NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON MAJOR ECONOMIC Organised by Akademi Sains Malaysia and NAHRIM on 25 July 2011 /
SUSTAINABLE LAND USE PLANNING IN A CHANGING CLIMATE Dr. Dahlia Rosly and Nor Zaliza Puzi Research and Development Division Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Peninsular Malaysia Abstract The consequences of a changing climate warrant adaptation as to how we plan and manage our land use. Realizing the close relationship between „green‟ land use planning and climate change management, the Malaysian Government has strategically provided support for climate change adaptation through coordination across both geographic and policy boundaries. This paper highlights sustainable land use planning approaches and efforts in making cities more resilient to changes in climatic conditions by integrating climate change adaptation into the planning policies framework, specifically within the framework of the National Physical Plan and the National Urbanization Policy. It further describes associated aspects in managing „green‟ and „blue‟ spaces including planning in coastal and other environmentally sensitive areas with some insights into Disaster Risk Reduction. In making cities sustainable and resilient, land use planning while taking energy efficiency and renewable energy into consideration, also addresses water management and local food production. A low carbon lifestyle would also support smart-growth principles focusing on green transportation and walkability designed within transit-oriented and mixed-use development. These initiatives would be binded by community engagement and a green communities‟ network supported by Local Authorities‟ initiatives in promoting sustainable land use planning, with green neighbourhoods as a basic module. Keywords: sustainable development, land use planning policies, climate change, green neighbourhoods, disaster risk reduction
INTRODUCTION In an age of pervasive global warming, propulsive population growth, increasing resource constraint and adverse climatic impacts, land use planning must adapt and innovate more proactively than ever before, more so with the world becoming increasingly urbanized whereby cities contribute more than two thirds of global green house gas emissions while occupying a mere 2% of the world‟s land mass. United Nation‟s figures show that by 2030, the proportion of the total population living in urban areas in developing countries will be more than 60 percent.
NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON MAJOR ECONOMIC Organised by Akademi Sains Malaysia and NAHRIM on 25 July 2011 /
Similarly, cities in Malaysia have been growing at a rapid rate and it is estimated that 76% of the nationâ€&#x;s population will reside in cities by 2020, increasing pressure on our resources and the environment. High resource consumption for our water and energy supply would deplete our natural resources, resources that would be needed to sustain communities and the people within them. Urbanization also generate solid waste, further increasing land and water pollution. Meanwhile, urban activities especially those from urban motorized traffic contribute to carbon emission. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND LAND USE PATTERN With increasing carbonization and climate impacts, not only must energy production and lifestyles shift to the low carbon alternative, we must also increase efficiencies in current land use configurations in urban and rural areas. In both urban and rural areas the impacts of climate change have been well documented. Warmer temperatures and changes in precipitation have wide ranging impacts including sea level rise, land instability and landslips, erosion of soils, loss of organic matter and changes in patterns of nutrient recycling and the increase in flood incidents and coastal erosion. Coastal floods and erosion will have consequential impacts on the locations for future businesses, industrial and agriculture developments i.e. increased risks will have implications on the use of land and its pattern in the future. For example the increase in demand for flood defences for existing developments influences the location of new key infrastructure such as roads or railways. Similarly, areas which are vulnerable to floods may become unsuitable for residential developments; however, they may be suitable for other uses related to wetland habitats. Erosion and flooding will also impact land and soils by way of compromising the biodiversity of affected areas and increasing the risk of damage or loss of cultural heritage sites. On the demographic front, an increase in population due to migration from areas severely affected by climate change may result in greater demand for residential development, public facilities and infrastructure in developable areas which are increasingly scarce. In a similar note, agricultural production would have to be increased as the demand for food production increases. On water related aspects, water infrastructure that serves towns and cities with clean water and the management of waste water will also need to adapt to the impacts of the changing climate. As such many of the key strategies for coping with climate change are linked to land use planning, critical in enabling communities to adapt to consequential climatic impacts. As an example, reducing GHG emissions from deforestation requires land use policies to protect forests and other valuable carbon sinks, also taking into account flood risks, vulnerable lands and infrastructure and making space for habitats.
NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON MAJOR ECONOMIC Organised by Akademi Sains Malaysia and NAHRIM on 25 July 2011 /
GREEN URBANISM ADAPTATION
In realizing that sustainable land use planning strategies play an important role to both mitigate GHGs and adapt to the changing climate, the Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Peninsular Malaysia (FDTCP) advocates the creation green neighbourhoods and cities to promote low carbon society, communities which are sustainable and green. Green Urbanism integrates urban planning, human health and ecosystems with the community whereby the community is designed based on the understanding of, connecting and adapting to local sustainable resources. Theoretically it is an urbanism process that does not exceed the carrying capacity of the bioregion. Much of the current thinking in urban and community design focuses on the form of neighbourhood and community. Beatley, T. (2000), described that neighbourhoods and cities that exemplify green urbanism are characterized as follows:
they strive to live their ecological limits, fundamentally reduce their ecological footprints, and acknowledge their connection with and impacts on other cities and communities;
they are designed for and function in ways analogous to nature;
they strive to achieve a circular rather than a linear metabolism, which matures and develops positive symbiotic relationships with and between its hinterland (whether that be regional, national, or international);
they strive towards local and regional self-sufficiency and take full advantage of nurturing local/regional food production, economy, power production, and many other activities that sustain and support their population;
they facilitate (and encourage) more sustainable, healthful lifestyles; and
they emphasize a high quality of life and the creation of highly liveable neighbourhoods and communities.
Thus Green Urbanism1 would support an integrated planned habitat, emphasizing on the protection, use and recycling of natural resources, besides promoting public health, safety and general welfare of urban people. Key characteristics are that they are waste free, designed to reduce trip-making between single land uses, transport efficient with widely available public transportation. Characteristics 1
„Green approaches‟ also apply to rural communities.
also include walkable neighbourhoods, small-scale streets and cycle-friendly, wholly energy independent with minimal carbon output including reduction of fossil-fuel use, adopting sustainable building practices, promote "green spaces" and parks as „lungs of the cities‟ and clean air quality and implement energyefficient initiatives. Green Urbanism also develops strong community relationship thus developing well-organized mixed-use neighbourhoods that combine living, working and shopping with defined community gathering places, individual or community farms to support local food production. To commit the above approach, FDTCP had drafted the Green Neighbourhood Planning Guidelines2 using the neighbourhood as a basic module of a city. This initiative is in line with the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) and also supports the Pekeliling Ketua Setiausaha Kementerian Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan Bil. 5 Tahun 2008 – Pelaksanaan Program Bumi Hijau oleh Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan3 which was enforced in August 2008. MAKING CITIES RESILIENT – A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE AND DISASTER RISK REDUCTION Sustainable land use planning policies framework contributes towards making cities more resilient. One way of reducing long term climate change risk and vulnerabilities is to mainstream climate change adaptation into sustainable land use planning, this is vital in building resilience to the impacts of climate change amongst communities, businesses and ecosystems. The World Conference on Disaster Reduction held 2005 in Kobe, Japan, had conceived the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005 –2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters. It has identified five key areas in Disaster Risk Reduction which include risk management and early warning systems, information management and education, governance and reduction of underlying risk factors and preparedness for response and recovery. The Hyogo Framework for Action lists land use planning as one of the key priorities. It also suggests that disaster risk assessments should be incorporated into urban planning and management in disaster-prone human settlements. Under Thrust 4 in the Hyogo Framework for Action, the role of land use planning had been specified as follows: 2
This guideline have been presented to and endorsed by the Green Technology and Climate Change Council and shall be presented to the Cabinet and subsequently to the National Council for Local Government (MNKT) to guide state governments and local authorities, developers and other stakeholders in planning for green neighbourhoods and cities. 3
This is a Circular by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, instructing Local Authorities to support „greening‟ initiatives including promoting urban agriculture and vegetable plots in individual houses.
(a) Incorporate disaster risk assessments into urban planning and management of disaster prone to human settlements, in particular highly populated areas and quickly urbanizing settlements. The issues of informal or non permanent housing and the location of housing in high risk areas should be addressed as priorities, including in the framework of urban poverty reduction and slum upgrading programmes. (b) Mainstream disaster risk considerations into planning procedures for major infrastructure projects, including the criteria for design, approval and implementation of such projects and considerations based on social, economic and environmental impact assessments. (c) Develop, upgrade and encourage the use of guidelines4 and monitoring tools for the reduction of disaster risk in the context of land-use policy and planning. (d) Incorporate disaster risk assessment into rural development planning and management, in particular with regard to mountain and coastal flood plain areas, including through the identification of land zones that are available and safe for human settlement. Though natural disasters occur naturally, climate change often exacerbate it, thus both climate change and natural disasters should be addressed mutually and not in isolation. Thus an integrated approach in sustainable land use planning is indeed pertinent. Sustainable land use planning in the context of adaptation to the changing climate is within and supported by the Malaysian Land use Planning Policy Framework and Development Plans
INTEGRATED LANDUSE PLANNING FRAMEWORK IN MALAYSIA Concerns about sustainability in development and growth in Malaysia have been indicated at the national, state and local levels with land use planning considered as an important instrument towards integrated planning and management of land resources5 through proper use, conservation and development of land. Agenda 21 had set out the commitment to sustainable development6 and provides the 4
FDTCP has prepared planning guidelines addressing the reduction of disaster risks such as the Guideline regulating the development of Hill Lands and its surrounding areas and Guidelines for Environmentally Sensitive Areas. 5 Embodied in a system referred to as Integrated Resource Planning and Management System (IRPMS) incorporated in the process of development planning at all levels of government administration. 6
Sustainable development is defined as „the ability to make development sustainable – to ensure that it meets the needs of present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs‟. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED),” Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, The Earth Summit” Rio De Janeiro, June 1992.
framework for making development socially, economically and environmentally sustainable in the 21st century. However, implementing sustainable land use development remain a challenging task as the interrelationships between climate change and land use planning is a fragile one, often with competing land use objectives and competing players. Nevertheless, the ability of future generations to meet their own needs should not be compromised. The current generation should:
minimize use or waste of non renewable resources- includes minimizing the consumption of fossil fuels in housing, commerce, industry and transport plus substituting renewable resources where feasible;
sustainably use renewable resources with cities drawing on resources at levels which can be sustained; and
keep wastes from cities within absorptive capacity of local and global sinks, including renewable sinks and non-renewable sink.
The above concepts were also outlined in the Vision 20207 of Malaysia whereby the role of physical planning in national development is in line with Vision 2020 and the National Five-Year Development Plans. The National Five Year Development Plan is translated into broad strategic policies through the allocation of main human activities such as housing, commercial, industries, and recreation and transportation network. Consistent with the national strategy, these broad strategic physical policies is then translated into the National Physical Plan (NPP), and the National Urbanization Policy (NUP) to ensure that all physical, economical, social and environmental objectives mentioned above are met as stipulated in the Town and Country Planning Act 1976 (Act 172)8. Development plans are instrumental in guiding future development and play a vital role in the development control system. These plans in the form of either 7
Quote “We must also ensure that our valuable resources are not wasted. Our land must remain productive and fertile, our water unpolluted, our forest resources capable of regeneration and able to yield the needs of our national development. The beauty of our land should not be desecrated; for its own sake and for our own economic advancement. (Dato‟ Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamed, The Way Forward. Working paper presented at the Inaugural Meeting of the Malaysian Business School Feb 28, 1991. Prime Minister‟s Department. Kuala Lumpur.) 8
The Town and Country Planning Act 1976 (Act 172), regulates land use development towards achieving sustainable development and has been amended to include aspects to protect the natural environment, preservation of natural topography, geology, drainage, water bodies and water catchments, preservation and planting of trees, provision of open spaces and strengthening of administrative hierarchies to regulate development.
Structure, Local or Special Area Plans are blue prints against which planning regulations are exercised. NATIONAL PHYSICAL PLAN (NPP)9 At the highest level of plan, NPP is a written statement formulating strategic policies for the purpose determining the general directions and trends of the physical development of the nation. It applies the Integrated Resource Planning and Management System (IRPMS) where physical planning and natural resources utilization will be integrated and allocated at the second level of planning at state level. In terms of water resource management and coastal areas, salient points made under NPP include the following: i.
safeguard and manage sustainably all surface and ground water resources, through ranking the area as 10Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) Rank 3, gazetting all water catchment areas to avoid further encroachment of incompatible land uses into such areas and adopting Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) and Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) into land use planning;
commitment shoreline management through Integrated Coastal Zone Management System (ICZM), in order to protect national heritage areas and avoid disrupting ecological stability.
Incorporating sustainable forest management approaches
ESAs will be integrated in the planning and management of land use and natural resources by specifying the type of development allowed in ESAs based on the level of sensitivity ranking of the area. A Central Forest Spine (CFS) shall be established to form the backbone of the ESAs network;
NPP is drawn up under the statutory requirement under Part IIB Section 6B (a) of Town and Country Planning, 1976 (Act 172). 10 Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) is an area rich in miscellaneous biology such as forest, swampland, environmentally risk area, for example, erosion area and life supporting areas such as water catchment areas. 10 ESAs identified includes: • Miscellaneous biologically ESA; • Highland and steep ESA; • Water catchment ESA; • Wild life and reserve ESA; • River ESA; • Swampland ESA; • Coastal ESA; • Permanent forest reserve ESA; • Geological heritage and landscape ESA; and • Cultural and arts ESA.
future planning of settlements and infrastructure in coastal zones will be located away from areas vulnerable to rising sea levels/storm surges.
In addition, natural barriers, especially mangroves shall be protected and expanded and further conversion of mangroves for development will no longer be allowed, so is the conservation of forests and peat lands, which acts as the important carbon sinks. With policies in the National Physical Plan in place, implementation by State and Local Authorities are instrumental. NATIONAL URBANIZATION POLICY11 Rapid urban development12 has contributed to the degradation of environmental quality. Following are some measures as highlighted in the National Urbanization Policy which addresses sustainable footprints as follows: i.
Optimal and balanced land use planning in urban development, hence all development shall be compatible with the surrounding land uses and concentrated within the urban growth limit so as to create a compact city;
ii. environmental conservation and improving the urban quality of life; iii. encourage development that reduces the impact of urban heat islands and to ensure that urban development takes into account the reduction of air, noise and water pollution; iv. adopt practices in the Manual for Environment Friendly Drainage Design (MSMA) to improve water quality and reduce the risk of flood; and v. improve efficiency in water management with emphasis on demand, utilization of alternative and non-conventional sources (rain water harvesting and water recycling) as well as reduce wastage (non-revenue water). Within its aim to create cities with a peaceful communities and living environment through sustainable urban development, other measures are guided by the NUP‟s objectives to develop a planned, quality, progressive and a sustainable cities system as well as strengthen the currently competitive urban economy; as well as ensuring a conducive environment to encourage social development; 11
JPBD, (2006), “National Urbanization Policy”, Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Ministry of Housing and Local Government. 12
Urbanization in Peninsular Malaysia has increased rapidly during the last two decades whereby the rate of urbanization has increased from 54.3% to 65.4% between 1991 and 2000. This is expected to increase to 75% by 2020.
eradicate urban poverty; strengthen the planning, implementation and monitoring system; as well as urban management and governance.
PHYSICAL PLANNING GUIDELINES Physical planning guidelines prepared by the FDTCP are based on the philosophy of a „Total Planning and Development Doctrine‟ which was conceived by the Department in 1997 to „create a balance between physical development, human development and spiritual development. FDTCP Guidelines13 provide information concerning site selection, buffer zone requirement, setback requirements and other planning standards At present there are 27 reviewed Guidelines and 7 new guidelines, promoting sustainable goals and objectives prescribing best planning and design practises. Amongst these guidelines are those directly related to the regulation of development in Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESA’s)14 covering ten types of ESAs. Additionally the Planning Guidelines for Hill Land and Highland Areas emphasizes development control over all classes of slopes15. This reviewed guideline16 has focused on the component of safety and vulnerability of environmentally sensitive areas and can be read together with JPBD‟s Study on Geo-Hazard Areas in Land Use Planning. Supporting these are Guidelines produced by various Ministries including Guidelines for Installing a Rainwater Collection & Utilization System by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government (MHLG) in 1999. This in line with the 9th Malaysia Plan among which had encouraged rainwater harvesting as an alternative in sustainable water resource management. The Federal Department of Town and Country Planning under the Ministry of Housing and Local Government had also reviewed other existing Planning Guidelines such as the Open Space and Rooftop Garden Guidelines in supporting the green development agenda. MURNInets (Malaysian Urban and Rural Indicator Network for Sustainable Development) - PROMOTING GOOD GOVERNANCE FOR SUSTAINABILITY.
The main objective of planning guidelines is to assist local authorities, state governments as well as other players in the landuse planning process to guide through best planning practices. 14 In the Guideline, ESA is defined as „a special area that is sensitive to development or related activities and needs to be conserved for its heritage value, to maintain its life support functions or to minimize the risk of hazard that it may pose and consider the carrying capacity of a place. 15 Classes of slope (Class I-Class IV) as identified by the Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment (NRE), Malaysia, based on altitudes, gradient of slopes, land use and soil suitability, geomorphology, geotechnical characteristics and also its hydrological profile. 16 This reviewed guideline has incorporated the NRE 2002 guidelines, Ministry of Housing and Local Government, 1997 Guidelines and also reports from EPU on the Highland Policies which was tabled at the cabinet meeting in 2002.
The Federal Department of Town and Country Planning had established the Malaysian Urban Indicators Network (MURNInet)17 in 2002 to monitor cities for their performance in sustainable development. These indicators provide a snapshot of the state of critical sectors pertaining sustainable development such as environmental, social and economic well-being, thus displaying the state of sustainable development of Malaysian cities. The ability to gauge development by way urban indicators will assist policy makers in identifying gaps and making decisions on critical areas of sustainability whereby the indicators system serves as a tool not only to identify gaps but also to measure progress of cities through plans of action and programmes towards sustainable development. Similar there have been many efforts worldwide in measuring performance of cities, often using similar themes and indicators based on sustainability objectives related to low carbon and green lifestyle. The Green City Index18 Asia survey conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) in 2010 contain indicators related to the creation of a low carbon society whereby Malaysia was listed along with Bangkok, Jakarta, Beijing, Shanghai and New Delhi under the category of "moderate", a positive sign that Malaysia‟s moving up in green city initiatives, as interpreted in this indicator system. SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATER SYSTEMS Urban water systems are increasingly facing sustainability challenges from climate change as many current models of water systems infrastructure in cities are unsustainable and increasingly challenged by impending water crisis and over consumption especially in developed economies. Water issues in cities generally concerns the quantum of water, either too much water (in incidences of flooding and plentiful of dirty waste water) or too little water (thus exacerbating water stress and water scarcity) as rainfall becomes more erratic and droughts prolonged and more intense due to climate change. Global water consumption have been well documented with the agricultural sector estimated to take a share of total consumption of more than 80%, followed by the reservoir losses, industry use and municipality use. The biggest consumption of water in cities comes from the food we consume and the clothes19 that we wear. Climate change challenges 17
MURNInet has recently been reviewed to include sustainable development indicators under 6 dimensions i.e. Sustainable Communities, Land use and Natural Resources, Environmental Quality, Infrastructure and Transportation, Economic Competitiveness and Effective Governance. Indicators include climate change aspects for both urban and rural areas. This Sustainable Development Indicator Network is now rebranded as MURNInets. 18 Among Indicators used are: CO2 emissions per person (tones/person), Energy consumption per US$ GDP (MJ/US$), Population density (persons/km²), Green spaces per person (m²/person), Superior public transport network, covering trams, light rail, subway and BRT (km/km²), Share of waste collected and adequately disposed (%),Waste generated per person (kg/person/year), Water consumption per person (litres per person per day), Water system leakages (%), Population with access to sanitation (%),Share of wastewater treated (%), Daily nitrogen dioxide levels (ug/m³), Daily sulphur dioxide levels (ug/m³), Daily suspended particulate matter levels (ug/m³). 19
note fibre production and the global trading system
the management of water, a crisis that we are facing globally, Malaysia included. Malaysia has abundant water resources hhowever, seasonal distribution and variation, both temporally and spatially, renders some regions to be occasionally water-stressed. Rapid economic growth and physical periodic occurrence of prolonged drought, has brought the problems of water imbalance into sharper focus, especially where development is concentrated in 'water-stress' regions. In some regions there are more people than what a river basin can support. The 1998 water crisis that hit the Klang Valley is a case in point. 20 Water use by the year 2020 is projected to increase from a current 15.5 BCM to some 20 BCM. Currently, Malaysians use an average of 226 litres of water per person daily21, which is way above our South-East Asia neighbours. Singaporeans use 154 litres while Thailand manages with 90 litres. In comparison, the U.K. water consumption is 150 litres per person per day. Current consumption levels are the result of cultural and technological change and this have been demonstrated in the U.S. case where water consumption have proliferated to about 400 litres per person per day (partly contributed by luxury and intense features in technology, water consumption has also increased by excessive use of cleaning products). Approaches in managing water use have firstly, taken the „technological fix‟ and secondly through social change by convincing and changing the attitudes of communities on water use and conservation. Conventional approach to water infrastructure a linear process22. It is often that engineering systems are designed to supply water to meet demand despite water being a limited resource with regional and local constraints. There is however challenges in using the approach of demand augmentation. As had been highlighted there are environmental limits and economic constraints on new supply and distribution. Furthermore water storage and supply processes entails considerable carbon emissions with water being a very „heavy‟ substance requiring substantial energy for its treatment and pumping into our cities. It is common in most cities that that water use takes up the biggest slice in energy utility. So it is pertinent that messages built into the technical system do not conflict with conservation messages. There needs to be a review on the projection on water needs that it should not predominantly be based on supply augmentation. In this context there are various techniques in demand management such the restriction use, water conservation campaigns, water efficient appliances and pricing. Alternative water systems i.e. rainwater harvesting can be initiated on a household scale as well as neighbourhood scale through creative housing 20
Dato' Ir. Haji Keizrul bin Abdullah (March, 2011), “Integrated River Basin Management ReportTowards Realising Integrated River Basin Management In Malaysia”. 21 20 litres per person per day is what we need, according to the World Health Organization in order to meet our basic hygiene needs. 22 Starting with water resources which are usually outside urban limits (such as rivers, reservoirs, dams), consequently goes through the water treatment process followed by extensive distribution network, usage by communities and industries, drainage and wastewater treatment, before discharging it back into the environment.
development and optimization approach. For this to be effective, it is important to understand the culture of consumptions in order to design sustainable systems including that of employing urban and residential design with users and communities participate in designs and decisions. In this context sustainable land use planning can become a tool to effect social change and the interaction of technology, society and culture in urban water systems. Consequently, support should be formalized by incorporating alternative approaches into policy, planning and budgeting system.
THE WAY FORWARD In Sustainable land use planning; improving the resilience of cities should be in tandem with climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. In summary, some of the key actions for land use and infrastructure adaptation include the following:
changing infrastructure and prepare disaster plans,
planning for larger river floodplains and protecting wetlands in areas likely to experience increased severe storm events from climate change,
forecasts in local plans to include potential climate induced sea level rise along coastal areas. In addition, creative designs of human settlements in these zones such as houses on stilts or the more futuristic floating houses should be examined in the context of regulatory aspects as well as facilitation.
providing corridors for species movement because as climate changes and species ranges need to change,
changing building requirements to reflect the need for more natural cooling and ventilation and less contribution to the heat island effect, for example using the Green Building Index application,
Offering smarter transportation choices can be a cost-effective way to reduce emissions and minimize the costs associated with building additional roads.
future residential planning may insist on moderate density with ample spaces for green areas and to create a suitable threshold for public transport.
zoning and other land use laws can be used to encourage compact, mixed-use, walkable communities,
brownfield redevelopment can preserve open spaces, minimize additional infrastructure costs and reduce energy use,
there is also need to balance competing demand on land for infrastructure and residential development, agriculture and forestry with increasing demands for land for flood management, renewable, biodiversity and conserving soil carbon; and
there will be particular challenges for the management of soils, with waterlogging in inappropriate sites, erosion and agricultural practices that were developed under historic climatic conditions all potentially resulting in negative impacts. Maintaining soils not only means sequestering carbon, but enhances the ability of soil to absorb rainfall and reduce flood risk.
On urban water consumption, sustainable systems should be designed for basic human needs and cut down on „gold plating‟ the system and luxurious and wasteful lifestyles/ water use, operate across different scales and allow for local water cycles and cultures
Other mitigation measures that could be implemented include the support from the government for cleaner alternative energy and the use of solar energy.
CONCLUSION In a world confronted with the impending impacts of climate change, increasing population and environmental pressures from physical and economic development, Governments face the challenge of managing their environmental resources prudently while also mobilizing the economic potential of these resources while ensuring that they are utilized in a sustainable manner. It would indeed be a quest in finding a fine balance between environmental, social and economic priorities, however Integrated Resource Planning have often been employed to attempt as a balancing mechanism. For Malaysia, establishing policies and mechanisms for the proper use of environmental resources and environmental protection have been evident since the late 1980‟s. Initiatives towards sustainable development had consistently progressed since Rio Summit in 1992, the Kyoto Declaration on Green House Emission in 1997, the Johannesburg Earth Summit in 2002, the Bali Roadmap towards International agreement on Climate Change in 2007 and COP 15 in 2009. Malaysia had land marked its initiatives through the National Environmental Policy, Sustainable land use planning and climate change adaptation reflected in the National Physical Plan and the National Urbanization Policy. Other initiatives were reflected by the consolidation of departments into the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, the formation of the Ministry of Green Technology, Energy and Water and the Green Technology and Climate Change Council and initiatives aligned with the Hyogo Framework of Action. 13
Translation of policies into spatial form supports the creation of sustainable, liveable, inclusive and resilient cities. In greenhouse gas mitigation, appropriate local land-use policies aims to limit sprawl, reduce carbon emission (largely through efficient and effective transportation system) and create denser built forms, while maintaining or increasing urban forests. Land use approaches such as compact development would further protect ecologically valuable open space and requires less energy and materials to build and operate while smart growth supports land use configurations with less trip making towards low carbon lifestyle. Water supply is vulnerable to warming thus urban water should be consumed sustainably by design. Land use planning and integrated river basin management should also be carried out inclusively. Though many problems associated in mitigating climate change has a technical solution, it is often that solutions are community-related, the community has always been seen as the driver for sustainable city building. Thus challenges for land use planners and authorities include understanding the complexity of the underlying interactive processes in a community and to bring together the diverse views of different groups of people thus is instrumental in the process of sustainable development. Good governance, laws and regulations (especially for natural resources such as water and forest), and knowledge bases (such as awareness, education and research and development-R&D), also supports initiatives in sustainable land use planning towards adapting to climate change. In financing sustainable development initiatives, governments are often constrained in their cost-benefit mechanism which often does not facilitate putting players together for multi-purpose budgeting and funding. In this context collaboration and engagement between players and agencies in sustainable development, financing and management is instrumental.
REFERENCES: Beatley Timothy (2000), “Green Urbanism: Learning From European Cities”, Island Press. Government of Malaysia (2010), “Tenth Malaysia Plan 2011-2015”, The Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister‟s Department. IPCC (2007), "IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 (AR4)" Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Cambridge University Press.
ISDR, (2005), “Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015): Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters”, International Strategy for Disaster reduction. JPBD, (2001), “Total Planning and Development Guidelines, Second Edition, Planning Guidelines No.4/2000,” Federal Department of Town and Country Planning, Kuala Lumpur JPBD, (2010), “National Physical Plan-2” Federal department of Town and Country Planning, Ministry of Housing and Local Government. JPBD, (2006), “National Urbanization Policy”, Federal department of Town and Country Planning, Ministry of Housing and Local Government. Laws of Malaysia (2006), “Town and Country Planning Act, 1976 (Act 172)” The Commissioner of Law Revision, Malaysia under the Authority of Revision of Law Act 1968 in collaboration with Malayan Law Journal Sdn. Bhd. And Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Bhd. Keynote Address Of Y.Bhg. Dato‟ Mohd Fadzil Bin Hj. Mohd Khir Director General Federal Department Of Town And Country Planning Peninsular Malaysia At The Symposium On Low Carbon Asia Research Projects 4 th 5th July 2011 Persada/Puteri Pacific Hotel, Johor Bahru (unpublished). Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (2009), “Malaysia National Policy on Climate Change”, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Malaysia, “Malaysia Second National Communication to the UNFCC”, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Malaysia. Pugh C (1996), “Sustainability, the environment and Urbanization”, Earthscan Publications Limited.
Internet references: 1. http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_and_data_reports.sht ml. 2. www.unisdr.org/wcdr. 3. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/004/AB776E/ab776e02.htm#TopOfPage 4. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Water_profile_of_Malaysia
Published on Dec 11, 2011
SUSTAINABLE LAND USE PLANNING IN A CHANGING CLIMATE Dr. Dahlia Rosly and Nor Zaliza Puzi Research and Development Division Federal Departmen...