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J. Archit. Plann., AIJ, Vol.76 No.662,779-787, Apr.,

4E 2011

TOURIST-DEPENDENT ADAPTIVE REUSE IN THE OLD RESIDE}ITIAL QUNRTER OF MELAKA CITY, MALAYSIA v 1 'v fi fr lHfi'1Fifr t: *i rl UEAy1I&EHWWJFfiUH t: F€f bhftn Rhan See CHUA* and Atsushi DEGUCHI*

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This paper presents findings from the study of tourist-dependent adaptive reuse in the old residential quarter of Melaka City. Two surveys have been conducted in this study. The first survey involves the collection of building and land use data via non-participatory observation method. While

the second survey uses a questionnaire to measure the perceptions of different users of the old quarter, namely local community which consist

of

residents and business owners, and also domestic and international tourists, on the effects of adaptive reuse. Findings show that almost 25 percent

of

the actively used buildings are housing tourist-dependent uses (TDUs), which are concentrated mainly on Jonker Street and its surrounding area.

A

number of streets have more TDUs buildings than non-TDUs, and some are dominated by one type of TDU only. This shows that tourist-dependent reuse activity in the old quarter needs to be checked to minimise future negative implications. This study first classifies adaptive reuse approaches in

the old quarter and relates them to the different effects they bring to the old quarter. Then the concems and expectations of different user groups in the old quarter towards the physical, social, economical and tourism effects of adaptive reuse are identified. Finally, this paper proposes planning and area management measures to regulate adaptive reuse in the old residential quarter.

: Wodd hedtage, Revitaliatioq Urban touism, ConversioD, Colonial fiiFiEE, FIF'i4.fL, ffifi&Jt, 3:./)s-:// a ),, ffiE#[fi

Keryordt

city

r. INTRODUCTION Adaptive reuse, which

ir

also call€d 'creative re-use't), 'refurbishment'

'1),

'conversion'3) or 'rehabilitation'

4),

generally means repair or refurbish a

building, and use it for new purpose which is different ftom its original use for which it was d€signed. Examples of adaptive rcus€ are found

it

the old

rcsidential and colim€rcial quaxter of Melaka City (ORQ), in Malaysia. This historic srea w6! listed as a LNESCO World Heritage Sit€ (WHS) on 7th July 2008, together with the neighboring old civic quarrer (Fig.

l).

Melaka's old residential quarter is traditionally a popular tourist destination among both Malaysians and people from overseas. The inflow of tourists further increased when the 'Jonker Walk'program was launched at the quarter on 9th June 2000

'). Jonker Walk program takes its name from one of the main streets in the old quarter, Jonker Street, which was historically famous for its business and Chinese community activities. The Jonker Walk program, which is a

joint initiative between the Melaka State Government and

local communities, intends to revitalize the old residential quarter which had experienced outmigration since the late 1970s. The program aims to reintroduce the old quarter's heritage to the locals and visitors, and boost the local economy via tourism. The Jonker Walk program is considered a success by the local communities and Melaka State Govemment. Due to this, many business individuals and groups wanted to invest there. As a result, from late in the year 2000 many investors started to buy or rent buildings in the old quarter to adapt them for new uses. Most of the new uses are related to tourists, such as gifts shops, souvenir shops and restaurants.

It

can also be observed that some buildings'physical adaptations were done with

care to conserve their architectural elements. However, there are also some examples that show carelessness.

This research contends that adaptive reuse of buildings for the purpose of tourism alone can be dangerous. This sfudy defines buildings that are adapted and reused with the aim for

* *

*

Doctor Candidate, Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University Prof., Faculty of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University, Dr. Eng.

Fig.

1 The Study Area (LINESCO World Heritage Site)

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#i{€.rt$

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toudst businesses as 'tourist-d€pendent adaptive reuse'. The new uses housed are called toudst-d€pendent uses (TDID. TDU means uses or activities which are qeated solely to cater

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tourists' treeds. Because of that, these uses depend heavily otr tourists' spending to continue their opemtions or survival. Examples

TDU are souveDir shops, hotels, themed restauants and cafes. The opposite ofTDU

is non-tourist-dependent use

(Non-TDU). NTDU

&re the

oi

original activities

of the historic area. Their existence is not caused by tourists' presence or demand, as they €xisted long before the anival oftourists. Hence they do not depend on tourists to continue

or'survive'. Rather, these activities are mainly catering for local consumers'needs. Examples ofNon-TDU include residential use and

traditional retail usesEven though tourism-led adaptive reuse can benefit a historic aiea or town, such as by boosting the local economy and improving its infrastructure.

buildbg reuse can also create negative consequences for the llistoric area's environment and its inhabilants. Possible consequences of adaptive reuse include the loss ofrmique architecture during the process of adaptatiorL the dislocation of oiiginal residents from the town and the loss ofpdvacy for local irhabitants

Buildings that arc reused for tourism purposes rced to be plarmed aIld regulated to Fevent the historic area from losing its valuable heritag€. To do this, it is important to mderctand how physical changes to the buildings, and also changes in iheir use, can affect the area's h€ritage significance. B€sid€s this, also necessary to u{deGtand how histonc area s users perceive the consequences of building reuse

it

is

foi the place. It is thereforc the aim of this paper to present

findings ftom a study condrcted in the old residential quarter ofMelaka City on the trend of tourist-dependent adaptive reuse.

2. PAST RESEARCHES The subject ofadaptive r€use often appea$ in litemtule on building management

in research on conse ationled revitalization

3)e)

and toudsmled conservation

D

6)n

and architecture conservation

a) 3).

'0)11). These litemtures highlight the effects

Adaptive reuse is also discussed

ofbuilding reuse in improving the

physical and ecoDomic condition of historic citi€s or areas. However, they do not define clearly how buildings should be adapted and reused within the context

of a historic area or town. Past litemture on building aalaptation and reuse also do€s not relate on how uoers ofthe historic place, such as local residents or touri$ts, feel about the physical and social charg€s created by the new activlties in th€ historic area. Hence this sfudy wishes to frll the theoretical gap on the subject

ofbuilding adaptive reuse In historic

3. RESEARCH OBJECTWES

area and also users' perceptions towards

building reuse.

AIID METHODOLOGY

This study has four objectives. The first objective is to identiry the q?es of tou.isFdependent uses and their location in the old rcsidential quarter

of

Metaka City. The second is to clariry the types of physical adaptation and use of space involving buildings reused for TDU in the old quafier The third is to measurc use$t concems and exp€ctations about building adaptive rcuse in this old quarter, where users are the local community and tourists, which consist ofrcsialents, business o\rners, domestic and intemationa.l tourists in the old quarter Lastly, the objective is to propose measures to plan and manage adaptive reuse in the old residential quater to meet users' needs.

In this study, two surveys werc conducted. The first was building use suwey, caried out to rccord all buildings and land plots'uses in the old quarter ftom Novernber 2008 to January 2009. This sur',,ey was conducted by the authors for the duration of tbree months for two reasons. Ffust reason was that the authors wished to undentand in depth the situation

ir

the study area, which include its urban chancter, people, their ways of life and also the activities found ther€.

Second rcason was that the authors intended to seek p€nnission fiom buildings' ownerc to visit thefu buildings and to hold intewiews with them, to understand th€ purlose and details of the adaptive reuse works.

For buildings, only grcund and first floor uses were recorded du€ to time and human rcsource limitations. Building uses were recorded by a nonparticipatory obsewation method, involving observation ftom outside the buildings and not inside. This method was used because of the large number of buildings to be surveyed wilhin a limited time. A total of 947 building and land plot uses were classified into I 5 use groups, which include residential,

rctail, seryice, wholesale uses and vacant buildings. Building use data were then analyzed by fiequeDcy aDd the results displayed by GIS. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was conducted from July to August 2009, aimed at collecting the opinions

of local community and tourists about building adaptive

reuse iD the old quarter. In ihis suwey, the qu€stionnaire tests to the toudts w€re distributed at restaurants and guest house locat€d in the study area which are

popular with local and foriegn tourists.

A total of 358 samples werc collected. 132 samples were locals living or doing businesses in the oal quarter, and 206 were visiting tourists. Locals rcspondents werc selected by proportional stratified-random sampling, and toudsts,via rundom sampling. The rcsponse rate for locals and toudsts were 48% and 86% respectively. In the questionnaire, iespondents were asked to state their opinions about a list ofchanges in the old quafi€r related to adaptive reus€. Respondents chose their answerc ftom six given options

fion'strongly disagrce', 'moderately disagre€', 'sligltly disagree', 'slightly agree', 'moderately

agree' to 'strongly agree'. Data collected ftom the qlrestionnaire were tested using the Mann-Witney U-Test to id€ntiry the difference in opinions among the local co$muDity and tourists.

4.

TOUNSFDEPENDENT ADAPTIVE REUSE AT OLD RESIDINTIAL QUARTf,R

4.'l G€nerd Buildtug and Latrd Uses rt the Old Quarter The results ofthe building use suvey show that the us€ of buildirgs and land plots in the old quartd can be divided into two main types: building or

-780-


land with active use; or Foperty with passive use. The fomer meaDs plac€s that are fiequently occupied or visi&d by people, while the latter are places less ftequented or not used at all The results also show that more than thrce quarters ofthe grouhd-floor building ard land uses in the old quarter are active uses (76.2%). These uses include retail (25.5%), residential (17.5%), service uses (16.9%), wo*shops (6.1%), art galleries (3%), wholesale (2.6%),

religious

buildings (1.8olo) and agdculture (0 7%). Passive uses include vacant or idle buildings (14.5%0), stomge or warehous€s (7.1%), buildiDg under renovarion (1.1%) and cemeteries (0.2%) (Fig. 2).

Buildlngsr Upp€r Floor Us€

1)

For buildings'upper

floor space, the survey shows that active uses make up slightly more than half of the total uses (51.6%), while the remainder are passive uses. For activ€ uses, residential use is the single larg€st use found on the first floor oflhe buildings (,+0.2%), folowed by other uses such as services (47o), community uses (2.3%) and art gatleries (1.6%). Passive uses are mainly vacant spaces (27.3%) and storage (14.5%). The finalings show that th€ old quarter is still a living ar€a with people staying on the upper floor of the buildings. But the number of dwellen could have reduced over the years, as indicated by the lorge arnount ofvacancy and storage on upper floors.

2) Concentration of Uses

i40.2r1 ool

n

30

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llrt.,

i

',

The survey finding shows that residential buildings are located at many

-

27

places in the old quarter. They are especially concentrated on Heeren Street,

I

'3

Jalan Kampung

Kuli and Kampung Ketek/Kampung Dua. Retail uses are

concentrated on Jonker Street, and service uses are dispersed within the old

,a,'i,,i',i,-;1 [-t.l-'n,,rJll;ilil*1 ,,

:.g:,t"sl"t\t:'ffi *:{;tU*

quarter (Fig. 3).

The results also show that wholesale and storage buildings remain concentrated along Jalan Kampung Pantai, which has been the traditional

wholesale hub

I

Groud Floor Uses (%)

of Melaka city since the early 20th century, due to its

proximity to Melaka River. Religious institutions important to the history

tr lst Floor Uses (%)

of Melaka and Malaysia such as cheng Hong Teng Temple, Sri poyyatha

Fig. 2 Building and Land Uses in the Old Quarter

llJ'

rrl Jc l

\(\( ,/,

x

'4rh^

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t.-

Residential

to J.

";"f

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vinayagar Moorthi Temple and Masjid Kampwg Kling renain on Jalan T\rkang Besi, Jalan Tuk&ng Emas and Jalan Tokong. Buildings with upper residential

floors can still be found at many places in the old quarter, and are not confined to one area or steet only. This is because the olil quaxter was the former rcsidential cente ofM€laka City. This research has made a comparison with the works on the concenhation of building use in the old qua(er by Chi published '3)

in 983 1

r'z)

and Funo et al.

pulished in 2005. The finding from the comparison with Chi's research shows that a number ofbuilding uses or activities in the past, such as dentisb and

tailors, have now dedeased, which reflects their declining importanc€ in the old quarter due to the reduced demand ftom lessening

reside . The comparison

with the research by Funo et al. indicate that the concentration of major uses, especially residential and religious uses, remaineal largely unchangeal fiom 20 yeirs &go. Despite minimal change

ir

the conceDtration of building use, this research found that many uses or activities insiale the buildings in the old quarter,

hod Dow chaDged towads toudst-dependent uses or activities.

4.2. Tourist-dep€Ddent Uses f,t the Old 1)

Qrurter

Gen€rrl Composition atrd Locstion This study examined the occurrence oftourist-d€pendent uses and th€ir location

ir

the old quarter Th€ suvey results show thet almost one quarter of the

building and land uses are TDU (24.3%), and a little more than halfare NTDU (59.1%). There are also us€s that do not fall into either category, namely land plots wilhout buildings, or buildings without any activity inside, such as vacant buildings, vacad lsm4 buildings under rcno\,€tion or cemereries (16.6010) (Fig. 4).

This survey also found tourist-d€pendent uses consist ofmainly retail-based uses (51.2%) and service-based uses (32.67o). Both uses make up more than two third of the total TDU in the old quarter. Other tourist-dep€ndent uses inctude art galleries (9.8%), workshops (3.5%) and buildings with educational puposes such

as Dutch period house tumed into museum (2.8%)

(Fig. 5).

In the old quarter, tourist-dependent uses are nainly concentmted in the central part of the area, particularly along Jonker Street, which is the main business street and backbone

ofthe Jonk€r Walk Program (Fig. 6). Other streets which also recorded relatively high numberc ofTDU are Heeren Street, Jalan

Tokong, Lorong Hang Jebat, Jalan Hang Kasturi and Jalan Hang Lekir, all ofwhich intersect JoDker Steet (Fig. 7).

At streets level, almost all st€€ts showed some occurence of tourist-dependent activities in reus€d buildings. How€ver, certain streels show higher numbeN of activiti€s compared to oth€rs. For example, a relatively high number of TDU are found at Heeren Stree! Jalan Tokong, Jalan Hang Jebat, Jalan Hang Kasturi and Jelan Kubu. There arc also streets wherc the number of tourist-dependent uses is higher than non-lourist-dependent uses, such as Jonk€r Stieet and Jalan Hang Lekir This stlldy suggests that if lhis kind ofbuilding rcuse trend is not checked, it could pose a grcat threat to the town or sheetscape

of

the old quarter and its historic and cultuml legacy.

2) Composition and Location of Retail-based Tourist-dependent Uses

For retail-based TDU, gift and souvenir shops are the single largest use Retail. 146,

found in the old quarter (53%). They are followed by food and beverage products shops (17.9%o) and clothes and accessories shops (14.5%) (Fig. 8). Further analysis shows that Jonker Street has the highest number (n:49) and

NTDU,560, 59.lyo

\

most diverse types of retail-based TDU compared to other streets (at least one

occuffence for each use category). Jonker Street also has the most gift and

,./

\-\ --'t-

Fig 4 Tourist-dependent Uses Fig 5 Tourist-dependent Uses Components and Non-tourist-dependent Uses

souvenir shops, clothes and accessories shops and antiques shops (Fig. 9). The occuffence of such a trend can be related to the 'spillover effect' of the Jonker

walk Program, which prompted buildings in its surroundings to be reused due to their proximity to the main attraction (Fig. l0). 3) composition and Location of service-based rourist-dependent uses

For service-based TDU, restaurants, caf6s and pubs are the largest uses in 183

142

99

4:

I I I I

Tourists{ependent Uses Non-touristsdependent

Uses

Not Relevant Total Burldings and Lots

38

rs.:j 2e,l nl' ,r1'r:le

d**d*Hd:d &l lfl Ll dfldrfr "-*$'.;ki*;;$.$ffi tffi Fig 6 Tourist-dependent Uses and Non-tourist-dependent Uses Location

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14rq

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,T*'*$;$;i$w

Fig 7 Tourist-dependent Uses and Non-tourist-dependent Uses by Streets


the old quarter, which is about three quarters of the total service-based TDU

General Goods,

Shoes,3,2.60% '"'i r1'O.9o

ltems. Used/ -jn""r"utional t.O.gV" Merchandised.--Npmnqhf , 12, 10.3o/o -*w:rr.tryffi' urro , _r.

Antique and

Cin*

Food and Beverage..

Products, 21.

17

(73.8%). The second and third most service-based tourist-dependent uses are

tourist accommodation (13.8%) and buildings used for personal and health care services, such as massage centers andhair salons (7.5%) (Fig. 1l). The

i

survey shows that Heeren Street, which is parallel to Jonker Street on the

.9Yo

south, has the highest number of service-based TDU (n:19) (Fig. 12). These

Fig. 8 Components of Retail-based Tourist-dependent Uses -t

!

Specialty Food and

Drink Products

n

Shoes

il

Recreational Items

X Grocery

uses are dominated by tourist accommodations

(n:6) and restaurants and

caf6s (n:12). Many restaurants and cafes are also located at Jonker Street

(n:13). At some streets, only one type of service-based tourist-dependent use can be found. For example, at Jalan Tukang Emas and Jalan Kampung Pantai, only tourist accommodation can be observed. While at Jalan Hang

Kasturi, Jalan Hang Lekiu and Jalan Kubu, only restaurants and cafes are found. For example at Jalan Hang Kasturi, there are and cafes and no other type of TDU.

^\'

l0

themed restaurants

It is believed that if this kind of trend

continues, the old quarter could one day see its streets dominated by one type

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of tourist-dependent use only. This could reduce the diversity of activities in a

particular street and take away its original character.

Fig. 9 Location of Retail-based Tourist-dependent Uses by Streets 5.

f W

BUILDING ADAPTATION AND REUSE

Retail-based TDU

The results of the building use survey reveal that buildings in the old

Service-basedTDU

quarter that were adapted and reused involve either one or both of these interventions: a) Adaptation to the physical components of a building; and/or b) Reuse of a building's internal space. 5.1

Adapting Buildings' Physical Components The survey found that when a building had undergone the process

of physical adaptation, at least one of these components was involved: a) Interior or structure of a building; b) Space outside the building but within its lot boundary; andlor c) Building's external fabric or envelope (Fig. l3).

Examples of the adaptive reuse of buildings in the old quarter also show that when adaptation is carried out, at least one of the following three interventions is usually applied. The first intervention involves the Fig. 10 Location of Retail-based and Service-based Tourist-dependent Uses Monetary and Finance, 2.5,3 Personal and Health Care, 6,

modification, alteration or reconfiguration of the physical components of a building. The second intervention involves an addition or extension to a

Offrce,

,rr*,rl,.ia;

Public Amenities,

building. The third type of intervention involves partial demolition. Among

1,1.3y,

the three, modification creates the most minimal change to the building,

"..

"

while partial demolition causes the most severe change. The application

of different choice of intervention can generate a different intensity of Fig. 1l Components of Service-based Tourist-dependent Uses

consequences

for the historic area. For example, a modification or will

reconfiguration to the intemal space or structure of a building

generate

relatively minor consequences for the historic area compared to partial

I Food and Bevcrage tl Personal and Health Care

M Monetary and Finance

H Office

E Public Amenities

I

Tourist Accommodation

demolition of the building's facade or the installation of new elements on the building's exterior (Fig. la). This is because internal changes are usually

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Jln. T. Jln. T. Jln. Jln. Kg. Lrg. H. Jln. H. Jln. H. Street Street Besi Emas Tokong Pantai Jebat Kasturi Lekir Fig. l2 Location of Service-based Tourist-dependent Uses by Streets

Heeren Jonker

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Structure

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Extemal Fabric/ Envelope

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Fig. 13 Physical Components of Buildings in the Old Residential Quarter

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space

Zero change or total change to a building should not be considered as adaptive reuse, as th€ former does not involve any act of adaptation or rcuse,

and the latter presents complot€ transformation inside and out, which should b€ avoided for buildings in a historic area. 5,2 Reuse of Buildingsr

Irtemsl

SpNc€

Thc survey results also show that the intemal spaces of reused buildings in the old quarter. whose buildings are mainly two-storey shophouses or to\r'rihouses, are either partially or

fully reused with new activities. The findings which werc based on the suvey of 50 adapt€d and reused buildings in the old

quarter, show that partial reuse is usually chamcterized by mixed us€s withitr a building, and can appear in three forms. Th€ fust is the reuse space of a building's ground flool; the second is the reuse of th€ ftont intemal spac€s of th€ building's

buildinS's entire ground floor (Fig.

l5).

ofthe Aont int€mal

growd and upper floor, and the third is the reuse of lhe

Examples of such reuses in the old quarter includ€ art galleries, cafes, souvenir shops or workshops. Other Eeces in

the building usually rernain as a residenc€, become slorage, or ar€ even left vacant or us€d for only one single new use, such as toudst accommodation, rcstaunnts or

idle. For

a building which is

a( galleri€s. A fully

fitlly ieus€d, often the entire building

is

reused building poses greater challenges to the old quart€r

compared to a paftially rcused building. This is because the former intoduces totally n€w activity into the whole building, which csn extend the consequences

ofthe change to its surrounding area, and have either positive or negative effects on a larger scale. On the oth€r hand, the latter mixes existing and new within

a

building. Mixes ofuses are unlikely to generate dmstic consequences to ihe old quarter

there could be a potential conflict ofuses

ifthe current

as

uses

new activities arc wedged b€tween the existing. However

ones cannot aalapt to the new or vice vena. Planring for

full or partiel reuse shoulal be concemed about

ihe likely consequences ofboth rcuse methods. No. 81, Jonker Street. The Ge-

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theme. rheoriginal

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building.

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1offi@dtffisr,r.,cse No. ll4-118, Heeren

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No.6, Heeren

,- No. 39, Heeren

No. 124,

Street. Kafe Umeda. The back of the build-

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S

Wa Kee Chicken Rice Restaurant. ground floor facade this building has partially demol The inner space is the kitchen area the shop.

ographer Cafe. A ball-shaped sign, window canopies and mechanical sun-shades have been fixed into the facade ofthis

::fl".il3;il:",t3o,

E

No. 6-8, Jonker

Street.

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CB

Fine Arts.

ing has been extended to become a coffee shop, which has its own access point, without needing to go through the front.

No.6_HandcraftShop

o

Heeren Jehan

(J a

wall at the of the build lot has

a) (n

o

partial demo to entrance

q)

the

No. 21 Jonker Street.

,4;'ii;;;;;"'

Famosa Chicken Rice Restaurant. A payment counter, serving counter and refrigerator have been added inside the

. Jehan Chan

o rd

Arts. The 'r at the front

buildings has .ially demolis

front area ofthe shop.

ransform the hvo-level

:rq:

'J.

Interventions Intensity of Change

:

......... *::li:l1l:::::1t...........

...:"f*;i; :

Fig. 14 Types of Building Physical Adaptation in the old Residential euarter Total Surveyed Cases (50 Cases) ases)

Example of IIses Reused Space

Partial Reuse Type

l8

I

Samples (36%)

Type 2

Type 3

16 Samples (32%)

5 Samples (10%)

ffi ffi

t^,--

Ground floor

ffi

cafes, hair saloon, massage centre, office, art gallery crafts/art work-

^

Ground floor

Souvenir shops, food products shops. restaurants,

Samples (22%)

W ffi

M Ground floor

1l

Partial Reuse Tvne I

shons.

Type 3

Art Galleries.

Full Reuse Restaurants, cafes, art gallery ho-

tel/tourist accommodation.

Nonreuse Snace

Residential, storage/warehouse, vacant, idle.

Fig. 15 Types of Reused Building Internal Space in the old Residential Quarter

-784-

Tvpe 2 Souvenir shops, food products shops, restaurants, cafes, art gallery crafts/art workshons


6.

LOCAI COMMUNITY AND TOURISTSI PERCEPTIONS ON TOURIST-DEPENDENT ADAPTIVE REUSf, The results of the Marm-Whitney U-Test show that therc are two types of outcomes when comparilg the perceptions of local commmity and tourists in

the old quarter on adaptive reuse. The fiIst outcome shows that theie are similar concems and expectations ftom these two user goups about building adaptive reuse; while the other outcome indicates their different concems and expectations.

Both user groups sgre€ that adapting and reusing buildings makes lhe old quart€r more lively (Table

l)

(Fig. 16). How€ver, they also sharc conc€ms that

buildings with new uses reduce the privacy of residents living nearby (Fig. 17) and make the old quarter too touristic and comm€rcialized (Fig. l8). Both grcups have the opinion that n€w activities are not mme int€resting than traditional one (Fig. 18). These results show that local community and tourist are concemed about the consequences ofadaptive reuse that might atrect the social and hedtage aspects of the old quafi€r Subsequently, Mann-WhitDey U-Test results indicate that local community feel that adaptive rcus€ makes the historic place livelier, promotes the

rehabilitation ofexisting buildings and encourag€s gentdfication (Table l). While tourists f€el that adaptive reus€ makes the old quarter safer and also deates businesses that provid€ better quality services. They also feel that

buildhg reuse could affect heritage in the old quarter, and hence its ability to athact visitors.

Local community' afld toudsts' concems sbout the consequences of adaptivc reuse show that differcnt grcups have different expectations for the old quarter. For local community, tlrcy indicate their expectation that the old quarter keep its valuable h€ritage alld at the same time, be a good place to live. For toudsts,

th€ emphasis is for the old quartfl to ensue that tourists' visiting expedences are enhanced and their expectations m€t regarding its unique heritage, the availability ofquality services and safe8 Usels' concems and €xpectatioDs are important and should be used to guide the plarnring and rcgulation ofbuilding rcuse at historic towns or areas.

7.

PLAIINING FOR ADAPTIVE REUSE IN OLD RESIDENTIAL QUARTER Eiisting Pl&nning Cuidelines

7.1

Currandy, there are three plarming documeDts used by Melaka City Govemment to regulate adaptive reuse activity in the old quarter: the Melaka Central

lrcal

Distdct Table

I

Plan, 20 I 5

ra),

Special Area Plan: Melaka Historical City Conservation Area Management Plan '5), and Melaka Hisloricsl City Consewation Area

Local al L ommuntty and I ourtsts' Perceptions on the Effects of Adaptive Reuse in the Old Residential Ouarter Results of Mann-Whitnev U-Test

No.

Impacts of Adaptive Reuse at Historic Area

Physical and

lively. Reuse of buildings makes old

quarter safer place.

Local

132

Tourists

205

Total

337 132

Locals

Tourists Total

].

n

Mean Rank

Sum of Ranks

U

Interpretations of Results ullIerence rn (Jplnrons Similarity in Opinions Locals Tourists Agree Disagree

Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)

Z

Findings

Environment

Historic area becomes more .,

Group

Rehabilitated historic buildings are more attractive than nonrehabilitated buildinss.

202 334

Locals

131

Tourists Total

206

204.9 145.89

27046.5 29906.s

8791 .5

122.36 t9'7

16t52 39793

9

0.000

7374

7.033

0.000

10428

-3.608

0.000

12937

-0.514

0.s66

25664.5 29946.5

9645.5

-4.278

0.000

r2t87.5

t.498

0.t34

9540

-4.651

0.000

o

Tourists feel reuse improves the service of businesses.

o

Tourists feel reuse reduces the heritage attraction ofthe historic place.

192.4 154.12

25204

172.24

22564

-5.6

I

Locals feel adaptive reuse improves the environment of the place by making it more livelv-

o

Tourists feel reuse improves the safety of the historic environment.

o

Locals feel reuse improves the buildings' physical appearance.

o

3t749

337

Social

of buildings makes old quarter good place to live. Reuse

Locals Tourists Tota

-)

Reuse of buildings promotes

Locals

gentrification.

Tourists Total Locals Tourists Total

Reuse ofbuildings reduces old quarter's habitants' privacy.

Economv + I Businesses

operating in reused buildings give quality services.

Heri age Tourism 1. Reuse of buildings causes old quarter to lose its heritage attractions. Reuse of buildings makes old quarter a commercialised. l

Modern activities at the old quarter are more interesting (han

traditional ones

l00o/",

50'A'

I

131

20s 336

l66.ll

132 201

t94.43 148.99

340s2

o

Both locals and tourists leel reuse improves the living environment of the historic nlace. Locals feel that reuse improves the social mix of the place.

o

Locals and tourists feel reuse reduces the privacy ofpeople living at the

o

11t

t32

I

204

ji5

t74.76

20965.5 35650.5

Locals

132

t38.77

18318

Tourists

205

r

88.46

3863s

Total

717 144.58 185.47

l 9084.5 38206.5

I

0306.5

3.833

0.000

168.51 168.5

22014.5 34541.5

t3426.5

-0.001

0.999

58.83 l75.s.s

2096s 35988

t2187

Locals

t32

Tourists

206

Total Locals Tourists Tofal

338

Locals Tourists Total

132 205

131

205 336

58.83

historic area.

1

Locals and tourists feel reuse can make

O 1.582

0.1 14

o

nn I'of

il. E, t_t I I n

\57)7

13816

I

l

nLl

l

5\Yo'

l4ils I I I l3$l4 ,tltl l

Reuse of building lReuse of buildingl

il Disagree

!

Agree

Fig. 17 Perceptions on the Social Effects of Adaptive Reuse

lt

151.5

lunb

I reduces local I inhabitants' I privacy.

n

r00%

tl*,,1r"Ii.. I ro"ut. lrou.irt.l promotes gentrification.

historic area touristic area fill with commercialization. Locals and tourists feel traditional activities at the historic area are more interestins than new activities

I I I

t1 ll lo*f

t L_l

Reuse of building

makes OQ touristic and commercialized.

ilDisagree nAgree

Fig. 18 Perceptions on the Tourism Effects of Adaptive Reuse

-785-


Action Plan t6). However, this study found

a

Nmber of limitations with the existing guidelircs, whsr€ firstly, the guidelines in these documeDts are not sp€cifi-

cally fomulated to address the issue ofexcessive mber ofbuildirgs in the old quarter being adapted and reused for tourist-oriented busircss and service, this issue has never been identified District

Ircal

as a problem

as

beforc. Second, the emphasis and depth of all thre€ documents are alifferent. For €xample Melaka Central

Plan 2015 has no specific provisions dealing with adaptive reuse even though it provides general urban design guidelines for the olal quarter

The other document, the Action Plan does provide detail analysis and guidelines to conhol adaptive reuse activity, however the focus is only on individual street and not the whole old quarter. In additiotr to that, th€ Action

Pla[ regulate adaptive reuse activity by conftollirg nuiDly building use, which this study

believes, is insufrcient to support the planning of the old quarter effectively. This rcseaxch contends that there should be other complimentary a€chanism, such as area nenagemeot measule, which can help in

co

rolling the building adaptiv€ reuse in the old quarter

7.2 Reserrch Proposal

This paper puts fo*ard a proposal that wish€s to compliment existing guidelines, in addressing the situation of adaptive reus€ and tourist-dependent uses

in the old qudrt€r. The proposal is based on the needs ofihe use$, which

axe grouped

into three categories: 1) Lively envircnrnent; 2) Historical intactness

or integrity, aDd 3) Quality of service. To meet the users' D€€ds for lively €nvironment and historical integrity, eight principles which include building use concentration, building use type, quaDtity of existing use, adaptation interyantion, awaxeness installation aod arca manageflren! have been prcposed to ensure the old quarter is

lively and contains historical integrity to meet local arld tourists' ne€ds. Wlile the principle ofproduct and service monagem€nt is proposed

to improve the quality of s€rvice in the old quarter to meet mainly tourists' need. Th€ implementation of these principles should consider both toudstdependent uses and non-tourist-dependent uses in the old

quart€r Over-emphasizing TDU related aalaptive reus€ will make the old qu&rter too touristic

commercialize4 whereas old quarter without arly new activity would make it stagDant and maDagement measuresr interd to achieve a situation in the old quarter that is a rcsult

dull.

anal

Therefore, these principles which are mainly planning and

ofbalaice TDU and NTDU,

aDd that can meet useN' n€eds

(Fig. l9).

The reason why not only planning measues are Foposed for this study but also matreg€ment measures is b€cause this study believes ptanning coDhol must b€ complimented by rnanag€m€nt

ofthe

area in the old quaxier, especially

if the outcome

intenals to achieve improve service for tourists and indease

awareness arnong locals about th€ rced to implement adaptive rcuse appropriately in the old qu.arter.

t. CONCLUSION This study, which focuses mainly on building adaptive reuse st the old residential quart€r of Melaka City for tourist-dependent uses, has ialentifieal Dumber of findings

rhich could allow

a aleeper understaDding of the subject of adaptive rcuse in the historic city. In this res€arcb,

a

it is fould that most of

the new activities housed in adapted and reused buitdings at the old rcsidentia.l quarter are retail busiDesses and services aimed at toudsts. Tourist-alepend€nt us€s arc also concenhated mainly at the cential part

of the old quarter, with most of ihe reused building fouDd on Jonker Stree! H€€reD Street and rtreets

intersecting them. The high concentration of TDU around this area could have been prompted by the successful implementation ofthe Jonker Walk progremme Research Findings

Locals

l.

Historic area becomes more

2.

lively.

Reuse of buildings pro-

motes

3.

gentrification.

Reuse of buildings

makes old quarter place.

Proposal Need Category

a

safer

good

reduces old quarter's habitants' privacy.

Rehabilitatedhistoric buildings are more at-

tractive than non-rehabilitated buildings.

O

O

O

O

a

than

Businesses operating in reused buildings give

quality services.

quarter. Dominance of TDU over NTDU could jeopardize the historical quality ofthe quarter.

To dictate the kind ofintervention when building undergo adapti reuse process_. Low intensity adaptation create less damage to I

intactness of built heritage. Intemal space To determine the amount of internal space to be reused. Mo reuse space to be reused means higher intensity ofchange, which cou affect the feeling in the quarter and the privacy ofiesidents.

Instil aware-

o

ness

To increase building owners, inhabitants and business owners awareness about the need to balance TDU and NTDU in the ol quarter, so that both can complement each other, than one dominal ing the other.

O

O

O

O

Area manage- A torrrism marketing and promotion measure to identiff attract ment in the old quarter linked to TDU or NTDU, so that the area w these attractions are located can be upgraded, packaged and pr moted to visitors and locals alike, to improve the quality of area, highlight and reintroduce the heritage of the old quarter.

Modem activities are traditional ones.

10.

Wili affect the presence of large number of TDU or NTDU in old

Building To indicate building's need to be rehabilitated or otherwise. Reharehabilitation bilitate building is better than not, to produce historical intactness, safety, functionality and quality visual for building and the quarter.

Reuse of buildings

more interesting

Quantity of existing use

a

old quarter.to lose its heritage attractions.

9.

and NTDU in old quarter, and how TDU should not threaten the privacy ofresidents or quarter's damage the historical image, but create lively and safe

Adaptation intervention

causes.

makes old quarter commercialised.

Will affect the balance between TDU

type O

Reuse of buildings

8.

9.

Product and To increase the quality of the products and services to touriG service man- locals. It involves the identification, development, packaging and agement promotion of products and services that reflect the-cultural herif age and people ofthe old quarter

Fig. 19 Proposed Measures to Control Adaptive Reuse in the Old Quarter

-786-

and NTDU in old quarter.

will influence the flow of people and traffic in the quarter, which will affect inhabitants'privacy and visitors'feeling in the quarter.

Building use

Reuse of buildings

7.

This

environment.

makes old quarter place to live.

6.

Will ettbct the concentration of TDU

concentration

o

Reuse of buildings

5.

Building use


which aift to regenerate lhe old quaxter through

a toudsm-led urban revitalisation progmrnme. How€ver, lhere is a

possibility that some streets will have more

than half ofth€ir buildings adapted and reused for toudst-dep€ndent uses such as souvenir shops or restaurants itr the fuirre. There coulal also be a situation wherc only one kind of tourist{ependent use dominat€s a whole street or section of an arca within the old quarter. The clmelrt situation in the old quarter is gearing towards this hen4 v.hich could continue as tourism alemand grows due to Meleka CiVs recent inclusion in the IINESCO WHS.

This study attempts to classiry the types of approaches and interventioDs used for the reuse ofbuildings in lh€ old quarter This classification proiluces some indic&tors which are able to help individuals or ofrcials deciile how buildings located in lhe historic aree can be adapted and reuse4 to achieve the intended intrnsity of change for the building, street or area. This classificalion may be the first attempt to compare adaptive reus€ approaches with the efrects lhey bring to the historic area ofan Asian city. Findings ftom this research also alemonstrate that users ofth€ old quaxter, namely the local cornmunity which consist of the rcsidents and business owers, and also domestic and iDt€mational tourists, have diff€rent and similar concems and expectations about the consequ€nces that adaptive reus€ brings to the

old quarter. The findings suggest that dif€rent users view changes brought by adaptive reuse difrerently, and their views reflect their concems and also their expectations for the old quarter. The findings also indicate therc is no cl€ax 'yes or no' answ6 for adaptive reuse, heDce there should not be a ,orc-size-fits-all' rule for building adaptation and reuse in the histodc area. Rathet building reuse should be implemented based on the concens and expectatioD of the historic &r€a's userc and how these usefs desire the place to be.

The proposal in this paper is meant to steer building adaptation and reus€ in the old residential quarter ofMelaka

City.

B€sid€s that, it wishes to sugg€st

to urba[ planne$, heritage managers and decision mak€rs, the possible measues to be implemented in the old quart€r, to complim€nt and strengthen existiDg guidelines in addressing the issue ofadaptive reuse towards tourist-dependent uses. The sequential methodology of this research, which start€d from collecting

building use data, to conducti[g perception surey on histodc

area s users about th€ etrects

of adaptive r€use,

anal up to the

final task of formulating plnning

guidelines, can be all emulated and applied in olher historic areas, towr$ or cities that wish to implement and regulate tourist-dependent aalaptive reuse activity.

REFERENCES l) V€fthuis, K & Spennemann, DHR: 'The tutule ofd€fiDct r€ligious buildings - Dutch 2)

KiMid,Dt Adaptits

3) C.ves, RW (ed.):

t

buildings

fot chansins usd-guidelines fot

ch

approaches to their adapriv€

t€u*', Cultwat Tud\vol.16, No.l, pp.43-66,200?.

se ofuse rcfutbrJ'ae'r, Spon prcsq2002.

cJ.€lop"dia olthe city,P.o\Lrledige,2005.

4) lyler, N, LiSibel, TJ &

lyle\lR:

Histotic resenation

-

inboilucti@ ro its history pinciples, and pt@tice (2r edn), w. w. Norton & co.,2009.

5) Chua, RS & Deguchi, A: Chang€ ofbuilding use in old resid€dial quan€r ofMelaka City, Malaysia as a UNESCO Wdld Heritaee site,, Jownat of Architectw

Kw

hu

U"iwsity,

6) Langsion, C, Wong,

a

Urban Desig

16, pp. 3346, 2009.

FKlx Hui, ECM &

Shen,

LY

'SFategic ass€ssnent ofbuilding adaptive r€us€ opportunities in Hong Kong', B,rldrns ahd

Eneionnqt,43(t}), W. n09-

1718,2008. 7) Straka" V & Gorgolwski, M: 'Adaptive building reuse and cmponent r€use', ./rr Inenational

SrRodwell,Dt 9) Obasli, A:

Cownatio

ond sustainability itl

hbtoic ctrie!, Blackwell

%uirrr ,r nrtotic tows: uba co6nation a

Srrctwal

Specialry

Cofewe,

Canad^,2m6.

publishinS, 2007.

d heritase nanagen€rr, Taylor & Flancis, 2000.

l0) Fotsch, PMr 'Iourisnt rmevh impact - history on Camery ploet, Annal ofToutisn Reseorch,3t(4), pp. ,t1g-a00,2004. ll) lviendq N: The mle of tourism in adaptive reuse and development of histdic public space', tx/rSCO ConIercrce/wotkshop ot the Aitapti|e Re-Be of Histotic prpenks ik Asia and the Pa.ific, Malaysia. 1999.

1983. 13) Funo' S, Yarnasfi D, Utaka Y, Ongsavangchai N & Yamadr, K: Conside€tions or urban formation and rhe form of townllous€ of oftt

lrchitectwe Planning. Anhitectual Institute ofJapan, No. 14) Town Plaiming Departnea[ Melaka 15) Town

590, pp.

Cenial Disrict Local pta,,

Pla'dng Departrnqt: Spaial aM plan: Melaka

M ablrca (Mataysia\t, Joumat oJ

20 j 5, MetakJ City Council, Melata, 2009.

Histti.ol

t6) Town Plaming Departmefi. Melaka Histotical City consetuation

roM

4l-47, 2005.

Ciry @nsewation area

Ma

na@aeMt ptan,

Metaka Ciry Council. Melata_ 2010.

action ptan, Melaka City Council, Melaka, 2000.

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-787-

ourist-Dependent Adaptive Reuse In The Old Residential Quarter Of Melaka City, Malaysia  

ourist-Dependent Adaptive Reuse In The Old Residential Quarter Of Melaka City, Malaysia

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