transportation nodes in their centres, to make them more appealing to Gen Y as this is more within their affordability range. Fourth are the implications on community facilities, such as schools and medical facilities. Perhaps, it would be possible to provide multi-storey or integrated uses kind of facilities, such as mixed-cost residential components within a single block/plot of land, or medium and high cost apartments in one block or even public and private type of residential housing in one block. It has happened in Vancouver, and in Melbourne. Maybe, it is time for Malaysia, for us, to consider such options. By promoting this we are actually promoting integration, which would be the plannersâ€™ contribution to the 1Malaysia concept. I think we should remove all the barriers and focus on how we can actually promote integration in the planning perspective itself. Conclusion In conclusion, Gen Y is the generation that will take the nation towards 2050 and towards the future. They are the future leaders and the future workforce, so planning for them now is vital to ensure a conducive urban environment that will attract and retain this young generation in making our cities vibrant and liveable. Thank you very much.
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Paper Summary Introduction The Speaker focused on the young generations who are the future of the country and how their wants and needs have to be taken into consideration in planning for sustainable development. Main Points The term ‘young generations’ is used to refer to two categories: Generation X and Generation Y. Generation X (Young Urban Professionals or Yuppies) o those born during the 1960s to the late 70s, so their ages range from 34 to the late 40s. o first generation to have grown up with television in their homes.
Generation Y (Gen Y), also known as Generation Next or the Millennials o those born during the period from the late 1970s to the early 1990s, so their ages range from 10 to the early 30s. o most technologically connected generation, having personal computers and home video gaming systems while growing up.
The presenter then used available statistics to explain the focus on Gen Y. They will comprise: about 11 m or 40% of the population of Malaysia about 300m or 30% in the US about 2 b or 33% of the population worldwide by 2010 about 26-30% of the total global consumer demand representing trillions of dollars in business worldwide will come from Gen Y. (The Star, 24 Oct 2009). So it is important to understand what Gen Y wants or needs in terms of the workplace, housing, and recreational amenities to plan for the future. Peter Sheahan’s book entitled ‘Gen Y – Thriving and Surviving with Gen Y at Work’ is an important source of information for developing the strategies to attract, manage and retain them as employees. Some of the main characteristics of Gen Y: The most connected generation in history, they are exposed to a constant flow of information. Highly productive, they also attach critical importance to balancing work and social life. They value social networking (including Facebook and Twitter) Personally, they are street-smart, independent, informal, technologysavvy, stimulus junkies, sceptical and impatient.
Robert Charles Lesser and Co, noted that Gen Y is the most civic-minded generation in the US today – they support a cause and create global change (e.g. 81 % had actually volunteered in the past year) They prefer to focus on ‘talent’, not ‘labour’. They like to be treated like they have talents and not to be regarded as mere workers.
The Speaker identified a number of significant differences in terms of the influence of money, loyalty to employers, respect for one’s elders, change and technologies among the different generations: Baby boomers, Gen X and Gen Y, which have implications for planning. Gen Y wants the following from work: purpose and meaning and responsibilities – they are individualistic and creative promotional opportunities – they want to advance career-wise new challenges and experience – they may not remain loyal to one organisation fair compensation and increased employability – they want to be rewarded and at the same time to learn as much as possible before moving on. Gen Y also has certain expectations of the workplace. They want: flexibility – to do what they want ethical business practices – they will trust a company or business that is socially or environmentally responsible according to Robert Charles Lesser & CO. a fun, modern and edgy environment – they are passionate and optimistic DEWG, a London- based consulting company identified certain characteristics of the existing workplace culture that Gen Y did not find favourable: no real change in 35 years – they preferred an interesting and challenging agenda of new work promotion within its own ranks or ‘silo behaviour’ – if management is ineffective, they preferred that it be removed and replaced ‘dinosaur’ or obsolete technology - they favoured innovative investment in technology an arrogant attitude and a reactive organisational culture – they wanted this changed with new funding for new initiatives. To attract and retain Gen Y employees, organisations have to ensure: work opportunities that support talented people skill development and early promotions by investing in training, early promotion and acknowledging or praising achievers. However, different organisations have different work cultures, so employers should ask their Gen Y employees what they want. But the most important is the
image of the organisation since Gen Y is a brand or image conscious generation . Existing workplaces may already offer purpose and meaning, responsibilities and challenges and experience. The workplace may, however, need to be reinvented by engaging Gen Yers, so that the organisation would be able to retain them. The Speaker then presented what Gen Y wants in terms of housing choice. Currently, no research has been done on housing choices for Gen Y or Gen X in Malaysia. However, consumer research conducted by Robert Charles Lesser and Co. in the US in June 2009 revealed: a willingness to ‘pay for walkability’. Their housing choices are driven by convenience, connectivity and a healthy work-life balance to maintain relationships. a focus on affordability. Changes in their family structure would not affect their location. They prefer to be in the city centre, rather than move to the suburbs, but believe that the community should improve educational facilities. a preference for diversity. They favour diversity in housing types, styles, groups of people and even household composition and the community and home design must meet certain ‘green’ objectives. However, high housing costs in inner cities have resulted in a preference for smaller second and third tier cities with sufficient entertainment and recreational activities (Subang, Shah Alam or even Putrajaya). The end result is a trend towards more high rise buildings in these cities in the next 10-20 years. A current trend is for Gen Y to delay marriage and having children as well as delaying home ownership itself. Gen Y is also interested in community involvement and work/life balance. In summary, Gen Y’s general and specific concept of housing choice would be: high rise strata development in urban locations and not isolated houses on large plots of land distinct architecture with bold colours and flexible floor space favouring the quirky, unique and different that appeals to their individuality wireless hook-ups, demands for connectivity, both in terms of wireless hook-ups and transit options ample amenities tailored to their interests such as libraries, restaurants and cafés, neighbourhood businesses, recycling centres and fitness centres. The Speaker highlighted some alarming facts: In Australia and US, more single Gen Y’ers are entering the housing market Single-women households will replace married couples with children.
More females are graduating from universities and holding important positions, so there would also be a.greater demand for housing in safer locations and security.
The changing needs have implications for planning: Diversity, walkability and proximity to jobs will be key to site selection. Renting instead of homeownership will dominate Smaller and more affordable houses with a focus on design will be in demand Attractive suburbs with more walkable areas in new and existing town centres will be favoured. As a result developers and the government need to address these issues from location and modifications to current strategy. The crucial question is whether planners are prepared to change or even be ready for Gen Y. The Speaker then made a number of recommendations: There is a need to undertake similar research and conduct a survey of Gen Y and their needs in Malaysia. Planners should engage a greater number of the Gen Y in urban planning and development through focus group discussions at the Structure plan, Local Plan and Action plan and Special Area Plan levels. The authorities should allow second and third-tier cities to have higher density developments with transportation nodes in their centres to make them more appealing and affordable to Gen Y. There are implications on community facilities, such as schools and medical facilities. By promoting multi-storey and mixed-cost residential components within a single block/plot of land or both public private housing within the same block (as in Vancouver and Melbourne) planners could actually be promoting integration in the planning itself which is in line with 1Malaysia concept. Conclusion In conclusion, Gen Yers are the future leaders and the future workforce, so it is essential to ensure a conducive urban environment that will attract and retain them.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
QUESTION AND ANSWER SESSION 2 Chairman’s Comments I presume those are some of the characteristics that our country will be confronting. If we were to translate Gen X and Gen Y along the S-curve, the majority will probably be somewhere in the middle, with a few at the top who haven’t yet posed too much of a problem for the government, In a way, we need to consider them, especially in trying to retain their useful skill resources in the country or else they would go elsewhere. So that’s one area to focus on. There were two diverse perspectives, one from Prof Dato Dr Yusof on the Islamic perspective and the other from Pn Mazrina, the young planner’s view on what the young generations would like to see in terms of work, living as well as enjoyment - which should evoke a lot of questions. We have one hour to talk about these two diverse presentations. Prof Dato Dr Yusof’s presentation only touched on the preamble, so I suppose your questions will help flush out the solutions to participation, especially from the Islamic perspective. He did mention syurah, musyawarah, and of course leadership, that the Prophet Mohamed did not use top-down leadership but focused more on discussion before coming up with decisions. Are there any questions from the private sector, planners, universities and so forth? Please state your name.
Question and Answer Session
Question 1: Ali from Bukit Bandaraya Bangsar Mr Chairman, I am not going to touch directly on the presentation by the two speakers. But having been here since morning, I have one or two questions as well as suggestions to put forward. The first question I would like to relate to the earlier presentation, that is, prior to lunch by Tan Sri on the issue of the National Physical Plan (NPP). I would like to direct this question to Y Bhg, the DirectorGeneral of the Department. We have the National Physical Plan in place and if there is conflict or contradiction in the plans put forward by the local authority or local councils, which one will supersede? And who would have the authority to comment on it? That is my question number one. Question number two: We have heard so much about development. There are a lot of planners, designers, architects, engineers, from the various professions here – I am a layman. My name is Ali from Persatuan Penduduk (Residents’
Association) Bukit Bandaraya, Bangsar. The perception of development is always related to physical development, but we don’t seem to be approaching it in a holistic way - physical development with spiritual development to go hand in hand. That is one observation. Number two: a lot has been said about development but nobody seemed to have highlighted, to give importance to the issue of the upcoming collective national policy on public land transport. Of late, in the latest Parliament sitting, during the budget session, it has been recognised and addressed – this issue of a public land transport commission which has been put into place and is to take effect in 2010. I would appeal to the planners, the authorities to look at it in a holistic way, that it is high time, highly important now for us to have a national public transport policy to eradicate a lot of the hardships and difficulties for the average man, to avoid the emission of carbon monoxide, to minimise the transport problems we are facing, to minimise the traffic jams we are facing that lead to stress and detract from our human values. I think it is time that the planners also looked at the public transport policy and pushed the government to address it in a serious way. Thank you. The Chairman Thank you, En Ali from Bukit Bandaraya. The first one is on the conflict between the National Physical Plan and the local authority’s implementation, Development doesn’t go hand in hand with spiritual and cultural environment? I suppose your question is directed not only to the presenters here but to others on the floor for discussion. And also regarding the public land transportation - I think as far as I can say, they have got the live lab and they are discussing this issue of public land transportation. So they should be coming out in a week or two with short term and medium term strategies. Are there any responses to these three questions from the Secretariat or from the Department? If this is none, I would like to respond. NPP is under my observation. DBKL in terms of open space, in terms of development on slopes, on drains and so forth appears to be running contrary to many of the NPP issues and policies. I think on some of these views, I cannot respond from the Department’s perspective. But theoretically, the NPP is a document that will be used by the national planning council to give advice to the local authorities to adhere to through discussions too with the Mayor on certain expiration of open spaces and those relating to the benchmarking of open space requirements. It is an area that has been much discussed and debated on, not only in Bukit Bandaraya but also in Damansara and Bangsar areas. And the PPS has been used as the document for confronting local authorities in trying to get them to adhere to the plan. Some of these views have also been discussed at the national planning council for the local authorities’ compliance. So that is my response to your question.
Development does not go in hand in hand with spiritual requirements?. The planning department has come up with two documents, a revised document in fact to apply the doctrines that relate to cultural and spiritual aspects. Though, of course, in reality, how this can be implemented begs a lot of questions. The third one is public land transportation. This is an area which the government has already recognised, and it has been undertaken by a particular LAB so we should hopefully see something very positive coming out of this for the medium and short term, especially. Can we have more discussion from the floor on these three subjects? I have given some points for your rebuttal. So, thank you for that question, En Ali of Bukit Bandaraya. So, planners, any response to this? Are we not doing enough? Should we march to City Hall? Probably, the Gen Y group will use the web pages, the facebook to do that â€“ the response. Yes, there are documents that NPP has produced to reconcile non-compliance on the ground as far as possible. The departments have also been engaged from time to time to give advice through the Ministries and so on, if there are any divergent policies from the local authorities. Many issues, for example, the spiritual and cultural issues have already reached the top part of the S-curve, which means that it is already an issue today. It means that the government is taking a serious look at this, not only locally and nationally. It constitutes an international concern too. It is being done currently. The public transport discussion is still ongoing. There is a long debate on this. If you ask the planners, they will be talking about transit development, they will be talking about rail development, transportation, buses and so on. There are endless possibilities. If there is no response to these three questions, I would like to invite additional views from the floor, whether as a question or an observation. Question 2: Ridzwan from R & D I would like to ask Prof Yusof, for his comment about the Town and Country Planning Department issuing a doctrine. You have made known the connection between man and man, man and the environment, Can you give us a few comments about the connection between man and man from the Islamic perspective? What we do now is we only prepare the infrastructure, or the facilities, but on this aspect, we are still a little lacking. Can we have a few comments on this?
Answer: Prof Yusof
I would like to refer to the comments by Steven Covey. Perhaps you have read the book, ‘The Seven Habits of Highly Successful People’? When we speak of the connection between man and man, Steven Covey argues there are three, although I think there are six, dimensions. First, he says, because the book is on habits, the most important is how we form habits. In cities, the connection between man and man is such that they will eventually form a human relationship. If we look at a person, who is it that helps form the habit that we want to develop later? First, Covey says the closest to the person is the family. We know that families live in the city too - and that working in a factory is a problem. The father goes to work on one shift, the mother goes on another shift and the children are left to be looked after by friends and so on. Steven Covey has said the first influence is the family… I will not go into details here. The second is relationships with one’s peers and with the changing environment. For example, Gen Y likes to eat out at night and likewise with Gen X. It was not like that before. We have to understand this if we want to develop people. It should not be according to our generation. We have to develop people according to their own generation. If we want to bring up our children, it should not be in our image but by understanding their own situation. The third is the influence of institutions. Take the school for example. Some people say that the school has led to their child being brought up to become what they are not. I think this is true but then I reflected on this, I asked myself: Why didn’t the children of the Prophet follow in his footsteps? Why don’t we blame the Prophet for the upbringing of his children. The Prophet was a prophet but his father was a honest merchant, so why didn’t the Prophet become a merchant? We have to look at this from a different aspect. It is true that the family determines our character. But the family is not the only shaper of our character. Peers and existing institutions also play a part. If we look at developed societies, the social institutions play a big part. In relation to this, I wish to say that the concept of a mosque was not what it is today. Today, to me, a mosque is no more and no less than a place of worship where people respond to the five calls to prayer. During the time of the Prophet, the mosque was a community centre. I once saw a drawing which depicts the mosque of the past as a place where people came to eat, to learn, etc. so that it became a community centre. So we can build a community centre like that. We can have mosques that function like community centres. The activities of the mosque should not be confined to prayers alone, but should be extended to provide services to the community. Finally, administrators are mentioned too. The role of the government is to make policies, which take into account the development of the people. So I agree there is a connection between the three. But I am concerned that when one mentions spiritual connections, it is taken to mean prayers, fasting and paying the tithes
(zakat haji), whereas spiritual development in Islam means something different. The Koran says that a person who develops his spirit profits from it, while a person who defiles his spirit suffers loss. When Abdullah Yusof Ali interpreted this Koranic aspect, he said that spiritual development should first be about developing human beings that possess praiseworthy qualities, such as patience, generosity, not putting people down, the qualities that are needed to forge human relationships. The second is to shun hypocrisy. There are sayings in the Koran about not fulfilling one’s promises, breach of trust, mendacity or lying and so on. The third is not to consume things that are forbidden or ‘haram’, such as drinking alcohol, eating dead animals and so on. Among the forbidden things is acceptance of bribes, taking property that does not belong to us. The fourth is fulfilling the rights of man – as a neighbour, you should fulfil your neighbour’s rights; as a parent, the rights of your child; as a husband, the rights of your wife; or as a wife, the rights of your husband. Similarly, a leader has to fulfil the rights of the people, and the people, the rights of the rulers. All have to play their respective roles. And the fifth and final right is that to God. Prayer, fasting and zakat (tithes) are only a part of this. The meaning of spiritual intelligence is clear if we read about Tibet where spirituality is practised. The Tibetans, according to the ‘Spiritual Intelligence’, by Zohar Danah, do not follow the laws of the country but follow the ways of their tribes, such as showing mutual respect, attending the communal feasts, going to their leaders, and not to the courts, to settle disputes. Human relationships do not rely on national laws alone, but on the culture we have developed in the society. Therefore, I feel the spiritual part is not for the development of prayers, fasting and paying zakat alone, but the development of praiseworthy qualities, like civilised manners, social relationships between man and man and the relationship between man and the environment That is what is meant. I wish to add something. In urban planning, I agree that by emphasising the physical, you have problems. In Islam Hadhari, when we speak of civilisations, we talk about people and relationships between people. The physical is important but what if man is not developed, and if people do not respect one another? We have this concept in Islam as in other religions. It is true we have to have physical development, but if we do not develop the relationships between people, I believe that the process of civilisation will collapse. In the words of Ibn Battutta, when he was in Cairo, there were robbers too as well as beautiful buildings… Chairman Thank you, Prof Dato Dr Yusof. From the perspective of development planning, I am attracted to the practices, such as musyawarah and so on, based on Islam principles and their application in town and country planning, especially as we have to take into consideration the various views of the public, as well as the views of Gen Y which may be different. If we have local planning, the discussions cannot be limited in terms of time, the groups or the depth of study in fulfilment of ISO requirements and so on. But what is more important is whether the issues
have been discussed in depth– such as identifying the level of prejudice or sense of security – to solve the problems. A question arises. When you read the newspapers and so on, we feel dissatisfaction on the part of the public in relation to public participation in providing feedback to the authorities and so on. Their views are not taken into consideration, even though they have been discussed exhaustively in the newspapers or in blogs etc. This has been questioned. Perhaps, this should be discussed in terms of improving the relationship between governance and the governed. This may be a challenge to the present government with its many issues, even without taking into account the economic situation. We do not enjoy prosperity as yet. Hopefully, next year, we will get out of it. We are still in a recession and this has adversely affected us with regard to development, especially, in terms of allocations. The government can only focus on a few issues. Since there are many issues, there may be resentment on the part of some sectors that may feel they have been left out. Do you any views to present? What are the areas we need to work on? Question 3: Mr Chew from Bangsar Baru My name is Chew and I am from Bangsar Baru. May I refer to page 9 of the programme. On page 9, in the third last paragraph, Mrs Anna Tibaijuka has mentioned that ‘slums are multiplying, urban crime is rampant, development keeps sprawling, transport efficiency is declining, energy costs are rising, and health problems are increasing.’ Two speakers have touched on some of these topics. Pn Mazrina has given her analysis on Generation Y, but she has failed to analyse the senior citizens. As we go on, there will be more senior citizens. In 20 years’ time, Gen Y will become senior citizens. So in our planning, we should not be planning for two or three years but for 10, 20, or 30 years. So you must have a plan for senior citizens, so they can prepare themselves. Recently, I went to Hangzhou in China, and I was very pleased to see that they have a lot of recreational parks and facilities for their senior citizens. We can see them happily singing, dancing, playing chess and so on together. I think Malaysia should adopt this concept. This is very good because it will have the facilities to take care of the senior citizens – where they can spend their time. As you know, after retirement, many look at the ceiling and start dreaming– that’s all they do. It is true and it is very serious. You can see that those who do not keep themselves busy after retirement - their health deteriorates very fast. If you keep them busy, they can maintain their health. Another thing is about crimes – such as youngsters being involved in drugs and so on. You must keep them occupied by way of sports, outdoor recreation. We must have more parks, football fields, badminton courts and indoor stadiums, for them to spend their time in. Because if spend their time in such activities, they
will have no time for drugs or other unhealthy activities. So in our planning for the future, it is important for us to have that type of facilities. Now if you drive from Kuala Lumpur to PJ, it will take you at least one hour or so, or even two hours if it rains. Why? Because there are so many cars on the road, and that causes traffic jams. The solution is to have a very efficient public transport. Why did I have to buy a car after retirement? It is because I have to move about. I cannot rely on the public transport because it is so inefficient. So the authorities must make sure the bus companies are managed very efficiently. Then nobody would like to drive unless they go as a family. Otherwise, we will continue to get caught in traffic jams. Also this morning, there was talk about enforcement. I think generally – I recognise there are three levels of enforcement. One is at the departmental level; the next is the officers, developers, contractors and the builders; and the last is the user or the community. So if you enforce all the things only on the user, not at the higher level, it doesn’t work well. You must maintain discipline from the top to the bottom. Otherwise, it is not effective. Thank you. Chairman Thank you, Mr Chew from Bangsar Baru for your views on senior citizens’ life after retirement, requirements, environment and ambiance and so forth. There are some guidelines for that, but obviously these are not enough. Keeping people occupied after retirement is very important. Sporting activities for young people – these are not uncommon to what the planning profession is trying to strive for. What is holding us back, in particular, is trying to increase the percentage of recreational or space requirement in urban areas, in particular, against rising population densities and so forth and doing more meaningful redevelopment where everybody can contribute. So these are areas confronting most planners, particularly planners in the private sector who are consultants to architects and developers and so forth. I presume that most of us agree that we want to increase the 10% requirement to more so that we have more space viz-a-viz other schemes that are happening, for example, green technology, GPI, green building index and so on. The higher you go up, there is more space for such requirements. It is very true that we would like to have all these in place. There is no restriction on the authorities to have more than 10%. You need not restrict it to 10%. Enforcement officers, contractors, community relations – as Prof. Dato Dr Yusof was saying – those are relationships that will have to be built, and more so in the coming era for solving problems. The inability to discuss in the past has lead to the various problems not only peculiar to Malaysia. It is also a global perspective, as you can see on page 9 [that Mr Chew referred to]. The myriad of urban problems mentioned there – Malaysia is facing some of them. If you look at the S-curve, we are facing some of these issues – not too great, not too big in
comparison to other countries, but the problems are there and we need to solve them before they become a disease, an incurable disease. Those issues are being addressed by the planning profession, by the government by various means and also by NGOs. I presume that you are facing the issues head-on on the ground for various projects and so on. I think we have a blog – the town planning blog –that the Director-General mentioned this morning. We should receive a lot of questions and views to put in that, so that we can disseminate them within the professional planning groups, the architects, developers and so on to discuss. We need to discuss that actually, as it cannot be done unilaterally. These are issues, interesting issues that we need to sort out. Otherwise, those empty chairs that we have in this hall – which represent the future generation… We would be having more serious issues than those we face today. Thank you for your views. Question: Nor Ibrahim bin Shamsuddin, UTM undergrad My name is Nor Ibrahim bin Shamsuddin, and I am an undergraduate from UTM, Skudai. Today I wish to say that various issues were discussed from morning to this afternoon. I am a mass media student. One interesting issue was that on Gen Y. I noticed from the perspective of roles, Gen Y can use the various methodologies and opportunities that are available. However, Gen Y themselves should create such opportunities. I think this is a good programme, but many programmes available at institutes of higher learning are just as good. There are many out there who represent Gen Y who have various ideas. Research presented by Pn Mazrina shows that we have to understand what the most suitable approach should be. For example, in talking about sustainability, do our youths understand the concept of sustainability? In reality, there are many methodologies that we need to comprehend to get to the target persons, that is , Gen Y, so they understand the information that we wish to disseminate . Prof Yusof spoke about the approach to use in physical development, that it is not merely physical development, but that it must be consistent with what is in the doctrine. We can prepare reports but if they are not implemented properly, they are of little use. We, as representatives of the public or students representatives or from agencies, private or government, should comprehend and implement whatever we have discussed today for our future. I think there has to be better cooperation among the generations, including Gen Y and Gen X. Thank you. Chairman Thank you for the comment. Your opinion appears to coincide with Prof Dato Dr Yusof’s regarding the relationship between the various stakeholders at the various social strata. We have seen that various government agencies have started to bring their agencies closer to the citizens, through web pages and so
on. Communication – the question is how we can improve communication to enjoy two-way benefits. Question : En Abdul Hamid , Federal Ministry I am En Abdul Hamid from the Federal Ministry. I have two questions for the speakers. My first question is directed to the paper presenter on Generation Y. I understand that the research was conducted overseas. However, if that happens in Malaysia, we may have a problem. I hope Prof Yusof will comment on this. If we do the research, we hope that Generation Y in Malaysia is not like that – too much laissez-faire, too easy.. It is worrying if that research reflects Generation Y. in Malaysia. One more comment. My view is that while we have groups – baby boomers, Generation X and Generation Y - I think there is a balance. I think the gap is not that wide in Malaysia. We need to reduce the gap between the generations. We need to look at each and every generation, because whatever generation we have, not everything in the generation is always better than the previous one. There is good in every generation which should carried on into the next generation. I hope Prof Yusof will comment on this. Answer: Pn Mazrina Thank you for your question. Before Prof Dato Dr Yusof comments, on the survey that had been done overseas – that is why in my recommendations at the end of my speech, I have requested that we undertake similar research to survey Gen Y and Gen X and reflect on the Malaysian condition. As you can see, there is an alarming fact, from Australia and from US that more single Gen Y are entering into house ownership, and that they don’t look at commitments in marriage as important anymore. They are more career-conscious and they are more individualistic. So you are right. We hope that our future generations are not so individualistic, like what has been expressed in the surveys overseas. That is why it is very important for us to know what the needs for our young generation are. So studies, research and surveys – it is timely for them to be conducted here in Malaysia, so that we know exactly what our characteristics are, and whether they are comparable to those overseas or whether we have different sets of characteristics. I am sure that we have some different sets of characteristics since our religious bases are quite different, quite strong and so on. I think that our social behaviours are also different. That is why there is a need for us in Malaysia to undertake that kind of survey here, although probably not the same as the overseas survey. It is alarming, so it is timely for us to know what our generation needs and how to tailor them rather than use overseas results and findings to create the needs for our Malaysian future generation.
Answer: Prof Yusof I have deliberately kept silent because that is an issue that has long… I would like to draw your attention to this. In reality, the West is now undergoing a huge revolution. I repeat – the West is now undergoing a huge revolution, that is, the birth of a new group that is anti-family. The latest statistics in the UK show that 50% of the population are not married but are living together without the sanction of marriage either according to the laws of the country or the church laws, because the country’s laws allow them to do so. They are afraid of responsibilities. We learnt that Gen Y does not want responsibilities. They want to live together but they don’t want responsibilities. The figure that I read – I forgot the name of the source – is that in 2006, it was 40%, and in 2008, it had increased to 50%. By next year, the figure will have increased to 80%. So 80% of the population of England are expected to be living together and having children, without getting married. They are happy to be living together when in love and to separate when they are no longer in love. What is to become of the next generation? In France - on my way back from Morocco, I had to transit in Paris at night. I knew the embassy people, so to kill time, we went to see the Eiffel tower lit up. I saw some people who were of a certain age - in their forties, perhaps, Generation X. Then there was another group in their 20s, probably Generation Y, and they had young children. My friend told me that the couples were not married. They could only meet their children over the weekend from 10 am to 10 pm. The children would then return to a government–run centre. The women want to advance in their careers, so the question was what to with their young children. The government therefore takes care of the children. The society is like that. Reflect on this. The responsibility for the children is paid for through their taxes. This is the type of generation we are creating. I think we should return to our religious values – be it Taoism or Buddhism or any other religion – to bring up our children. In his book The Turning Point : Science, Society, and the Rising Culture, Fritjof Capra asked, ‘What is it with Western civilisation?’ He questioned the fact the West had successfully landed on the moon as they had planned but they cannot manage fumes coming from cars and factories resulting in environmental pollution. He was a Nobel Prize nominee. He concluded that science will never solve this problem. He was amazed, he said, that despite the millions of books on psychology in the West, we are, unfortunately, producing children who do not respect their own parents. That is why we are facing such major social problems. This is from the social perspective. From the perspective of townships – if you ask me what my dreams of a town are, I would say that it not just seeing traffic lights or sky-scrapers. It is places where you can get educated, find intellectual activities. In developed countries in the West, they have museums, natural museums. They have recreational places.
– places for fostering their culture and so on. We don’t have such things. We only build places where you can carry out business activities for the tourists and so on. In the end, our children are brought up in a business environment, demanding popular things. Places to educate and bring up children – are there such facilities? In London, there are all sorts of museums, where people can go to learn. Is there a Botanical Gardens where people can go to see and learn? If we go on an expedition, say to the National Park, there are many things that people and children can learn. UKM organised a geopark in Langkawi, where we can have tourism but also learn about nature. We should not just concentrate on people selling popular items. We have developed a generation that is materialistic, that does not appreciate nature. As Mr Chew said just now, we will all get old and we will need such facilities. Eventually, Gen Y will need such facilities too. If such places don’t exist for them, where are they going to spend their time together, as Mr Chew asked. Community centres must be considered too not only be for prayers, fasting or lectures, but as a centre that accepts people and where they can have discussions - a place where they can discuss over tea or coffee something that is beneficial. The mosque can be a community centre, perhaps with a library. The mosque should be controlled by the leader of the community and not politicians. It is not politicians who create the society. Chairman Thank you Dato Yusof. Thank you for the comments from the floor, for the various perspectives on the survey and so on and the issue of what I would call the ‘borrowed use of the future’ meaning the culture of the West which is now advanced is what will be present in our future – a closed future. We need to mention that we are facing many issues, and the physical environment is only one such manifestation. So there are other perspectives on socio-cultural and governance issues. It is a very complex environment and should be discussed. Perhaps, the intellectual elite of Gen X or Gen Y can consider these issues. Communication must be continued – this is important. At the UNDP, even with regard to the habitat, communication is accorded priority. Without communication, we cannot understand and resolve our problems. Another thing that is important is respect for our culture and society. When we conduct discussions, if we are not respectful, it does not encourage improvement in communication. It can be developed - mutual understanding can be developed. We need to deepen our knowledge of the issues. We understand many issues but only on a superficial level – so we need to deepen our knowledge of such matters. Thank you.
Paper 5 : PEOPLE CENTRIC PLANNING AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT- UNDP PERSPECTIVE Dr. Hari Ramalu Ragavan UNDP, Malaysia
Paper 5 : The fifth speaker was unable to present his paper due to unavoidable circumstances. Fortunately, his paper was made available for publication and is presented in its entirely in these proceedings. BIODATA OF SPEAKER
Dr Hari Ramalu Ragavan is a trained Environmental Economist. He is a Programme Manager in the United Nations Development Programmme (UNDP), Malaysia and monitors projects that are related to the issues of energy and the environment. His duties involve monitoring and adaptation to climate change, rehabilitation, sustainable use of biodiversity and funding environmental management. He has had 15 yearsâ€™ experience in Environmental Management and Policy. He has worked with NGOs, governments and private companies in various capacities: as researcher, consultant and advisor. He cherishes the pleasant experiences he had when pursuing a Bachelors Degree at the University of Malaya (Malaysia), a Masters at Lund University (Sweden) and a Doctorate of Philosophy at the University of Manchester (UK).
Planning for our Urban Future Hari Ramalu Ragavan Programme Manager UNDP Malaysia
Abstract The major urban challenges of the twenty-first century include the rapid growth of many cities and the decline of others, the expansion of the informal sector, and the role of cities in causing or mitigating climate change. Evidence from around the world suggests that governments at all levels are largely failing to address these challenges. Stark contrasts have also emerged between technologically advanced and well-serviced business sectors, and other areas defined by declining industry, sweatshops and informal businesses. Better, more equitable urban planning is essential. New ideas from smart cities around the world are pointing the way towards sustainable urbanisation. But there is far more to do. All cities need safer and more environmentally friendly public transport, housing security, clinics and public services. On top of all this, the implementation authority may be fragmented among jurisdictions. In trying to correct these deficiencies, planning has opened itself to public participation and preference and to taking a more realistic view of the limits of the possible, while factoring in the resources likely to be available for implementation.
The theme of this yearâ€™s observance of UNâ€™s World Habitat Day, Planning our Urban Future, is meant to underscore the urgency of meeting the needs of city dwellers in a rapidly urbanising world. The major urban challenges of the twentyfirst century include the rapid growth of many cities and the decline of others, the expansion of the informal sector, and the role of cities in causing or mitigating climate change. Evidence from around the world suggests that governments at all levels are largely failing to address these challenges. Urban sprawl and unplanned development are among the most visible consequences. Hundreds of millions of urban dwellers are also increasingly vulnerable to rising sea levels, coastal flooding and other climate-related hazards. A troubling trend has emerged in many cities in developed and developing countries alike: the growth of up-market suburban areas and gated communities, on the one hand, and the simultaneous increase in overcrowded tenement zones, ethnic enclaves, slums and informal settlements, on the other. Stark contrasts have also emerged between technologically advanced and wellserviced business sectors, and other areas defined by declining industry, sweatshops and informal businesses. Better, more equitable urban planning is essential. New ideas from smart cities around the world are pointing the way 152
towards sustainable urbanisation. But there is far more to do. Urban poor need improved tenure and access to land. All cities need safer and more environmentally friendly public transport, housing security, clinics and public services. There is also a need to mobilise financing for urban development. Planning is at the heart of this agenda. But planning will work only where there is good urban governance and where the urban poor are brought into the decisions that affect their lives. And planning will work best only where corruption is honestly tackled. Whose interest? Public or…? The theme, Planning our Urban Future, for World Habitat Day 2009 will remind all that it is vital to plan effectively for the targets established in the Millennium Declaration to be achieved. Many of the ills of urbanisation have been conveniently left at the doorstep of urban planners and planning. However, there are many reasons why that job may not result in a better living environment for all. In many countries planning has not been very powerful and developers, the private sector and individual citizens – who do not have the public good uppermost in their considerations – are relatively unconstrained in their activities. Powerful economic interests may feel threatened by planning recommendations. Politicians may not have an adequate sense of the public interest or plans may not reflect their priorities. Alternatively, planners may not have adequate training and their advice may be good or bad, taken or ignored. Plans may be unrealistic, given their resource requirements. Plans may not reflect the priorities of community groups. On top of all this, the implementation authority may be fragmented among jurisdictions. In trying to correct these deficiencies, planning has opened itself to public participation and preference and to taking a more realistic view of the limits of the possible, while factoring in the resources likely to be available for implementation. The Role of Media for Public Participation It is well understood that civil society needs to be heard. Social and economic progress cannot be sustained without the widespread participation of the people. In many African countries, it has become evident in recent years that it is critical that the media express public grievances as well as political demands. Committed members of civil society need the sounding board of the media – and competent reporting can encourage civic engagement. Where the media are weak, civil society will hardly have much political influence.
Obviously, the new interactive fora of the internet and mobile telephony are also
politically stimulating. But the new diversity must not obscure the fact that fundamental requirements for journalism must still be met. That is not always the case. Editors need independence to assess news and views. In other words, they must be safe from reprisals and be paid so well that they do not readily succumb to corruption. Sound reporting always requires careful research of the facts, caution in dealing with sources and an ability to relate to the target audience. Effective democratic decision-making depends on journalists managing to convey complex political issues â€“ from global trade and climate protection to the causes of wars or financial crises. But let us not forget that achieving such goals is not necessarily the core interest of a media company. Circulation figures, ratings and clicks can also be boosted by tabloid tactics and cheap entertainment â€“ and often more easily so. The public sphere is precious common property. It needs to be nurtured. Education matters, because journalists need professional training, and all youngsters should learn in school how to tell reliable quality media from mere entertainment or tabloid sensationalism. Of course, there are other means to support the media too. Tax breaks are an option. One thing is certain, however: the public sphere will not thrive as a mere external effect of market dynamics â€“ and certainly not in a global economic crisis.
Paper Summary Introduction The paper focused on the theme of UN’s World Habitat Day , Planning our Urban Future and the challenges confronting governments such as climate change, urban sprawl and unplanned development as well as the failure of governments to meet these challenges effectively. Main Points Sharp differences have emerged in many cities in both developed and developing countries alike, for example: the growth of wealthy neighbourhoods and ghettoes / slums and squatter areas at the same time the existence of technologically connected businesses as well as failing industries, sweatshops and informal businesses. Therefore better and more equitable urban planning is needed. Planners can learn from the smart cities around the world to ensure sustainable urbanisation. This should include improved tenure and access to land for the urban poor, security, efficient public transport, housing, healthcare and public services and better financing for urban development. For planning to work, however, there has to be good urban governance and not corruption, and mechanisms for the inclusion of the urban poor in the decisionmaking process. Planning is vital to meet the Millennium Declaration targets. Urban planners and planning have been unfairly blamed for many of the problems of urbanisation: Often developers, the private sector and individual citizens tend to act in their own interests and not for the common good. Problems can arise with powerful economic interests, incompetent politicians or self-serving, poorly trained planners, as well as unrealistic plans due to a lack of resources or not meeting priority community needs. The authorities responsible for implementation may be fragmented. To rectify some of the deficiencies, planners have provided for public participation and preference and to take a more realistic approach to what is achievable given the resources available. The voice of civil society plays a part in social and economic progress that is sustained, but for the voice/ grievances of the common people to be heard politically, there needs to be competent reporting. However, there are a few issues to be resolved:
The internet and mobile telephone may play a role but they cannot replace good journalism. For editors to play their part they need to be independent, safe from reprisals and incorruptible by being paid well Editors should ensure sound reporting through careful research of the facts, sources and the ability to relate to the target audience. Media companies are usually profit-oriented and may not be interested in providing information on complex political issues such as global trade or climate change, wars or finance to ensure effective decision-making. The public sphere is also important. Journalists have to be trained professionally while the young have to be educated so as to be able to get to the truth. Quality media also needs support in the form of tax breaks from governments.
Conclusion There are several challenges facing governments today and urban planners as well as the media personnel and educationalists have a very important role to play in addressing some of these challenges.
Closing Speech and Resolution
Closing Speech and Resolution by
Y. Bhg Datoâ€™ Mohd. Fadzil bin Haji Mohd. Khir Director General Federal Department of Town and Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia Ministry of Housing and Local Government
CLOSING SPEECH AND RESOLUTION
Y Bhg. Mohd Fadhil bin Hj Mohd Khir Director-General, Department of Town and Country Planning, Peninsular Malaysia
Y Bhs. En Kamalruddin bin Shamsuddin, Deputy Director-General of Planning Y. Bhg. Datin Wira Hamisah bte Ariffin, Deputy Director-General of Development and Chairperson of the Organising Committee for the celebration of World Town Planning Day 2009 Dato-dato, Datin-datin, Ladies and Gentlemen, Generation X, Generation Y and Generation Z (the Baby boomers), I would like to thank God for ensuring the successful launch of the World Town Planning Day 2009. I would also like to take this opportunity to express, on the behalf of the Department, our appreciation to you, Dato-dato, Datin-datin, ladies and gentlemen for being present here today. Thank you. I sincerely hope with the launch of World Town Planning Day, the objective of raising awareness and understanding among public servants, the private sector, NGOs, academicians, and society through discussion and sharing of experience, and knowledge during this seminar, themed ‘ sustainable development – people first’, has been achieved. For your information, the attendance at this seminar has been encouraging and I have been informed that there are more than 450 participants. I believe that this seminar even though organised on a modest scale with only four paper presentations, as one paper by Dr Hari Ramulu could not delivered – which can be described as short and sweet, lean and mean - has achieved its objective, as mentioned earlier. You have heard the paper presentations, so I will not mention them again. What we have learnt from the presentations, in summary, is planning from diverse perspectives, that is, technical, personal observation, Islamic, and the young generation’s. But above all, as I mentioned in the morning, the beneficiary of all this is still the people. Indeed, all the planning that is done is for the public, the citizens. There is, however, one single group here that has grown wiser with this, that is, the planners. The planners now have to consider all the views, all the wants and needs of the various generations from the various perspectives and bring a sense of balance and order to them so that the planning is above board and serves the interests of the public.
I will now go on to read out the resolutions of the World Town Planning Day seminar 2009, which are based on the paper presentations. The first resolution is to achieve a sustainable society by using an approach that focuses on a holistic framework encompassing the eight areas of governance, transport and connectivity, services, environment, equity, economy, housing and built environment and the socio-cultural. The second resolution is to achieve the goal of creating sustainable communities by implementing the Building Information Management approach, which will simplify the process and ensure cooperation among the various professions, through its multi-layered decision-making process, from planning to implementation, thereby effecting savings in costs and time. The third resolution is that urban planning should be based on professionalism and integrity on the part of the planners in carrying out their duties and responsibilities, and comprehending all the directions and government policies, as well as being clear about the actions and implementation. Planners should also take a firm position and not appear indecisive when making decisions. The fourth resolution is that all planning should involve the process of consultation with the stakeholders as well as the relevant technical departments, so that all the decisions are agreed to by all the parties concerned. The fifth resolution is to ensure that the concept of sustainable development is appropriate for the present and for the future, as well as flexible and capable of adaptation to accommodate all needs according to the current situation and in line with the universal doctrines of planning. The sixth resolution is that planners must put into practice the principles of leadership in Islam, that is, one, scrutinise the goals and objectives of the plans; two, focus on the people; three, ensure consultation and public participation; four, be just and non-fanatical in nature; five, be open to ideas, proposals and criticism; and finally, be responsible, accountable and transparent. The seventh resolution is that planners must be professional, must have integrity and high personal values, must be honest and sincere, must consult and discuss with other agencies, and make the effort to enhance their knowledge and skills to be in line with current development trends. The last resolution is that planning should consider the environment according to the needs of the young generations. These resolutions, I hope, will provide the basis for the departments and government agencies, at the national, state and local levels, educational institutions and NGOs which should take the initiative to study them and to use
them as guidelines with adjustments where necessary. As for the Department, we will ensure that these resolutions are given the scrutiny and the attention they deserve, either as guidelines or follow-up actions for improving the quality and delivery of more effective town and country planning services. Distinguished guests, as I mentioned at the beginning, we have a JPBD blog. Once again, I urge you to use that space for facilitating communication, to put forward ideas and views with the aim of making town and country planning more effective. Here, I would like to extend my congratulations again to the local authorities, the Town Councils of Shah Alam, KL, Melaka, Jelebu, Jasin, Port Dickson, Kuantan and Alor Gajah for achieving sustainable status under the MURNInet excellent award for this year. I hope that this will serve as a source of inspiration and encouragement for other townships to strive for the status of sustainable towns in the future. Before ending, I would like to once again, on behalf of the Department, extend our gratitude to, above all, the participants, especially those who are still with us. Secondly, I would like to thank the Chairmen of the sessions and the paper presenters. Last but least, I wish to take the opportunity to thank the Deputy Director-General of Development, Y. Bhg Dato Wira Hamisah binti Ariffin, Chairperson of the organising committee, for the launch of World Town Planning Day and the members of the organising committee, as well as the employees of JPBD who were involved in managing, organising and officiating at the World Town Planning Day seminar, for ensuring that it was carried out very successfully. Thank you. With this, I officially close the World Town Planning Day seminar for the year 2009. Till we meet again at the launch of the World Town Planning Day next year. Thatâ€™s all. Thank you. SALAM 1MALAYSIA.
World Town Planning Day 2009 - Convention Proceedings. National Convention