Page 1


Estonia٠Finland٠Greece٠Hungary٠Luxembourg 2013

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

Editorial board:

Pierre Marson, Pascal Seil, Claude D. Conter

Project coordinator:

Maarja Vaino

Working group coordinators:

Gabriella Gulyás, Anneli Kankare, Antonis Leventis, Matti Nummenpää, Varvara Tsaka

Language editors:

Nimirum GbR, Gareth Owens, Kristi Tarand


Tiina Järvilehto (Finnish), Nimirum GbR (French, German), Triin Pappel (Estonian), Ben Petre (Greek), Ágnes Vajda (Hungarian), Myriam Welschbillig (Luxembourgish)

Typesetting, book design and design layout: Anne Järvpõld

© Association of Estonian Wrtiters’ Museums © Luxembourg Literature Centre / Literary Archives © Nikos Kazantzakis Museum © Petőfi Literary Museum © Umbrella Organization of Finnish Literature Associations ISBN 978-2-919903-34-4

COMPARING LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES IN THE FIELD OF LITERARY HERITAGE Communication, audiences, European aspects Case studies from Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary and Luxembourg

Edited and published by Association of Estonian Writers’ Museums Umbrella Organization of Finnish Literary Associations Nikos Kazantzakis Museum Petőfi Literary Museum Luxembourg Literature Centre / Literary Archives Editorial board: Pierre Marson, Pascal Seil, Claude D. Conter Project coordinator: Maarja Vaino

Budapest, Helsinki, Heraklion, Luxembourg, Tallinn


CONTENT INTRODUCTION (Maarja Vaino and Pierre Marson)






1. General information and mission 2. Best practices in communication, promotion and outreach 3. Exhibition policies and literary history 4. Museum education and lifelong learning 5. Publications as a way to promote literature

WAYS OF REACHING AUDIENCES 1. Museum audiences and social inclusion 2. Fostering literary heritage: volunteering and museum associations 3. Best practices and innovative ideas in engaging new audiences


19 20 24 28 30 32 32 36 38 42

1. The European dimension of the national literary field 2. Communicating literary heritage through institutional cooperation in Europe 3. European heritage in the literary institution’s practice

42 48 50





1. General information and mission 2. Best practices in communication, promotion and outreach 3. Activities and literary history 4. Education and lifelong learning

WAYS OF REACHING AUDIENCES 1. Association members and social inclusion 2. Fostering literary heritage: volunteering in associations

55 57 57 60 61 61 62


THE EUROPEAN ASPECT OF PROMOTING LITERARY HERITAGE 1. The European dimension of the national literary field 2. Communicating literary heritage through institutional cooperation in Europe 3. European heritage in the literary institution’s practice

64 64 65 66





1. General information and mission 2. Best practices in communication, promotion and outreach 3. Exhibition policies and literary history 4. Museum education and lifelong learning 5. Publications as a way to promote literature

WAYS OF REACHING AUDIENCES 1. Museum audiences and social inclusion 2. Fostering literary heritage: volunteering and museum associations 3. Best practices and innovative ideas in engaging new audiences

THE EUROPEAN ASPECT OF PROMOTING LITERARY HERITAGE 1. The European dimension of the national literary field 2. Communicating literary heritage through institutional cooperation in Europe 3. European heritage in the literary institution’s practice

69 70 72 74 76 77 77 78 80 81 81 82 83





1. General information and mission 2. Best practices in communication, promotion and outreach 3. Exhibition policies and literary history. 4. Museum education and lifelong learning 5. Publications as a way to promote literature.

WAYS OF REACHING AUDIENCES 1. Museum audiences and social inclusion 2. Fostering literary heritage: volunteering and museum associations 3. Best practices and innovative ideas in engaging new audiences.


87 88 92 97 99 101 101 103 107



1. The European dimension of the national literary field 2. Communicating literary heritage through institutional cooperation in Europe 3. European heritage in the literary institution’s practice

110 113 116





1. General information and mission 2. Best practices in communication, promotion and outreach 3. Exhibition policies and literary history 4. Museum education and lifelong learning 5. Publications as a way to promote literature

WAYS OF REACHING AUDIENCES (Pascal Seil) 1. Museum audiences and social inclusion 2. Fostering literary heritage: volunteering and museum associations 3. Best practices and innovative ideas in engaging new audiences

THE EUROPEAN ASPECT OF PROMOTING LITERARY HERITAGE (Claude D. Conter) 1. The European dimension of the national literary field 2. Communicating literary heritage through institutional cooperation in Europe 3. European heritage in the literary institution’s practice

121 124 128 132 133 135 135 138 140 143 143 148 150



Translations of the Introduction into the official languages of the partner institutions


Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hungarian Luxembourgish

157 164 168 175 183 190 197

Partner institutions


Project participants



INTRODUCTION Diversity and similarity: Comparing practices and learning opportunities in literary institutions in Europe Maarja Vaino and Pierre Marson

Back to content 9


Diversity and similarity: Comparing practices and learning opportunities in literary institutions in Europe Literary societies and museums exist in all the countries of the European Union. They play a central role in preserving and conveying the literary heritage and in making important contributions to contemporary literary life. They are a pillar of lifelong education, enabling adults to expand their knowledge and skills. Although they face similar challenges and have comparable tasks all over Europe, there seems to be a lack of communication on the international level between these institutions. Therefore, some institutions and organizations saw the need and the benefits for their work if they encouraged more transnational exchange and cooperation on a European level. This is how the idea of a common project and a partnership of organizations working in the same field were formed. It later became a Grundtvig learning partnership.

The Project The Grundtvig learning partnership Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage goes back to the initiative by Gesa Schubert of the German Association of Literary Societies and Memorial Places (Arbeitsgemeinschaft literarischer Gesellschaften und Gedenkstätten (ALG)), who called in a preliminary meeting on the premises of the ALG in Berlin in 2010. During this meeting, the list of participants was drawn and a precise concept for the partnership was agreed on. It included the following partners from Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary and Luxembourg: the Association of Estonian Writers’ Museums, the Luxembourg Literary Centre / Literary Archives, the Nikos Kazantzakis Museum, the Petőfi Literary Museum and the Umbrella Organization of Finnish Literature Associations (Nimikot). Short presentations of these partners can be found at the end of this volume. 11

All these actors share the broad aim of bringing literature closer to the public, encouraging people to read, raising the awareness of the value of literature and triggering literature-related learning processes, from classic to contemporary authors. To achieve these goals, they all organize educational programmes for children, adults and professionals, and they all work with multipliers in the field of education, particularly with the educational professions. The project Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage was approved by the European Commission’s Grundtvig Lifelong Learning Programme for the years 2011-13. The EU’s Grundtvig programme was named after the Danish pastor and thinker on adult education Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig (17831872). The aim is to give adults the opportunity to improve their knowledge and skills and it is targeted at teachers, trainers, staff and learners in adult education, including those who work with voluntary groups, associations and research centres. A range of learning activities are funded by the programme, for example travel exchangees and professional programmes abroad for people working in adult education. Grundtvig Learning Partnerships are specifically designed as frameworks for small-scale cooperation activities between organizations working in the field of adult education in the broadest sense. The focus is put on participation of smaller organizations who wish to strengthen their activities and cooperation on the European level. Participating institutions are encouraged to monitor and evaluate their project work, combining it with initiatives of their local community and cooperating with organizations and authorities on the national level. Accordingly, they are able to promote best practices, ensure a widespread impact of the results of the partnership and maximise the value of transnational exchange. The overall aim of the Grundtvig partnership Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage was to provide the participants with opportunities to compare and discuss learning opportunities for adults in the field of literary heritage with experts in the same field from other countries as well as to propagate these findings among the general public. The working plan included group meetings in each of the participating countries as well as job-shadowing for museum staff and learners according to the needs and interests of the respective partners. Given the process-orientation of the partnership, job-shadowing opportunities for museum staff and learners, providing first-hand experience in foreign institutions, were central to the project. Every institute developed its own methods and best practices for engaging adults which proved to be invaluable when sharing these in 12

direct experience with the partner institutions. Therefore, an important outcome was the establishment of a large network of contacts of similar organizations all over Europe and the informal, hands-on learning it enabled. The transnational perspective allowed overcoming national limitations, enabling innovative points of view and developing new ideas for the practical work of the participating institutions. In order to make this project more known to the wider public, it was decided, among other things, that the partnership should also show tangible results in the form of three permanent outcomes, towards which all partners contributed in a cooperative manner: 1) the present survey based on a common questionnaire; 2) an online exhibition on literary characters from central works of our national literatures; 3) a publicly accessible weblog to act as a forum for the exchange of information. The weblog was not only intended as an instrument of communication, but as a true web-based archive documenting the rationale and the activities of the partnership as well as presenting the Grundtvig programme and the participating institutions. It is publicly accessible and will stay on the web beyond the lifetime of the formal partnership. It can be accessed via the homepages of our institutions or directly at The virtual exhibition about fictional characters from our countries’ literatures is based on the idea that literary characters, maybe more than works as a whole, provide wider audiences with direct and personal access to literature. Ulysses, Don Quixote, King Lear, Faust and Anna Karenina stir the imagination of even those who have not read the corresponding works. If this applies to the classics of world literature, it should also apply to characters from lesser known works. The exhibition is meant to promote the sometimes not very well known literature of the partnership countries and make it accessible to the larger European public. It is potentially open-end and can be the starting point for a range of new cooperation projects. It is located at and is equally accessible via the homepages of our institutions. The third tangible outcome of the partnership is this publication based on a survey about learning opportunities in the field of literary heritage conducted in the participating countries. It is meant to be a practical handbook, collecting the ideas, practices, experiences and the knowledge we exchanged during our meetings. They shall be shared with the wider public, highlighting learning opportunities and serving as a reference for other actors in this field. 13

The Survey The survey is based on an extensive catalogue of questions set up during a workshop in the kick-off meeting. This questionnaire was structured around three thematic areas which are central to the work of our organizations and institutions. The titles given to the three main chapters of this volume were: 1) communication, promotion and outreach; 2) ways of reaching audiences; and 3) the European aspect of promoting our literary heritage. These three aspects were coordinated by the partners from Hungary, Greece and Finland respectively. The survey was conducted among relevant actors in the literary field of each country. After that, the national findings were presented, compared and discussed in several group meetings. The results of these meetings are made available in this book. The five main chapters in this volume are based on the presentations given at the group meetings. As can be seen in the table of contents, all the papers have the same structure and are divided into the same sections. This ensures a strict comparability between the pieces of information contained in each paper. If a reader is looking for examples for a comparison between the exhibition policies in our respective institutions, he can simply refer to the section “Exhibition policies and literary history” in the first part of the five chapters. If he wants to know more about how our institutions try to engage new audiences, he can go to the section “Best practices and innovative ideas in engaging new audiences” in the second part of each chapter. The reader can thus read the book as a whole, but if he is searching for a comparison under specific aspects, he can easily do so by just consulting the corresponding sections in each article. What will the reader find on the following pages? Due to the easy comparability between the individual papers, a detailed guide through the book is not necessary. However, for the purpose of illustration, it may be worth giving a few examples for the approaches, problems and solutions for some of the themes linking the different chapters. These issues had to be dealt with by all the partners.

Some �ndings – differences and similarities What is most striking at first glance when reading through the articles and comparing the partners, is the impression of variety as regards geography and history, mission and legal status, resources and practices. The partners do not stem from one and the same cultural region. In terms of diversity of the EU, the countries chosen for the Grundtvig partnership could hardly have been more suitable. The project partners 14

originate from the North and the South, the East and the West of the European Union. Historically, they range from the founding members to relatively early and relatively late members to those countries that joined the EU during the latest round of expansion in 2004. In this sense, they could hardly be more diverse. This geographic diversity, as well as the different historical and cultural traditions behind our respective organizations, can be appreciated throughout the whole book. Yet it becomes the most visible and concentrated in the third part, “The European aspect of promoting our literary heritage”, where, among other things, the national literatures are set in their wider regional and European context. The reader will get an impression of the different cultural forces which influenced our five different national literary fields and shaped our countries as well as institutions. Those who are interested in the diversity of the literary backgrounds and different national traditions will get valuable information in these chapters. To this cultural variety comes diversity in missions, legal status and organizational structures. The group was composed of an umbrella organization for literary associations, an association of literary museums and three literary museums cum literary archives. They range from a well-staffed institution with large collections like the Petőfi Museum to a small umbrella organization based exclusively on voluntary work like the Finnish Nimikot. Some institutions share a national mission of collecting, preserving, studying and displaying the national literary heritage, while others focus on a single writer and his work. The reader who wants to compare the general scope of the partners’ work and their respective missions can do so in the sections “General information and mission” at the beginning of each chapter. Differences can also be seen in the details of actual practices in our institutions. An example is the domain of volunteering, where different approaches are analysed in the sections “Museum audiences and social inclusion” and “Fostering literary heritage: volunteering and museum associations” in the second part of each chapter. While in some countries volunteering seems to be less common, for other organizations it appears to be critical. Yet, despite these different approaches, we all resort to volunteering in one way or the other, either because we are based on volunteering, because we try to fill personnel gaps, or because providing opportunities for internships and volunteering are part of our wider educational mission and our goal of social inclusion. This leads to the fact that, despite the differences, there are profound and surprising similarities in the practices, aspirations and problems of our institutions. A striking example amongst many are our respective museum audiences, as we all seem 15

to target similar groups: pupils and students of all ages, researchers, the general educated public and the older age groups. Even if this is just one example for fundamental similarities, it is an important one, as it forms the basis for a large part of our activities, for example our educational programmes, as can be seen in the corresponding sections in this volume. Another example for the coexistence of differences and similarities between the fields of literary education and literary memory in our countries can be found in the third and last part of each chapter, concentrating on the “European Heritage”. Comparing the lists of writers after whom streets are named, for whom monuments have been erected and stamps issued, whose birthdays are celebrated, the reader will find that, next to a variety of names who reflect regional memorial cultures, a few names tend to come back almost all over Europe – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Victor Hugo, Alexander Pushkin –, while at least a few of our member countries remember Dante Alighieri, Maxim Gorky, Friedrich Schiller, William Shakespeare and Leo Tolstoy. Obviously, in a strict sense Europe simply is a literary reality. Thus, the main finding of the survey is maybe an overall sense of diversity and at the same time similarity between the participating institutions and the learning opportunities they offer. Many more examples of diverse yet comparable practices and of learning opportunities in the field of literary heritage across Europe can be discovered throughout the papers in this volume. Institutions like ours can facilitate the perception of the common European literary heritage that is a bond between us. Despite our differences, the overall insight of this partnership is that we also share common goals and face similar problems. Across national and cultural boundaries a community of literary museums and archives, writers’ houses and associations all across Europe is alive, enabling communication about topics of common relevance. The participants in this Grundtvig partnership probably all agree, mutatis mutandis, with the Finnish partner, concluding her paper with the words: “Thank you for the opportunity to widely present Finnish classic literature and our association’s work to these fantastic, hard working professionals from Estonia, Luxembourg, Hungary and Greece. During the project a wondrous, versatile, creatively presented and carefully preserved world of writers’ museums has been revealed to us.” These words nicely voice the conclusion of our learning partnership, namely that professionals and learners in this field obviously speak a “common language” and are eager to engage in a fruitful cooperation.



Back to content 17


COMMUNICATION, PROMOTION AND OUTREACH 1. General information and mission The Association of Estonian Writers’ Museums is founded in April 2010. It embraces almost all the museums that are connected with writers or literature in Estonia. The main objectives are as follows: 1. Valuing and protecting Estonian literary heritage and organising dissemination activities. 2. Presenting and advancing knowledge of Estonian literature, cultural history and writers in Estonia. 3. Participation in Estonian and European networks and projects. 4. Practical schooling and training of the writers’ museums’ employees, protection of their professional interests. 5. Advancing peer contacts in Estonia and other countries.

12 Estonian “museum” writers


The Association organizes joint projects such as conferences, events, workshops, and exhibitions and supports the development of Estonian museums. Together we are aiming to make writers’ museums more visitor-friendly, modern and professional. Preserving and drawing attention to writer museums is the Association’s founding mission: We work to strengthen partnerships in the network of the writers’ museums in Estonia. With the Grundtvig Lifelong Learning Partnership Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage that cooperation has grown international and has brought even better results. It is important for us to see that we share the same values of preserving literary heritage in Europe. At the same time, we can learn from each other how to secure literature’s sustainable role in culture.

2. Best practices in communication, promotion and outreach Estonia is a country full of museums. We have more than 250 museums for 1,4 million people. In 2011 Estonian museums received 2,7 million visitors.1 Of course many of those visitors are tourists, but many are Estonians. Writer museums are mostly small museums and not in the best position to achieve a large number of visitors. It is not easy to catch the interest of the people, media and visitors for a small museum of a specific field like literature. In Estonia there are approximately 16 museums dedicated to writers or literature. So, what are our outreach strategies? Most of the communication fits under three major keywords: 1. Visitors to the museum 2. Media and the public sphere 3. Administrative institutions (Ministry of Culture, local government, different financial funds, tourist centres etc. Under this point we also consider internal communications. If communication among employees of the museum does not function well, communicating outside the museum could become difficult or ineffective).



Our most common modes of communication are through exhibitions and with schools. However, as we will come back to both of those points later, let’s focus on other parts of our communication strategy. First and foremost, we should point out the partnership between writers’ museums. This network is working well in Estonia and has given the writers’ museums ideas and shared experiences about how to improve museum communication. We have shared travelling exhibitions and held annual meetings and workshops. The results of a survey about communication best practices in writers’ museums in Estonia, showed that ’a guided tour’ was the most popular response. It may sound old-fashioned, but most visitors are interested in guided tours. The positive experience of a guided tour is the best way to ensure the visitor will come back, invite friends and recommend the museum to other people. The second most popular answer was the museum website and the third one was direct mailing to target groups. Communication from person to person also has a positive impact. An important part of effective communication is related to local networks. If cooperation between museums and other organisations located in the same area is functioning properly, the museum itself usually functions well. For example: common package offerings between museum+museum, museum+theatre; museum+restaurant; museum+hotel etc. will bring different target groups to the museum. Another effective way to promote literary museums is to give awards/prizes named after the writer to whom the museum is dedicated. Given to a contemporary author, the award is a great opportunity to promote both classical and contemporary literature – and, of course, the museum. What’s more, media is usually interested in such awards. The reasons is simple: they can conduct interviews with a living writer (as museum-writers cannot show up for tv-shows!). The event/news has to have a hook to get the media’s interest. Unfortunately often the hook is something negative or for the ‘yellow’ news. But if you operate responsibly, it is possible to gain media exposure also without a ‘scandal’. Of course some things work better than others: for example having a famous person open the exhibition, arranging an event, etc. Jubilees of the writer or the museum and important dates also gain the attention. Other successful ways to promote museums in Estonia have included meetings with writers; competitions (novel, travel-story, poetry, comics, reading out loud etc); festivals; plays/ theatrical events in the museums; concerts; book presentations; 21

Andrus Kivirähk, one of the most popular contemporary Estonian authors in “The best writer of the year” event

literary walks; special topic days; stipends; happenings. According to Mari Niitra from the Liivi museum “every year we have a happening, ‘The best writer of the year.’ It is not a serious event but more like a performance. Three-to-four writers are interviewed in the final round and then a winner is announced. The event brings young writers into our museum and garners media attention. It is not a type of event people expect a writer’s museum to offer.” Another successful example: The E. Vilde Museum has an annual book-fair in September. Its focus is strictly classical literature. It encompasses meetings with writers and literary critics, buying and selling new and old books, a fairy-tale-porch for children and a famous character from a books and cartoons – Jänku-Juss (the Rabbit named Juss) – playing with the children. The book-fair has increased from a small event into a well-known festival. Each year hundreds of people who had never heard about the E. Vilde Museum before are visiting the museum and spend the day with their family there.2 The book-fair is also a great example of a well-functioning cooperation. Important partners for the fair are publishing houses, writers, critics, recycling centres, sponsors (free juice and cookies for children), media etc. But the book-fair is not the best example when it comes to cost-effectiveness. Most museums in Estonia are supported by the Estonian Ministry of Culture and/or 2


by the local government. However they still have to raise some percentage of the budget themselves. That is why museums are increasingly looking for ways to meet their budgetary needs. Free events like the book-fair will promote the museum to the public very well, but do not bring in much revenue. The only revenue comes from the museum shop, but it does not cover the expenses of the event. What are the best practices to raise a museum’s revenue stream? Beyond educational programs we would point out theatrical events and concerts in the museum. Renting the rooms for birthday parties, business seminars and Christmas gatherings is also beneficial and becoming more and more popular. Also some of the museum publications – including CDs and DVDs make a profit. The museums also apply to several financial funds to secure support and supplement their budget. In Estonia the most popular funds are Cultural Endowment of Estonia, The Council Of Gambling Tax, Enterprise Estonia, The Estonian National Culture Foundation. This support helps to organise conferences, book fares, publications and exhibitions. Exhibitions are one of the most important outlets museums have. They are an influential way to present the museum to all three major categories: visitors, media and public sphere, and administrative institutions. Exhibitions are the most important part of a museum’s vision, so they deserve closer attention here.


Eduard Vilde’s study

3. Exhibition policies and literary history When looking at the timeline of Estonian literary history, writers’ museums cover the end of the 19th century (Dr. Fr. Reinhold Kreutzwald Memorial Museum) until the end of the 20th century (Betty Alver Museum). Kreutzwald (1803-1822) was the founder of Estonian national epic poetry, Betty Alver (1906-1989) was a poetess, and an important resistance figure (through her poems) during the Soviet occupation. In between those two, most of the museums are dedicated to writers who lived before the Second World War (including some that came after). So the literary history after the Second WW is not ’covered’ very well by the writers’ museums with the exception of poet Juhan Smuul). Fortunately we have the Estonian Literary Museum that collects the archives of all Estonian writers. But we do not have a permanent exhibition that deals with the history of Estonian literature. Most writers’ museums in Estonia have a permanent exhibition and they are usually housed in the author’s birth-house, apartment or residence, containing the original furniture and other belongings. These rooms preserve their original feel, holding on to the unique milieu and interior. Most of the permanent exhibitions are collectionbased. Some of the museums also have contemporary permanent exhibitions about the author’s life and oeuvre. The structure of the permanent exhibition differs depending of the museum. We’ve found mostly chronological approaches, but there are also theme-based museums like Palamuse O. Luts’ Parish School Museum or A. H. Tammsaare Museum in 24

“The Misadventures of the New Satan”: a temporary exhibition based on the novel by the same name. In A. H. Tammsaare’s museum

Vargamäe. The Palamuse and Vargamäe museums are both located in the landscapes where the writers’ most famous plots take place. In these cases, the landscape figures prominently as well as the houses. In Tallinn’s A. H. Tammsaare Museum, the idea of the permanent exhibition is that Tammsaare is the centre of the world. It gives the visitor a better idea about his life and creative work and emphasizes that everybody is the centre of their own world. Thus the approach to Tammsaare proceeds along the aspects of life that were important to him: landscapes, towns, people and society. Places that left their imprint, people who had an influence on his life and events that could not be avoided, all merge into an entity, a whole in the writer’s world.3 Permanent exhibitions do not necessarily focus on the writers’ texts but more on the personal life and personality of the author. We have found that people prefer to read the books at home and come to the museums to learn about the person behind the texts. However, because the oeuvre is necessarily connected with the personality, it also is part of the exhibition. Occasionally, temporary exhibitions will focus on a specific text or the poetics of the writer. But the problem with a writer (or any other person-based) museum is that they tend to be so-called ‘once-visited’ museums. Writer museums are taken as places where everything remains the same – apartment/house, biography of the author etc. 3 0&vid=4685


A graphic concept of the exhibition

And how many times do you need to go to the museum and learn the writer’s unchanging biography? But this conception is not true. Several different approaches exist and new ways of interpreting the writer’s works can be presented. Museums need to offer their visitors reasons to come again and again. This is one of the reasons all the museums curate temporary exhibitions. It gives the public a reason to visit the museum repeatedly. The subject of these temporary exhibitions are generally related to the author – if not about the writer itself, the exhibitions are looking at his or her context, fellow writers or in some other way connected themes. Many museums have also art/ photo exhibitions, exhibitions about handicraft etc. O. Luts’ House Museum in Tartu and A. H. Tammsaare Museum in Tallinn are mostly dedicated to making only literature-based exhibitions. Usually at least 1-2 original exhibitions are curated by each museum per year4. The main purpose of the exhibitions is to keep the ‘museum writers’ and literature updated and interesting. Also, these exhibitions are opportunities to further research into themes not previously studied within the writer’s biography or within literary history. For example: The A. H. Tammsaare Museum in Tallinn has a series of exhibitions called At Tammsaare’s. These exhibitions focus on different writers 4

I focus only on the exhibitions curated by the museums themselves and do not take into consideration the art exhibitions etc, which come to the museum. It does not mean they are not an important part of the exhibition policy in a broader sense.


Working process: building an exhibition

’hosted’ by the Tammsaare museum. In these exhibitions 2-3 keywords and figures are given to typefy the nature of the writer’s texts and also introduce the personality of the author. One of the exhibitions from that series, Violinist on the carousel: August Gailit at Tammsaare’s, was recognized by Estonian Ministry of Culture as the best museum exhibition of the year in 2009. Temporary exhibitions can also be theme-based in connection with the writer or connected with the local area (history, influences, context). Example: E. Vilde and his travels. This exhibition is also a good example of a virtual exhibition. After its closing, the exhibition moved from the museum to the web: http://vildereisid. Usually, the process of creating a new exhibition begins about a year before the proposed opening. The curator does the initial ’homework’: is there enough material for the exhibition? The process begins with research and if the material base is sufficient, the curator composes the team: designers, educators, builders, etc. Usually 2-5 people are involved. It is quite common for the curator to apply for financial support from different funds or to attempt to find sponsors. Collecting objects (archives, other museums’ collections), selecting works (i.e. paintings, photos, digital materials), writing and translating the texts etc. follows. Designers will propose their vision of the exhibition room and graphic design. Exhibitions quite often need special kinds of materials and objects so it is important to know in advance what the curator and designers want, otherwise the time could be too short to find/order the thing. After setting up the exhibition, the crucial point is working with media. No matter how good the exhibition is, if nobody knows that it exists, 27

it doesn’t matter. Communicating the exhibition to different target groups is really important and it has to start before the exhibition opens. Experience says it is not wise to make an exhibition’s run too short, because it can be difficult to reach your target groups, but this is not a general rule. As a partnership between writers’ museums, the Association of Estonian Writer’s Museums has created several travelling exhibitions. One of them, Estonian Writers in Caricature, is an outdoor exhibition and has gained many design prizes in Estonia. One collection-based partnership exhibition was called Writer, but still a human being!. It was also a travelling exhibition that aimed to tell a story about the writer based on one item from the museum’s collection. A third, Once upon a time lived a writer…, was produced for visiting schools, but it also has been presented in hospitals as a public space exhibition. All three exhibitions are good examples of the educational work and possibilities museums have to improve the opportunities in lifelong learning and promoting literature in public spaces.

4. Museum education and lifelong learning Museums are without a doubt educational institutions. There’s a wide range of opportunities for educational work in museums. Most of the educational activities are directly or indirectly connected with lifelong learning – conferences, seminars, workshops, guiding tours, camps (school holiday camps, theatre-camps, reading camps); summer schools etc. Even educational programs directed to small children involve their parents. Bringing parents with their children to the museum and attracting them with activities is a part of learning process for the parents in many ways. Different theme-days and family events offer ways to bring the whole family into the museum. However, the most active educational work is done with students and teachers. Most writers who have a museum are the authors of classics whose works are obligatory in the school programmes. Many museums have developed educational programs in connection with official school programs so that some of the educational work can be undertaken in the museum. But there are also difficulties. Bringing students into the museum is related to several inconveniences. A teacher may have to make an agreement with other teachers to allow pupils to miss class; coming on public transit takes time; collecting money from students is not easy etc. It is important that teachers are sure of the quality of the museum. They have to be sure they will


get what they want if they come. That’s why the educational worker/guide of the museum is absolutely a “business card” for the museum. If the educational programs/ guiding tours are interesting, teachers will come again and also recommend the programs to other teachers. Verbal communication among teachers and the public in general is a very effective source of publicity. Some museums arrange trainings for the teachers to introduce the museums’ educational programs. There are also trainings for new ways of interpreting the writer’s works; analysing texts; making interdisciplinary connections with other subjects. Educational work is also an important part of the exhibitions themselves. Most exhibitions have pedagogical programs especially for students. For example: a playful program in Palamuse O. Luts’ Parish School Museum called Fairy tale about Bumpy. Young students act out the story of the book with puppets. Afterwards they draw a picture about the story and visit the museum of the author. Another example of pedagogical work: a teacher can download a worksheet from the museum’s website and distribute it to the students. Students visit the museum independently, fill the worksheet in at the exhibition and return it to the teacher. Sometimes the exhibitions include a series of open lectures, mostly directed to adults and highly appreciated by the seniors. The most scientific educational work in museums is the conferences, seminars and open lectures. Many museums have a tradition of open lectures. Conferences are mostly held in connection with anniversaries (author, book etc.), but some museums have also annual conferences. For example the Estonian Literary Museum and A. H. Tammsaare Museum in Tallinn. In the Under and Tuglas Literature Centre, seminars about the modern literature are held regularly. Sometimes an exhibition inspires a conference: Vilde and his travels for example. The conferences are usually author-centred, but not always. For example, A. H. Tammsaare Museum’s annual conferences in recent years have focused on different discourses: images of Paradise or images of animals in Estonian literature. Unfortunately it is financially not possible to publish a conference collection every time, but many presentations will be published in literary magazines afterwards. It means that museum conferences actively participate and influence local literary research.


Selection of publications in Under and Tuglas Literature Centre

5. Publications as a way to promote literature Although financially difficult, most writers’ museums have several different types of publications: catalogues, pamphlets, posters, postcards, works of the writer, conference publications, etc. Most museums also have publications about the institution itself. Many writer museums publish the works of the author, for example Dr. Fr. R. Kreutzwald Memorial Museum, Under and Tuglas Literature Centre, O. Luts Museum etc. Under and Tuglas Literature Centre is publishing an annotated academic edition of the collected works of Fr. Tuglas. In rare cases the copyright of the writer belongs to the museum/society (for example Karl Ristikivi Society), which makes it easier to publish the author’s works. Mostly, publications are a result of partnerships with publishing houses and organized by the museum (the museum usually adds some financial support also). Examples: biographies of the writer (O. Luts, E. Vilde); materials from the collections (diary of Karl Ristikivi); collections of articles (A. H. Tammsaare); fiction and poetry (J. Liiv) and special anniversary publications. Usually the compiler, editor or author is an employee of the museum. According to Kairi Tilga from the E. Vilde Museum: “E. Vilde was really propagandized during Soviet time and many people consider him to be ‘too soviet’. We needed to have fresh approaches and a new biography with a different emphasis in order to discover the writer’s life and oeuvre again without prejudice.” 30

Once upon a time lived a writer ... was produced for visiting schools, but it also has been presented in hospitals as a public space exhibition

Some of these publications provide significant income for the museum. Book presentations and cooperation with media and literary critics give fresh chances to talk about the writer and also about the museum. Compiling the book or writing an afterword or even a biography gives an opportunity to keep the writer up to date and remind the public about his legacy. Without a doubt these publications give the museum a more scientific dimension and reputation. Exhibition catalogues are published by museums, but not every exhibition has a catalogue. Sometimes the ‘classic’ printed catalogue is replaced by a DVD catalogue or even an online one. Most exhibitions will be ‘saved’ in a folder (texts, photos, media response) and archived, preserved as a part of the history of the museum. One independent type of publication is the materials for pedagogical work: workbooks, worksheets, additional materials for teachers and students, board games etc. It is a challenge for a designer to create materials attractive for children. Printed pedagogical materials are helpful for integrated projects. It is easier to understand the language if you can listen as well as read some of it. Publications also help to acquaint the public with museum collections. For example: CDs with the audio materials; postcard collection (photos, art, items); colouring books; facsimiles etc. These kinds of publications are a considerable part of the museum shop and help to broaden the visibility of the collections. Publications are definitely an important part of communicating the museum and promoting the author. 31

WAYS OF REACHING AUDIENCES 1. Museum audiences and social inclusion The common audience for a writer’s museum in Estonia are students (including high-school and universities); teachers; researchers; kindergarten children; seniors; families; tourists; and culture loving middle age Estonians. In other words: all age groups of cultural people. But of course some of those target groups are more common than others. Students and seniors make up the biggest portion of visitors. Students come usually because of the school program; seniors have more free time. However, communication with these two target groups is quite different. To reach the students we get in touch with teachers via e-mail (personal and lists), homepage, printed materials, personal work (lectures/meetings in schools), and educational websites (e.g. When it comes to university students, we try to reach them directly: e-mails (lists), posters in universities, and social media. University students are the target group we would like to have more of in our museums. For seniors, the Internet is not the best way to find information. To address this target group, we use local media (free city papers, newspapers, radio) and posters/ flyers in libraries, museums, cafes, etc. We have found the most effective medium is the radio. To reach our usual target groups we send information to different lists, use social and printed media (press announcements, articles, advertise). Homepages (including tourism-focused and local event-based) are important vehicles. Social media (Facebook, Twitter) is getting more and more popular. Via sharing and clicking ‘like,’ the information can be forwarded quite effectively. Again we would like to stress: the best advertising is from person to person. The personal approach is always more fruitful than a post in a homepage. Feedback from the visitors confirms this. How do we get the feedback from our target groups? The practice of using surveys is rather rare. Questionnaires are formulated when changing the exposition or a museum wants to ask the visitors some other specific question. This trend is changing slowly, because paper-based surveys are replaced by online versions which are easy to create and use. The blind spot of online surveys is accessibility – not all age groups have access to or use the Internet. For general feedback, the typical and most common vehicle is the guestbook. None of the writer museums has an online-guestbook yet, but museums often receive 32

An educational program in Dr. Fr. R. Kreutzwald museum

‘thank-you’ e-mails. Schools and other organisations sometimes give a small gift (teacup with a logo; chocolate; flowers) ex gratia for the guided tour. The best feedback is when people return to the museum. If the museum is considered to be interesting, people will come again and also recommend the museum to others. The biggest challenge for writers’ museums is outreach to those people who don’t consider a writer’s museum to be a place of interest. For example, families. Most people are still of the opinion that a writer’s museum is no place for children and families. In recent years, most of the writers’ museums have developed new programs and activities for the families to break this prejudice, but it is not easy. The same icebreaking has to be done with middle-age people who imagine a writer’s museum to be ‘too intellectual’ or ‘boring’. These two groups actually overlap (middle-age people as parents of families) and are the target group most writers’ museums hope to reach more effectively. The same goes for organisations that could hold a business seminar or a dinner/Christmas party in the museum. One of the strategies raise interest in this group is the creation of new context for the museum. Aimi Hollo from Dr. Fr. R. Kreutzwald museum: “We have a program about values in a person’s life and in society based on Dr. Fr. R. Kreutzwald’s works. Both children and adults can compare the values in the present world with the past and find out something about their own personalities (with the help of Kreutzwald’s works).” 33

Another example: The Fr.Tuglas museum created a project about landscape and museums. Most of the writers’ museums have programs about society and the domestic life during the period of the writer’s life, focusing not on the writer but the author’s context. Writers’ museums would like to reach more tourists also. Literature is quite difficult to present to the people who have little knowledge about the country and its culture. When it comes to music or art it is easier to bridge two cultures: they do not need to be translated into another language. But to explain the essence of a writer without knowledge of his texts is more difficult. That’s why many museums stress original interiors more than oeuvre of the writer. When tourists find the place to be lovely based on its physical surroundings, they will also remember the writer better and perhaps even read some of his works (if translated into their language). So the strategy to reach more tourists is to attract them first with the environment and through this positive experience draw the attention also to the writer. Kairi Tilga from E. Vilde museum: “We are advertising the museum as one of the pearls of local wooden architecture which is at the same time the last home of the writer and journalist Eduard Vilde.” Integrating different languages into the homepage helps to communicate with tourists in a direct way. In recent years more attention has been paid to the handicapped. Most of the writers’ museums are located in old houses and are not easily accessible with a wheelchair. In 2012 a training session about ways to improve accessibility in the museums was held. For example there could be more touchable items in the exhibitions for 34

Volunteers are often friends or relatives of the museum workers

the blind or visually impaired. Or a video tour about the floors not accessible by wheelchair. Cooperation with the Handicapped People’s Society will hopefully help to improve the current situation and bring more handicapped people as visitors to our museums. Literature is a strong medium when it comes to minorities and immigrants. Literature has a tendency to magnify and generalize the image(s) of human types, local habits, behaviour, and social values. Translations of the national literature give immigrants and ethnic minorities better possibilities to come into contact with the local culture. Reading the originals is helpful in learning the language. Literature combines the language with the general human life, existential questions and cultural characteristics. At the same time it contains the quaintness of the national culture and helps give insight to it. In general, literature simplifies the identification and acclimation process. Visiting a writer’s museum is thus a sort of ‘gate’. It offers a historical atmosphere, cultural icons and language training at the same time. Most educational programs in writers’ museums are based on learning the language via literature. In Estonia there are quite many language immersion classes for Russian students. Visiting the museum gives them practice in speaking the Estonian language. The guided tours are in Estonian but some of the words and sentences are translated into Russian. Workbooks in parallel languages are also helpful. Holiday/language immersion camps are also an efficient way of helping to have closer contact with the cultural surroundings. This is the new audience writers’ museums are increasingly focusing on and cooperation with language immersion schools is a growing tendency. 35

2. Fostering literary heritage: volunteering and museum associations Most of the writers’ museums do not have many employees. Usually 1-3 persons take care of the most substantive work: educational work, research, collections, communication, and administrative work. To be able to communicate successfully with visitors, improve the collections etc., the labour force is actually too small. Most of the museums try to find ways to include volunteers in the museum activities. Often, volunteers have been friends and family/relatives of the museum workers. Using volunteers hasn’t been very common in Estonia but it is a growing tendency. Mostly young people are interested and senior volunteers are very uncommon. A website5 has been created where volunteers can register themselves, so museums only have to send information as to how and when they could use extra help. Volunteers Portal then contacts the museum and sends the volunteers. Usually volunteers are needed for big events: European Museum Night, festivals, open audience days etc. Volunteers themselves also prefer work in socially active events. Working in archives and collections is not very popular. For archive work (digitalising, inserting data into the virtual database etc.) museums can apply for extra funding or use trainees from universities. Museums are suitable places to conduct an internship and we are looking to find more ways to include university students as trainees in the museums. Most volunteers are looking for something different from their everyday life. Some of the volunteers offer their help in something they are good at. Elle-Mari Talivee from Under and Tuglas Literary Centre: “Local people have created an NGO Adson, Under and Tuglas’s Garden and help us take care of the museum garden which is quite big and needs much attention. Most of the members are interested in gardening and happy they can link their hobby with something useful.” Some of the museums have a Friends of the Museum Society. For example the Liivi Museum. The Society offers its members information about what’s going on in the museum as well as an opportunity to organise events in the museum. As it is an NGO, it’s easier to apply for funding from different sources. Mari Niitra from the Liivi museum: “The Society members’ contribution can be listed as the following: fresh ideas/suggestions how to develop the museum, volunteer work (i.e. taking photos at different events; design work; taking care of the area/garden), promoting 5 - ’a Portal for Volunteers’


Monument of A. H. Tammsaare with the sculptor Jaak Soans, 1977

the museum. As some of the members belong to the local government board they try to act in the interests of the museum there, stressing the importance of literary heritage and the needs of the museum.” The Association of the Estonian Writers’ Museums was created with a similar purpose: to have its joint voice heard louder when it comes to Estonia’s literary heritage and to find funding for the benefit of all the writers’ museums. One of the questions the Association has raised recently is the question of creating new writers’ museums or monuments. Is the ’canon’ of the museum writers finished? Or should we create new museums at some time in the future? We have some really important classic authors who have died in the last 5-10 years who could have a museum dedicated to their personalities and oeuvre. It seems to us it is not enough only to preserve their legacy in archives, as they are worthy of more attention. Is it a volunteer action (creating websites, having conferences, finding money for monuments, found private museums etc.) or a question of cultural policy? The Association finds it to be a matter of state and tries to stress the importance of the literary heritage and literature as widely as possible. 37

Children’s Day (June 1) in O. Luts Museum

3. Best practices and innovative ideas in engaging new audiences What are our best practices when trying to extend the understanding that literature is a valuable, enriching, and entertaining part of human life? One of the successful ways to engage new audiences are cooperation projects like the European Museum Night. A huge event, the Night is widely reported by the media and is received even by those people who usually do not consider themselves ‘museum people.’ Under these circumstances, writers’ museums also have an opportunity to change their image. If people come to a writer’s museum even by accident and spend a lovely time, the mission has been fulfilled. These types of events help to reach audiences who usually consider writers’ museums to be too specific and not so interesting. If they actually come, they usually find the place and the writer intriguing. And hopefully they come again. Competitions are also effective. Most writers’ museums have positive experiences with competitions. Liivi Rosenvald from the O. Luts Museum: “We have had reading out loud, poetry and essay writing competitions. When the subject is right, young people get really involved. They gain a lot from it themselves. We published a book with the winning poems; it was really a big thing for young people.” Novel and other prose competitions also garner wide participation. If people feel involved, express their thoughts and feelings, they find a personal connection and literature takes on new meaning for them. 38

Time travel: a photostudio in the museum

Let’s also add a slightly different example: a Wikipedia articles competition. It was not announced by a writer museum but local writers’ museums participated and promoted the competition. The challenge was to write about your local area, about the places, landscapes and objects you have a story about (perhaps heard from your parents or grandparents or experienced yourself ) or to share some uncommon knowledge. Participants then wrote an article in Wikipedia format as a kind of challenge. Many people successfully accepted this challenge. Besides reading and writing competitions, some museums have founded reading clubs. In the Estonian Literary Museum, a biography club meets regularly. The idea of the club is to discuss different ways to write one’s lifestory or one’s family’s story, as well as to read and analyse the biographies. The A. H. Tammsaare Museum has two a reading clubs: one for children and one for the adults. Berit Kaschan from A. H. Tammsaare museum: “The children’s reading club involves different activities, including the opportunity to create your own book. By the end of the season, before summer, the children present their books to the club.” The book club for adults is quite typical: once a month people gather and talk about the book(s) they agreed upon in the previous meeting. This book club is actually targeted at locals– for those who live ‘next door’. So joining a book club adds the writer’s museum to the local community’s sense of the place. Usually people who join the reading club are from fields other than literature and it is a great opportunity to engage others who read and think about literature, and in a historic place. Cooperation with local community is without a doubt a successful way to reach new and wider audiences. 39

Entertaining and educational ‘bus exhibition’

Family days and topic-based events also grow the museum’s audience and reach out to those people who would not consider visiting a writer’s museum ‘for no good reason.’ For example: the O. Luts’ Museum successfully participates in the local borough days, the Dr. Fr. R. Kreutzwald museum always offers diverse programming during the city days in Võru. The E. Vilde and A. H. Tammsaare museums have topic-days every year with the subtitle “a summer evening in Kadriorg”. Every year the topic is different: for example topics like fashion, food and cafes, health and sports, dancing and music have all been used. We use these topics to talk about the writers too. It gives people an opportunity to have a small ‘time travelling’ experience because the guides are dressed in period costume and participate in the photo-shoots dressed in an old-fashioned way. Topic-based workshops and lectures are always included and the day ends with a concert. These yearly events are well received and attended, garnering much media attention. One effective way to catch public attention is exhibitions in public spaces. One of the innovative exhibitions is a virtual ’bus-exhibition’ in the express buses traveling between the two biggest cities in Estonia, Tallinn and Tartu. The drive takes about 2,5 hours and to entertain the passengers the bus company has integrated small screens into the seats. Passengers can access the internet, read news, watch the movies, listen to the music, play games, etc. The A. H. Tammsaare Museum added a game about literature and some of Tammsaare’s short stories are available to read during the trip. There is also a short overview about the author’s relationship with the two cities. 40

The most innovative strategies are usually quite expensive and cannot be widely practiced by the writers’ museums. Still we have several ways in mind to try to improve communication with our audiences and finding new ones: participating in big festivals/ fairs with the Association box (representing all the writers’ museums); creating an interactive and exciting literature-based online game in our website (for schools but also for adults); developing virtual tours/special programs for handicapped persons; holding yearly summer camps (reading camps) for adults; giving regular literary tours in different cities/places, including printed materials about the literary heritage in the local city/place. 2013 is the year of cultural heritage in Estonia. The motto of the year is ‘No heritage without heir’. The goal of this year’s theme is to promote cultural issues to the general public – to recognize that cultural concerns involve each of us in one way or a another and that heritage is worthy of appreciation and preservation. Throughout the year of cultural heritage the writers’ museums can also divulge their importance and broaden the understanding of their value.

Outdoor exhibition “Estonian writers in caricature”


THE EUROPEAN ASPECT OF PROMOTING LITERARY HERITAGE 1. The European dimension of the national literary �eld Before concentrating on specifically European literary aspects, it might be worth sketching the general background of Estonian culture. Estonia’s culture incorporates indigenous heritage with mainstream Nordic and European cultural aspects. Estonia is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia. Since the thirteenth century Estonia was ruled by Poles, Danes, Germans, Swedes, and Russians. Before the nineteenth century, the Estonian national identity was synonymous with the peasantry. The local nobility and clergy, merchants, and traders were predominantly Baltic Germans; an Estonian could enter the upper classes only by adopting the German language and German customs. Estonians referred to themselves as ‘maarahvas’ (‘country folk’). Because of its history and geography, Estonia’s culture has been influenced by the traditions of the adjacent area’s various Finnish, Baltic, Slavic and Germanic peoples as well as cultural developments in the former dominant powers Sweden and Russia. The Republic of Estonia was declared on 24 February 1918. After winning the Estonian War of Independence against both Soviet Russia and the German Freikorps and Baltische Landeswehr volunteers, the Republic of Estonia was recognised de jure in 1920. Name ‘Eesti’ (Estonia) can be traced to a first-century text by the Roman historian Tacitus that mentions a people or place called Aestii or Aestui. The oldest records of written Estonian date from the 13th century. Originates Livoniae in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia contains Estonian place names, words and fragments of sentences. The Liber Census Daniae (1241) contains Estonian place and family names. The development of a written language was important to Estonian cultural awareness; the Estonian language has always been the bearer of Estonian identity. 42

The Wanradt-Koell catechism from the year 1535. Tallinn City Archives

In 1525 the first book was printed in the Estonian language. The book was a Lutheran manuscript, which never reached its intended reader and was destroyed immediately after publication. The earliest extant Estonian book is the WanradtKoell catechism from the year 1535. The birth of native Estonian literature occurred between 1810 and 1820 when the patriotic and philosophical poems by Kristjan Jaak Peterson were first published. Inspired by the Finnish Kalevala, Friedrich Robert Faehlmann outlined and Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald completed the Estonian epic Kalevipoeg, which was published between 1857 and 1861. Since the era of National Awakening, literature in Estonia has held a special position, reflecting the honour, intellect and conscience of our society. The period of active collection of folk poetry began one hundred years ago (only Ireland has a larger collection) is now - in modern Estonia - mirrored by a new campaign to collect personal biographies. After the establishment of the Republic of Estonia, professionalism and diversity was followed by the emergence of literary institutions. The Estonian Writers Union was founded in 1922; the literary monthly Looming (Creation) first appeared in 1923 and is still the main periodical of its sort in Estonia. Since 1925, the Cultural 43


Endowment Fund has been the major provider of grants in the arts in the presentday Republic of Estonia. Thanks to the rapid cultural development that took place during the first period of independence (1918-1940), and particularly the idealistic devotion of Estonian linguists, the Estonian language had been transformed into a modern European language by the mid-1930s. The Estonian language was thereafter suitable for all forms of modern cultural discourse. It was language that maintained Estonian national identity during the Soviet occupation of Estonia, in the GULAG camps, and now in independent Estonia. The prose of the early 1920s was dominated by short stories, but some great novels, often multi-volume, also appeared. The most famous is one of the most outstanding Estonian novelists A. H. Tammsaare’s (1878-1940) masterpiece Tõde ja õigus I-V (Truth and Justice, 1926-1933). The 1920s and 1930s are considered as the “Golden Age” of the Estonian novel. After the Second World War, Estonian literature was split in two for almost half a century. A number of prominent writers fled to Germany or Sweden. Many of those who remained behind and did not follow the ideology of the Soviet occupying power suffered either death in Siberia or a combination of repression, a ban on publication and domestic exile. Despite the modest circumstances of the war and post-war years, creative activity and publishing began again almost immediately, both in the temporary stopovers in Finland, and in the refugee camps in Sweden and Germany. Between 1940 and 1941, as many as 99 publishing houses were nationalised. Censorship was common and most literature published during the independence 44

Jaan Kross

period was banned in an attempt to limit the influence of Estonian culture. In 1941, Germany invaded Estonia and the process was repeated, this time with a fascist rather than communist perspective. After the war Estonia was annexed by the Soviet Union. The annexation brought with it strict censorship and the destruction of books, which continued until 1949. Until the dissolution of the Soviet Union, translations of Estonian literature were confined almost exclusively to Soviet publications, mostly anthologies of stories. They were generally published in the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (ESSR) by the Perioodika publishing house, and first had to get the permission from the local KGB Cultural Department. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the restoration of Republic of Estonia’s independence. The beginning of the 21st century has been fertile and fruitful for Estonian literature. Mati Unt (1944-2005) and Viivi Luik’s (b. 1946) intertextual poetry prepared the ground for a bold new Estonian literature. The most remarkable prose writers of the younger generation of recent years are Andrus Kivirähk (b. 1970), Mehis Heinsaar (b. 1973) and Tõnu Õnnepalu (b.1962). Tõnu Õnnepalu’s works have been translated into several languages (French, Chinese, Dutch, English, Finnish, German, and Hungarian, among others). He has translated works by such French authors as François Mauriac, Charles Baudelaire and Marcel Proust into Estonian and written for such English language publications as the Poetry Society. Jaan Kaplinski (b. 1941) and Kristiina Ehin (b. 1977) are among Estonia’s bestknown writers abroad. Probably the best known is Jaan Kross (1920-2007) who was proposed for the Nobel Prize for Literature on several occasions. Jaan Kross is also one of the most-translated writers in Estonia. 45

For further reading, we suggest Cornelius Hasselblatt’s Geschichte der Estnischen Literatur, an 800-page book on the history of Estonian literature in German. It was published in 2006 by the Walter de Gruyter Verlag, Berlin.6 Due to Estonia’s membership in the EU, the European dimension of Estonians’ self-perception is becoming more present. The European aspect in our literary field is most visible in activities of different cultural organisations in Estonia: PEN Club; Goethe-Institut Estland; Institut français d’Estonie; the Nordic Council of Ministers’ Office in Estonia; Finnish Institute in Estonia (Suomen Vironinstituutti); Balassi Institute (Hungarian Institute Tallinn); NPO Fenno-Ugria; the Danish Cultural Institute; Deutsche Kulturinstitut Tartu (DKI), Estnische Goethe-Gesellshaft, IBBY Estonia etc. Cooperation with these organisations gives writers’ museums an opportunity to contribute to the promotion of the European aspect of our literary heritage. But we have to admit that exhibitions or conferences about foreign authors remain quite uncommon in Estonia. This is one of things we hope the Grundtvig Lifelong Learning Partnership project Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage has changed. In the future we hope to have closer contacts and more activities that help to promote literary heritage on a European scale. That said, some examples from recent past deserve mention. In cooperation with the Polish embassy an exhibition about the writer Joseph Conrad, Twixt Land and Sea, took place in the Eduard Vilde Museum (2007) and a virtual exhibition about Gustav Meyrink was presented at the A. H. Tammsaare Museum in 2008. ‘Literary cafes’ dealing specifically with European literature and organised by European Commitee in Estonia and Estonian PEN Club take place regularly but have yet to work in cooperation with writers’ museums. But writers’ museums do celebrate some of the important European literary days: World Poetry Day (21 March), Tolkien Reading Day (25 March), International Children’s Book Day (ICBD, 2 April), World Book and Copyright Day (23 April), Reading Aloud (20 October). On these occasions, a public meeting with a contemporary writer usually takes place and sometimes competitions are announced. Most popular among these is the Reading Aloud Day, which is celebrated also by libraries and societies. Writers’ museums generally invite a contemporary author to meet with students and read his/her texts. Reading aloud is an increasingly important part of self-expression. The more time young people spend behind computer and communicate virtually, the less capable they become in expressing themselves verbally. To read aloud and 6


Wilde and Vilde

clear is not easy for them. In addition to stressing the importance of literature, Reading Aloud Day offers important learning opportunities. Sometimes important anniversaries like the birthdays of Charles Dickens or James Joyce are celebrated, usually as movie-evenings and/or lecture evenings. And there are some traditional events such as Dostoyevsky Days in Tallinn (since 2001) and Sergey Dovlatov Days in Tallinn since 2011. Both writers lived in Tallinn for some time and the city is captured in their works. There is a memorial plaque on the houses where Dostoyevsky and Dovlatov lived in Tallinn. In 2002 a bust for Dostoyevsky was dedicated in Tallinn. Beyond these examples, when it comes to the presence of European writers in Estonia, the most remarkable are probably the Schiller monuments that are thought to be the first Schiller monuments in the world. The monuments are located in Helme manor park and Puhtu manor park. The one in Helme manor park was first erected in 1805 by Elisabeth Dorothea von Gersdorf and was destroyed in the middle of 19th century (though photos of it still remain). In 2009, on Schiller’s 250th anniversary, a memory stone was placed to remember the monument. The monument in Puhtu was built in 1813 by Dorothea Augusta von Rosen who was a friend of Schiller’s wife. The first monument to Schiller in Germany was established only in 1830. Another German author who has a presence in Estonia is Herman Hesse whose grandfather was Estonian. A memorial tablet in Paide (Pikk St 4) was placed by his ancestors on the wall of the house where grandfather Carl Hermann Hesse lived. 47

Memorial tablets for Barbara Juliane V. Krüdener (in Viitna) and for the author of Finnish national epos, Elias Lönnrot (in Võru) can also be found. Another Finnish writer who has been memorised is Aino Kallas whose museum is located in island Hiiumaa where she and her husband spent their summers. In Tartu stands one of the most amusing monuments: Eduard Vilde and Oscar Wilde. The two writers actually had nothing else in common but the name and they never had a chance to meet (although they lived at the same time and could have). A copy of this monument was also erected in Galway, Ireland. In Tartu there is a cafe dedicated to W. Shakespeare and beside the river stands a memorial to Khachatur Abovian dedicated to the friendship of Estonia and Armenia. In eastern Estonia, many cities have streets named for Russian writers from the Soviet period: Tolstoy Street; Maxim Gorky Street; Ivan Krylov Street; Nikolay Nekrassov Street; Vladimir Mayakovski Street; Pushkin Street in Narva. In a funny coincidence we could also add Poe Street in Tartu although it is actually not dedicated to the writer E. A. Poe but is rather a declination of a word ‘pood-poe’ [a shop].

2. Communicating literary heritage through institutional cooperation in Europe One of the best examples in communicating literary heritage at the institutional level is the Grundtvig Lifelong Learning Partnership project Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage. As we mentioned in our project announcement: “In eleven countries of the European Union there are national umbrella associations of literary societies and/or literary museums, in other countries particular museums or archives play an important role as mediators in this field. So far, an exchange between these organisations about their work and the strengths and weaknesses of their approaches in dealing with the literary heritage has barely taken place on a European level.”7 So this project is an important step toward cooperation among literary heritage organizations and learning more about the European aspects we share. Some of the museums are engaged also with other projects: for example Estonian Literary 48

A. H. Tammsaare museum in Sochi, Russia

Museum participates the Nordplus (the Nordic Council of Ministers’ programme)8 and Balthernet (Baltic Heritage Network)9. About 4-5 persons in Estonia are members of ICLM (International Committee for Literary Museums)10. We hope to consolidate our relationship with ICLM in the future. So far the Grundtvig project has given us valuable experiences and has been a really successful cooperation project we hope to continue. When it comes to sharing knowledge of Estonian literature abroad, the best way is to cooperate with the Estonian embassies and cultural societies in Europe. Probably the best example we have is the exhibition about E. Vilde travels in Europe. The museum cooperated hand in hand with the Embassies of Poland, Austria and Turkey; many materials (photos, etc.) were found with the help of Hungarian, Finnish and Danish Institutes. The A. H. Tammsaare Museum in Tallinn enjoys good relations with the Estonian Embassy in Paris: a shared exhibition in the Paris Nordic library was inaugurated in 2009, and there is an on-going project together with French literary scholars. The Tammsaare Museum also has a partnership with the A. H. Tammsaare Museum in Russia, Sochi (an exhibition in 2010). 9 10 7 8


Palamuse O. Luts’ Parish School Museum created an exhibition ’Spring’ [the most popular novel of O. Luts] in theatre as a travelling exhibition in Latvia and Finland. Arne Tegelmann, director of the museum: “There is a cooperation between the museum and Estonian Embassy in Riga; in Finland the partner organisation is Tuglas Society.” The Association has pursued a relationship with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Cultural Department to share travelling and multilingual exhibitions about Estonian literature. All these experiences in networking have produced positive results. But because of the small number of employees in the writers’ museums the participation in different projects and networks can be quite difficult. This is one of the reasons that up until now not very much networking has taken place, but in recent years the writers’museums have become more and more active in cooperation projects with different institutions.

3. European heritage in the literary institution’s practice Estonian writers have always been influenced by European literature, thus when it comes to their oeuvre we can point out several intertextual references to different European authors. In the A. H. Tammsaare Museum in Tallinn, an exhibition ‘A. H. Tammsaare and world literature’ is presented in 2013. It points out several authors – like J. W. Goethe, Knut Hamsun, F. Dostoyevsky etc. – with whom Tammsaare shared a similar mind or poetics. However, when it comes to archives and items in collections, not very many can be highlighted. The Estonian Literary Museum’s archive contains the correspondence of several European men of letters, the Fr. Tuglas museum (part of the Under and Tuglas Literature Centre) archive includes many books presented to him with dedications by several Finnish authors, such as Eino Leino, Olavi Paavolainen, Aino Kallas, as well as photos and book illustrations for both Tuglas and Marie Under (for Marie Under by Oskar Kokoschka). The A. H. Tammsaare Museum’s archive contains substantial correspondence about translations in several European countries like the Netherlands, Germany, Finland etc. Some museums hold the copyright of their author, so publishing houses have to cooperate when publishing translations of the author. For example, A. H. Tammsaare has translated books by O. Wilde, F. Dostoyevsky, J. Conrad etc. 50

Conferences about common Baltic memory, history, and literature are regularly held in the Under and Tuglas Literature Centre. These conferences are a project in cooperation with Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Germany. In 2011, the Center hosted the 9th conference. The incorporation of European heritage into our institution’s practice comes mostly in the cultural surroundings themselves: the influences authors have had, the values we share with other literary institutions in Europe etc. For example, when conducting a literary walk in Tallinn, part of the information is always linked with different European aspects – whether connected to the plot of a book(s), to the author’s travels, or to his literary influences. Sometimes lectures about foreign authors are held in the museums, particularly when a foreign author has been important for the writer. The European aspect is part of our work: we read news about European literature on the internet, in newspapers, newsletters (ICLM) and literary magazines. The Association tries to participate in the literary festivals and book fairs. We have a partnership with libraries (who are more active in arranging book-exhibitions about foreign authors). The virtual exhibition ‘European Literary Characters’ will add important information to compare the similarities/differences in European literature.



Back to content 53


COMMUNICATION, PROMOTION AND OUTREACH 1. General information and mission Suomen kirjailijanimikkoseurat – De litterära sällskapen i Finland ry (Nimikot), founded in 2004, is the umbrella organization of Finnish literature associations. Beginning in the early 1990s, representatives from various Finnish writers’ associations convened regularly to exchange news and to consider strategies to strengthen the associations’ activities and raise their profile. During these meetings, one recurring theme was the constraints posed by the associations’ minimal economic and personnel resources. In 2003, it was decided to pool these resources in order to foster greater cooperation through a new umbrella organization. Seventeen different writers’ associations were present at the Federation’s founding. The basic mission of the umbrella organization of Finnish literature associations is to • maintain and preserve Finnish literary heritage • support the cultural activities of the member associations • produce cultural events • foster reading • encourage literary research Nimikot maintains active contacts within the media and provides news and updates about the literary field. Nimikot co-operates with the national government, municipalities, and parishes. Networking with other organisations and companies within the cultural field comprises another of the Federation’s principal activities. Common meetings are held several times a year. The member associations have the opportunity to meet at fairs organized by the umbrella organization Nimikot as well as in separate meetings held approximately three-to-four times a year. In addition, Nimikot organizes member excursions to culturally and historically important destinations. The annual meeting is held in different parts of Finland. 55

The house was fully packed in our Poetry Slam at Kuopio, 2011

In a large country where many writers’ associations are geographically remote from one another, rotating the site of the annual meeting affords all associations the opportunity to participate. Finland’s first writers’ association was founded in 1930 in celebration of the author and district GP Hj. Nortamo’s (1860-1931) 70th birthday. The idea of founding of a named writers’ association originated in Hungary, where an association named for poet Sándor Petőfi was active. In addition to maintaining the visibility of Hj. Nortamo’s literary production, the association serves as an active protector of the local sailing ship culture, wooden architecture, and dialect of the town of Rauma. Known for its extra colour, the rauma dialect uses words and expressions picked up by local seamen. When Finland became part of the European Union in 1995, there were concerns over the preservation of national identity. Almost the opposite happened. The interest towards Finnish literature and the national culture has only increased. The over 30 writers’ associations either founded or reactivated between 2003 and 2013 are a good example of this. In 2013, after nine years of activity, the umbrella organization Nimikot is comprised of 54 member associations with approximately 6,500 members. The functioning of Nimikot is financed by annual fees ranging from 30 to 150 euros, depending on the number of members within an association. During the last three years of activity, Nimikot has also received a small annual subsidy from the Ministry of Culture. 56

2. Best practices in communication, promotion and outreach The most visible form of Nimikot’s activity is the running of the website. From the home page, those interested in member associations’ activities can find the contact information for the various associations, information about the associations’ work and the author for which each association is named. Through the site, one can get into contact with or become a member of all of the associations, as well as a supportive member of the Federation. The website receives 400 visits per day on average, with the record being 1512 hits in September 2012. The umbrella organization’s web page helps the associations to concentrate on their primary mission: the conservation of writers’ cultural heritage and making their literary production known. However, the pages also include information on literature-related events, theatre performances, new and old publications as well as the writers’ associations’ current news. With the help of its webpage, book fairs and general meetings, Nimikot unites writers’ associations active in different parts of Finland under the same roof. The northernmost associations are situated in Lapland and the southernmost in the Helsinki region. The distance between these is some 1,100 km. Adding to this diversity, the member associations within Nimikot are very different in size. The smallest associations have 20-50 members, while the largest has 700. The Federation’s mission is to serve as fairly as possible all member associations. In addition to collecting membership fees, the member associations fund their activities by producing publications, such as reprints of the writer’s production or by publishing completely new productions (diaries, correspondence, essays etc.). Another goal is to help put Finnish classic literature on the map.

3. Activities and literary history The activities of the writers’ associations vary from small local events to national and international undertakings. Guided excursions to the writers’ home regions, including burial sites, are very popular. Burial site walks are organized yearly with different themes. Participants visit the graves, stories are told about the writers, poems are recited etc. The “Read a poem a day to a child” campaign is announced every year at nimikot. fi webpage and is directed at families with children as well as nurseries. It is even possible to print out a picture related to the poem so that he/she can colour or has an illustration of the story. 57

NIMIKOT at book fair ”Days for Old Literature” at Sastamala, 2012

The largest yearly events, e.g. Päätalo-päivät (by Kalle Päätalo-association) and Pentinkulman päivät (by Väinö Linna-association) lasts a week and attracts thousands of participants. In addition to the main celebration, seminars, exhibitions, competitions, theatre performances etc. are organized. The umbrella organization Nimikot and the writers’ associations organize courses, theatre visits and excursions to literary destinations for their members. The writers’ associations confer prizes to active contributors. For example, Aleksis Kivi association every year grants Esko’s Cross to a person who in some way has expressed Finnish stubbornness. Nimikot organizes yearly exhibitions and events with two or more member associations. In addition to having a chance to enjoy the company of like-minded people, participants can catch up with and pick up ideas and spiritual vigour for their own association’s work. At the fairs, representatives of different types of literature meet, including children’s books, poetry and plays. The Finnish brochure about our members and the umbrella organization Nimikot itself will be translated into Swedish and English. Until 1809 Finland was part of Sweden and after that for over hundred years, an autonomous part of Russia. Thus Finnish literature in Finnish is rather young. The archbishop of Turku and reformer Mikael Agricola (1510-1557) wrote and translated the first books printed in Finnish. The first work to appear by Agricola was the ABCbook (1543), an alphabet-book containing the basics of reading and Christianity. 58

Writer Arto Paasilinna (in the middle) showing Swedish visitors his self-built meat shed and nature trail during Nordic seminar in Espoo, 2007

The first proper Finnish language writer was Jaakko Juteini (1781-1855), whose main productive period was the first decades of the 1800s. Jaakko Juteini was a pioneer of the Finnish fiction, emphasizing the work of the Finnish people and their language. Juteini wrote nonfiction books about social topics as well as books on the fields of education and children’s upbringing. He produced collections of proverbs and wrote plays and poetry. Elias Lönnrot (1802-1884) collected traditional lyric poetry during his trips in the Karelian regions. From these collections the Finnish national epic Kalevala was born. Lönnrot modernized the Finnish language, editing several Finnish dictionaries and publishing and editing the first Finnish newspaper. He also published several works on health and science. Lönnrot’s contribution to the development of Finnish culture, literature and language is unique. The influences on Finnish literature came from two directions. From the east came influences of Russian literature, but via St Petersburg and Vyborg came also European influences. During the Swedish rule, the language of the national gentry was Swedish and thus occidental literature had an important impact even on modern literature.


Pageant of 80 year old Hj. Nortamo-association in Rauma, 2010. Hj. Nortamo-association is the first society in Finland founded for a named writer

4. Education and lifelong learning Book clubs are a very popular pursuit in Finland and the writers’ associations are important organizers. The book clubs gather in libraries, homes and some of them even on the net. Book clubs are informal; either everyone reads a predetermined book by a given writer and then discuss the text or one of the members presents a work of particular interest to the other members. The book clubs can invite guest lecturers and authors to their gatherings. Book clubs are the main form of lifelong learning for the writers’ associations. Finland has done well in international reading skill comparisons. Recently, a South Korean film team documented a Nimikot book club evening as a demonstration of a well-organized model for encouraging adults’ reading pursuits. Promotion of Finish language learning among immigrants will be done with the help of book clubs specifically directed at these communities. In these clubs, participants read Finnish newspapers and discuss in Finnish. The Sello library in Espoo has one of Europe’s few reading dogs. Börje the dog helps and encourages by attentively listening to children and young people who have reading difficulties.


WAYS OF REACHING AUDIENCES 1. Association members and social inclusion The members of the writers’ associations and participants in their activities tend to be middle-aged or older, highly educated and active women. However, the largest writers’ associations are dominated by men. Also, in some of these larger associations, the share of people under 35 is considerable. Nimikot itself targets people of all age groups and professional backgrounds. The work of the writers’ associations is completely volunteer-based. There are no paid employees in any of our associations. At the annual meeting, member associations choose a chairperson and a board from among nominated candidates. Those elected to the board come from the member associations, but once chosen, they are naturally committed in their board work to represent all members impartially. Matti Nummenpää has been chairperson since the Umbrella Organization of Finnish

Anneli Kankare participated at the foundation meeting of the Arne Haapakoski-association in 2011


Nimikot chairman Matti Nummenpää discussing with author Veikko Huovinen (1927-2009) at the Veikko Huovinen-association foundation meeting 20.5.2007. One of the most important missions of Nimikot is to enable the foundation of societies for writers or literary clubs

Literature Associations (Nimikot) started. Among the board members there is some turnover. Participation in Nimikot’s board offers the experience of working with more than one association, and thus the board seats are coveted positions.

2. Fostering literary heritage: volunteering in associations Volunteer work is our asset. Activities based on volunteering are dynamic and constantly changing. Because they are very active people, volunteers’ willingness to give of their time attests to their commitment. The average age of volunteers is around 45 years, which means that volunteers’ own children are already on their way to becoming adults, freeing up more time for activities outside the home. On the other hand, many soon become grandparents, a wonderful period when time with the grandchildren nibbles at the available resources to devote to the association’s activities. Accordingly, and depending on who has the leadership responsibilities, there can be considerable ups and downs in member associations’ activities. 62

The reason for starting a writer’s association is always the appreciation of a writers’ work. The founders of the writers’ associations can be individuals supportive of a writer’s work, good friends or close relations. Interest in the mother tongue, the dialect represented by a writer, a desire to obtain more information about a favourite writer and a need to get together with like-minded people are common denominators. The association’s work is relatively cheap to its members; for a small membership fee can join a group with a common object of interest. Being active in one writer’s association offers an easy path of getting to know more extensively the rest of classic Finnish literature. The arousal of interest for the associations representing other writers such as of Immi Hellén-association, Kalle Päätalo-association and Samuli Paronen association becomes easy through the Nimikot association. One of the most important missions of Nimikot is to function as resource to encourage cooperation.


THE EUROPEAN ASPECT OF PROMOTING LITERARY HERITAGE 1. The European dimension of the national literary �eld During the Grundtvig-project “Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage”, the Umbrella Organization of Finnish Literature Associations has obtained a unique opportunity to get acquainted with literary organizations and writers’ museums in Estonia, Greece, Luxembourg and Hungary. There are no year-round, free-of-cost writer’s museums in Finland. However, the safeguarding of literature as such is taken very seriously in Finland. Material has been digitized and literary archives can be found both at regional and national levels. The Finnish National Library holds a considerable amount of rare Russian literature, as Finland was part of Russia for a long time. There are many small, local writer’s homes or ateliers that preserve a writer’s memory, but these are open to the public only during limited periods of the year. Aleksis Kivi (1834-1872), a Finnish national writer, has local museums preserving his work at his birthplace in Nurmijärvi, the cabin where he died in Tuusula and a copy of his workroom in Seurasaari, as well as a new construction built according to an old model in Siuntio, where the writer lived and worked. These places, which honour the writer’s life and production are notable, local attractions. During the summers, in addition to the chance to visit the exhibitions, these sites host plays, concerts, seminars etc. Near the national poet Eino Leino’s (1878-1926) birthplace in Paltaniemi’s Hövelö, a replica house has been built, which is maintained and owned by the Kainuu Eino association together with Elias Lönnrot association. The house contains collected memorabilia about the two writers and the programme emphasises their literary production. In order to secure the finances of the house, varied cultural events are organized there and it is also available for outside events like weddings.


Crime-story-writers event at Hattula, 2010: Markku Ropponen, Susanna Yli-Lujoma, Matti Nummenpää and Marko Kilpi. The event is organized on a yearly basis by the Mauri Sariolaassociation

Elias Lönnrot’s (1802-1884) birthplace, the Paikkari Torppa in Sammatti, is currently threatened, as the Finnish National Board of Antiquities has given up its maintenance. Nimikot is taking part in an initiative to preserve the writer’s house as a cultural resort. The conservation of writers’ houses and for them to remain a part of the Finnish cultural activity is essential. This entails national organization. Consequently, Nimikot is collecting information of all the ateliers and writers’ residences which carry a particular writer’s name and are open to the public. The goal is to build a cooperation network for the writers’ residences and thus disseminate more information to the public concerning the activities, opening hours, location etc. of the houses/exhibition rooms/museums. This information will be published at Nimikot home page. Thanks to the Grundtvig-project, much information has been obtained about the successful marketing of writers’ houses.

2. Communicating literary heritage through institutional cooperation in Europe The Federation’s cooperation across national borders began with a Nordic seminar in 2007. Since then, Nordic seminars have been organized every other year. Cooperation initiatives are also run with European organisations and writers’ museums.


Participation in the Grundtvig-project has offered the Umbrella Organization of Finnish Literature Associations valuable information and been of help for the present and future work. The professionalism of the project partners and their willingness to present their work has offered new ideas to those involved in Nimikot. An important task for Nimikot is to share and put this new information to use within the member associations. In addition to familiarizing ourselves with the participating countries’ museum displays, we were able to see the different stages of putting together an exhibition. Nimokot will benefit greatly from this experience, though the financing of our work is mainly based on the voluntary work of our association members. The writer’s associations do not always have material used by the writer at their disposal or the rights to use works and pictures in order to put together an exhibition. We have learned that there are many other ways of presenting a writer’s production and life’s work, of which this project has given useful examples. The July 2012 project meeting “The European aspect of promoting literary heritage” in Finland offered a unique opportunity to present the Federation’s work, as well as many literary and otherwise interesting cultural destinations to our project partners. The Finnish project meeting was held in July 2012 in Kajaani during Runoviikot (Poetry Weeks). Participants got to see Northern Finland and its local cultural sites, largely unknown in the rest of Europe. At this meeting, we were able to present the national literary archives in Helsinki and Hämeenlinna, book fairs and the functioning of libraries to the Estonian and Hungarian participants. For local guides, presenting the Federation’s activities, other national literary activities, and cultural and historical destinations to other people improves the guide’s own knowledge of the field.

3. European heritage in the literary institution’s practice Thank you for the opportunity to widely present Finnish classic literature and the umbrella organization Nimikot’s work to these fantastic, hard working professionals from Estonia, Luxembourg, Hungary and Greece. During the project a wondrous, versatile, creatively presented and carefully preserved world of writers’ museums has been revealed to us. The Finns are a reading people, but one wonders why we do not reach the level of a single one of these countries in the preservation of the national literary heritage? 66


Back to content 67



1. General information and mission

Nikos Kazantzakis, 1928

The Nikos Kazantzakis Museum (NKM) pays tribute to the important intellectual, author, thinker, philosopher, politician and traveller Nikos Kazantzakis. The mission of the Museum is to promote his work and keep alive the writer’s memory, conserve the large core of his personal archive: letters, manuscripts of his works and personal belongings. Thanks to the Museum’s digitalization project supported by the E.U. and the Greek State, the collections are now accessible to every researcher of his work. The latest renovation of the Museum’s main building and the new permanent exhibition in five rooms offer a fitting introduction to Kazantzakis, and a unique experience to the visitors, especially for those who were previously unfamiliar with his work and presence of Kazantzakis in European literature. The scope of the Museum also includes temporary exhibitions, educational programs for children and adults, multilingual editions (both paper and multimedia), and cooperation with literary institutions and universities. Links: XenJhQ


Nikos Kazantzakis Museum

2. Best practices in communication, promotion and outreach For every project designed to communicate and promote the work of Kazantzakis among the widest public possible, the Museum collaborates with researchers specialized in Kazantzakis’ work and experienced IT producers (multimedia, interactive installations, video producers etc.). With these partnerships, the Museum ensures the quality of the products that it offers to Greek and international admirers of the Cretan writer. Thanks to the rigorous application of national and international standards and guidelines, the NKM was honoured by the Excellence Award and Best Practice Commendation in March 2009. The winning project, “Digitization, Promotion and Management of Cultural Data and Collections at the NKM”, Information Society Operational Programme, was co-funded by the E.U. and the Greek State. Due to financial restraints, the NKM does not have the luxury to employ a private company to deal with public relations. Accordingly, we take advantage of free social networking, like Twitter but mostly Facebook, which is the best means to communicate immediately with the friends of the Museum and to disseminate news of events and new projects. The Museum also runs its official website, which is continuously updated, and the online museum shop, which helps generate income. Occasionally, in order to announce a new project of particular note, the Members of the Board will give a press conference to the local media and a press release will be sent by email to media outside of Crete. Because of the unique character of the NKM, as it is the only Museum dedicated to the international author, the 70

Part of the permanent exhibition

media are eager to cover the efforts of the Foundation. The media also sponsor the publicity for the events. At the national level, the NKM has no partnerships with the other 4 or 5 “museums”. Usually these are exhibitions of manuscripts relics and the writer’s personal items and do not fulfil the national or the ICOM rules, so they cannot be included to the National List of Museums. Most of them have no specialized personnel, and usually only one person operates the exhibition during the tourism season. The possibility of partnerships at a national level under these circumstances is somewhere between difficult and hopeless. The NKM has a partner of major importance: the International Society of Friends of Nikos Kazantzakis, an international non-profit cultural association. Its 3,000 members, in 92 countries, are all readers and admirers of Nikos Kazantzakis’ work. The Museum cooperates with ISFNK in organizing conferences, symposiums and small exhibitions about Nikos Kazantzakis. At the European level, the NKM has initiated partnerships with literary museums and institutions, firstly by pairing with the literary museums of Paul Valery in Sete, France and the Juan Ramon Jimenez in Moguer, Spain, and secondly by participating in the current Grundtvig project. Among other advantages, we particularly appreciate our colleagues’ enthusiasm for exchanging experiences and knowledge. Also, something unfortunately rare among Greek museums, they demonstrate a zeal for collaboration and working as a team. Links:


3. Exhibition policies and literary history Thus far, we’ve had one temporary exhibition organized by the Museum every three years. The very first one was The Chronicle of a Creation: From the novel “Christ Recrucified” to the opera “Greek Passion”, at Eptapyrgio Citadel of Thessaloniki, from 9th to 25th of June 2005. The concept was to present famous worldwide productions of the opera Greek Passion, during the first presentation of the Greek adaptation, which took place in the adjacent alley of the castle. The second temporary exhibition was Nikos Kazantzakis - Yiorgos Anemoyiannis: The Meeting, open from October 26th to November 26th 2008, in Herakleion. This production was dedicated to the Museums’ founder, Yiorgos Anemoyiannis. The concept was to present his personal effort to create the first personal literary Museumin Greece, dedicated to the great writer and his relative. A one-day exhibition documented the meeting “The Last Temptation of Christ and its transformation” that took place in Athens in 2008. The Museum is participating in the temporary exhibition presenting the life and work of Nikos Kazantzakis, organized by the Foundation of the Hellenic World in Athens, from December 2012 to May 2013, commemorating the 130th anniversary of the birth of the writer. The NKM is collaborating with documents in digital form and a/v documentaries.

Poster of a temporary exhibition


Another frequent contribution of the Museum is to events/presentations dealing with the writer in institutions worldwide. The NKM has created a digital series of photographs of the writer, in chronological sequence and with commentary. There is also the option of lending banners (in Greek), or sending the graphic design to be translated into the organizer’s. The NKM also sends an introductory documentary for adults, in 7 languages, and a special animated edition for children in Greek with English subtitles. For every type of exhibition, the main steps leading to the development of the exhibition are in general the following: • We decide the rationale and the focus of a possible exhibition • We search our database to ensure that we have documents and the bibliography to support the concept • We specify the core of the concept • We get the approval for the concept and the budget from the Board of the Museum • We search for sponsors • We identify thematic subjects that support the core concept • We write the texts and provide an English translation if necessary • We gather the objects to be exhibited, check their physical condition, and proceed with preventive maintenance or conservation (if needed) • Architectural design and manufacture of display cases and installation accessories • We install the documents, the items and the a/v projections • We print brochures providing basic information, answering the 5W questions: what, when, where, why, who During the above procedure the NKM interacts with various external sources and specialists: • • • • • • • • •

individual researchers to write or check the texts that we prepare other museums/archives to lend items from their collections other institutions to house the exhibition sponsors to covering the costs of the exhibition media sponsors translators of the texts graphic designers conservators security companies 73

Educational activities

4. Museum education and lifelong learning The educational programs began following the reopening of the renovated permanent exhibition in 2010. During the two years of renovation, the NKM collaborated with a team of professionals (museum educators, teachers, psychologists, graphic designers, animators), in order to design and implement a series of educational programs, aimed at children aged 6-15. The new programs are exhibition-related, a fact that contributes to the participation levels and the enthusiasm among the pupils and their teachers. Their impressions can be seen in the visitors’ book. The NKM also runs programs that are neither museum-driven nor related with the writer, but rather with literature and editions for children in general. School children between 6-13 who are residents of the municipality can participate in the Museum’s reading club once a month at the seat of the museum in Myrtia. Under the auspices and support of NKM, two annexes of the reading club are running in the Municipality. The reading club is offered by the NKM thanks to the effort and commitment of the volunteer teachers of the area. In this context, we organized an activity for primary school pupils in 2012 to create their own book. Students produced everything from writing the content, to illustration and finally to binding. 74

Seminar for adults

The Museum is also working to offer lifelong learning programs to adults. The primary target group is educators and school teachers who are interested in museology, in museum pedagogy, and in alternative/new methods of teaching. In order to maintain contact with these professionals, to pique their interest in participation and to generate a list of favourite educational subjects, we ask the escorting teachers to fill out questionnaires at the end of each program. The first seminar of this sort took place in 2010. Another general and wider target group are parents. These seminars have no connection with the purview of the Museum and the promotion of literature, but they contribute to the broadening of the foundation’s reputation. They also provide direct and indirect income for the NKM. Two such seminars took place during 2012.

Reading club for kids


Multimedia DVD about Nikos Kazantzakis

5. Publications as a way to promote literature Among the strategies for promotion of the NKM’s mission, one of the most effective is the release of collections and studies on the work of Kazantzakis. Thanks to financial support of the E.U. and the Greek State, the NKM has published books and multimedia DVDs. The most important example is a catalogue of items in the Museum collection that document every aspect of Kazantzakis’ life and work. This edition is in four languages, promoting the knowledge among wide target groups. Another important outlet is the creation of multimedia DVD ROMs. Under the title Nikos Kazantzakis, His Life and Work it presents thousands of documents (letters, postcards, manuscripts, worldwide editions, videos etc.), of which 80% derives from the Museum’s collections. This production is also in four languages. The Museum began to publish its collection of letters and photos 25 years ago. The most recent project is the reprinting of children’s books of European writers dating back to the 30s and 40s, translated into Greek by Kazantzakis. The first reprinting is the book of Jules Verne, Around the World in Eighty Days. Because of the high cost of a hard copy production, we have adopted the solution of electronic editions. All the studies of the international congress that took place in Myrtia and Heraklion in 2007 were incorporated in two CDs. The user has the option to search for articles by a thematic list, as well as a list of the names of the participants, and download them. 76

WAYS OF REACHING AUDIENCES 1. Museum audiences and social inclusion Because of the NKM’s location in a village outside the city of Heraklion (15 km south) and the lack of public transportation, it is difficult for individuals to make a quick excursion and visit the Museum. This changes during the period of summer vacations when visitors are more likely to hire a car and include an excursion south to the NKM in their itineraries. During the same period of the year we receive groups of seniors, both tourists and Greeks, in excursions organized by travel agencies. Another sector of our public is student groups who visit the Museum escorted by the teachers during their annual school excursion. The most dynamic group in terms of numbers are the children between the ages of 6-15 who are participating with their teachers in the educational programs. In order to reach our target groups and increase the number of the visitors, we employ effective, low-coast methods that are common among small/medium-size museums. These are: • • • • • •

Advertisements in magazines (usually via a sponsorship) and newspapers Brochures Educational programs/brochures Mailing lists Social media and networking Presentation of programs via radio and TV.

The Museum’s future efforts will target new audiences. These are families, educational and cultural associations, agencies that organize conferences, and cultural management professionals. In order to reach these groups, we plan excursions and guided tours in the Museum, new educational programs for families, as well as seminars and workshops. 77

International children’s book day at NKM

With the goal of bringing families to the Museum we twice participated in the International Day of Children’s Books by inviting a famous writer to the NKM. Children participated with theatrical sketches and songs. Most recently, the event was attended by more than 200 parents and children. In other E.U. Museums and Organisations the use of literature to integrate language teaching to national minorities/immigrants is a common practice. Unfortunately the NKM has no experience with such educational programs, as they must be the result of work with specialists. A program for minorities/immigrants must have the support – including financial – of the Ministries of Culture and Education, various institutions, and of embassies.

2. Fostering literary heritage: volunteering and museum associations Unfortunately volunteering has not been common practice in Greece. The Olympic Games of 2004 was an exception of massive participation. It was the first organized attempt to invite and involve people of all ages. After that successful attempts at voluntarism actually decreased. Today, due to the economic crisis, many unemployed people offer their services to institutions, particularly those of a social emphasis. To date only three student volunteers have worked in our Museum, primarily in the digitization of documents with an expectation to gain experience, to enrich 78

their CV and to secure a letter of reference. A new group of volunteers are local school teachers. They run the children’s reading club and present workshops on Kazantzakis in three regional areas of the municipality. Beside the students of cultural management and school teachers, members of the local Cultural Associations and members of the Association of Friends of NKM also help in the organisation of various events. Depending on their experience, interests, and abilities, the NKM expects them to offer a helping hand in the running of the Museum. In 2011 some friends of the NKM founded the Association of Friends, with a main goal of supporting the work and finances of the Museum. As is usual, some members receive perks such as gifts, free entrance in the NKM with friends, special guided tours, discounts to the shop and free entrance to events organized by the Association and the NKM. Unfortunately, till today the contribution of the members to the Association is not the expected, due mainly to the malfunction of the Board and the operating Rules, which must be updated.

Poster of the Association of Friends of NKM


3. Best practices and innovative ideas in engaging new audiences The NKM has no experience in reading clubs for adults, because the effort is focused on the youth reading club. This project is part of our future plans to widen the audience of literature and the Museum. A plan for a novel-writing competition for teenagers which refers to the friendship of Kazantzakis with the poet Aggelos Sikelianos, is ready, but it needs the participation of specialists coming from Athens, and the whole project cannot be carried out financially from the NKM alone. One target group that NKM must focus on is 15-18. A trial project took place in 2012, which paired objects of the permanent exhibition and photography, in an artistic style, and editing of the photos, which the students uploaded at the Museum’s page in Facebook. Another trial workshop, which was addressed to children aged 10-12, used quotes and excerpts from his writings, and the quest was to enable the participants to incorporate the above context or to inspire them for a ceramic creation. This workshop can also be addressed to adults. This year (2013) a new project will run, financed from the E.U. and the Greek State, for a new educational program. The students will use pc tablets in conjunction with the a/v and multimedia exhibits in the permanent exhibitions. These tablets will be combined also with the audio guide system that is already offered to adult visitors, and then we can extract from the database more video and audio documents.


THE EUROPEAN ASPECT OF PROMOTING LITERARY HERITAGE 1. The European dimension of the national literary �eld In Greece we have around seven main cultural institutions that promote Greek literature as well as aspects of European and international literature. These institutions are: • • • • • • • •

National Book Centre of Greece Society of Greek Writers Hellenic Authors Society The European Translation Centre - Literature and Human Sciences Centre of Cretan Literature Publishing Houses University Archives/Libraries The Embassies and their cultural divisions or institutions in Greece (Instituto Cervantes, Institut Français, Goethe-Institut, Istituto Italiano di Cultura, Pushkin Institute).

These institutions target various groups by organizing educational programs for children and adults, mounting periodical exhibitions, taking part in book fairs, by supporting reading clubs and readers’ awards, screening documentaries and films based on a writer’s works, holding seminars on translation, giving annual translation prizes, etc. In Greece we only celebrate the international dates dedicated to literature: the day of poetry (21st of March), of children’s books (2nd of April), of books in general (23rd of April). Various events are organized during these days, mainly by the National Book Centre. The NKM has participated at the international day of the children’s book for the last two years. 81

Statue of Lord Byron

Other manifestations of remembrance of European writers in Greece are: • Street names: Victor Hugo, Lord Byron, Ugo Foscolo, Dante Alighieri • Statues: Miguel de Cervantes, Rupert Brooke, Lord Byron • Stamps: Lord Byron, Ugo Foscolo

2. Communicating literary heritage through institutional cooperation in Europe The NKM has till now only one cooperation with a cultural institute of an embassy, the “Cervantes” of Spain in Athens. For the exhibition “Correspondents to the Spanish Civil War” (2008) the NKM lent personal items and manuscripts of Kazantzakis. The Museum has also supported exhibitions and events in the memory of Kazantzakis’ at the Hellenic Foundation for Culture – Odessa branch and at the Embassy of Greece in China (Beijing). The help is delivered by sending digital photos, DVD videos (documentaries), DVD Roms, copies of manuscripts, banners etc. The International Society of Friends of Nikos Kazantzakis is also promoting the memory and work of Kazantzakis through the local representatives and departments around the world, to which the NKM also gives a helpful hand. 82

Museum’s loan to the exhibition “Correspondents to the Spanish Civil war”

Till now the NKM has no experience in organising joint exhibitions dedicated to European literatures with other museums/institutions. The very first step is the online exhibition organised with the other partners in this Grundtvig project, which is also the first of this type. Link:

3. European heritage in the literary institution’s practice The NKM is a personal literary museum, dedicated to the work and memory of one writer, Nikos Kazantzakis. The personnel cannot follow up the progress of all the European literature, but only those concerning new translations and editions of Kazantzakis. News in European literary developments is mainly delivered to NKM by Facebook, blogs and emails. For the above reason the NKM is not participating or organising meetings or events with a European scope. The Museum can contribute with its collections to European events with correspondences between Kazantzakis and European personalities, with foreign editions and magazines of the writer’s work and with translations of European writers by Kazantzakis. 83

Outreach material



Back to content 85


COMMUNICATION, PROMOTION AND OUTREACH 1. General information and mission The Petőfi Literary Museum ( was established as a national museum in 1954 with the mission of collecting, preserving, studying, and displaying the Hungarian national cultural heritage. Its core collection, the Petőfi legacy was collected by the museum’s predecessor, the Petőfi Society, from the period immediately following the poet’s death in the 19th century. It is the museum of 19th-20th century Hungarian literature and of contemporary Hungarian writing. It is a national public collection that includes authors’ written and printed works, libraries, visual and audiovisual records as well as works of art and relics. We have a Manuscript Collection of 1,500,000 documents, an Arts and Relics Collection including of 12,000 graphic works, 800 sculptures, 700 paintings and 3,000 relics (personal objects, furniture, commemorative objects) and a photo collection of 20,000 works. Our Media Collection has 8,000 interviews, films, and recordings. We have a Library of 400,000 volumes. The Digital Literary Academy deals with contemporary writing. It has 76 elected writer members and 1,566 volumes of their work digitised and available online. Since 1957 the museum has been housed in the Károlyi Palace, a pearl of neoclassical architecture 200 meters from the National Museum, downtown Budapest. The museum’s collection is catalogued and accessible to researchers. The museum is active in developing and maintaining the network of literary memorial houses in the country and beyond its borders by taking a leading role in the Association of Hungarian Literary Memorial Houses ( In Budapest we have 4 branch museums: the Kassák Museum, the Ady Memorial Museum and the Jókai Memorial Exhibition. The fourth one, the Hungarian Story Museum was opened in September 2012 with the youngest possible audience in mind. Through our abundant collections, wide-scale research work, exhibition expertise and museum education practices (including museum pedagogy and life-long learning services) as well as numerous public events, the museum has become a renowned and outstanding place of professional excellence. 87

2. Best practices in communication, promotion and outreach The Petőfi Literary Museum received the Museum of the Year Award in 2009. The award given yearly by the Hungarian Committee of ICOM (International Council of Museums), recognizes quality of museum operation. In 2012 the Museum was further honoured with the Exhibition of the Year Award for our new permanent exhibition Who Am I? I shall not say… – Petőfi’s Choices. The award, established by the Pulszky Society, the most prestigious professional civil organisation for museology, goes to the most innovative and profound exhibition every year. The jury comprises renowned museum specialists and curators who take their decision based on strict criteria. The museum takes part in the curatorial decision making of the Móricz scholarship, a national literary scholarship for young writers. The museum provides support and supervisory service in the field of literary museology for relevant museums and literary memorial homes throughout Hungary. The formation and consolidation of national museums took place between 18th and 20th centuries in Europe. The foundation of the Hungarian National Museum goes back to 1802 the private initiative of Count Ferenc Széchényi, an enlightened aristocrat who started to collect systematically in the late 18th century. His private foundation became a public foundation a few years later in1808 and the museum moved into its grand neoclassical building in 1846. The scope of its collection gradually broadened from national to European and universal collecting and it has been a state museum since 1867. The literature (Ébli, 2011) details the museum’s progression from the idea of fostering national cultural self appreciation through collecting Hungarica, – objects of and about Hungarian history and culture – to the aspiration for a fully-fledged National Museum with “encyclopaedic coverage of human knowledge,” adopting the model of the British Museum. During the “golden age” of our National Museum development (1867-1918), the collections expanded at such a rate that they began to outgrow the facilities and also required the knowledge of specialists. At first, the newly established departments of natural history, ethnography and applied arts within the museum provided this expertise, but eventually these needs caused the division of the National Museum into a number of new museums established by the government with clearly defined collections. The Museum of Applied Arts moved into its newly erected Art Nouveau Palace in 1896 and the Museum of Fine Arts opened in its neoclassical building on Hero’s Square in 1906. With the branching off its specialised collections into new specialist museums, the Hungarian National Museum had for the second time in its 100year existence to refocus its mission on the country’s history, and archaeological remnants of its former territories in the Carpathian Basin. 88

At the time, a museum of literature was not on the horizon, although in 1802 the collection of the National Museum already comprised 11,884 prints, 1,156 manuscripts, 142 books, maps and copperplates, i.e. the core collection of the would be National Széchényi Library, which was created as a separate institute only in 1949. Literature, which played a crucial role in the formation of Hungarian national identity throughout the 19th century – initiating, inspiring, nurturing, underpinning, and refining the nation as well as the development of different areas within museology – was not itself imagined as an area of relevance within museology. This situation was the same throughout Europe: national libraries, archives, and writer’s homes collected the written documents of national cultural heritage. While from the beginning museums were institutions linked to the concern for public education and the advancement of science, literature was dealt with in the framework of other institutions, libraries and archives or simply belonged to the private sphere of the individual. When in the 1950s, due to distinctly ideological needs, national literature museums were established in Central-Eastern European countries (in Prague, Warsaw, Weimar, Berlin, Bucharest) with a similar mission of collecting, preserving, studying, and displaying the national cultural heritage, each newly established institution had a different profile and scope of collection. For example, the institutes in Bulgaria and Yugoslavia saw their main role as working with memorial houses. These new museums all had to find their place in the more-or-less rigid framework of museography and museology. “While by the 1870s the museum as an institution had established itself, the profession had not” (Leontine Meier Van Mensh and Peter Van Mensh, 43). This was especially so in the case of the new specialist literary museums; literary museology in general was in search of its identity. For us in Hungary, the Schiller National Museum (founded in 1903) and German Literature Archive in Marbach (1970) was an example to follow. We borrowed the existing principles and practices of collection selection and classification, sharing the view that the basis for long-term development and success would be the museum’s collection. As a literature museum is a kind of inter-institutional phenomenon uniting functions characteristic of a series of well-established fellow institutions such as archives, libraries, art and history museums, and memorial houses we had to find our own niche. Also, we had to refine our mission to find a healthy balance between collection development, related academic research and exhibition practice, and community education. These elements of the on-going discourse of museology have been especially crucial in the case of the literature museum, as we do not 89

exhibit tangible museum objects. Literature is an intangible, intellectual product, which of course has object manifestations as books, manuscripts, relics etc. Literary museology, therefore, uses evocative contextualisation and a multidisciplinary approach in its interpretive techniques to create a three-dimensional “talking” space that makes the invisible visible and offers the visitor a one-off personal interpretation of the relations between the objects on display simply by moving through the exhibition space. We have come a long way in the past 60 years of our history as reflective practitioners in terms of positioning literary museology as a multidisciplinary professional field. There is yet a long way to go to develop cross-fertilising discourses and new museum paradigms. There are two basic means of media presence we regularly benefit from: a) reviews, articles and recommendations of museum exhibitions and events in different media (printed, electronic and online); b) commercials, advertisements, radio spots and online banners that promote our activities. Our work is designed accordingly. In the first case, the basis of good communication depends on intensive networking with media representatives, while in the second case, well-established contacts can help us in securing reduced prices and quotes for the different media platforms. The most successful management of our media networking practice is developing programmes together with a given media partner e.g. when a TV station plans a literary series with our involvement and shoots or broadcasts the events in the museum. In this way each programme brings us an audience of 150-200,000. In Hungary, besides the Petőfi Literary Museum, there are plenty of institutions and organisations that work for the promotion of Hungarian literary heritage. The Petőfi Literary Museum has an extended partnership and loan scheme with national and county museums, the Institute for Literary Studies and the Library and Manuscript Collection of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the National Széchényi Library, the Ervin Szabó Municipal Library and the National Archives of Hungary. There are also a number of professional civil organisations that work toward the same goals, such as the Belletrists’ Association, the Hungarian Writers’ Association, the Association of Hungarian Literary Memorial Houses and the Association of Hungarian Publishers and Booksellers, just to name some. 90

We also cooperate with universities and regularly receive and supervise trainees in different departments and collections of our museum as part of the university BA and MA programmes. The museum is involved in joint academic research regarding critical editions and research in the field of textology. In 2008 we initiated the network of Literary Memorial Houses with members from all over Hungary and beyond and continue to advise and assist the individual homes in developing their staff, exhibitions and services. Our international contacts continue to develop. We are a member of ICLM, the literary branch of ICOM, and maintain good contacts with ALG, the German umbrella organisation of literary institutions and memorial houses, their French counterpart, the Fédération nationale des maisons d’écrivain et des patrimoines littéraires, and the Italian Associazione Case della Memoria. The museum is maintained by the Ministry of Human Resources. In the current period of economic downturn throughout Europe, their support covers the considerably reduced staff costs and running costs while we continuously seek to develop and widen our services and revenue-generating activities to provide for the growing operation. We can do so through a regular series of applications and proposals submitted to the National Cultural Fund and other governmental schemes as well as to EU funding bodies. We often cooperate with private sponsors, the Lottery Fund, banks and multinational companies and institutions as well as international cultural organizations and Embassies. The most successful examples of our practice from the point of view of cost effectiveness came when we joined a national thematic year of activities, such as the Renaissance Year (2008), the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the literary journal, Nyugat (2008) and the Radnóti Year (2009) when we celebrated the 100th anniversary of the birth of one of our most important 20th century poets together with theatres, literary journals and the media. The museum undertook the management of all the above thematic programmes that proved a great success both professionally and financially. Another leading force of our income generation is museum pedagogy. In 2011 we completed a €1.6 million EU funded project that contributed to the recognition of our museum as a great venue for informal, extracurricular and experiential learning, and from which 800 public school students and their nearly 40 teachers benefited over the course of 282 workshops. 91

Our museum is named for Sándor Petőfi, our national poet of 19th century, whose role in and contribution to the 1848 Revolution and War of Independence has made him the central figure of the March 15th national holiday. Every year in the weeks before and after March 15th, our museum receives about 3,200 student visitors. While here, the students can take part in many and varied workshops. This period alone brings the museum 7% of the yearly income from entrance fees.

3. Exhibition policies and literary history Our special exhibition policy is driven by anniversaries and other priorities of literary importance. We also have a permanent exhibition on Sándor Petőfi. The linear narrative of the new permanent exhibition (2011) is an attempt to do away with the somewhat fossilized idol of the national poet and reflect the personality of a young talent. The exhibition outlines the main personal choices of the short-lived revolutionary figure of Hungarian poetry and adds the perspective of the present day to make it possible for younger generations to relate to Petőfi. Because the education team was included in the conceptualization of the new exhibition we benefitted from the beginning from each other’s previous experiences with school groups. In order to do away with stereotypes, it is of utmost importance to know what those stereotypes are. When we asked students about the first three ideas that came to mind about the poet, the three most frequently mentioned were: the national anthem (a poem), moustache and Júlia Szendrey (his wife). The tag clouds of stereotypes is one of the 7 museum pedagogy points of the current multi-layered exhibition that uses different high tech interactive applications. Besides the permanent exhibition we have 10-15 temporary exhibitions a year dedicated to poets, writers, outstanding literary figures, photographers, painters, artists or themes that are relevant for some reason in Hungary or abroad during a particular year. When the idea for an exhibition is born, normally at least a year before the opening, an exhibition team is set up headed by the curator, who bears the overall responsibility for the production of the exhibition. The curator does the research him/herself or with the help of outside specialists, creates a concept, which is discussed internally, then develops it into a script of the exhibition. This early vision comprises a detailed arrangement of each exhibition wall and space including texts and objects as well as installations. This is a long process that may take months. The exhibition designer is


already involved at this stage to support or critique ideas from the visual perspective and prepare a mock-up of the exhibition. The exhibition project team also includes specialists in education, marketing, and graphic design, each of whom closely follows the development of the project and participates in the different areas. While the preparation seems an endless process with the constant frustration of lack of time, the actual building of the exhibition takes 2-30 days depending on its size and the complexity of the installations. While it should be common practice to have the exhibition catalogue in print by the opening, unfortunately, it rarely happens with us. We also strive to make our exhibitions bilingual, but with mixed results. Regarding the types of recent exhibitions, we have had travelling, outdoor, public space and virtual exhibitions: TRAVELLING EXHIBITION We have two types of travelling exhibitions: one which is designed to travel and another that ends up travelling. Nyugat Bus, 2008 – travelled 9000 kms in 5 months, stopping in 82 towns and villages and attracting more than 40,000 visitors ( object.777519b8-96d3-4f50-8053-96defafd1736.ivy). Stick out your tongue!, 2010 – an interactive exhibition in a bus that showed the development of the Hungarian language from its beginnings, including dialect regions and languages of social classes, as well as the dialects of Hungarian spoken today. The bus went to 23 places in the country and beyond between March and May and delighted more than 7,000 visitors. The exhibition was given the award for the most inventive initiative in museum pedagogy in 2010 ( object.30cd3a0f-9877-4b2d-bcf8-eba583a6bdfa.ivy).Video: Below, there are some examples of exhibitions originally planned for museum space but following the exhibition’s closing were modified and began travelling on request in the country or abroad. The Novel of my Life, 2006 – The exhibition on the life and work of Zsigmond Móricz the Hungarian novelist of naturalism and realism in 20th century. The exhibition has been on request since its closing and travels to schools, libraries and cultural centres.


The Pál Street Boys, 2008 – Ferenc Molnár’s novel is widely read by young children and students in Hungary. It is not only part of the national curriculum but also a really exciting story that appeals not exclusively to younger generations. The exhibition has travelled to 5 locations so far. object.78d931ee-0c41-464f-acbb-ca1e5f3ae303.ivy Once Upon a Time…, 2011 – Elek Benedek, the great story teller, created the best Hungarian tales, fables and fairy tales. The characters and their world all feature in the exhibition. VIRTUAL EXHIBITION (Online) Concern and Creed 1956 – the exhibition celebrated the 50th anniversary of the 1956 revolution PERMANENT EXHIBITION Our permanent exhibition re-opened in September 2011. Who Am I? I shall not say… – Petőfi’s Choices seeks to generate an atmosphere for the formation of visitors’ personal attitudes towards the national poet by reflecting the merits of the literary oeuvre in parallel with the major possibilities and decisions in the poet’s life



Crumbs of the Broken Loaf of World, 2006. An exhibition on the life and work of the writer and artist Anna Lesznai

The Nyugat is 100 years old, 2008. An exhibition on the important Hungarian literary magazine, Nyugat (West) 95


The only outdoor exhibition we have held was Little Hungarian Herbarium, 2005

PUBLIC SPACE EXHIBITION Miklós Radnóti’s poems in the underground, 2009-2010 as part of the Radnóti Year 96

4. Museum education and lifelong learning Our museum education programmes include guided tours and workshops tailor made to different groups and are available by prior registration. In 2011 the museum became an accredited adult education institution and we began our formal teacher and museum volunteer coordinator training programmes. Guided tours and specialist lectures are part of our general mission. We provide this service for all our temporary and permanent exhibitions. These are appropriate for all kinds of audiences from schools to individual visitors including families, groups of specialists or, frequently, groups of pensioners. School groups may also sign up for workshops that are designed for different age levels from 6 to 18. The five members of our museum education team are always very busy trying to meet the demand. EXHIBITION RELATED Currently we have ten workshops related to two permanent (Petőfi, Ady) and two temporary exhibitions (Gárdonyi, Tóth). They are as follows. Who am I? I shall not say… – Petőfi’s Choices – a guided tour of the permanent exhibition with activities to complete in the exhibition for age groups 10-18. The Life of Sándor Petőfi in the light of his objects – Objects can teach us about the period of time to which they belong or the person who used them. This workshop tries to familiarize young people with the poet’s life and work using authentic (reconstructed) objects of the period (from 1830s) that they can touch and relate to (age group 4-7). Petőfi’s wanderings – The poet travelled throughout the country on foot. His huge traveling trunk is part of the exhibition. In the centre of the workshop, we reproduced his trunk and participants try to imagine its possible content in the poet’s time. The workshop could be called “Petőfitness” as it is based on physical activity relying upon the methodology of kinesthetic learning (age group 4-7). From Kiskőrös to Segesvár – During the workshop students receive a map of the most important events/places of the poet’s life. They have to investigate each place/event and find the explanation for its “importance” to the exhibition. They can work in pairs. At the end of the session they all get together to share their findings. (age group 10-16) 97

Who Am I? – The question comes from a poem by Petőfi. While searching the exhibition and collecting examples from different professions he attempted on his way to becoming a poet, the students will find all the poet’s answers to that question. The workshop provides an opportunity to explore the notion of identity, both personal and national (age group 12-18). My GCE topics – the workshop helps in preparing for O level GCE examination and uses the exhibition to deal with Petőfi’s landscape poetry in more detail (age group 16-18). “The strength of the walls does not depend on the stones but on the souls of the defenders” – Géza Gárdonyi’s novel, Eclipse of the Crescent Moon was the winner of the Big Book competition in Hungary and has been widely read since its publication. Our traveling exhibition focuses on this and two of his other novels, trying to expand our understanding of Gárdonyi’s oeuvre by reflecting his personality, hobbies and interests outside literature like cryptography. The workshop gives an opportunity to introduce his code writing system and decode some of his texts (age group 16-18). “I will be in Pest in a few days. My address is 4 Veres Pálné St.” – the workshop is held in Endre Ady’s memorial flat, the home of the poet during the last two years of his life, and deals with the housing situation in Budapest at the turn of the 20th century (age group 16-18). A party at the poet’s home – with poems on the menu. This guided tour in Endre Ady and Csinszka’s flat focuses mostly on the poetic oeuvre while students can enjoy the unique atmosphere of the memorial flat (age group 16-18). OUTSIDE THE EXHIBITIONS We also offer workshops that are not related to any of our exhibitions but are very popular with kids or fit the objectives of the national curriculum very well: Secrets of the Károlyi Palace (age group 12-18) Let’s Meet the Petőfi Literary Museum (age group 14-18) Fairy Tale Printing House (age group 6-10) My Library (age group 10-16) Story Telling Club (age group 6-12) 98

Ady. The face that became a portrait. All photos taken of Endre Ady What was his glance like? What was it that women and men talked and wrote so much about? What was it that bewitched everybody? Not only the face-to-face meetings transmitted the message of his suggestive eyes to his fans but the photos too. Nobody could remain intact in the gaze of Ady: Léda, his mistress was enchanted from the moment of their first encounter, Csinszka, later his wife, fell in love with the photo that was given her by the poet. Edited by Csilla E. Csorba Design: Árpád Fákó

We have a number of programmes that are targeted at the broader educated public. In 2012 the museum held about 380 events (book launches, stage readings, roundtable discussions, conferences, theatre productions, concerts etc.) that clearly demonstrates our function as a cultural junction for the interested public. These informal and informal lifelong learning opportunities also include literary walks and guided tours of the Károlyi Palace. The programs are repeated monthly and the dates are regularly advertised in the museum’s program brochure and on the website. As part of our formal training opportunities in 2012 we started our special oneday training courses for teachers of literature. The concept of these training courses is that we provide an in-depth analysis of a certain author based on our related exhibitions and publications. Each day finishes with a methodology workshop that gives suggestions for the classroom. We also have an accredited training course for coordinators of museum volunteering.

5. Publications as a way to promote literature We have an active publishing practice. We publish bibliographies, catalogues, conference proceedings, academic publications, CDs and DVDs, iconographies, editions, anthologies, letters, diaries, online catalogues, and publications about the institution as well as postcards, leaflets, posters, games, etc that are available in our museum shop and bookshops in Budapest. We occasionally work with other publishers and academic institutions. 99

Literature Ébli, Gábor (2011), Universal Culture and National Identity: The configuration of national museums in nineteenth century Hungary” Van Mensh, Leontine Meier and Peter (2010), From disciplinary control to co-creation – collecting and the development of museums as praxis in the nineteenth and twentieth century, 43 Mobility_A4.pdf


WAYS OF REACHING AUDIENCES 1. Museum audiences and social inclusion Because 68-70% of our visitors come from public and higher education, our obvious target audience is students of all ages from kindergarten to university. Just as important are the teachers, educators and researchers who visit our exhibitions, attend our conferences and use our services. Our broader audience includes the educated public including seniors and tourists interested in literature and museum events. We reach our audiences through our exhibitions and related programmes as well as museum education and the museum’s publications, information about which is available on our website. Our monthly programme brochure is available at the museum via post upon request. We also offer a bi-weekly newsletter listing upcoming events for which visitors can sign-up on the website. We have also built specialised databases of teachers, schools and groups of pensioners whom we contact (via e-mail or post) with information about relevant events, workshops or training opportunities. Our merchandising activity in the museum shop includes special gifts, cards and games that appeal to our audiences. All our museum education programmes are accompanied by feedback questionnaires that give us insight into the audience’s experiences. In order to develop our services we regularly design special questionnaires to ask for audience feedback related to specific exhibitions and events, or about new or planned programmes. Exhibition guest books are another important means for us to get information and feedback about audience satisfaction. We constantly reflect on and reevaluate our practices, enter new co-operations and introduce changes not only to keep our audience and maintain their interest but also to reach new audiences. Recently we have had about 100 visitors per year, which we find encouraging. We work on fine-tuning our communication to reach the broadest possible public interested in literature and museum events more effectively. Our Facebook profile currently enjoys about 4500 followers, but it has a 101

huge potential for future growth. Also, our merchandising activity in the museum shop as well as our co-operation with booksellers and bookshops who promote our publications should develop further. An important part of our strategy is to strengthen our partnerships with educational and research institutions in Hungary and abroad. Special projects and joint programmes help us develop our staff and services as well as make us more visible at home and abroad. We continue participating in European festivals such as International Museum Day and the Museum Night programmes. We also tend to participate in other cultural events where we hope to attract new audiences, e.g. International Book Festival, the Sziget Festival, National Book Week, the Valley of Arts Festival etc. Immigration is not an issue in our country although we do have a considerable Chinese community whom we consider a potential audience. We have historic German, Croatian, Serbian and Slovak minorities in Hungary but as they all speak Hungarian their identity as minorities is almost invisible socially. The most socially problematic minority is the Roma. We address this area by organizing integrated summer literary programme weeks for young people of socially disadvantaged backgrounds where we can provide an opportunity for the participants to share the empowering experience of culture and literature. The thematic week includes literary visits to the Parliament, the Margaret Island and the Zoo. Most of these children would otherwise not be able to have these fun and enjoyable experiences. The culture of a one-nation country with a small language can be enriched by the variety of world literatures available in translation. For us in Hungary translation has always been a key to contact with European and world culture, helping address our limited first-hand experience with intercultural communication. Since 2012 the Hungarian Book and Translation Office has been an integral part of our museum and we have accordingly expanded our activity to include work with foreign publishers and translators. Another area of social inclusion where we are doing exceptionally well is the varied nature of our programme options. The museum is not at all political, but rather our policy is directed by the quality of literature. We are recognized as a cultural venue that appeals to diverse audiences from all sectors of society, thus bringing people together through the literary experience, encouraging social discourse and the questioning of different points of view.


2. Fostering literary heritage: volunteering and museum associations “In the eyes of Hungarian citizens Europe has always represented much more than just a continent to which their country geographically belongs. It has been regarded as an embodiment of modern civilisation and, as such, it has served as a point of orientation and an example to be followed. Its norms and values were held in high esteem even in periods when, for historical reasons, actual behaviour was not guided by them. In some sense, the general attitude towards the European value system has remained continuously positive despite the fact that its implementation was seriously limited or sometimes even impossible for centuries. Due to their unfortunate history full of constraints, the Hungarians have had very few occasions to act as citizens and to feel responsible for what happens to them and to their country. They always had an excuse; they could always blame some external forces for the gap between behaviour and aspirations, for the deviation from the highly appreciated European norms.” (Kuti, 8) This all has changed with the collapse of the political system in 1989 and Hungary’s accession to the European Union in 2004. There is no longer anyone to blame except ourselves. However, the discrepancies of the present are rooted in the past. Although charity organizations appeared in Hungary in the early years of the Middle Ages and foundations and voluntary organizations played an important role in the alleviation of social problems up to the 15th century, from the Turkish invasion onwards, the development of the Hungarian civil society took a different path than European examples. Feudalism, the delayed bourgeois development and foreign and domestic oppression hindered the development of civil society. “Several techniques of resistance and strategies for survival were developed, which are still present in collective memory and shape the community’s answer to recent challenges.” (Kuti, 9) On the other hand voluntary associations were essential in terms of quality of life and innovation: the first kindergartens, comprehensive schools, institutes of adult and women’s education, the first museums, exhibition halls and libraries, children’s hospitals and orphanages were all established by or with the assistance of voluntary associations and foundations in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Under the communist regime voluntary associations were either banned or functioned under the auspices of the Communist Party. The rehabilitation of civil society began in 1987 when foundations reappeared in the Civil Code. As a next step in 1989 the Parliament passed the Associations Law . In the 90s the number of organizations jumped from almost non-existent to twenty thousand organizations very quickly. At the same time we have to remember that volunteer activity still had negative connotations due to compulsory work called “volunteering” during communism. Since 1997, 1% of personal income tax can


be donated to non-profit organizations selected by the taxpayers. The United Nations “International Year of Volunteers” in 2001 was an important year for the sector as it increased cooperation between the various ministries and NGOs, paving the way for a law on volunteering as well as the creation of the National Volunteer Centre Foundation. In 2004 the institutionalisation of public support for civil organizations occurred with the creation of the National Civil Fund. The Hungarian volunteer law, Act LXXXVIII of 2005 on voluntary activities in the public interest, defines “volunteer activities with a public aim” as work carried out within a host organisation without compensation. In article 4, the law also specifies that any person with legal capacity above the age of ten can become a volunteer. For the past 20 years in Hungary we have been learning to be active and responsible citizens in order to live up to challenges of European citizenship. So far the fastmoving developmental process has been spectacular in many respects. According to research on the civil society, which focuses mainly on CSOs and NGOs and does not include state institutions like museums, we can see the growth of areas where volunteering has become an integral part of general practice. (Kuti, 20) The composition of the nonprofit sector by fields of activity, 2006

Based on: Central Statistical Office (2008)


For years, the Hungarian Central Statistical Office has been recording the number of volunteers working for non-profit organisations as well as the value of their work and their economic benefit. It is a fact to be celebrated that in recent years both the number of volunteers and their hours worked have increased. The proportion of adults who carry out voluntary work is estimated to be 40%. Yet the number of those who volunteer within some kind of formal organisation is only around 5-8%. Museum volunteering has not yet been researched systematically. However, a variety of oral histories and individual institutional reports about projects exists from as early as the 1980s and Museum Friends Association initiatives, committed colleagues, and even strategic decisions by museums have helped to prove that volunteering has been part of our museums for a long time and in many different ways. The understanding of what counts as volunteering is also quite complex. There are examples of cooperation with schools, help from local communities, support from businesses, university trainees undertaking museum tasks, individuals helping on a regular basis, and structured volunteer programmes. In the past few years developments have been encouraging: awareness of the responsibility for social integration has grown among museums and good examples (national and international) have been shared at professional meetings, workshops and conferences. Increased funding was also available due to the 2011 International Year of Volunteering, which made it possible to organize events and volunteer management courses. Museums are gradually feeling more prepared and empowered to receive volunteers. We have been working with volunteers for two years. The museum has been in a good position to attract the volunteers as our positive public image generates a relatively high number of volunteer applications. We feel that employing volunteers helps us to be pro-active: it brings inventiveness and new initiatives. It also strengthens our service-providing role. In May 2010 our director-general initiated the process of concept development. Having consulted some other museums’ experiences and examples, an important part of our programme development process was an institutional survey. During the course of the survey we considered our institutional specificities, including the nature of our activity as well as human and financial resources, in order to identify areas where we would work with volunteers most effectively. We also identified colleagues that could take on the responsibility of acting as mentors for our volunteers. As a result of this preparatory phase, we set up teams of coordinators and mentors and identified the following volunteer positions: Contact Database Assistant, Animator (with mentors at Museum Education Department), Palace Guide in Hungarian, English and German, Exhibition Guide 105

in Hungarian, English, German, Customer Care Assistant, Public Relations Assistant (mentors at the Customer Care Department and Manuscript Collection), Curator Assistant (mentors at the Arts and Relics and Media Collections) and Administrative Assistant (mentor at the Museum Documentation Department). We advertised the programme, including job descriptions for each of the posts in October and recruited volunteers in November. Parallel to recruitment, we designed a volunteer training programme, which we ran with 22 selected volunteers in January 2011. It was an introductory training with the participation of both volunteers and mentors (3 x 8 hours plus individual preparation) with a final examination (written and oral) followed by a month-long induction in February. In March we contracted 20 volunteers for the first 6 months. Our volunteers are mostly female graduate students from universities and young adults starting their careers. Most of them are single and under or around 30 years of age. Their motivation is self-development, acquiring knowledge and spending their free time usefully. To maintain their motivation we give them clearly defined, tangible and feasible tasks where they can use their abilities and develop their skills and capacities. Because in most cases their interest is literature, we try to provide opportunities for them to acquire new knowledge and experiences. We have monthly meetings, on-going training and evaluation, occasional excursions and parties, and a yearly recognition of their work. The administration of volunteer work is the mentor’s responsibility. We use individual monthly charts to acknowledge volunteer working hours. In the first year of the programme our volunteers completed 978 hours’ work for the museum. We currenly have 13 active volunteers, 10 from the original group and three new voluntary staff we employ at our new branch institution, the Story Museum. Interestingly, all three of them are senior citizens, their motivations for volunteering being more traditional civic values like solidarity, family or religious background. Our expectations are detailed in the Code of Conduct we produced together with the volunteers during the introductory training. It states our volunteers should be kind, open-minded, motivated, precise, self-confident, helpful, committed and cooperative people with initiative, complying with the museum’s ethos. To sum up our experiences, we can say that the volunteer programme has brought new enthusiasm and motivation to our daily work and also contributed to the achievement of the museum’s goals and programmes. Working with volunteers has complemented the museum staff’s expertise and opened new horizons by creating new social contacts. The volunteer programme provides an opportunity 106

for our museum staff to develop new skills and competencies, thereby contributing significantly to the lifelong learning programmes of the museum. It has inspired the accreditation of our Museum Volunteer Coordinators Course and the museum’s accreditation as an adult education institution. However, the programme is not self-sustaining. It needs constant care and coordination during the course of which we have to overcome our own shortcomings like lack of experience dealing with volunteers on a regular basis or inadequate communication (external and internal) and financing. Sometimes we struggle with lack of time and energy or weak personal interest or reluctance on the part of colleagues. Yet, the balance is positive and the potential is huge. Our strong professional commitment and support from the museum’s management guarantee the further development of the volunteer programme in cooperation with other museums, pursuing funding opportunities, and participating in international partnerships in this field. Another developmental step could be the establishment of a Friends of the Museum Association, which we have been considering for the past few years.

3. Best practices and innovative ideas in engaging new audiences Promoting reading is one of the basic overall aims of our activities. We try to achieve it in many and varied ways. For young children we organise story-telling sessions every Saturday in our new Story Museum. These family events aim at sensitising young children to reading and literature. We run summer literature weeks on our premises for older children (aged 10-18) where they can read and write together and talk about their reading experiences. As we believe reading is a creative community building activity, we organise monthly meetings for senior citizens to get together and discuss reading over a cup of tea or see a film adaptation of a literary work, which are all very popular programmes with our audiences. The Art and Relics Collection of the museum has announced several competitions for contemporary artists to submit works related to the collection or a temporary exhibition of the museum. The best of the works have become part of the museum’s collection. For 8 years we have been organizing a small but international literary festival Budapest Transfer which regularly incorporates a poetry translation competition with the participation of Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, Polish, Serbian, German and/ or English poets. 107

With new media gaining ground, the experience of the world around us has greatly changed, especially for the young generation: 94 % of people aged 14-17 use the Internet, websites, Facebook and the large choice of digital devices like mobile phone, smart phone or iPhone and iPad. The on-demand access to content any time, anywhere, on any device has altered the meaning geographic distance and allowed a huge increase in the volume and speed of communication. New and social media also provide an opportunity for interactive user feedback and creative participation and community formation around the media content. Previously separate forms of communication now overlap and interconnect. The Petőfi Literary Museum has an often-visited homepage and an active Facebook profile with 4,500 followers. For the communication campaign of a new exhibition, we used Web2 surfaces (Facebook, blogs, Issuu). Our exhibition installations use a great deal of interactive digital technology in order to involve visitors and capture their imaginations. Some recent examples of new media use: we developed a special app for our permanent exhibition Who Am I? I shall not say… – Petőfi’s Choices to be used with smartphones. It is a combination of an audioguide and an exhibition catalogue with details and information about the exhibition, which visitors can download anywhere in the world with a QR code. Our latest achievement in this area is the result of a multifaceted cooperation between our museum and the Moholy University of Art and Design. Rooftops at Dawn is a literary walk based on a novel of the same title by Hungarian author 108

Géza Ottlik whose centenary was celebrated in 2012 with our exhibition. The product is a16km interactive urban walk covering all the novel’s locations. The user can experience reading the novel (or listening to it), explore the city from a new perspective and stop and start the walk as he or she wishes. It is a special reading experience that takes you far beyond the boundaries of the novel while providing an opportunity to learn a lot about local history. The Petőfi Literary Museum started in 2012 to offer teacher-training courses for teachers of literature. The concept of the training courses is to provide in-depth knowledge of an author or period based on related exhibitions and publications. In practice, this is a special one-day (8 hours) course that includes a shared lunch and a collection of our topical publications for each participant. Each course finishes with a methodology workshop that pools teachers’ experiences and offers practical ideas for the classroom. Small groups of 8-12 teachers are taught by curators and subject specialists. The course content is based on our collections and exhibitions and we promote our publications as course supplement materials. We have two courses on offer now and plan to widen the offerings and develop new courses. In 2012 we also organized a joint workshop in co-operation with the Association of Hungarian Literature Teachers and the Alliance of History Teachers as well as the Municipal Library to better understand teachers’ needs. Four short plenary talks were followed by workshops in two exhibitions and in the library. At the end of the day we gathered together to reflect on our experiences and made plans for further partnerships and new possible services appropriate to different teaching needs. The above two examples show that one possible way forward is to become embedded in public education more systematically through institutional co-operation and special joint projects.

Literature Kuti, Eva (2008) Civil Europe-Civil Hungary, European House Association of Voluntary Service Organisations AVSO, European Volunteer Centre CEV (2003): Country Report on the Legal Status of Volunteers in Hungary Hungarian Central Statistical Office (2008): Methodological Practice and Practical Methodology: Fifteen Years in Nonprofit Statistics


THE EUROPEAN ASPECT OF PROMOTING LITERARY HERITAGE 1. The European dimension of the national literary �eld When we talk about the European aspect of our literary heritage, we have to mention the wide variety of agents that help to maintain and develop the continuity of this interrelationship. As Hungarian is a small language, translation has always played a role in the transmission of literary cultural heritage. The art of translation was established by our 19th century classics, who did not only translate the best of world literature into Hungarian but also set the ground rules and elaborated theories for translation as a form of art most faithful in both form and content. Translating world literature was a way to survive for many Hungarian writers in difficult periods as publishing those translations amounted to a protest against the regime. Reading literature in translation accordingly was in many cases a way of experiencing intellectual freedom in years of deprivation in the 20th century. With the political changes in 1989 this role of literature was lost but the importance of translation as a means connecting with the world beyond borders remains. Translation of Hungarian authors into foreign languages was previously the exception rather than the rule (e.g. Petőfi), however recently this is improving (e.g. Esterházy, Nádas, Szabó) thanks to the free flow of information and international relations. There are specialised websites that promote contemporary Hungarian literature in English. Hungarian literature online (, an affiliate of, launched in April 2004, was designed to offer a growing range of materials, resources and services to a worldwide audience. Within the confines of the Petőfi Literary Museum (PLM), the PLM – Hungarian Books & Translations Office carries on the activities of the Hungarian Book Foundation. Its aim is to promote classical and contemporary Hungarian authors’ works (both fiction and non-fiction) abroad, to cooperate with foreign publishing houses and to take part in the financing of translation costs. The Hungarian Publishers’ and Booksellers’ Association was the first in the Central European Countries to renew its full membership in the International Publishers Association in 1988. Since 1996 the Association has taken part in the activities of the International Federation of Reproduction Rights (IFRRO) and has recently 110

achieved the status of associate member in the European Booksellers Federation. The Association, devoted to representing the trade and safeguarding its special interests, is made up exclusively of privately owned publishers and booksellers. These companies – in Hungarian, foreign, or joint ownership – represent 92% of the publications and production in the Hungarian book market. Currently HPBA has 140 members. The Association organizes the International Book Festival Budapest in April each year, the Festive Book Week and the Children’s Book Days in Budapest and in about 80 towns all over Hungary in the first week of June and represents Hungary in the national stand at the Frankfurt International Book Fair and other international book fairs. We closely cooperate with the Association, we regularly host the welcome reception of the International Book Fair, share country representation with them at foreign book fairs, and prepare or contribute to the design of the national stands. To promote European connections, we work with Hungarian publishers, writers’ associations and the Hungarian PEN Club, as well as providing space for book launches and events on the museum’s premises. Equally importantly, we work in partnership with the EUNIC (European Union National Institutes for Culture) cluster as well as the Balassi Institute, British Council Hungary, Bulgarian Cultural Institute, Czech Centrum, Danish Cultural Institute, Estonian Institute, Goethe-Institut, Institut Français de Budapest, Instituto Cervantes, Institutul Cultural Român, Istituto Italiano di Cultura, Österreichisches Kulturforum, Polish Cultural Institute, Slovak Cultural Institute and the Finnish Cultural and Academic Institute to promote international dialogue in the field of culture and enhance European integration. We celebrate official International and European days of cultural heritage and also some special literary dates in Hungary like the International Day of the Book in April when we organise the International Book Festival in Budapest. On this occasion the profession celebrates the achievements of the year and recognizes the best museum and the best exhibition with awards before a wide and interested public. Following the French example in 1999, since 2003 we have also had the Hungarian Night of Museums around Midsummer Night when most museums are open all night and you can visit them with a single ticket. In September we celebrate European Heritage Days. Most public collections and buildings are open and free during the weekend to promote the general public’s awareness of and access to its heritage. Although we do not celebrate the International Mother Language Day (21 February) we have the Day of Hungarian Culture about a month earlier on the 111

22nd of January when the Hungarian poet Ferenc Kölcsey finished his poem, the national anthem, in 1823. As a result of a recent law we celebrated the Day of the Hungarian Language on November 13th, 2012 for the first time. Interestingly, since 1994 we have celebrated Bloomsday on June 16th, when in Szombathely, in western Hungary, James Joyce fans organize an academic conference, exhibition, walk, concert, fun and music. Similarly, Shakespeare is very popular and well embedded in our calendar. We had the 7th Shakespeare Festival in Gyula, in July 2012. Tourists can find many monuments to European culture and literature while wandering in the streets of Budapest and other cities such as statues of James Joyce (on the Main Square in Szombathely, by Gábor Veres and László Najmányi, 2004) Winston Churchill (in the City Park, Budapest, by Imre Varga, 2003), Dante and Virgil (in Budapest, by István Buda, 2006), Heinrich Heine (in Somberek, by Tibor Vilt, 1979), Arthur Koestler (in Budapest, by Imre Varga, 2009), Thomas Mann (in Budapest, by László Varga, 1987), Alexander Pushkin (in Tatabánya, Gyöngyös and Szombathely) and William Shakespeare (in Budapest, by András Mészáros, 2003). Streets named after Honoré de Balzac, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Nikolai Gogol, Maxim Gorky, Victor Hugo, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Alexander Pushkin, Leo Tolstoy and Jules Verne are found in major Hungarian towns and cities, while plaques dedicated to Pushkin and Koestler can be found on buildings as well as an art cinema is named after Pushkin in Budapest. 112

Around 18 May International Museum Day is organised on the premises of the National Museum and all over Hungary

2. Communicating literary heritage through institutional cooperation in Europe Many of our activities would not be possible without our extended partnerships with European Cultural Institutes. The nature of the co-operation varies from courtesy visits to joint projects including book launches, conferences, events and even exhibitions. To give some recent examples, we can mention the conference earlier this year celebrating Sándor Lénárd (physician, writer, translator), which was followed by a concert, in cooperation with the Italian Cultural Institute. In November we celebrated the Swedish writer Strindberg with the Swedish Embassy. The joint programme included a talk about Strindberg as a painter provided by a colleague from the Strindberg Museum and a performance of his play Miss Julie followed by a reception. Another event we organised with the Goethe Institute in December was Europe Talking with the participation of Hungarian and German writers from the Deutsche Akademie für Sprache und Dichtung supported by the S. Fischer Stiftung and Allianz Stiftung. A most exciting cooperation took place in 2010 when, in cooperation with the Spanish Presidency of the EU, the Instituto Cervantes and the Brussels Town Council, we presented an exhibition of dresses inspired by literature. The 20 Dresses for Europe exhibition brought forms of art, literature, and design together and exhibited 12 Belgian, Spanish and Hungarian designers’ responses to literary texts representing the best of Belgian, Spanish and Hungarian literature (Gabriel García Márquez, Carlos Fuentes, Hugo Claus, Magda Szabó and Sándor Márai) dreamed into dresses. You can read more: 113

“Gown of Dreams” – Hungarian Writers Experience of Vienna 1873-1936. October 2010 - February 2011

Magic illustrations of Salvador Dalí 1944-1969, 2005. An exhibition on the famous painter’s book illustrations based on a private collection


The Flowers of Evil, 2007. An exhibition on Baudelaire’s poetry

Our museum has curated a series of exhibitions regarding Hungarian Writers’ Experiences Abroad. So far, three such exhibitions have been organised regarding writers experiences of Paris (2004/05), Berlin (2007) and Vienna (2010/11). The fourth installment, Hungarian Writers’ Experience of Italy, is under way. This series is a typical example of the invaluable help cultural institutes can provide with research grants and identifying partner institutions in the target country. These exhibitions generally open first in our museum and later in the partner institution of the respective country. We receive support from our national cultural institutes abroad. They help organize study visits and put us in contact with potential local partners, collections or experts in the given countries. They also host events when the exhibition is there. Also, due to successful partnerships we were able to organize the following exhibitions dedicated to European literatures at the Petőfi Literary Museum: Magic Illustrations by Salvador Dalí, 2005 Our Andersen, 2005 Flowers of Evil – Baudelaire exhibition, 2007 Vladvysotsky – Vladimir Vysotsky exhibition, 2007 Karen Blixen exhibition, 2009 Metamorphosis (Ovid, Kafka etc.), 2009 Renaissance Roads – Virtual Encounters, 2010 115

Our international contacts develop continuously. We are a founding member of ICLM, the literary branch of ICOM, and among our contacts the most important ones are ALG, the German umbrella organisation of literary institutions and memorial houses, their French counterpart, the Fédération nationale des maisons d’écrivain et des patrimoines littéraires and the Italian Associazione Case della Memoria. In 2009 we jointly organized and hosted a meeting with the ALG to discuss the canonization processes of authors in Europe. Out of that meeting grew the idea of a preparatory meeting for the Grundtvig learning partnership project we are presently pursuing. This is an excellent example of the positive effects of international networking. We regularly attend ICLM conferences to learn as much as possible about the landscape of the profession in Europe as well as to work out specific plans for cooperations or partnerships. Currently we are planing a joint exhibition with the Italian Associazione Case della Memoria to take place in 2013. Between 2008 and 2010 we participated in the Athena project and, having aggregated data of another four Hungarian museums, we contributed about 100,000 digitised items to Europeana. We hope to continue as partners in the Athena Plus project. In the meantime we were invited to take part in the Europeana Inside project that started in April 2012. The project works on content development and making museum collection management compatible with Europeana through creating an Europeana connection kit. As the Petőfi Literary Museum administers part of the Márai legacy and Sándor Márai has recently been translated more widely and is becoming increasingly popular in Europe beyond, we continuously cooperate regarding joint projects, exhibitions, walks and publications with different partners from the Slovak National Museum to San Diego.

3. European heritage in the literary institution’s practice As can be seen from the above, our praxis can be characterised as open to European co-operation and networking. We ourselves have benefitted greatly as an institution through learning from others’ best practices. Each and every aspect of our work, from collection development and management to exhibitions, museum education, conferences, community education, festivals and events, is based on being upto-date and highly skilled at developing European partnerships of one kind or another. 116

As our collection has a strong focus on Hungarian literature, our holdings dealing with European heritage – inspired by European literary figures or produced by European artists – are few, but highly prized. In our Art and Relics Collection for instance, there are busts of Isaac Babel (by Tamás Fekete), Sándor Lénárd (by Amerigo Tot), Casanova, Don Quixote and Alfred Hitchcock (by Ferenc Sajdik), a Petőfi poster by Victor Vasarely from the early 70s, masques of Heinrich Heine and Johann Wolfgang Goethe, a large print by William Hogarth, Dante and Virgil, and oil painting by Béla Kondor, illustrations of Franz Kafka (by Károly Klimó), Leo Tolstoy (by Béla Kondor), photos of Paul Verlaine, Samuel Beckett, Oskar Kokoschka and Thomas Mann with the Hungarian poet Attila József. In our Library Collection there are some book inscriptions and dedications to and from European writers and artists while in our Manuscript Collection we have documents of Hungarian emigrant writers and the bequest of Sándor Márai, including correspondence with European counterparts, e.g. Thomas Mann. If we were to look at our wide range of events trying to find the ones with outstanding European scope, we would definitely mention the HAY Festival Budapest we held in May 2012 for the first time with Bob Geldof as guest of honour. Our Budapest Transfer International Literary Festival is also European in scope not least due to the partnership with cultural institutes, but also given its different thematic focus each year, such as sin in literature, metamorphosis or recycling. The International Book Festival reception is a European event held each year – in 2012 the Guest of Honour was the cultural region of the Scandinavian countries: Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, joined by Finland under the name Nordic Countries. 117

The Sziget Festival in August every year is an opportunity for us to meet international youth audiences. In 2012 the festival was the winner of the Best European Major Festival Award: “museum island”. Our presence at the national stand of International Book Fairs (Frankfurt, London, Helsinki etc.) is another important European event for us. Through the network provided by the Hungarian Books and Translation Office, we can explore potential translation projects and inspire publishers to participate. In 2012 we joined the new initiative of the Visegrad Countries (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary) and started our Writers in Residence Programme. The project is coordinated in Krakow and each participating country receives 4 writers (one from each country) for 3 months. The writers stay under one roof to work on their projects and we try to help them in making new contacts with publishers and organizing public events. These events include opportunities for them to read their work in their native languages and we even offer some Hungarian translations, too. We received the first cohort of writers between September and November 2012 and look forward to welcoming the next group.



Back to content 119


COMMUNICATION, PROMOTION AND OUTREACH Pierre Marson 1. General information and mission In the context of this paper, we understand Luxembourgish literature to mean any literary text written by a Luxembourger or written in the literary field in Luxembourg by a non-national, independently of language. These languages are generally – but need not be – one of the three usual languages of the country: Luxemburgish, French or German. Efforts to promote Luxembourgish literature as well as outreach and communicating with its reading public are not particular to our time, but date back at least to the beginning of the 20th century. Their emergence was linked to the development of nationhood, which gained momentum at the end of the 19th century. In 1912, Luxembourgish was introduced into the school curricula, which led to the first school book for these purposes, Das Luxemburgische und sein Schrifttum (1914) by Nikolaus Welter. The period between World War I and World War II saw further public and private initiatives that give a glimpse into the significance of language in Luxembourgish literature. Whereas the nationalist writer and politician Lucien Koenig published the anthology An der Wirkstad vun de Jongletzeburger Dichter (1927-1933) for promoting Luxembourgish-language literature, at the same time (1932-3), the liberal cultural journal Les Cahiers luxembourgeois organized a literary contest that was conversely open to French and German, and explicitly excluded texts in Luxembourgish. A few years later the state-sponsored Prix de littérature luxembourgeoise was inaugurated. This award, under varying appelations, was awarded until the 1960s for texts in the three national languges. Despite these early attempts, it is since the 1980s that one can speak of systematic efforts in this field. In the late 1970s, the Ministry of Culture created the Concours littéraire national and in 1986 the Lëtzebuerger Schrëftsteller Verband (Luxembourg Writers’ Union = LSV) came into existence, to name just these two examples. In 1995, Luxembourg was the European Capital of Culture, an important event in 121

the process of cultural modernization and diversification. New institutions were founded, which gave an impulse to culture in general and literature in particular. For example, the Walfer Bicherdeeg (Walferdange Book Fair) took its present format in 1995. Organised by a municipality on the outskirts of Luxembourg City, visitors come from the whole country and even the bordering regions of Belgium, France and Germany. Its focus is Luxembourgian books and literature. Since these foundational events, more initiatives have sprung up. Starting in 2001, the town of Vianden has been organizing the Vianden book festival, which also attracts a supraregional public, but has a less central position than Walferdange. Libraries and cultural centers also organize reading events. For example, the public library of the City of Luxembourg opens its doors for a monthly ‘Mardi littéraire’, the Kulturfabrik and the municipal library in Esch-sur-Alzette organize a regular ‘Bistrot littéraire’, and a ‘Lundi littéraire’ was created at the municipal library of Differdange. There are many more initiatives for the promotion of literature, all of which bear witness to important developments during the last 20 years. The Centre national de littérature (CNL) itself was inaugurated in its current form in 1995, after several years of existence as a section of the National Archives. As an institute dependant on the Ministry of Culture and having a national scope, it has played a role in this evolution. Its legal missons were laid down in a 2004 law (Loi du 25 juin 2004 portant réorganisation des instituts culturels de l’Etat). Its mission statement states: Art. 21. The Centre national de littérature has as its missions : • to collect, keep in custody and make accessible to the public everything pertaining to the national literary heritage ; • to foster, withouth distinction of languages, the study of Luxembourg’s literature and literary life, in particular: ° by conducting publishing and research projects, ° by publishing bibliographical reference works, ° by putting at the disposal of Luxembourgian and foreign researchers the necessary informations and assisting them in their work; • to promote the creation, the translation, the diffusion and the reading of Luxembourgian literary works; 122

Part of the team in front of the Luxembourg Literary Centre

• to support initiatives aimed at the promotion of Luxembourgian literature, of reading and of theatre in Luxembourg and abroad, in particular ° by giving advice and by assisting public and private organizations in this domain as well as individuals upon demand, ° by contributing to initiatives as well as to the creation and the management of regional and local institutions related to literature and literary life, ° by supporting public coordination in the domains of language and literature; • to offer to the public a programme of socio-cultural animation, notably by organizing public exhibitions and events as well as scientific and cultural lectures and events related to the missions of the Centre; • to arrange, in cooperation with the concerned authorities, an educational program, amongst others teachers’ trainings as well as specific activities for visiting groups of students, pupils and adolescents. [Translation from French: P. M.] Communication about and promotion of literature as well as outreach to a variety of different publics is thus central to the mission of the CNL. All of the CNL’s activities, in one way or the other, touch the domain spelled out in the title of this chapter. What, then, are the CNL’s (best) practices in communication, promotion and outreach? 123

2. Best practices in communication, promotion and outreach It is not easy to single out a specific number of practices, which could be deemed ‘best practices’ in their respective domains. The CNL has its individual profile, which as a whole is efficient, but this is not necessarily transferrable to other institutions. The aim of the following remarks is therefore to give a general insight into the practices of the CNL in communication, promotion and outreach, with an emphasis on aspects which might be of particular interest to similar institutions. In light of its broad missions, the CNL tries to sponsor varied activities, to be flexible in its relation to the public and to cater to different target groups. It organizes and is involved in reading sessions, lectures, conferences, academic workshops, literary prizes, training sessions, exhibitions, authors’ residences, publications, book fairs and a wide range of other activities. We hope that each initiative overlaps with the others, creating a more efficient whole. Probably the most important aspect in terms of promotion and outreach is the content and quality of an institution’s offer. It is not easy to objectively evaluate this, but the CNL strives to submit its productions to professional judgement. It has received several national awards for publications and exhibitions, an international Red Dot Award for the exhibition catalogue Exilland Luxemburg 1933-1947 (2007), and one of its publications was short-listed for the Luxembourg book price in 2011. Financial grants from the National Research Fund (FNR) also constitute a certificate of quality, as they are granted upon independent evaluation. Such grants have made several of the CNL’s publications, a workshop and an international conference possible. However, it is not always predictable what might be of interest to the general public. Despite the lack of empirical evidence, at least some observations can be made, e.g. in the area of exhibitions. On one hand, topics which ‘ring a bell’ or with which people identify seem to trigger a positive response. For example, an exhibition about the Luxembourgish language (2000), held at a time when its socio-linguistic status was widely discussed, was very successful and the catalogue had to be reprinted. Exhibitions about Michel Rodange (2002) and Edmond de la Fontaine (2009), 19th century writers considered ‘national’ authors, enjoyed good success. Conversely, unexpected and hitherto unknown subject matter can also be interesting. This was the case with exhibitions about Luxembourg as a country of exile during Nazi Germany (2007) and about the Luxembourg-born engineer and writer Hugo Gernsback, who coined the term ‘science fiction’ (2010). Finally, exhibitions linked to contemporary actors in the literary field also attract 124

quite a number of visitors, drawing on a pool of ‘insiders’ and friends. Exhibitions about the Éditions Phi (2001), about the graphic artist Raymon Mehlen and the periodical Les Cahiers luxembourgeois (2004), about the contemporary author Roger Manderscheid (2009) or about the relationship between literature and art can be mentioned here. The usual target of the CNL is the general public. One way to attract visitors is to target more specific audiences. Teachers play an important role as multipliers. The CNL organizes teacher-training activities, held by its own staff or by outside authors or academics. Another special target group are children and adolescents. The CNL has programs for children and school groups and we are in the process of further developing this area (see below). One important aspect in promoting literature at the CNL is a certain conviviality and ‘customer orientation’ when it comes to individual requests. The CNL tries to be attentive to special wishes, e. g. regarding the days of the week and the times of the day. In addition to professional visitors, it hosts social events, like Service Clubs meeting and having dinner on its premises, or groups of senior citizens celebrating the anniversary of their ‘baccalauréat’. In general, we offer them a drink after the visit, which contributes to the general perception of the CNL as a sociable institution and is important in terms of exchange with our public. The CNL also promotes literature by reaching out to the public outside the walls of the institution. We have representations at the Walferdange and Vianden book fairs in Luxembourg, at the Frankfurt and Leipzig book fairs in Germany and at the Paris book fair in France. Staff members deliver lectures for the general and the academic public at home and abroad. The CNL co-organizes events in different locations. Examples include the yearly childrens’ book author’s residence Struwwelpippi kommt zur Springprozession in Echternach and the Sentier des poètes, a permanent exhibition along a forest trail. It organizes and takes part in academic conferences and workshops, both on a national and an international level, most recently the annual ‘Journée des archivistes’ in Luxembourg, the Koop-Litera international network’s meetings and conferences, and the ‘Luxemburgistik’ section at the IVG Congress in Warsaw 2010. An important part of the CNL’s strategy is networking and cooperating with a broad variety of partners. Firstly, there are numerous ad hoc partnerships that differ from project to project. Thus, lectures and reading sessions mostly take place in cooperation with a partner such as a publishing house, journal or association. Secondly, there are institutionalized partnerships for recurring events. National 125

Program yer for the ďŹ rst international conference of Koop-Litera


partners include, among others, the Théâtre national, Théâtre des casemates, the railway company CFL, the association Freed um Liesen (Joy of reading), the Comité de liaison des associations d’étrangers (CLAE), the Fondation Servais, the Ministry of Culture, the publishing house Éditions Phi, the University of Luxembourg, the town of Echternach etc. An important partnership for the CNL on an international level is Koop-Litera international, a network of literary archives which began in Austria and now includes institutions from Austria, Germany, Luxembourg and Switzerland. The first international congress of KOOP-Litera international was held at the CNL in 2011. Partners are also important when it comes to cost-effectiveness and income generation. As a cultural institute of the state, the CNL’s main source of income is a yearly grant from the ministry of culture. Regular income is also generated through the sale of publications and the rental of two rooms to guests, such as visiting researchers or authors. An important role is played by grants from the FNR, whose mission is to finance research in Luxembourg. They help cover the cost of publications, research projects and events. For example, the research for the CNL’s authors’ dictionary (in German in 2007, in French 2010, online in 2011) and the aforementioned international conference of the Koop-Litera international network would not have been possible without the FNR. Effective communication, promotion and outreach is also well served by a regular media presence. We disseminate press releases for activities and events; we pay for inserts in certain media; at exhibition openings, we prepare press dossiers for the media representatives; we send copies to the general media and to academic journals. One way to get media presence is to get media space for ourselves. The CNL cooperates with the public socio-cultural radio station Radio 100,7 in three ways: firstly, they record lectures at the CNL and air them; secondly, we created a series of radio programmes of half an hour each, recorded in the studio, where CNL staff members gave introductions to works from Luxembourg’s literary history; finally, there was a series of seven minute programmes, each about a certain aspect of the CNL, recorded on our premises. Some of these programmes have been aired more than once and most of them can be downloaded from the CNL’s homepage. Among its missions, the CNL counts not only the study and promotion of literature, but also encouraging the creation of new literature. This is achieved by several means. Together with the Théâtre national, the CNL holds an annual theatre fair, where new texts are presented to the general and professional public. In the area of children’s literature, the CNL cooperates with the town of Echternach to hold an annual residence program for an author from abroad, with the resulting text 127

ideally featuring Echternach. The residence program has spontaneously led to a coauthored book by a German and a Luxemburgian, Irma Kraus and Guy Rewenig. Another author’s residence took place in the context of the annual Salon du livre et des cultures, with one of the authors working on the translation of a novel by Roger Manderscheid into Spanish. Literary creation is also encouraged through several literary prizes which the CNL helps organize, especially the Prix d’encouragement de la Fondation Servais and the Concours littéraire national, which are both awarded for unpublished manuscripts. An important way of communicating, promoting and reaching out to the public are exhibitions. These are among the events of highest visibility for our activities. The following section will give an overview of the CNL’s exhibition policies.

3. Exhibition policies and literary history The CNL creates in-house and external exhibitions. On its premises, it curates only temporary exhibitions. They are conceived as research exhibitions on various topics in Luxembourgian literature. The CNL disposes of three areas for temporary exhibits in its main building. The primary exhibition space consists of five rooms on the ground floor with 6-7 display cases each. These rooms generally host two to four exhibitions per year. There is an irregular alternation between exhibitions curated by CNL staff and exhibitions created by outside curators. Another space is a vaulted cellar. It does not usually host exhibitions, but has sometimes been used to show exhibits that did not fit in the main rooms, e.g. large panels and installations, or has been used as supplementary space for exhibitions. It does host the annual KIBUM (= Kinderbuchmesse) children’s book fair (see below). The other secondary space is a single mural showcase on the second floor in front of the function room. It always hosts a small exhibition in relation to the theme of the the CNL’s most recent event. For the purpose of illustration, the table below shows an overview of the temporary exhibitions in the main exhibition area over the last years:




May 2007-Feb 2008 Exilland Luxemburg: 1933-1947 Feb-Apr 2008

Golo Mann. Geschichte und Geschichten

Apr-Jul 2008

Anne Weyer – 40 Joer Schaffen zu Lëtzebuerg

Oct-Dec 2008

Pierre Buraglio. Écrits cavardiages

Mar-May 2009

Roger Manderscheid. Ech fléie wann dee Schluet eriwwer ass. Schrëftbiller

Jun-Sep 2009

Le Roman du Geste. Robert Brandy et ses amis écrivains et artistes

Oct 2009-Mar 2010 Dicks (1823-1891). Ech sinn e groussen Hexemeeschter May-Aug 2010

CNL Outside curators curators x x x

x x



x x

Alchimie de la lenteur. 3 poètes et 1 peintre


Oct 2010-May 2011 Hugo Gernsback. An amazing story. 1884 Luxembourg – 1967 New York



Sep 2011-May 2012 2, rue Emmanuel Servais. Politik – Literatur – Industrie


May 2012-Jan 2013

Satirische Literatur in Luxemburg. Vum Eilespill an anere Kregéiler


Feb-May 2013

Grenzenweiter Blick – das Literaturarchiv Saar-Lor-Lux-Elsass zu Gast im Centre national de littérature Mersch

Jun-Sep 2013

Das Rätsel B. Traven



Oct 2013-March 2014

Livres dédicacés





Catalogue of an exhibition about Hugo Gernsback


In January 2012, under the heading ‘Objet du mois’ (Monthly exhibit), the CNL started to display a different item from its collection every month in the entrance hall and on its homepage. This cumulative project is our first virtual exhibition. Some exhibitions travel after their closing. 20 ans d’éditions Phi, un défi (2001-2) about a publishing house, was shown in the university library in Saarbrücken, and parts of the aforementioned exhibition about Hugo Gernsback were shown in the Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie in Karlsruhe in 2013. The CNL has also been asked to create temporary exhibitions for other, diverse types of venues: an exhibition about Luxembourgian literature for a library and a cultural center in the Province du Luxembourg in Belgium in 2002, an exhibition for the Musée ferroviaire Fond de Gras, a railway museum in Luxembourg in 2004, and even an exhibition about literature and love for Valentine’s Day in a commercial center in Mersch in 2006. It also took part in a temporary public space exhibition in cooperation with the Historical Museum of the City of Luxembourg, where texts by contemporary writers were printed on adhesive material and glued to the streets of the city. A permanent outdoor exhibition is the already mentioned Sentier des poètes in a forest. The CNL’s exhibitions usually grow out of an idea formulated by the director or a staff member. The detailed conceptualization takes place in the group curating the exhibition, usually 3-4 staff members. The normal development period is two years. A few formal features of the exhibitions are often similar. For example, the exhibitions tend to have five parts, as the CNL has five exhibition rooms, but other formats are possible. They are always accompanied by quite voluminous catalogues and a programme of events with lectures, teachers’ training courses, theatre presentations etc. Sometimes further accompanying material, like CDs or book editions, is published. The CNL only occasionally relies on outsourcing for specific tasks. A graphic agency is in charge of the catalogue and the visual elements like banners, invitation cards etc. An actor is charged with the recording of potential audio-books. In the past, volunteers have cooperated on certain exhibitions, and the CNL regularly relies on outside lenders for certain exhibits.


Young visitors at the KIBUM (Kinderbuchmesse, children’s book fair)

4. Museum education and lifelong learning The broadening and deepening of our educational programme is one of our main priorities for the coming years, and new ideas in this direction are one of the benefits which the CNL will take away from the Grundtvig partnership. The CNL’s educational and lifelong learning activities target three main groups: primary and secondary school students, teachers and adult citizens. Part of the educational programme for elementary schools is centered around the KIBUM, a children’s book fair organized by the German city of Oldenburg together with the University of Oldenburg and hosted by the CNL at the beginning of each year. It presents over 2,000 new publications in German-language children’s and adolescents’ literature each year. The CNL organizes a parallel programme, including a seminar for primary school teachers as well as daily reading sessions with authors for school groups. The vaulted cellar is furnished to accommodate groups or individual children, for example with reading corners on the floor. Regarding secondary schools, teachers and their classes visit the CNL depending on the topics of exhibitions and events and we offer them ad hoc educational programs. Didactic material for secondary schools is currently being elaborated under the supervision of the CNL, and the Ministry of Education has issued the tri-lingual Literaresch Welten (2012), the first anthology of Luxembourgish authors for secondary education in close cooperation with the CNL. Starting in 2013, the CNL is a partner in creative writing workshops for secondary school students that combine with a visit to the institute. Secondary school teachers’ trainings linked to 132

exhibitions or new publications are well developed. The CNL also has a tradition of hosting the annual teachers’ training session of the Lëtzebuerger Germaniste Verband (LGV) on a topic in German philology. All teachers’ trainings at the CNL are certified and count towards the compulsory number of training hours teachers have to complete every year. A non-negligible section of the CNL’s audience consists of adults citizens in general. They are regular and assiduous participants at events about Luxembourgian literature and literary history. This essential aspect of museum education and lifelong learning is less formal than our work with schools and teachers, but it is none the less real and effective.

5. Publications as a way to promote literature To finish, one final aspect of the promotion of literature can be highlighted. The CNL issues several series of publications, mostly as hard copies but also some in digital formats. These publications give the CNL a presence in bookshops and libraries, as well as in research. In detail, the publication series are: • Bibliographie courante de la littérature luxembourgeoise: an annual bibliography published since 1988 about Luxembourgian literature and literary life. Since 2001, the bibliography is also available online. • Inventaires: a series of reference works which thus far comprises three volumes: Die Bestände des Luxemburger Literaturarchivs (2005), an inventory of the archival fund, which preceded the now exclusively digital archival catalogue, the Luxemburger Autorenlexikon (2007) and the Dictionnaire des auteurs luxembourgeois (2010), which are German and French versions of a dictionary of Luxembourgian authors. These dictionaries are also available and constantly updated online. • Lëtzebuerger Bibliothéik: a series of scholarly editions of literary classics, which numbers 20 volumes to date. • Essais: a series of studies in literature, of spezialized anthologies and of conference proceeding published together with Éditions Phi. • Exhibition catalogues: to date we have published 11 catalogues, not including those for exhibitions by outside curators. • CD Audio books of the classics of Luxembourgian literature (Antoine Meyer, Edmond de la Fontaine, Michel Rodange). • Postcards with authors’ effigies, posters and leaflets. 133

Publications on display in the CNL’s bookshop

In addition to these, the CNL sometimes issues books outside the framework of a specific series and cooperates on publications with other institutions. An anthology of a special type can be mentioned here. Together with the aforementioned association Freed um Liesen and the national railway company CFL, the CNL composes E Buch am Zuch (A Book on the Train), a collection of texts by Luxembourgian writers on a different topic every year. Each edition is 128 pages and has a print run of 6,500 copies, which is very high for Luxembourgian standards. Since 1999, the book is distributed free of charge in and around Luxembourg’s central train station during the evening rush hour on the 23rd of April, UNESCO’s World Book Day. E Buch am Zuch is not sold in bookshops and has become a collectors’ item. It is an example of making Luxembourg’s literature available to a broader public for whom, in some cases, literature is not necessarily a central concern and who would normally not visit the CNL.

Links Luxembourg Literary Centre / Literary Archives Koop-Litera international: Luxembourg authors’ dictionary: (German) (French)



1. Museum audiences and social inclusion The Centre national de littérature (CNL) has been created as a space where writers and the public can meet. The CNL’s events are attended by an educated public with an interest in literature, culture and history. Regarding the social and professional background of our audience, a large proportion belongs to Luxembourg’s educational community (i.e. primary and secondary school teachers as well as university professors), many of which have a background in languages and/or literature. As the CNL hosts events in Luxemburgish, French, German and (more rarely) English, the public’s composition depends on the focus of the events and the languages used. For instance, a conference in French about a French-speaking poet will attract primarily French-speaking visitors.

The Maison Servais in Mersch, the home of the Centre national de littérature


The archives on the second floor of the CNL-annex in Mersch. Photographer: Christof Weber

The CNL was also created as a scientific resource for researchers of Luxembourgian literature and culture. Thus, the CNL has welcomed researchers from countries such as Germany, France, Belgium, England and Japan. Another sector of our audience is composed of writers, journalists and members of other book-related professions. The average age of our audience is relatively advanced, a situation explained by the sizeable interest among senior citizens’ clubs and societies. In this sense, the age profile of our audience mirrors the demographic reality of the country, where a growing proportion of Luxembourg nationals belong to higher age groups. Yet, the CNL also welcomes a younger audience composed of school classes, teenagers, A-level and graduate students, especially students from the Master’s degree course in Luxembourgish literature, language and culture. The CNL holds specific events aimed at children and adolescents (e.g. the annual KIBUM book exhibition for children). There are various means to reach our target groups. The first way of direct targeting is based on a pool of personal contact data that has grown along with the institution. Based on this data, we can address our target groups directly by mailings (postal and email), via social networks (CNL pages on Facebook and Twitter), or indirectly through the media (written press, national radio stations, TV presentations). The CNL’s events and activities are regularly publicised in culturally-oriented information brochures (Luxembourg Agenda) and specific websites (e.g. Plurionet). These strategies also include the distribution of posters, flyers, invitations and general information brochures about the institution and its publications. Finally, the CNL takes part in several book fairs, notably the international book fairs in Frankfurt 136

The CNL’s Facebook page

and Leipzig. During these events, our promotional objective consists of introducing an international audience to Luxembourgian literature and the work of the CNL. Finally, book lovers have the opportunity to buy books at the CNL, which houses a bookshop where the CNL’s and associate publishing houses publications are available at competitive prices. The CNL receives feedback by word of mouth, as well as by post and email messages from our visitors. We encourage visitors to write down their impressions of our events. For this purpose we keep a golden visitors’ book that is available at every event. Currently, another channel to collect feedback is the CNL’s Facebook webpage. This tool enables us to receive feedback about past events and activities or about our publications. Similarly, we receive feedback via our archive’s website and our information email address, as well as through analysis of the media coverage of our events and of the critical reviews about our publications. These articles complement the feedback we receive directly from the users of our archive. 137

CNL-conference themed Vun der Sauer bis bei den Nil by CNL-curator Pierre Marson (left)

Facilitating social integration in a literary museum means providing opportunities for exchanges between different social groups. In this sense, literature-based activities can raise awareness for the similarities between different social groups and thus contribute towards mutual understanding. This is particularly true for Luxembourg, as its literature expresses itself in several languages and gives insight into the mind of the country from the perspective of different cultural groups. To achieve this goal, the CNL hosts regular literary events that function as a platform for authors and the public to interact and share their interest in Luxembourgian literature and culture. Examples for such activities are: literary readings, discussion groups, literary days focussing on set topics, book presentations, presentations of new publishing houses, showcasing of dramatic texts, and guided tours through the exhibitions (in different languages). Moreover, the CNL contributes to the integration of minorities by participating in the Salon du livre et des cultures at the Festival des migrations, des cultures et de la citoyenneté.

2. Fostering literary heritage: volunteering and museum associations Volunteering is common in Luxemburg. Thus, the CNL employs both paid students and unpaid interns. Ideally, volunteers complement the regular team of librarians and curators in achieving the institution’s objectives. Volunteers are expected to work autonomously on specific projects under the guidance of a librarian or curator and to contribute to the institution’s progress more generally. They themselves are 138

The CNL’s bookstall during the Walferdange book days in November, 2012. Photographer: Marc Siweck

responsible for the planning and the implementation of such projects. Volunteers join the archive for about a month during term vacations in summer and winter. A high proportion of young volunteers are current or future students of languages, literature or archive/information management-related topics at undergraduate level. Senior citizens also frequently volunteer at our institution. For many years, several volunteers have collaborated towards exhibitions, publications, conferences and archival work. The CNL aims to ensure that the experience and know-how of former senior CNL collaborators is not lost after they retire from professional life. Senior volunteers expect to remain active in a domain in which they acquired expertise during their professional lives. Volunteers expect to get insight into the everyday life of a cultural institution and have their ďŹ rst (or further) work experience in a library/archive environment. In the case of primary work experience, time as a volunteer may help students to make more informed decisions concerning future careers. Volunteers expect a workplace setting that is favourable to a positive learning experience. Their motivation to work as a volunteer may be rooted in their interest and enthusiasm for languages and literature, in the publishing market, or in the functions of an archive/literary museum. A certain number of volunteers are on their way to a profession that is library or archive-related. Thus, for some volunteers, an internship may be a prerequisite for starting a degree course in library science, archive-management or 139

information-management. In this context, the CNL’s adult education courses and workshops are accredited by the Luxembourg Ministry of Education. The CNL has not founded a Museum Friends’ Association yet. The creation of a ‘friends of the archives’ society is however planned on a national level.

3. Best practices and innovative ideas in engaging new audiences It is the aim of the CNL to engage new and younger audiences. As the average age of the typical CNL-visitor is relatively high, we must engage younger age groups in order to ensure the continuity of our public, particularly young adults aged 25-45. Younger target groups also include A-level students, undergraduates, and particularly students in the recently-founded Master’s degree course in Luxembourgian language and culture. Non-Luxembourgian residents remain a minority audience. As this group tends to be a younger one, we also aim to attract them. Additionally, we would like to appeal to the diverse expatriate community working for the various EU-institutions in Luxembourg. This community is quantitatively important in Luxembourg, and has a high instance of well-educated people. A primary strategy to reach younger target audiences consists of simply encouraging them to visit the CNL. This involves the presentation of the CNL’s activities in school and university settings, an information campaign that ideally includes handing out informational brochures and invitations, as well as posting messages about events in social media (e.g. Facebook and Twitter), the CNL website and the online platforms on cultural events in Luxemburg. The following ideas could be implemented with positive effects: Providing young people with an insight into the literary sector is fundamental. This can mean for instance hosting conferences about the publishing market and book-related professions in Luxembourg; offering workshops for secondary school and university students on certain areas of Luxembourgian literature; organizing educational workshops on the contents of our exhibitions (implemented). To this end, the CNL meets the Ministry of Education’s accreditation standards for adult learning courses. The development of educational and didactic material for schools is an ongoing project. For example, in November 2012 an anthology of Luxembourgian literature for A-level students was published.11 11

Baden, Jeff; Marson, Pierre; Mart, Colette; Weber, Josiane; Zeimes, Josée: Literaresch Welten. Eng Lëtzebuerger Anthologie an dräi Sproochen. Luxembourg: Ministère de l’Éducation nationale et de la Formation professionnelle, 2012.


New audiences can also be engaged by hosting reading clubs and literary competitions. Accordingly, the CNL organizes together with the Theatre national de Luxembourg a daylong presentation of unpublished dramatic texts by Luxembourgian authors. These texts are read in a stage-like format by professional authors so the public can appreciate each text on its artistic merits. This popular event gives authors the opportunity to get a sense about the public’s views, and the public gets involved in the creative act of dramatic authorship. Furthermore, the CNL’s staff is directly or indirectly involved in various other national literary competitions organized by other organizations, in particular the Servais foundation for literature, the Luxembourg Ministry of Culture, and the head-organization of the federation of publishers. Examples for literary competitions are: the Batty Weber award for an author’s life oeuvre, the Concours littéraire national for the best texts within a given genre (Luxembourg ministry of culture), the Prix Servais for the best book published within a given year (Servais foundation) and the competition for the most popular book of the year in different genres (organized by the federation of publishers). Our institution collaborates with the Luxembourg ’Virliesconcours’ (reading competition) and the ’Schéischreiwconcours’ (calligraphy competition). The CNL is also involved in interregional and international competitions, such as the Prix des lecteurs de la Grande-Région, respectively the Prix Aristeion, now the Prix européen de littérature et de traduction. All of these competitions and prizes encourage new (young) authors in their creative endeavours and stimulate the production of new texts. Depending on the competition, winners of the award receive financing for the texts’ publication and the publicity facilitates the book launch. Finally, competitions help to reveal developments and directions within the national publishing market. A second strategy to engage new and wider audiences is taking literature to the public. This is done by offering radio broadcasting (e.g. Radio 100, 7 in Luxemburg) related to the titles published by the CNL and by putting literary information online and providing access via personal computers and smart phone applications. For example, the dictionary of Luxembourgian authors is accessible online (www. and a specific IPhone-app for the dictionary will be launched soon. In the same vein, descriptions of the CNL’s exhibitions and activities can be made accessible to a large potential public of IT users. More recently, the CNL has increased its efforts to engage new audiences by using new media and social networking. Posts on the CNL website, as well as our presence on social networking websites (e.g. Facebook, Twitter) and on the Plurionet cultural web journal’s pages ( are a platform for the publicising our events, for the dissemination of news, for instance about new publications. Furthermore, audio books on CD complement our new media efforts. Being present in new media means reaching 141

audiences that are reticent to use traditional print-media supports (e.g. mailings, newspaper ads, literary journals). Today, more and more people make extensive and everyday use of the internet, tablets, smartphones and other electronic devices for general communication, socializing and informational purposes. Social networking provides the opportunity to inuence the public image of the institution in positive ways. Thus, potential audiences can be made aware of the CNL as a public research institute that is open to the public. This information helps new audiences overcome possible barriers that could deter them from visiting our archive.



1. The European dimension of the national literary �eld Since 1815, Luxembourg’s literature has been developing in a bilingual and bicultural context. This means that, regardless of its language, be it Luxembourgish, German or French, Luxembourg’s literature is always potentially subject to the influence of both French and German literature. Luxembourgish authors have repeatedly been guided by foreign developments and literary movements and have themselves participated in literary circles. This phenomenon is noticeable in every country, and yet it stands out as a particular feature of Luxembourg’s literature. Indeed, from the beginning of the 20th century, the idea of a mix became popular, and authors and intellectuals saw themselves as mediators between French and the German culture, and even between the two nations. Thus it goes almost without saying that it is cultural institutions’ duty to take care of this cultural heritage. As Luxembourg has an international outlook, not only because of its financial centre but even more so because of the European institutions, its population is very diverse and highly multicultural. While the 19th and first half of the 20th century were characterised by a wave of Italian immigration, the Portuguese speakers were predominant after this period. Since the 1990s, most immigrants have come from Portugal, the Cape Verde Islands and Brazil. At the same time, as a consequence of the political conflicts in the Balkan region, the country took in an important number of refugees from Kosovo, Albania, Montenegro, and Bosnia-Herzegovina. It might therefore seem a logical assumption that there are also many international cultural institutions based in Luxembourg, e.g. Institut français du Luxembourg, Centre Culturel et Educatif Serbe, Institut Culturel Luxembourgeois Péruvien a.s.b.l, Amitiés Luxembourg-Monténégro, ACEB (Association des Cultures et d’Entraide Bantoues), ACOLUX (Association de Congolais du Luxembourg), AECLC (Association Economique et Culturelle Luxembourg-Chine), Association LusoGuinéenne Bissau-Lanta (ALUGEBIL), CCAB/IER (Comité de Coordination des 143

Associations Bosniaques/Institut d’Enseignement et de Recherche), CILA a.s.b.l. (Centre Interculturel luxembourgeois-albanais): Albanien und Kosovo, CEAL (Cercle des Etudiants Africains au Luxembourg), Organisation Capverdienne du Luxembourg a.s.b.l., GOUYE GUI (Association des Sénégalais du Luxembourg). A few international cultural institutions play a certain role in the cultural field in Luxembourg. The Istituto Italiano di Cultura (since 1990) owns a library and organises different events, many of which are in French, one of Luxembourg’s official languages. Moreover the Italian cultural institute organises numerous visits to Luxembourgish cultural institutions. The Instituto Camões (since 1999) owns a library too, and organises film showings as well as art exhibitions, occasionally in cooperation with other institutes. The Centre Culturel AS Pouchkine Assoc Luxembourg-Russie is promoting Russian culture and language in Luxembourg. The Pierre Werner Institute is worth mentioning as well. It was named after former Luxembourgish Minister of State Pierre Werner who promoted European unification and prepared the monetary union. The Institute’s outlook is clearly European. It came into existence after the merger of the Luxembourgish Goethe Institute, the French cultural centre and a Luxembourgish cultural institute. In 2003, the Pierre Werner Institute was created as a non-profit organisation in accordance with Luxembourgish law at the initiative of the French, German and Luxembourgish governments. The possibility for other members of the EU to participate in the Pierre Werner Institute, if interested in cooperation and already represented by a cultural institute in Luxembourg, is explicitly provided for in the statute. It focuses on contemporary Europe, the intellectual exchange across the borders and the promotion of research on a European scale. Both the German and the French departments organise numerous literary evenings. The Comité de liaison des associations des étrangers (CLAE) is a platform for associations of foreigners. It was created in 1985 and promotes the eligibility of foreign residents for citizenship as well as the acknowledgement and the valorisation of migration cultures in Luxembourg. The CLAE co-organises the Salon de l’immigration and the corresponding Salon du livre. At this small book fair, foreign editors present their books and hold readings. Most years, a delegation of European writers visits the Luxembourg Literature Centre / Literary Archives of Luxembourg in Mersch. On that occasion, there is usually one foreign author staying in one of our studios. In 2012, the CLAE was awarded the ‘Lëtzebuerger Bicherpräis’ [Luxembourgish Book Prize] by the publishing house “ultimomondo”. The association Le Printemps des poètes, which can be traced back to an initiative of Jack Lang and Emmanuel Hoog, organises an annual poetry festival. Poets are 144

Foto offered by Victor Hugo to Adolphe Pauly, Mayor of Vianden. Transcription of the handwritten text: Je donne ma tête, ce qui est peu, / et mon cœur, ce qui est davantage / à mon cher et vaillant ami / Paüly Strasser, bourgmestre et âme / de Vianden. / Victor Hugo 20 août 1871. © Maison de Victor Hugo, Vianden

given the opportunity to recite their texts in the original language as well as in translation. The Luxembourgish department of the Printemps des poètes publishes a newspaper supplement every year with the poems and portraits of the authors. The event is promoted by Luxembourg’s Ministry of Culture, and the Luxembourg Literature Center is among the sponsors. Another European aspect of the literature in Luxembourg are the two literary days with an international focus celebrated in Luxembourg and in our institution. On the 21st of March, we celebrate World Poetry Day with readings. And on the 23rd of April, the World Book and Copyright Day is celebrated with the free distribution of 6,500 copies of an anthology organized around a different topic each year. In order to raise awareness for the European aspect of our literary heritage, there are various sites of literary remembrance in Luxembourg, which are not only dedicated to Luxembourgish authors. Many streets are named after foreign authors, notably Goethe and Victor Hugo. The Weimar poet visited the fortress of Luxembourg for three days and produced a few watercolor paintings of the fortifications in his Campagne in Frankreich. Victor Hugo visited Luxembourg on various occasions 145

and, after his flight from Paris, spent three months in exile in Vianden, where a Victor Hugo Museum has a bust by Auguste Rodin. Furthermore, a bust of Hugo can be found in the Municipal Park of Luxembourg, two busts of Pushkin (one in the park of the CNL) and another of Camões in a city neighborhood that is traditionally home to many Portuguese immigrants. In 2006, a statue of the poet by sculptor Mário Rodrigues de Castro was donated to the people of Luxembourg City by the civic association Santa Casa da Misericórida do Luxemburgo, the Luso-Luxembourg Chamber of Commerce and Industry and several prominent residents. Furthermore, there is a commemorative plaque in honor of Racine’s visit to Luxembourg. Stamps have been issued commemorating Goethe (twice), Victor Hugo, Hugo Gernsback and André Gide. Streets have been named after Cingis Aitmatov, Anne Frank, Ausonius (a 4th century writer), Winston Churchill (3), Antoine de SaintExupéry, Erasmus von Rotterdam, Goethe (3), Victor Hugo (7), Leopold Sedar Senghor, Schiller (2) and Emile Verhaeren. I would also like to point out that there might be no Lord Byron Street, but there is a street named after his daughter Ada Lovelace, an English mathematician and writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage’s early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine.

The Goethe stamp was issued in 1977; the stamp with a watercoloured sketch of the Luxembourgish fortification by Goethe was issued in 1999


Taking Goethe as an exemplary case, we can show how an author’s image was subject to an increasing Europeanization in Luxembourg. We can discern three different ways in which Goethe was represented: the ‘German’, the ‘Luxembourgish’, and the ‘European’ Goethe. During the 19th century, Goethe was perceived as German and academic, and it were German teachers who tried to root Goethe in the Luxembourg cultural landscape. During the 20th century, the idea of a ‘Luxembourgish’ Goethe entered circulation. This was due to a scientification of Goethe’s figure through Luxembourg’s German teachers, during which his stay in the fortress became the center of attention. The few days that Goethe spent in the fortified city were enough to establish him as part of the local, Luxembourgish culture. The fact that Goethe himself focused mainly on the fortress in his memoirs reinforces this viewpoint. Hence Goethe was able to become ‘Luxembourgish’ to the extent that his sketches and watercolour paintings became part of the commemorative site ‘fortification’. It does not come as a surprise that the Goethe memorial, the most important commemoration of the poet in Luxembourg, was erected directly on the fortified Bock rock in 1935. The stone includes the most famous Goethe quote on Luxembourg from ‘Campagne in Frankreich’. The stone further features the Goethe medallion. This ‘Luxembourgish’ Goethe is reflected in a regionalization of the biographic research on Goethe. In Grevenmacher, for instance, there are two plaques commemorating Goethe. In the 1990s, the ‘European’ Goethe figure emerged. This idea was expressed in Minister of State and of Cultural Affairs Jacques Santer’s speech in celebration of an exhibition on Campagne in Frankreich. In his speech, Santer equates the liberty pole as described by Goethe with the Schengen Vested Benefits Act. This Europeanization of Goethe in the Luxembourgish cultural memory was further strengthened by the fact that the hitherto mostly German-orientated mediators were complemented by Romance colleagues and Francophile scholars. By Europeanizing the once German Goethe, the poet could be united with Victor Hugo. They gradually evolved to become the ‘European’ Dioscuri. Both poets met in HuGoethe, a play by Jean-François Prévand, which was commissioned by the Ministry of Culture to be staged during the VictorHugo year in 2002.


2. Communicating literary heritage through institutional cooperation in Europe The communication of literary heritage happens at the Luxembourg Literature Centre / Literary Archives through institutional cooperation among literary museums, associations, archives and libraries in Europe. On several occasions, cultural institutions and embassies have requested us to present their country’s literature in cooperation with Luxembourg. Many countries have initiated similar projects when assuming the Presidency of the European Council. The exhibitions on Stefan Zweig, Gabriele d’Annunzio, and Alexander Pushkin, for instance, were the result of partnerships with the respective embassies. A lecture on Karen Blixen in 2012 is the fruit of a close collaboration with the Danish embassy. Special lectures about or with European writers are held through European embassies and cultural institutions. Of course the Luxembourg Literature Centre is also trying to promote Luxembourgish literature abroad. Contrary to other countries, Luxembourg does not have any independent cultural centres abroad. Nevertheless, in some of the bigger embassies we have cultural departments, which try to promote Luxembourg’s literature beyond the country’s borders. We are thus closely cooperating with the Luxembourgish embassy in Berlin. The embassy has organised themed event weeks such as for instance Luxemburg ist Literatur [Luxembourg is Literature] or Luxemburg ist Tanz [Luxembourg is Dance]. We were co-organizers of these literary events. As an archive, we depend on Luxembourg’s Ministry of Culture, which supports and finances both cultural and literary projects abroad. The Belgian literary magazine krautgarten – written in German and containing numerous articles by Luxembourgish authors – is co-financed by the Ministry through the purchases of part of the print run. In the 2000s, the Russian embassy established contact with four Russian universities, where some of our staff had the opportunity to lecture and hold conferences for one week. The Luxembourgish government has also supported the inauguration of a cultural institute in Sibiu, Romania, and in the United States, where an arts center commemorating 19th century Luxembourgish migration has already existed for some time in the town of Belgium. Sometimes, the promotion of European literature is realized in our Luxembourg Literature Centre / Literary Archives with exhibitions dedicated to European writers, in some cases organized in co-operation with other institutions. The exhibition on Norbert Jacques, the creator of the character of Dr. Mabuse that 148

Zwischenland! Ausguckland! (2009) Anthology of short stories written in German by Luxembourgish writers

was later popularized by Fritz Lang’s films, grew out of a collaboration between the Luxembourg Literary Archives and the Literary Archives Saar-Lor-Lux-Alsace in Saarbrücken, Germany – both archives possessing manuscripts by the author. The fact that they lie a mere 100km apart from each other considerably facilitated this collaboration. Generally, collaborations in the so-called greater region LuxembourgSaarland-Rhineland-Palatinate-Lothringen have been very successful. Staff of the Luxembourg Literature Centre / Literary Archives form part of juries and boards of literary associations in the Saarland and often give lectures in Saarbrücken. There are joint publications too, such as Norbert Jacques’ autobiography on the occasion of an extensive Jacques retrospective, or an anthology of short stories written in German by Luxembourgish writers. The Literary Archives in Mersch have also hosted guest exhibitions on, for instance, Golo Mann, Thomas Bernhard, or B. Traven, which we were able to enrich with exhibits from our own holdings. Even if they are not joint exhibition projects properly speaking, we are always happy to contribute documents from our collections and to hence put them into relation with other archives’ material. Frequently, the relevant exhibits are photocopied for the partner institution’s archives. 149

Most of the time, communicating literary heritage happens through networking with other literary institutions in Europe. The current Grundtvig project is the second of its kind for our Archives, as we have also participated in the OttoBartning project. First and foremost, however, we have been a member of KoopLitera, a network of German, Luxembourgish, Austrian, and Swiss institutions, which purchases and indexes paper collections and autographs, stores them and makes them accessible to the public. The first international conference took place at our institution in Mersch in 2001. Furthermore, we have participated in national conferences in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. These meetings are important to us, as workshops held during the conferences frequently target specific problems in archiving and hence have facilitated our work often. Furthermore, we agreed on standardized regulations for the indexation of paper collections and autographs during these conferences. An expert team focusing specifically on archival challenges offered concrete solutions in the area of indexation of paper collections, presented the most recent technical developments, and informed on current debates in the area of archiving. Koop-Litera hence is both an information platform and a confluence of interests at the same time.

3. European heritage in the literary institution’s practice Our archival holdings comprise a multitude of documents by European authors. Instead of dwelling on individual documents, I would like to mention four broad categories of paper collections in which Luxembourgish literature appears in a European context. Here, cultural transfer, for instance through letter correspondence, plays an exceptionally important role. The categories are as follows: 1. Colpach. In the 1920s, the wife of a steel magnate held salons for German and French writers around her as a means of cultural communication, above all between Germany and France, after World War One. It was at Castle Colpach, that André Gide met literary scholar Ernst Robert Curtius. The hostess, Aline Mayrisch de St. Hubert, consequently possessed a particularly rich library and exchanged frequent letters with authors and philosophers such as Annette Kolb, Bernard Groethuysen, Max Rychner, Jacques Rivière and Henri Michaux. 2. Mondorf Poetry Days. In the 1960s and 70s as well as in 1995, these poetry days were organized in the spa town of Mondorf. Once again, this event was meant as a crossroads/meeting place for German and French authors. Luxembourgish 150

Dedication by AndrĂŠ Gide to Aline Mayrisch in the guestbook of Colpach end of May 1928. CNL inventory L-0037


authors mostly acted as translators. This paper collection is a true treasure trove of European literary history, as many authors were invited to participate in the themed meetings. More than 3,000 letters from approximately 1,200 European authors from the 1960s onward have found their way into our archives. There are letters, among others, from Ilse Aichinger, Cingiz Ajtmatov, Ingrid Bachér, Elisabeth Borchers, Andrée Chedid, Umberto Eco, Peter Handke, Friedericke Mayröcker, Cees Nooteboom, Yannis Ritsos, Jorge Semprun, and many more. 3. Central figures of the literary scene. Individual authors, such as Anise Koltz, one of the co-organisers of the Mondorf Poetry Days, produced a particularly rich correspondence. Also literary critics such as Michel Raus, who wrote reviews for both the radio and newspapers during a career of more than forty years, left behind a multitude of not yet catalogued letters from German, Austrian, and Swiss authors. 4. Finally, we own a collection of autographs with letters from Cingis Aitmatov, Joseph Breitbach, Lion Feuchtwanger, Marieluise Fleisser, André Gide, Hermann Hesse, Hermann Keyserling, Erich Nossack, Christian Morgenstern, Ludwig Uhland and many more. Some exhibitions, such as ‘Kontakte-Kontexte’ [Contacts-Contexts] about German-Luxembourgish literary relationships or ‘Exilland Luxemburg’ about Luxembourg as a country of exile in the 1930s, focus on cultural transfer- and once again emphasize the European focus through personal contacts and exchanges between authors and literary institutions. The Luxembourg Literature Centre has the duty to collect, maintain, make accessible to the public and evaluate everything pertaining to the national literary heritage. On top of that, it is our mission to promote Luxembourg’s literature. Not all of our events are, however, exclusively about Luxembourgish literature. In fact, we seek to contextualise Luxembourg’s literature in European literary history. Thus we have been initiating cultural exchanges between Luxembourgish and mainly German authors for the last few years. Our exhibition “KontakteKontexte” illustrated relationships between authors from Luxembourg, Germany and Austria. Finally, we are also interested in organising exhibitions on European authors who are only slightly involved in Luxembourg’s literature. In 2013, we organized an exhibition on B. Traven, whose novels Das Totenschiff and Der Schatz der Sierra Madre are primarily known through their film adaptations. Traven was considered an anarchist and stood in regular contact with Luxembourgish avant-garde author Pol Michels. In the past there have been 152

several expositions on other European authors such as Thomas Bernhard, Ingeborg Bachmann, Golo Mann, Stefan Zweig, Gabriele d’Annunzio and Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin. The reasons for these exhibitions are very diverse. Bernhard participated in the Mondorf Poetry Days and signed his first contract with Suhrkamp in Luxembourg; his first novel Frost also contained several allusions to Luxembourgish figures. In the 1960s, Golo Mann inaugurated an exile exhibition in Luxembourg and the Thomas-Mann-Library, which was the former official name of the Goethe-Institut in the Grand Duchy. Furthermore, we invite foreign authors such as Christoph Ransmayer, Rafik Shami, Lutz Rathenow, Sarah Kirsch as well as publicists and literary critics such as Alfred Grosser, Sigrid Löffler and Walter Jens to Luxembourg Literature Centre / Literary Archives for readings. Finally, lectures about foreign authors have been held as well, often with some connection to Luxembourg, such as René Weis, a Luxembourg-born Shakespeare researcher, presented a lecture on Shakespeare. It goes without saying that some of these events on European literature have been facilitated through our good contacts with other literary archives. Translations of European works of literature to and from Luxembourgish are a major challenge in the Luxembourgish multicultural literary field and for our archives. First, we support the Luxembourgish magazine Transkrit, a literary magazine that focuses on translation. It includes translations of nonLuxembourgish authors into German and French, but also features contributions from Luxembourgish authors in translation, too. Despite our active support, we are in no way financially or editorially involved in the project. We do however promote translation projects such as the translation of a central work of contemporary Luxembourgish literature into Spanish. In the 1990s, employees of the CNL were members of the Aristeion Prize jury, a European prize awarded for significant contributions to contemporary literature and exceptional translations of contemporary literature. This prize has recently been replaced by the European Union Prize for Literature. The award was founded and is funded by the Culture Programme of the European Union, and is coordinated by a consortium, selected by a commission. This consortium is composed of the European Booksellers Federation, the European Writers’ Council and the Federation of European Publishers. The consortium establishes the national juries and organizes the awards. Each year, eleven or twelve countries are selected to be part of the award, national juries are selected for each country, and each country’s jury then selects a winner. After three years of rotation, all countries in Europe will have been included. In 2010, Jean Back won the Prize, and an excerpt of his novel Amateur was translated by a CNL-collaborator. In 2013, an anthology of poems by Luxembourgish-American authors from 1889 was translated into English by a CNL collaborator. 153

In order to keep ourselves informed about current trends and important debates in Europe, we subscribe to important literary magazines from Germany, France, Belgium and Austria. These are, among others, Literaturen, Magazine littéraire, Das Gedicht, Park, krautgarten, akzente, and many more. Furthermore, some of our employees subscribe to other literary magazines too. In addition we receive the publishers’ programmes to keep up to date about new publications. To conclude, I would like to stress that it is of utmost importance to describe and analyze Luxembourgish literature in its European context. This, it seems to us, is the main and best way to promote Luxembourg’s literature in the neighboring countries and beyond. This is why we think translations are useful and necessary, even though we have not elaborated a specific strategy for translation promotion yet.

Links Institut Pierre Werner Instituto Camões Istituto Italiano di Cultura Institut français du Luxembourg Cercle Culturel des Institutions européennes à Luxembourg


APPENDIX Translations of the Introduction into the oďŹƒcial languages of the partner institutions Partner institutions Project participants

Back to content 155


Translation of the Introduction


MITMEKESISUS JA SARNASUSED: EUROOPA KIRJANDUSASUTUSTE PRAKTIKATE JA ÕPIVÕIMALUSTE VÕRDLUS Sissejuhatus Kõigis Euroopa Liidu riikides on olemas kirjandusühendused ja muuseumid, mis mängivad olulist rolli kirjanduspärandi säilitamisel ja edasikandmisel, annavad oma panuse kaasaaegse kirjanduselu korraldamisse ja on elukestva õppe üheks alustalaks, võimaldades täiskasvanutel täiendada oma teadmisi ja oskusi. Sellistel asutustel on kogu Euroopas üsna sarnased ülesanded, kuid rahvusvahelisel tasandil koostööd on siiani olnud vähe. Seetõttu leidsidki mitmed institutsioonid ja organisatsioonid, et nende tööle tuleks kasuks suurem rahvusülene suhtlemine ja koostöö Euroopa tasandil. Nii tekkis idee viia ellu käesolev projekt Gruntdvig õpikoostöö programmi raames.

Projekt Gruntvigi õpikoostöö projekt “Kirjanduspärandi õpivõimaluste võrdlemine” sai alguse Saksa Arbeitsgemeinschaft literarischer Gesellschaften und Gedenkstätten (ALG) (“Kirjandusühenduste ja mälestuspaikade liit”) professori Gesa Schuberti initsiatiivist, kes 2010. aastal kutsus Berliinis ALG-s kokku esimese koosoleku. Sellel koosolekul pandi paika osalejate nimekiri ja lepiti kokku koostöö täpne kontseptsioon. Osalejate hulka kuulusid partnerid Eestist, Soomest, Kreekast, Ungarist ja Luxemburgist: Eesti Kirjanike Muuseumide Ühing, Soome kirjanduse 157

ühingute katusorganisatsioon (Nimikot), Nikos Kazantzakise muuseum, Petöfi kirjandusmuuseum ja Centre national de literature/Lëtzebuerger Literaturarchiv. Lisainfo partnerite kohta leiate allpool. Kõiki nimetatud osalejaid ühendab soov viia kirjandus lugejaskonnale lähemale, julgustada inimesi lugema, tõsta teadlikkust kirjanduse väärtusest ja ergutada kirjandusega seotud õpiprotsesse – klassikalistest autoritest kaasaegsete autoriteni. Nende eesmärkide saavutamiseks on kõik osalejad organiseerinud programme lastele, täiskasvanutele, erialainimestele ja nad kõik annavad oma panuse haridusvaldkonda, eriti erialainimeste haridusse. Projekt „Kirjanduspärandi õpivõimaluste võrdlemine“ sai rahastuse Euroopa Komisjoni Gruntdvigi elukestva õppe programmist aastateks 2011-2013. ELi Gruntdvigi programm, mis on saanud oma nime Taani teoloogi ja filosoofi Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvigi (1783-1872) järgi, on seadnud oma eesmärgiks edendada täiskasvanud õppijate õppimisvõimalusi ning oskusi. Programmi sihtgrupp on õpetajad, koolitajad, täiskasvanu hariduses osalevad töötajad ja õppurid, sealhulgas ka vabatahtlike rühmad, liidud ja uurimiskeskused. Programm toetab õpitegevusi nagu näiteks täiskasvanuõppega tegelevate töötajate koolituslähetused ja erialase kogemuse omandamine. Gruntdvigi programmi raames on koostatud õpikoostööprojektid spetsiaalselt väike organisatsioonidele, mis tegelevad täiskasvanuharidusega selle kõige laiemas mõttes. Projektid keskenduvad koostööle ja eesmärgiks on laiendada väikeorganisatsioonide osalemist, kes soovivad lisada oma tegevustesse Euroopa tasemel koostööd. Osalevaid asutusi julgustatakse jälgima ja hindama oma projektitööd, et seda saaks siduda kohaliku kogukonna tegevustega ja ka selleks, et toimuks koopereerumine kohalike organisatsioonide ning võimudega heade praktikate levitamiseks, koostöö tulemuste kõige laiema võimaliku mõju kindlustamiseks ning rahvusülese vahetuse väärtuse suurendamiseks. Gruntdvigi koostööprojekti „Kirjanduspärandi õpivõimaluste võrdlemine“ üldine eesmärk oli anda osalejatele võimalus võrrelda ja arutleda teistest riikidest pärit sama valdkonna ekspertidega täiskasvanute õpivõimaluste üle kirjanduspärandi vallas ning levitada saadud tulemusi laiale üldsusele. Tööplaan sisaldas rühmakoosolekuid igas osalevas riigis ja muuseumitöötajate ning õppurite töövarjupäevi vastavalt iga osaleva partneri vajadustele ning huvidele. Lähtuvalt koostöö protsessikesksusest ja välisriigi asutustest vahetute kogemuste saamiseks, kujunes projekti keskseks tegevuseks töövarjupäevad muuseumitöötajatele 158

ja õppuritele. Iga asutus on töötanud välja omaenda meetodid ja praktikad täiskasvanute kaasamiseks ja nende meetodite jagamine koostööpartneritega oli äärmiselt väärtuslik kogemus. Seega oli oluliseks väljundiks sarnaste asutuste laialdase kontaktidevõrgustiku koostamine üle kogu Euroopa ja vahetute ning praktiliste kogemuste omandamine. Rahvusülene lähenemine oli abiks ka rahvuslike erisuste ületamisel, võimaldas tutvuda uuenduslike lähenemisviisidega ning andis osalenud asutustele praktiliseks tööks värskeid ideid. Selleks, et levitada projekti tulemusi võimalikult laiale üldsusele, otsustati muuhulgas, et koostööl peaks olema käegakatsutav tulemus, millesse panustavad kõik partnerid: 1) käesolevad uurimustulemused, mis põhinevad ühisel küsimustikul; 2) projektipartnerite rahvuskirjandusest pärit oluliste raamatutegelaste veebipõhine näitus; 3) avalik veebileht või veebiblogi, mis toimib infovahetamise foorumina. Veebiblogi ei ole mõeldud mitte ainult suhtluseks, vaid tegemist on veebipõhise arhiiviga, kuhu saab dokumenteerida koostööd puudutavaid tegevusi ja ideid, samuti tutvustada Gruntdvigi programmi ja osalevaid asutusi. Veebiblogi on avalik ja see jääb üles ka pärast ametliku partnerlusprojekti lõppu. Veebiblogisse sisenemine toimub partnerasutuste kodulehtede kaudu või otse veebilehelt: literarygrundtvig. Projektis osalevate riikide kirjandustegelaste virtuaalne näitus põhineb ideel, et kirjandustegelased pakuvad laiale publikule väga otsest ja isiklikku juurdepääsu kirjandusele, seda ehk rohkemgi kui kirjandusteosed ise. Odüsseus, Don Quijote, kuningas Lear, Faust ja Anna Karenina on tuntud tegelased ka neile, kes vastavaid teoseid lugenud ei ole. Ja kui see kehtib klassikaliste maailmateoste tegelaste kohta, kehtib see ka vähemtuntud raamatute kohta. Näituse eesmärk on anda Euroopa laiemale avalikkusele võimalus tutvuda projektipartnerite riikide veidi vähem tuntud kirjandusega. Näitust on võimalik pidevalt täiendada ja muuta ja see võiks olla stardipakuks mitmetele teistele koostööprojektidele. Näitus asub aadressil:, kuid seda saab külastada ka läbi partnerasutuste kodulehtede. Kolmandaks projekti praktilise väljundiga tulemuseks on projektis osalenud riikides läbi viidud uurimus kirjanduspärandiga seotud õpivõimaluste kohta. Tegemist on praktilise käsiraamatuga, kuhu on kogutud meie kohtumistel välja käidud 159

ideed, praktikad, kogemused ja teadmised. Nii on need kättesaadavad ka laiemale avalikkusele, tutvustavad ühtlasi õpivõimalusi ja on abimaterjaliks teistele samas valdkonnas tegutsejatele.

Käsiraamat Käsiraamat põhineb läbiviidud ulatuslikul küsimustikul, mis sai koostatud projekti avakoosolekul toimunud töötoas. Küsimustik hõlmab kolme teemaderingi, mis on olulised meie asutustele ja mis said sõnastatud järgmiselt: 1) kommunikatsioon, tutvustamine ja kontakt laiema avalikkusega; 2) kuidas jõuda oma publikuni; 3) Euroopa tähtsus meie kirjanduspärandi tutvustamisel. Iga punkti koordineeris vastavalt projektipartner Ungarist, Kreekast ja Soomest. Küsimustiku viisid läbi kirjandusvaldkonnaga seotud isikud igast riigist. Seejärel tutvustati iga riigi tulemusi ja võrreldi neid omavahel mitmete arutelude käigus. Nimetatud koosolekute tulemused on kajastatud selles väljaandes. Viisteist avaldatud artiklit on koosolekutel tehtud esitluste täiendatud versioonid. Sisukorrast on näha, et artiklitel on kõigil sarnane struktuur ja kõik artiklid on jaotatud osadeks ühtemoodi. Nii on tagatud kõigis artiklites kajastatud teabekildude täpne võrreldavus. Näiteks kui lugeja tahab otsida ja võrrelda meie asutuste näituste kokkupanemise poliitikat, saab ta võrrelda kõigi viie osalejamaa alajaotusi teemal “Näituste kokkupanemise poliitika ja kirjandusajalugu”. Ja kui lugeja tahab näiteks rohkem teada saada sellest, kuidas meie asutused kaasavad uut publikut, leiab selle kohta infot artiklite alajaotusest “Parimad praktikad ja uuenduslikud ideed uue publiku kaasamiseks”. Lugeja saab seega lugeda raamatu algusest lõpuni läbi, aga kui ta soovib mingid konkreetseid punkte võrrelda, on tal seda lihtne teha, tutvudes iga artikli vastava alajaotusega. Mida siis lugeja alljärgnevatelt lehekülgedelt leiab? Artiklite lihtsa võrreldavuse tõttu ei ole raamatu üksikasjalik tutvustus vajalik. Kuid paremaks illustreerimiseks on allpool siiski toodud mõned näited lähenemiste, probleemide ja lahenduste kohta, millega projektipartnerid tegelesid, samuti on ära toodud mõned erinevaid peatükke siduvad teemad. 160

Tähelepanekud – erinevused ja sarnasused Lugeja, kes püüab kaardistada projektipartnereid ja loeb läbi artiklid, märkab ilmselt kohe huvitavaid geograafilisi ja ajaloolisi erinevusi ja mitmekesisust, samuti erinevusi eesmärkides, õiguslikus seisundis, vahendite olemasolus ja tegevuses. Projektipartnerid ei pärine ühest ja samast kultuuripiirkonnast. Vastupidi, oleks raske leida paremat riikide valikut ELi mitmekesisuse demonstreerimiseks, kui seda on antud Gruntdvigi projektis. Projektipartnerid on pärit Euroopa Liidu liikmesriikide hulgast Põhja-, Lõuna-, Ida- ja Lääne-Euroopast. Ajalooliselt on esindatud nii ELi asutajaliikmed, kui ka vanemad liikmesriigid ja liikmesriigid, kes liitusid ELiga alles 2004. aastal toimunud laienemise käigus. Seega on mitmekesisus suurepäraselt nähtaval. Meie projektis osalevaid asutusi ümbritsevat geograafilist mitmekesisust ning erinevaid ajaloolisi ja kultuurilisi traditsioone võib märgata kogu raamatus, kuid kõige paremini ja kontsentreeritumalt on need esil ilmselt kolmandas osas “Euroopa tähtsus meie kirjanduspärandi tutvustamisel“, kus rahvuslikud kirjandused on muuhulgas asetatud laiemasse regionaalsesse ja Euroopa konteksti. Lugeja saab ülevaate erinevatest kultuurijõududest , mis on meie viie projektipartneri rahvuskirjandustele mõju avaldanud ja meie riike ning ka meie muuseume kujundanud. Kirjanduse tausta ja eri rahvuste traditsioonide mitmekesisuse huvilistele pakuvad need peatükid kahtlemata väärtuslikku materjali. Kultuurilisele variatiivsusele lisandub mitmekesisus eesmärkides, õiguslikus seisundis ja organisatsioonilistes struktuurides. Projektirühm pandi kokku katu sorganisatsioonidest, milleks olid kirjandusühingud, üks kirjandusmuuseumite ühing ja kolm kirjandusmuuseumit koos kirjandusarhiividega. Nende hulgas on suuri, mahukate kollektsioonidega asutusi nagu Petöfi muuseum, aga ka väikeseid katusorganisatsioonide, mis tegutsevad peamiselt tänu vabatahtlike tööle nagu Soome Nimikot. Osade asutuste eesmärk on rahvuslik – koguda, säilitada, uurida ja tutvustada rahvusliku kirjanduse pärandit, samas kui teised asutused on keskendunud pigem ühele konkreetsele autorile ja tema töödele. Lugeja, kes soovib võrrelda partnerite töö ja eesmärkide üldisi erinevusi, saab seda teha, tutvudes raamatu esimeses osas alajaotusega “Üldine taust ja eesmärgid” . Erinevusi võib täheldada ka meie projektipartnerite asutuste igapäevategevustes. Üheks näiteks on vabatahtlikkusega seotud teemad, mille erinevate lähenemisviisidega võib tutvuda teise osa alajaotustes “Muuseumi publik ja sotsiaalne kaasamine” ning “Kirjanduspärandi toetamine: vabatahtlike osalus ja muuseumite ühingud”. Ehkki mõnedes riikides on vabatahtlike osalemine vähem levinud, on selline osalus 161

muuseumide jaoks äärmiselt oluline. Kuid hoolimata erinevatest lähenemistest, kaasavad kõik projektis osalenud asutused ühel või teisel moel vabatahtlikke, kas siis seetõttu, et asutus põhinebki vabatahtlikul tööl, kas püütakse nii täiendada vähese personali ridu, või kuna asutus pakub praktikavõimalusi ja vabatahtlikkus on üks osa meie laiemast haridusalasest missioonist ja meie sotsiaalse kaasatuse eesmärgist. Sellest võib teha järelduse, et üsna üllatuslikult, hoolimata erinevustest, on projektis osalenud asutuste praktikates, püüdlustes ja probleemides ka terve hulk olulisi sarnasusi. Kõige ootamatum näide paljude hulgast on ehk meie muuseumipublik, kuna me kõik püüame jõuda sarnase sihtgrupini: igas vanuses õpilased ja üliõpilased, teadlased ja laiem kõrgharidusega publik ning vanemaealised. Ehkki see on vaid üks näide olulistest sarnasustest, on tegemist siiski tähtsa aspektiga, kuna puudutab väga suurt hulka meie tegevustest, näiteks meie haridusprogramme, nagu võib lugeda ka selle väljaande esimese ja teise osa vastavatest alajaotustest. Veel ühe näite meie riikide kirjandushariduse ja kirjandusliku mälu erinevuste ja sarnasuste kohta võib leida väljaande kolmandas ja viimases osas “Euroopa tähtsus meie kirjanduspärandi tutvustamisel”. Võrreldes nimekirju kirjanikest, kelle nime kannab mõni tänav, kellest on olemas monument, kellest on välja antud postmark ning kelle sünni(aasta)päevi tähistatakse, näeb lugeja, et terve hulga nimede kõrval, kes on seotud kohalike mälestamise traditsioonidega, leidub kirjanikke, keda peetakse meeles pea igal pool Euroopas – Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Victor Hugo, Aleksander Puškin – , ja osade meie projektipartnerite riikides mälestatakse ka Dante Alighierit, Maksim Gorkit, Friedrich Schillerit, William Shakespeare’i ja Lev Tolstoid. Ilmselgelt on kirjandus Euroopa kultuuri ühisosa. Seega võib öelda, et läbiviidud uurimuse kõige olulisem tõdemus ongi projektis osalenud asutuste ja nende pakutavate õpivõimaluste juures erinevuste kaardistamine ning samas ka sarnasuste täheldamine. Väljaande lehekülgedel võib leida veel mitmeid teisi näiteid erinevate, kuid samas võrreldavate praktikate ja õpivõimaluste kohta kirjanduspärandi valdkonnas üle Euroopa. Asutused, nagu me selles projektis osalesime, saavad aidata kaasa Euroopa ühise, meid kokku liitnud kirjanduspärandi hoidmisele. Hoolimata meie erinevustest, on selle koostöö üldine järeldus ka see, et meil on ühised eesmärgid ja sarnased probleemid. Rahvuslike ja kultuuriliste eripärade varjus on olemas üleeuroopaline kirjandusmuuseumide ja -arhiivide, kirjanike majamuuseumide ja kirjandus162

ühingute kogukond, mis teeb koostööd ja suhtleb meid kõiki puudutavatel teemadel. Gruntdvigi projektipartnerid nõustuvad ilmselt kõik, mutatis mutandis, meie Soome partneriga, kes oma artikli lõpus kirjutab: “Täname võimaluse eest tutvustada nii laialt Soome klassikalist kirjandust ja kirjanike ühingu tööd fantastiliste koostööpartneritele Eestist, Luxembourgist. Ungarist ja Kreekast. Projekti jooksul tutvusime imetabaselt, mitmekülgselt, loovalt ning hoolikalt säilitatud aktiivsete kirjandusmuuseumide tööga.“ Seega soovib meie väljaanne näidata, et kirjandusvaldkonna professionaalid ja õppurid räägivad selgelt ühist keelt ning on innukalt valmis viljakaks koostööks.


Translation of the Introduction


EROVAISUUKSIA JA YHTENEVÄISYYKSIÄ: KÄYTÄNTÖJEN JA OPPIMISMAHDOLLISUUKSIEN VERTAILU EUROOPPALAISISSA KIRJALLISUUSINSTITUUTIOISSA Johdanto Kaikissa EU-maissa kirjallisilla yhteisöillä ja museoilla on keskeinen rooli kirjallisuusperinnön säilyttämisessä ja sen edistämisessä. Ne ovat tukipilareita, jotka mahdollistavat aikuisiällä tapahtuvan, elinikäisen oppimisen. Yhteneväisistä tavoitteista ja haasteista huolimatta yhteistyö on ollut vähäistä. Tältä pohjalta syntyi Grundtvig-hanke, jonka tavoitteena on lisätä kirjallisuusalan instituutioiden ja organisaatioiden välistä kanssakäymistä ja ammatillista tieto-taidon vaihtoa eri EU-maiden välillä.

Projekti Grundtvigin Elinikäisen oppimisen ohjelman hanke ”Kirjallisen kulttuurin ylläpitämisen käytäntöjen vertailu” (Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage) käynnistyi tohtori Gesa Schubertin aloitteesta Arbeitsgemeinschaft literarischer Gesellschaften und Gedenkstätten (ALG):n järjestämässä Berliinin seminaarissa 2010. Projektin osallistujat ovat Virosta, Kreikasta, Luxembourgista, Unkarista ja Suomesta: the Association of the Estonian Writers´ Museums, the Nikos Kazantzakis Museum, the Centre national de literature/Lëtzebuerger


Kiteraturearchiv, the Petöfi Literary Museum ja Suomen kirjailijanimikkoseurat – De litterära sällskapen i Finland (Nimikot). Raportin lopussa on osallistujien esittely. Yhteisenä tavoitteena kaikilla näillä toimijoilla on tuoda kirjallisuutta lähemmäs kansalaisia, rohkaista heitä lukemaan sekä nostaa kirjallisuuden arvostusta ja järjestää kirjallisuuteen liittyviä, eritasoisia opetusohjelmia ja kulttuuritilaisuuksia. Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage -projekti hyväksyttiin Euroopan komission Elinikäisen oppimisen Grundtvig –ohjelmaan 2011-2013. EU-rahoitteinen Grundtvig-ohjelma on nimetty tanskalaisen pastorin ja aikuiskoulutuksen kehittäjän Nikolaj F. S. Grundtvigin (1783-1872) mukaan. Grundtvig-ohjelmaan hyväksytyt hankkeet tukevat aikuisiän oppimista sekä jatkoopintoja. Osallistujat saavat näin mahdollisuuden täydentää ammattiosaamistaan, vaihtaa ideoita, oppia uutta ja luoda toimivia yhteistyöverkostoja. Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage –ohjelman tavoitteena on antaa samalla alalla toimiville osallistujille mahdollisuus vertailla ja keskustella aikuisiän oppimiseen liittyvän kirjallisen kulttuurin esittelyn käytäntöjä eri maissa sekä jakaa keräämäänsä tieto-taitoa eteenpäin. Projektisuunnitelmaan sisältyivät osallistujamaissa järjestettävät seminaarit ja kokoukset, joita täydensivät eri maiden kesken pidettävät työpalaverit. Keskeinen ja arvokkain osa projektityötä oli tutustuminen samalla alalla toimivien kumppaneiden käytäntöihin. Jokainen instituutti on kehittänyt omia, innovatiivisia käytäntöjä maansa klassikkokirjallisuuden esittelyyn eri ikäryhmille. Vierailut antoivat jokaiselle projektiin osallistuvalle uusia näkökulmia oman ja organisaationsa työn kehittämiseen. Projektin aikana syntynyttä aineistoa on osallistujamaissa jaettu laajalti eteenpäin. Tulokset kootaan julkisille verkkosivuille.: 1) Nykytilanteen kartoitus, osallistujaorganisaatioiden esittelyt 2) On-line –näyttely ”Kansalliset kirjalliset hahmot ” 3) Työvaiheiden tallennus ja tietojen vaihto projektin omaan blogiin. on julkinen ja löytyy kunkin osallistujaorganisaation sivuilta.


Virtuaalinen näyttelyn tarkoituksena on tuoda esille kunkin osallistujamaan klassikkokirjallisuuden ominaispiirteitä kirjallisten hahmojen kautta. Odysseus, Don Quijote ja Anna Karenina tiedetään laajalti, vaikka itse kirjaa ei olisikaan luettu. Me haluamme esitellä kunkin maan ulkopuolella vähemmän tunnettuja, mutta kansallisesti tuttuja kirjailijoita ja heidän luomiaan kirjallisia hahmoja. Kirjalliset hahmot kootaan internet-julkaisuun Työaikaiseen käsikirjaan tallennetaan projektin aikana koottua tietoa, ideoita, opittuja käytäntöjä ja kokemuksia sekä osallistujaorganisaation esittelyt.

Yleiskatsaus (Survey) Tutkittavien ja selvitettävien asioitten runko laadittiin käynnistävässä projektikokouksessa. Projekti jaettiin kolmeen temaattisen selvitysalueeseen, jotka ovat keskeisiä edustamiemme organisaatioiden ja instituutioiden työssä: 1) viestintä, toiminnan esittely ja tavoitteet (comminucation, promotion and outreach) 2) keinot yleisön tavoittamiseksi (ways of reaching audiences) 3) Eurooppalainen näkökulma kirjallisen perinnön edistämisessä (European aspect of promoting our literary heritage) Osa-alueiden koordinoinnista vastasi vuorollaan Unkari, Kreikka ja Suomi. Osallistujat kokosivat tietoja oman maansa ja organisaationsa työstä ja esittelivät ne projektikokouksissa. Tuloksia vertailtiin keskenään ja aineistosta keskusteltiin kokouksissa.

Eroja ja yhtäläisyyksiä Maantieteellinen monimuotoisuus, samoin kuin erilaiset historialliset ja kulttuuriset perinteet tulevat esiin monissa kohdissa, mutta parhaiten ehkä kolmannessa osiossa European aspect of promoting our literary heritage. Lukija saa hyvän käsityksen kunkin maan kulttuuriin vaikuttaneista olosuhteista, instituutioista ja niitten taustoista sekä kansallisista perinteistä. 166

Projektiryhmään kuului kirjailijamuseoiden yhdistys, kolme kirjailijamuseota, kirjallisuuden arkistoja sekä kirjailijanimikkoseurojen kattojärjestö. Petöfimuseolla on laajat kokoelmat ja palkattua henkilökuntaa, kun vastaavasti Suomen kirjailijanimikkoseurat ry:n (Nimikot) toiminta perustuu kokonaan vapaaehtoisten, alan harrastajien työpanokseen. Yleiskuvan osallistujien työstä ja tehtävistä saa osiosta ”General and Mission”. Eroja ja samalla yhtäläisyyksiä kirjallisuuden opetuksen ja kirjallisen muistimme ylläpidossa tulee esille ”European Heritage” –osassa. Kaltaisemme toimielimet yhdistävät ja tuovat esille Euroopan kirjallista perimää. Eroavaisuuksista huolimatta tavoitteemme on yhteinen ja samoin useat ongelmatkin. Kiitos projektin aikana saamastamme mahdollisuudesta saada laajasti esitellä suomalaista klassikkokirjallisuutta ja nimikkoseuratoimintaa näille upeille, ahkerille alan ammattilaisille Eestistä, Luxembourgista, Unkarista ja Kreikasta. Projektin aikana meille on avautunut osallistujamaiden ihmeellinen, monipuolinen ja luovasti esiin tuotu ja huolella vaalittu, elävä kirjailijamuseotoiminta.


Translation of the Introduction


DIVERSITÉ ET SIMILARITÉ : COMPARAISON DES PRATIQUES ET DES OPPORTUNITÉS ÉDUCATIVES AU SEIN DES INSTITUTIONS LITTÉRAIRES EN EUROPE Introduction Il existe des sociétés et des musées littéraires dans tous les pays de l’Union Européenne. Ils jouent un rôle crucial dans la préservation et la transmission du patrimoine littéraire et contribuent de façon significative à la vie littéraire contemporaine. Ils représentent un pilier de l’éducation permanente, permettant aux adultes d’approfondir leurs connaissances et leurs compétences. Bien qu’ils soient confrontés à des défis similaires et qu’ils aient des tâches comparables à travers toute l’Europe, il semblerait qu’il y ait un manque de communication entre ces institutions sur le plan international. Par conséquent, certaines institutions et organisations ont vu la nécessité et les avantages pour leur travail de favoriser davantage les échanges transnationaux et la coopération au niveau européen. C’est ainsi que l’idée d’un projet commun et d’un partenariat entre organisations travaillant dans le même domaine a vu le jour. Il devint par la suite un partenariat éducatif Grundtvig.

Le Projet Le partenariat éducatif Grundtvig Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage (Comparaison des opportunités éducatives dans le domaine du patrimoine littéraire) remonte à une initiative de Gesa Schubert de l’Association 168

allemande des sociétés et lieux de mémoire littéraires (Arbeitsgemeinschaft literarischer Gesellschaften und Gedenkstätten, ALG), qui appela à une réunion préliminaire dans les locaux de l’ALG à Berlin en 2010. Durant cette réunion, la liste des participants fut établie et un concept précis de partenariat fut approuvé. Le projet incluait les partenaires suivants, provenant d’Estonie, Finlande, Grèce, Hongrie et Luxembourg : l’Association des musées d’écrivains estoniens, le Centre national de littérature du Luxembourg, le Musée Nikos Kazantzakis, le Musée de littérature Petőfi et la Fédération des associations littéraires finlandaises (Nimikot). De brèves présentations de ces partenaires se trouvent à la fin du présent recueil. Tous ces acteurs partagent l’objectif général de rendre la littérature plus accessible au public, d’encourager les gens à lire, de les sensibiliser à la valeur de la littérature et d’offrir des outils éducatifs liés à la littérature, en partant des auteurs classiques jusqu’aux auteurs contemporains. Pour atteindre ces objectifs, ils organisent tous des programmes éducatifs pour enfants, adultes et professionnels et travaillent tous avec des multiplicateurs dans le domaine de l’éducation, en particulier avec les professions de l’enseignement. Le projet Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage fut approuvé par le Programme d’éducation et de formation tout au long de la vie Grundtvig de la Commission Européenne pour les années 2011 - 2013. Le programme Grundtvig de l’UE emprunte son nom au pasteur danois et penseur sur l’éducation des adultes, Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig (1783-1872). L’objectif est de donner aux adultes l’opportunité d’approfondir leurs connaissances et leurs compétences. Ce programme s’adresse aux enseignants, formateurs et apprenants dans l’éducation des adultes, y inclus les personnes travaillant au sein de groupes de bénévoles, d’associations et de centres de recherche. Toute une gamme d’activités est financée par ce programme, par exemple des déplacements liés aux échanges et les programmes professionnels à l’étranger pour les personnes travaillant dans le cadre de l’éducation pour adultes. Les partenariats éducatifs Grundtvig sont conçus de manière à encadrer des activités de coopération de petite envergure entre des organisations travaillant dans le cadre de l’éducation pour adultes au sens large du terme. L’accent est mis sur la participation d’organisations de plus petite taille qui souhaitent élargir leurs activités et leur coopération au niveau européen. Les institutions participantes sont encouragées à superviser et à évaluer la mise en œuvre de leur projet en l’associant aux initiatives de leur communauté locale et en coopérant avec des organisation et autorités sur le plan national. Ainsi, elles sont capables de promouvoir les meilleures pratiques, de garantir un impact à une plus large échelle des résultats du partenariat et de maximiser la valeur des échanges transnationaux. 169

L’objectif global du partenariat éducatif Grundtvig Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage était de fournir aux participants la possibilité de comparer et de discuter des opportunités éducatives pour adultes dans le domaine du patrimoine littéraire avec des experts d’autres pays spécialisés dans le même domaine ainsi que de diffuser ces observations au grand public. Le plan de travail comportait des réunions de groupe dans chacun des pays participants ainsi que des stages de courte durée pour le personnel et les apprenants de musées en fonction des besoins et des intérêts des partenaires respectifs. Au regard du fait que le partenariat était fortement axé sur le processus de l’apprentissage, les opportunités de stages pour le personnel et les apprenants des musées furent essentielles pour le projet, permettant une expérience directe au sein d’institutions étrangères. Afin de mobiliser les adultes, chaque institut a développé ses propres méthodes et meilleures pratiques et leur expérience directe dans les institutions partenaires s’avéra très précieuce. Par conséquent un résultat important était l’établissement d’un large réseau de contacts parmi des organisations similaires dans toute l’Europe ainsi que l’apprentissage informel et interactif qui en découla. La perspective transnationale permit de surmonter les barrières nationales, permettant des points de vue innovants et le développement de nouvelles idées pour le travail pratique des institutions participantes. Afin de rendre ce projet mieux connu du grand public, il fut décidé que le partenariat produise également des résultats tangibles sous la forme de trois produits permanents auxquels tous les partenaires contribuèrent : 1) la présente étude basée sur un questionnaire commun ; 2) une exposition en ligne sur des personnages littéraires d’œuvres centrales de nos littératures nationales ; 3) un blog accessible au grand public et agissant comme forum d’échange d’informations. Le blog n’avait pas pour unique intention d’être un instrument de communication mais également de faire figure de véritables archives sur Internet, présentant le concept et les activités du partenariat ainsi que le programme Grundtvig et les institutions participantes. Il est public et restera en ligne au-delà de la durée de vie du partenariat officiel. L’accès s’effectue via les pages d’accueil de nos institutions ou directement à l’adresse L’exposition virtuelle sur les personnages fictionnels des littératures de nos pays repose sur l’idée que les personnages littéraires donnent, peut-être davantage que les œuvres en elles-mêmes, à un plus large public un accès direct et personnel à la littérature. Ulysse, Don Quichotte, le Roi Lear, Faust et Anna Karénine stimulent l’imagination même de ceux qui n’ont pas lu les œuvres correspondantes. Si cela 170

s’applique aux grands classiques de la littérature mondiale, cela devrait également s’appliquer aux personnages d’œuvres moins connues. L’exposition vise à promouvoir les littératures parfois moins connues des pays partenaires et à les rendre accessibles à un plus large public européen. Il s’agit d’une exposition potentiellement infinie et qui peut être le point de départ pour une série de nouveaux projets de coopération. Elle est consultable sous et est également accessible sur les pages d’accueil des sites de nos institutions. Le troisième résultat tangible du partenariat est la présente publication qui repose sur une étude relative aux opportunités éducatives dans le domaine du patrimoine littéraire, réalisée dans les pays participants. Elle a pour vocation d’être un guide pratique qui rassemble des idées, des pratiques, des expériences et des connaissances échangées durant nos réunions, afin d’être partagées avec un plus large public, soulignant les opportunités éducatives et servant de référence pour les autres acteurs dans ce domaine.

L’étude L’étude s’appuie sur un large éventail de questions établies au cours d’un atelier lors du « kick-off meeting ». Ce questionnaire s’articulait autour de trois axes thématiques d’importance capitale pour nos organisations et institutions. Les intitulés donnés aux trois principaux chapitres étaient les suivants : 1) communication, promotion and outreach (« communication, promotion et impact ») ; 2) ways of reaching audiences (« manières d’atteindre un public ») ; et 3) the European aspect of promoting our literary heritage (« l’aspect européen de la promotion de l’héritage littéraire »). Ces trois aspects furent coordonnés respectivement par les partenaires de Hongrie, Grèce et Finlande. L’étude fut menée auprès d’acteurs concernés du champ littéraire de chacun des pays. Après quoi, les résultats nationaux furent présentés, comparés et discutés au cours de différentes réunions du groupe. Les résultats de ces réunions sont publiés dans le présent livre. Les cinq principaux articles de ce recueil se basent sur les présentations données lors des réunions du groupe. Comme l’indique le sommaire, les articles présentent la même structure et sont divisés en sections identiques. Ceci permet une comparaison stricte entre les différentes informations contenues dans chacun des articles. Si le lecteur recherche par exemple une comparaison entre les politiques d’exposition au sein de nos institutions respectives, il peut simplement se référer au chapitre « Exhibition policies and literary history » (« Politiques d’exposition et histoire littéraire ») en première partie de chacun des cinq chapitres. S’il souhaite plus d’informations sur 171

la façon dont nos institutions cherchent à gagner de nouveaux publics, il peut se rendre au chapitre « Best practices and innovative ideas in engaging new audiences » (« Meilleures pratiques et idées innovantes pour gagner de nouvelles audiences ») situé en seconde partie de chaque chapitre. Le lecteur peut ainsi lire le livre dans son entier mais s’il recherche une comparaison relative à un aspect spécifique, il peut facilement le faire en consultant simplement les chapitres correspondants à chacun des articles. Que découvrira le lecteur sur les pages suivantes? En raison de la comparaison aisée entre les différents articles, il n’est pas nécessaire d’établir un guide détaillé à travers le livre. Cependant, à titre d’illustration, il peut être intéressant de donner quelques exemples d’approche, de problématique et de solution pour certains sujets en lien avec les différents chapitres. Ces questions devaient être adressées par tous les partenaires.

Différences et similitudes Le plus frappant à première vue en parcourant ces articles et en comparant les institutions des partenaires, est l’impression de diversité en ce qui concerne la géographie et l’histoire, la mission et le statut juridique, les ressources et les pratiques. Les partenaires ne sont pas originaires d’une même et seule région culturelle. En matière de diversité au sein de l’Union Européenne, les pays choisis pour le partenariat Grundtvig auraient pu difficilement être plus appropriés. Les partenaires de ce projet viennent du Nord et du Sud, de l’Est et de l’Ouest de l’Union Européenne. Historiquement, on compte des membres fondateurs tout comme des pays ayant rejoint l’UE relativement récemment ou plus tardivement durant le dernier cycle d’élargissement en 2004. En ce sens, ils ne pourraient guère être plus disparates. Cette diversité géographique peut être appréciée à travers tout le livre, tout comme les différentes traditions historiques et culturelles de nos organisations respectives. Cependant, elle est particulièrement évidente dans la troisième partie « The European aspect of promoting our literary heritage » (« L’aspect européen de la promotion du patrimoine littéraire »), où, entre autres, les littératures nationales sont placées dans leur contexte régional et européen. Le lecteur obtiendra une vision des différentes forces culturelles qui ont influencé nos cinq champs littéraires différents et qui ont façonné nos pays tout comme nos institutions. Ceux qui s’intéressent à la diversité des cultures littéraires et aux différentes traditions nationales trouveront des renseignements intéressants dans ces chapitres. 172

A cette variété culturelle s’ajoute une diversité dans les missions, le statut juridique et les structures organisationnelles. Le groupe fut composé d’une fédération d’associations littéraires, d’une association de musées littéraires et de trois musées de littérature abritant des archives littéraires. Le groupe comprend des institutions dotées d’un effectif important avec de grandes collections tel le musée Petőfi tout comme des organisations plus restreintes qui s’appuient uniquement sur le bénévolat comme la Nimikot finlandaise. Certaines partagent une mission nationale de collection, de préservation, d’étude et d’exposition du patrimoine littéraire national tandis que d’autres se focalisent sur un écrivain unique et son œuvre. Le lecteur, qui cherche à comparer la portée générale du travail des partenaires et de leurs missions respectives, peut y procéder dans les sections « General information and mission » (« Généralités et mission ») situés au début de chaque chapitre. Des différences peuvent être observées également au niveau des détails des pratiques au sein de nos institutions. Citons par exemple le domaine du bénévolat dont différentes approches sont analysées dans les chapitres « Museum audiences and social inclusion » (« Le public des musées et l’inclusion sociale ») et « Fostering literary heritage: volunteering and museum associations » (« Promouvoir le patrimoine littéraire : bénévolats et associations de musées ») en seconde partie de chacun des chapitres. Tandis que le bénévolat semble moins courant dans certains pays, pour d’autres organisations, il semble être essentiel. Cependant, malgré ces différentes approches, nous avons tous recours au bénévolat d’une façon ou d’une autre, soit parce que nous nous appuyons sur le bénévolat, soit pour tenter de combler un manque de personnel soit parce que fournir des opportunités pour des stages et le volontariat fait partie de notre mission éducative à plus grande échelle et de notre objectif d’inclusion sociale. Ceci conduit au fait que, malgré les différences, il y a de profondes et surprenantes similarités au niveau des pratiques, aspirations et problèmes au sein de nos institutions. Un exemple particulièrement frappant, parmi tant d’autres, est probablement le public de nos musées respectifs car nous semblons tous cibler les mêmes groupes de personnes : élèves et étudiants de tous âges, chercheurs, un public instruit et des groupes de personnes plus âgées. Même s’il ne s’agit que d’un seul exemple illustrant des similitudes fondamentales, il n’en demeure pas moins important car il constitue la base d’une grande partie de nos activités notamment nos programmes éducatifs ainsi qu’il ressort des chapitres correspondants de ce recueil. Un autre exemple de coexistence de différences et de similarités entre les champs de l’éducation et de la mémoire littéraires dans nos pays peut être trouvé dans la troisième et dernière partie de chacun des chapitres, dédiée à « European Heritage » 173

(« Patrimoine européen »). En comparant les listes d’écrivains ayant donné leur nom aux rues, monuments, timbres et ceux dont l’anniversaire est fêté, le lecteur découvrira que, outre la variété de noms qui reflètent des cultures de mémoire régionale, certains noms ont tendance à être cités à travers toute l’Europe comme Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Victor Hugo, Alexander Pouchkine, alors qu’il y a au moins quelques pays membres à se souvenir de Dante Alighieri, Maxim Gorki, Friedrich Schiller, William Shakespeare et Leo Tolstoï. De toute évidence, l’Europe est tout simplement une réalité littéraire au sens strict du terme. Ainsi, la principale découverte de cette étude est peut-être un sentiment général de diversité et en même temps de similarité entre les institutions participantes et les opportunités éducatives qu’elles proposent. Bien d’autres exemples de pratiques et d’opportunités éducatives diverses mais comparables dans le domaine de l’héritage littéraire à travers l’Europe peuvent être découverts tout au long des articles de ce recueil. Des institutions comme les nôtres peuvent faciliter la perception du patrimoine littéraire européen commun qui nous lie les uns aux autres. Malgré nos différences, l’aperçu d’ensemble de ce partenariat montre que nous partageons également des objectifs communs et faisons face à des problèmes similaires. Au-delà des frontières nationales et culturelles, il existe une réelle communauté de musées et d’archives littéraires, de maisons d’écrivains et d’associations à travers toute l’Europe qui est active et qui permet de communiquer sur des sujets d’intérêt commun. Les participants à ce partenariat Grundtvig sont probablement tous d’accord, mutatis mutandis, avec leur partenaire finlandaise qui conclut son article sur ces mots : « Merci de nous avoir donné l’opportunité de présenter plus largement la littérature classique finlandaise et le travail de nos associations d’écrivains auprès de ces professionnels formidables, dévoués à leur mission originaires d’Estonie, Luxembourg, Hongrie et Grèce. Durant ce projet, nous avons découvert le fabuleux travail de musées d’écrivains à la fois versatile, présenté de façon originale et méticuleusement préservé. » Ces mots expriment parfaitement la conclusion à tirer de notre partenariat, à savoir que les professionnels et apprenants de ce domaine parlent manifestement un « langage commun » et sont désireux d’établir une coopération fructueuse.


Translation of the Introduction


VIELFALT UND GEMEINSAMKEITEN: ZUM VERGLEICH VON PRAXIS UND LERNOPPORTUNITÄTEN IN LITERARISCHEN INSTITUTIONEN IN EUROPA Einleitung Literarische Gesellschaften und Museen existieren in allen Ländern der Europäischen Union. Sie spielen eine zentrale Rolle in der Erhaltung und Förderung des literarischen Erbes in Europa und leisten einen wichtigen Beitrag zum zeitgenössischen literarischen Leben. Sie sind der Pfeiler lebenslangen Lernens und ermöglichen es, unser Wissen und unsere Fähigkeiten zu erweitern. Es scheint aber, dass trotz ähnlicher Herausforderungen und vergleichbarer Aufgaben in ganz Europa nicht genügend Kommunikation auf internationaler Ebene zwischen diesen Einrichtungen stattfindet. Einige dieser Institutionen und Organisationen erachteten es daher für notwendig und nützlich, ihre Arbeit durch den transnationalen Austausch und die Zusammenarbeit auf europäischer Ebene zu fördern. So entstand die Idee eines gemeinsamen Projekts und eines Zusammenschlusses zu einer Partnerschaft von Organisationen, die auf dem gleichen Gebiet arbeiten. Später entwickelte sich daraus eine Grundtvig-Lernpartnerschaft.


Das Projekt Die Grundtvig-Lernpartnerschaft Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage (Ein Vergleich von Lernopportunitäten im Bereich des literarischen Erbes) geht auf die Initiative Gesa Schuberts von der deutschen Arbeitsgemeinschaft literarischer Gesellschaften und Gedenkstätten e.V. (ALG) zurück, die im Jahre 2010 ein vorbereitendes Treffen in den Räumlichkeiten der ALG in Berlin einberief. Während dieser Sitzung wurde eine Liste der Teilnehmer erstellt und ein genaues Konzept für das Projekt vereinbart. Die folgenden Partner aus Estland, Finnland, Griechenland, Ungarn und Luxemburg nahmen teil: Der Verband estnischer Schriftstellermuseen, das Luxemburger Literaturarchiv, das Nikos Kazantzakis Museum, das Literaturmuseum Petőfi und die Dachvereinigung der finnischen Literaturverbände (Nimikot). Kurzvorstellungen der genannten Partner finden Sie am Ende dieser Publikation. All diese Akteure haben als gemeinsame Zielsetzung, die Literatur der Öffentlichkeit näher zu bringen, Menschen zum Lesen zu ermutigen, das Bewusstsein für den Wert der Literatur zu wecken und literarische Lernprozesse in Gang zu setzen, von klassischen bis hin zu modernen Schriftstellern. Um diese Ziele zu erreichen, organisieren sie Bildungsprogramme für Kinder, Erwachsene und Fachleute; zugleich arbeiten sie mit Multiplikatoren im Bildungsbereich, insbesondere in den pädagogischen Berufen. Das Projekt Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage wurde im Rahmen des Grundtvig Bildungsprogramms für lebenslanges Lernen der Europäischen Kommission für den Zeitraum 2011-13 genehmigt. Das Grundtvig EU-Programm wurde nach dem Dänischen Pastor und Pionier der Erwachsenenbildung Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig (1783-1872) benannt. Das Ziel ist es, Erwachsenen die Möglichkeit zu geben, ihre Kenntnisse und Fähigkeiten zu vertiefen. Das Programm richtet sich an Lehrer, Ausbilder, Mitarbeiter und Lernende in der Erwachsenenbildung, u.a. im Zusammenhang mit ehrenamtlichen Gruppen, Verbänden und Forschungseinrichtungen. Unterschiedliche Lernangebote werden durch das EU-Programm finanziert, zum Beispiel Austauschreisen und professionelle Weiterbildungsprogramme im Ausland für Teilnehmer aus der Erwachsenenbildung. Grundtvig-Lernpartnerschaften sind schwerpunktmäßig für kleinere Kooperationsmaßnahmen zwischen Organisationen, die im weitesten Sinne dem Bereich der Erwachsenenbildung angehören, konzipiert. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf der 176

Teilnahme kleinerer Organisationen, die ihre Aktivitäten und die Zusammenarbeit auf europäischer Ebene stärken wollen. Beteiligte Institutionen sind dazu aufgerufen, ihre Projektarbeit zu überprüfen und zu bewerten. Dies soll in Kombination mit lokalen Initiativen und in Zusammenarbeit mit Organisationen und Behörden auf nationaler Ebene stattfinden. So werden praktische Leitfäden und die Ergebnisse der Partnerschaft bestmöglich zugänglich gemacht und der Nutzen des transnationalen Austauschs maximiert. Das übergeordnete Ziel der Grundtvig-Partnerschaft Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage bestand darin, erwachsenen Teilnehmern im Bereich des literarischen Erbes die Möglichkeit zum Vergleich und zur Diskussion von Lernansätzen zu geben. Sie sollten die Möglichkeit erhalten, sich mit Experten aus dem gleichen Bereich aus anderen Ländern auszutauschen und die Ergebnisse in der Öffentlichkeit bekannt zu machen. Im Arbeitsplan waren Gruppensitzungen in jedem der beteiligten Länder sowie Hospitationsprogramme („Job-Shadowing“) für Museumsmitarbeiter und Lernende vorgesehen, wobei die Wünsche und Interessen der jeweiligen Partner berücksichtigt wurden. Aufgrund der Fokussierung auf den Prozesscharakter der Partnerschaft standen das „Job-Shadowing“ für Museumsmitarbeiter und für Lernende sowie die aus erster Hand gesammelten Erfahrungen in ausländischen Institutionen im Mittelpunkt des Projekts. Jedes Institut hat eigene Methoden und Praxisleitfäden entwickelt, um Erwachsene zu mobilisieren. Der direkte Austausch mit den Partnerinstitutionen war hierbei eine wertvolle Erfahrung. Neben der informellen, praktischen Lernerfahrung war auch der Aufbau eines großen Kontaktnetzwerks von vergleichbaren Einrichtungen in ganz Europa ein wichtiges Ergebnis. Durch die transnationale Perspektive konnten nationale Begrenzungen überwunden und neue innovative Standpunkte und Ideen für die praktische Arbeit der teilnehmenden Institutionen entwickelt werden. Um das Projekt in der breiteren Öffentlichkeit bekannt zu machen, wurde unter anderem entschieden, dass die Partnerschaft nicht ohne konkrete Resultate bleiben sollte. Zu diesen im Folgenden genannten Ergebnissen haben alle Partner auf gemeinschaftliche Weise beigetragen: 1) die mit diesem Buch vorliegende Umfrage, die aus einem gemeinsamen Fragebogen hervorgegangen ist; 2) eine Online-Ausstellung über literarische Figuren wichtiger Werke aus den Literaturen der jeweiligen Länder; 3) ein öffentlich zugängliches Weblog als Forum für den Informationsaustausch.


Das Weblog war nicht nur als Kommunikationsinstrument bestimmt, sondern auch als ein webbasiertes Archiv für die Dokumentation der Hauptaktivitäten der Partnerschaft. Außerdem sollten hier das Grundtvig-Programm und die teilnehmenden Einrichtungen vorgestellt werden. Der Blog ist öffentlich zugänglich und wird auch über die Dauer der formalen Partnerschaft hinaus weiter bestehen bleiben. Sie finden ihn auf den Startseiten der Institutionen oder direkt unter Die virtuelle Ausstellung über fiktive Figuren aus den literarischen Werken der jeweiligen Länder entstand aus der Überzeugung heraus, dass literarische Figuren, eher als vollständige Werke, dem breiteren Publikum einen persönlichen und direkten Zugang zur Literatur bieten können. Die Namen Odysseus, Don Quixote, König Lear, Faust und Anna Karenina regen auch die Fantasie derer an, die nicht die jeweiligen Werke gelesen haben. Und wenn dies auf Klassiker der Weltliteratur zutrifft, sollte es ebenfalls für Figuren aus weniger bekannten Werken gelten. Die Ausstellung soll die oftmals kaum bekannten Literaturen der Partnerländer vorstellen und in den Fokus einer breiteren europäischen Öffentlichkeit stellen. Die Ausstellung ist potentiell beliebig erweiterbar und kann als Ausgangspunkt für eine Reihe weiterer Kooperationsprojekte dienen. Sie finden sie auf http://www., sowie auf den Webseiten unserer Institutionen. Das dritte Ergebnis der Partnerschaft ist die hier vorliegende Veröffentlichung, die auf einer Umfrage zu den Bildungsmöglichkeiten im Bereich der Vermittlung des literarischen Erbes in den teilnehmenden Ländern basiert. Wir wollten einen praktischen Leitfaden erstellen, in dem Ideen, Praxisbeispiele, Erfahrungen und das untereinander erworbene Wissen zusammengetragen werden sollten. Wir möchten diese Erkenntnisse einer breiten Öffentlichkeit vorlegen und die Lernangebote herausarbeiten. Auch können sie als Anregung für andere Akteure auf diesem Gebiet dienen.

Die Umfrage Die Umfrage basiert auf einem umfassenden Fragenkatalog, der in einem Workshop während des Kick-Off-Meetings erarbeitet wurde. Der Fragebogen wurde in drei thematische Gebiete gegliedert, die für die Arbeit unserer Organisationen und Einrichtungen wichtig sind und die ebenfalls die Titel der jeweiligen Teilkapitel der fünf Hauptkapitel in dieser Publikation darstellen: 178

1) communication, promotion and outreach (Kommunikation, Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und Reichweite); 2) ways of reaching audiences (Möglichkeiten, das Publikum zu erreichen); 3) the European aspect of promoting our literary heritage (der europäische Aspekt bei der Förderung und der Verbreitung unseres literarischen Erbes). Diese drei Bereiche wurden jeweils von den Partnern aus Ungarn, Griechenland und Finnland koordiniert. Die Umfrage wurde unter relevanten Akteuren des literarischen Feldes in jedem Land durchgeführt. Danach wurden die nationalen Ergebnisse präsentiert, verglichen und in verschiedenen Gruppensitzungen diskutiert. Die Ergebnisse dieser Sitzungen sind in diesem Buch veröffentlicht. Die fünf Hauptkapitel in dieser Publikation basieren auf den Präsentationen, die in den Gruppensitzungen gehalten wurden. Wie aus dem Inhaltsverzeichnis ersichtlich wird, haben alle Arbeiten dieselbe Struktur und sind in dieselben Abschnitte unterteilt. Dadurch lassen sich die Informationen in jedem Teil gut vergleichen. Möchte ein Leser zum Beispiel einen Vergleich zwischen den Ausstellungsrichtlinien in den jeweiligen Institutionen ziehen, kann er einfach den Abschnitt “Exhibition policies and literary history” („Ausstellungsrichtlinien und Literaturgeschichte”) im ersten Teil der fünf Kapitel lesen. Wenn er mehr darüber wissen möchte, wie unsere Einrichtungen neue Zielgruppen ansprechen wollen, dann kann der Abschnitt “Best practices and innovative ideas in engaging new audiences” („Praktische Leitfäden und innovative Ideen zur Gewinnung von neuen Zielgruppen”) im zweiten Teil jeden Kapitels zu Rate gezogen werden. Der Leser kann somit das Buch als Ganzes lesen, oder aber auch spezifische Aspekte vergleichen, indem er sich auf die jeweiligen Abschnitte in jedem Artikel bezieht. Was wird der Leser auf den folgenden Seiten vorfinden? Durch die Vergleichbarkeit zwischen den einzelnen Teilen ist eine detaillierte Anleitung zu dem Buch nicht notwendig. Jedoch lohnt es sich, zum Zweck der Veranschaulichung, einige Beispiele für die Ansätze, Probleme und Lösungen für einige der Themen zu geben, die die verschiedenen Kapitel miteinander verbinden. Mit diesen Themen mussten sich alle Partner auseinander setzen.


Einige Ergebnisse – Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten Was beim Lesen der Artikel und beim Vergleich der Partnerinstitutionen auf den ersten Blick besonders auffällt, ist die Vielfalt in Bezug auf die Geographie und die Geschichte, die Zielsetzung und den Rechtsstatus sowie die Ressourcen und Praktiken. Die Partner kommen aus unterschiedlichen kulturellen Regionen. Was also die Vielfalt in der EU betrifft, hätte man für die Grundtvig-Partnerschaft wahrlich kaum geeignetere Länder finden können. Die Projektpartner kommen aus dem Norden und dem Süden, dem Osten und dem Westen der Europäischen Union. Historisch gesehen reichen sie von Gründungsmitgliedern über relativ frühe und relativ späte Mitglieder, bis hin zu Ländern, die der EU während der letzten Erweiterungsrunde 2004 beigetreten sind. In diesem Sinne könnten sie kaum unterschiedlicher sein. Die geographische Vielfalt sowie die verschiedenen historischen und kulturellen Traditionen, die hinter den jeweiligen Organisationen stecken, ziehen sich durch das ganze Buch. Besonders offensichtlich und konzentriert kommt dies im dritten Teil “The European aspect of promoting our literary heritage” („Der europäische Aspekt in der Verbreitung des literarischen Erbes”) zum Vorschein, in dem unter anderem die nationalen Literaturen in einen größeren regionalen und europäischen Kontext gesetzt werden. Der Leser erhält einen Eindruck der verschiedenen kulturellen Kräfte, die unsere fünf verschiedenen nationalen Literaturfelder beeinflusst und die auf die Länder und Institutionen gewirkt haben. Wer sich für die Vielfalt der literarischen Hintergründe und die verschiedenen nationalen Traditionen interessiert, der erhält in diesem Kapitel wertvolle Informationen. Zur kulturellen Verschiedenheit kommt auch noch die Vielfalt in Zielsetzungen, Rechtsstatus und Organisationsstrukturen. Unter den Teilnehmern befand sich eine Dachorganisation für literarische Verbände, ein Verband von literarischen Museen und drei Literaturmuseen mit angeschlossenen Archiven. Das Spektrum reichte von einer gut besetzten Einrichtung mit großen Sammlungen wie dem Petőfi Museum bis zu einer kleinen Dachorganisation wie der finnischen Nimikot, die ausschließlich auf ehrenamtlicher Arbeit basiert. Während manche Institutionen eine nationale Aufgabe haben, sich für die Sammlung, die Aufbewahrung und Pflege, das Studium und das Ausstellen des nationalen literarischen Erbes einzusetzen, liegt bei anderen der Fokus auf einem einzigen Schriftsteller und seinem Werk. Wenn Sie als Leser die Arbeitsbereiche der Partner und ihre jeweiligen Zielsetzungen vergleichen möchten, dann können Sie dies in den Abschnitten “General information and mission” („Allgemeines und Zielsetzungen”) tun.


Auch in den Praxisbezügen der Institutionen werden die Unterschiede sichtbar. Als Beispiel kann an dieser Stelle die Freiwilligenarbeit genannt werden. Verschiedene Ansätze hierzu finden Sie in den Abschnitten “Museum audiences and social inclusion” („Zielpublikum in Museen und soziale Integration”) und “Fostering literary heritage: volunteering and museum associations” („Förderung des literarischen Erbes: Freiwilligenarbeit und Museumsverbände”). Während in manchen Ländern die ehrenamtliche Arbeit nicht sehr verbreitet ist, ist sie für andere Organisationen höchst relevant. Dennoch zeigt sich trotz dieser verschiedenen Ansätze, dass wir alle auf die eine oder andere Weise auf Freiwilligenarbeit zurückgreifen: entweder weil Ehrenamt eine tragende Rolle spielt, weil dadurch personelle Engpässe ausgeglichen werden sollen oder weil wir der Überzeugung sind, dass Praktika und Freiwilligenarbeit ein Bestandteil unseres umfassenden Bildungsauftrags und unserer Vorstellung von sozialer Integration sind. Dies führt zu dem Ergebnis, dass wir trotz der Unterschiede auch erstaunliche, tief greifende Gemeinsamkeiten haben, was die Praktiken, Ziele und Probleme unserer Institutionen betrifft. Ein gutes Beispiel unter vielen ist die jeweilige Museumszielgruppe, denn es scheint, dass wir alle die gleichen Gruppen im Visier haben: Schüler und Studenten, Besucher aller Altersklassen, Wissenschaftler/ Forscher, das allgemeine Publikum mit einem formal hohen Bildungsstand und die älteren Altersgruppen. Auch wenn dies nur ein Beispiel für die Gemeinsamkeiten ist, so ist es dennoch ein wichtiges, denn es bildet die Basis für einen Großteil unserer Arbeit. Dies gilt zum Beispiel für unsere Bildungsprogramme, wie in den entsprechenden Abschnitten dieser Publikation ersichtlich ist. Ein weiteres Beispiel für das Zusammenspiel von Unterschieden und Gemeinsamkeiten im Bereich der literarischen Bildung und des literarischem Kulturguts unserer Länder ist im dritten und letzten Teil jedes Kapitels zum Thema“European heritage” („Europäisches Erbe”) nachzulesen. Einige Namen sind in ganz Europa in aller Munde. Das ist daran ablesbar, dass nach ihnen Straßen benannt sind, für sie Denkmäler errichtet werden, sie auf Briefmarken gedruckt sind oder ihre Geburtstage gefeiert werden. Neben einigen Namen, die eher das regionale Kulturgedächtnis reflektieren, handelt es sich etwa um Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Victor Hugo und Alexander Puschkin, derer in allen Ländern gedacht wird, während wenigstens einige unserer Mitgliedsländer auch noch Dante Alighieri, Maxim Gorki, Friedrich Schiller, William Shakespeare und Leo Tolstoi gedenken. Offensichtlich bildet Europa im wahren Sinne des Wortes eine literarische Realität.


Die wesentliche Erkenntnis der Umfrage ist demnach vielleicht der Eindruck von Vielfältigkeit bei gleichzeitig bestehenden Ähnlichkeiten zwischen den teilnehmenden Institutionen und den Lerngelegenheiten, die sie anbieten. Viele weitere Beispiele vielfältiger und dennoch vergleichbarer Praxis- und Lernansätze im Bereich der Vermittlung des literarischen Erbes in ganz Europa können in den verschiedenen Teilen dieser Publikation entdeckt werden. Institutionen wie unsere können die Wahrnehmung des gemeinsamen europäischen Literaturerbes, das uns miteinander verbindet, verbessern. Trotz Unterschieden konnte die übergeordnete Einsicht aus diesem Projekt gewonnen werden, dass wir gemeinsame Ziele verfolgen und ähnliche Probleme teilen. Über nationale und kulturelle Grenzen hinweg besteht in ganz Europa eine lebendige Gemeinschaft an literarischen Museen und Archiven, Dichterhäusern und Verbänden. Dies ermöglicht auch eine Kommunikation über Themen von gemeinsamer Relevanz. Die Teilnehmer der Grundtvig-Partnerschaft stimmen wohl alle, mutatis mutandis, der finnischen Partnerin zu, die ihr Dokument mit den Worten abschließt: „Vielen Dank für die Möglichkeit, die klassische finnische Literatur und die Arbeit unseres Verbands auf diesem Wege unseren fantastischen, sehr engagierten Kollegen aus Estland, Luxemburg, Ungarn und Griechenland präsentieren zu können. Während des Projekts hat sich uns eine erstaunliche, vielseitige, kreativ präsentierte und sorgsam erhaltene Welt der literarischen Museen aufgetan.” Diese Worte verdeutlichen auf besonders anschauliche Weise das abschließende Fazit unserer Lernpartnerschaft, nämlich dass Experten und Lernende auf diesem Gebiet offensichtlich eine „gemeinsame Sprache” sprechen und an einer fruchtbaren Zusammenarbeit interessiert sind.


Translation of the Introduction


Ετερότητα και οΜοιότητα: Συγκρίνοντας πρακτικές και ευκαιρίες Μάθησης σε λογοτεχνικά ιδρύΜατα της Ευρώπης Πρόλογος Λογοτεχνικές εταιρείες και µουσεία δραστηριοποιούνται σε όλες τις χώρες της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης. ∆ιαδραµατίζουν κεντρικό ρόλο στη διατήρηση και µεταβίβαση της λογοτεχνικής κληρονοµιάς και έχουν σηµαντική συνεισφορά στη σύγχρονη λογοτεχνική ζωή. Αποτελούν πυλώνα της δια βίου µάθησης, δίνοντας τη δυνατότητα σε ενήλικες να διευρύνουν τις γνώσεις και δεξιότητές τους. Αν και αντιµετωπίζουν παρόµοιες προκλήσεις και επιτελούν παρεµφερή καθήκοντα, είναι εµφανής η έλλειψη επικοινωνίας µεταξύ των συγκεκριµένων φορέων σε διεθνές επίπεδο. Για το λόγο αυτό, ορισµένοι φορείς και οργανώσεις διαπίστωσαν την ανάγκη προώθησης της διακρατικής ανταλλαγής και συνεργασίας σε ευρωπαϊκό επίπεδο, µε όλα τα οφέλη που απορρέουν από αυτή. Έτσι προέκυψε η ιδέα ενός από κοινού προγράµµατος και µιας σύµπραξης φορέων που δραστηριοποιούνται στον ίδιο τοµέα. Στη συνέχεια η συνεργασία αυτή εξελίχθηκε σε µια εκπαιδευτική σύµπραξη Grundtvig.

Το πρόγραμμα Η εκπαιδευτική σύµπραξη Grundtvig Συγκρίνοντας τις ευκαιρίες µάθησης στον τοµέα της λογοτεχνικής κληρονοµιάς έχει τις ρίζες της σε µια πρωτοβουλία της Gesa Schubert από τη Γερµανική Ένωση Φιλολογικών Εταιρειών και Τόπων Μνήµης (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Literarischer Gesellschaften und Gedenkstätten (ALG), η οποία συγκάλεσε µια 183

προκαταρκτική συνάντηση στους χώρους της ALG, στο Βερολίνο, το 2010. Κατά τη διάρκεια της συνάντησης, καταρτίσθηκε ο κατάλογος εταίρων και προσδιορίστηκε από κοινού το σκεπτικό της σύµπραξης. Συµπεριλήφθηκαν οι εξής εταίροι, από την Εσθονία, τη Φινλανδία, την Ελλάδα, την Ουγγαρία και το Λουξεµβούργο: η Εταιρεία Μουσείων Εσθονών Συγγραφέων, το Κέντρο Λογοτεχνίας / Λογοτεχνικά Αρχεία Λουξεµβούργου, το Μουσείο Νίκου Καζαντζάκη, το Λογοτεχνικό Μουσείο Petőfi και η ΟργάνωσηΟµπρέλα Λογοτεχνικών Εταιρειών Φιλανδίας (Nimikot). Σύντοµες παρουσιάσεις των εταίρων αυτών δίνονται στο τέλος του παρόντος τόµου. Όλοι οι παραπάνω φορείς έχουν γενικότερο σκοπό να φέρνουν τη λογοτεχνία πιο κοντά στο κοινό, να ενθαρρύνουν την ανάγνωση βιβλίων, να ευαισθητοποιούν για την αξία της λογοτεχνίας και να δίνουν το έναυσµα για διαδικασίες µάθησης που σχετίζονται µε τα έργα κλασικών και σύγχρονων συγγραφέων. Για την επίτευξη των παραπάνω στόχων, όλοι οι φορείς διοργανώνουν εκπαιδευτικά προγράµµατα για παιδιά, ενήλικες και επαγγελµατίες και συνεργάζονται µε πολλαπλασιαστές στο χώρο της εκπαίδευσης, ιδιαίτερα στα διδακτικά επαγγέλµατα. Η δράση Συγκρίνοντας τις ευκαιρίες µάθησης στον τοµέα της λογοτεχνικής κληρονοµιάς εγκρίθηκε από το Πρόγραµµα ∆ια Βίου Μάθησης Grundtvig της Ευρωπαϊκής Επιτροπής για τα έτη 2011-13. Το πρόγραµµα Grundtvig της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης φέρει το όνοµα του ∆ανού πάστορα και στοχαστή της δια βίου µάθησης Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig (1783-1872). Σκοπός του προγράµµατος είναι να δώσει στους ενήλικες τη δυνατότητα να βελτιώσουν τις γνώσεις και δεξιότητές τους. Απευθύνεται σε καθηγητές, εκπαιδευτές, προσωπικό και εκπαιδευόµενους στον χώρο της δια βίου µάθησης, συµπεριλαµβανοµένων και όσων συνεργάζονται µε οµάδες εθελοντισµού, συλλόγους και ερευνητικά κέντρα. Μέσω του προγράµµατος χρηµατοδοτείται µια σειρά από δράσεις µάθησης, π.χ. ταξίδιαανταλλαγές και προγράµµατα επαγγελµατικής κατάρτισης στο εξωτερικό, για άτοµα που εργάζονται στην εκπαίδευση ενηλίκων. Οι Εκπαιδευτικές Συµπράξεις Grundtvig σχεδιάζονται ειδικά ως πλαίσια συνεργασίας µικρής κλίµακας, ανάµεσα σε φορείς που δραστηριοποιούνται στο χώρο της εκπαίδευσης ενηλίκων µε την ευρύτερη έννοια. Εστιάζονται στη συµµετοχή µικρότερων φορέων, που επιθυµούν να ενισχύσουν τις δραστηριότητες και τις συνεργασίες τους σε ευρωπαϊκό επίπεδο. Οι συµµετέχοντες οργανισµοί ενθαρρύνονται να παρακολουθούν και αξιολογούν τις δράσεις του προγράµµατος, να τις διασυνδέουν µε πρωτοβουλίες της τοπικής κοινωνίας, και να συνεργάζονται µε φορείς και αρχές σε εθνικό επίπεδο. Αυτό θα προωθήσει την κυκλοφορία καλών πρακτικών, θα εξασφαλίσει πιο διευρυµένο αντίκτυπο των αποτελεσµάτων και θα µεγιστοποιήσει την αξία της διακρατικής ανταλλαγής.


Γενικός σκοπός της Σύµπραξης Grundtvig Συγκρίνοντας τις ευκαιρίες µάθησης στον τοµέα της λογοτεχνικής κληρονοµιάς ήταν να παρέχει στους συµµετέχοντες την ευκαιρία να συγκρίνουν και να συζητούν τις ευκαιρίες µάθησης ενηλίκων στο χώρο της λογοτεχνικής κληρονοµιάς, µε ειδικούς του ίδιου τοµέα σε άλλες χώρες, και να γνωστοποιούν τα σχετικά ευρήµατα στο ευρύ κοινό. Το σχέδιο εργασίας συµπεριέλαβε οµαδικές συναντήσεις σε κάθε µια από τις συµµετέχουσες χώρες, όπως επίσης και παρακολούθηση εργασίας (job shadowing) για το προσωπικό µουσείων και τους εκπαιδευόµενους, ανάλογα µε τις ανάγκες και τα ενδιαφέροντα των αντίστοιχων εταίρων. ∆εδοµένου ότι η σύµπραξη εστίαζε στις πρακτικές, κεντρικό ρόλο στο πρόγραµµα είχαν οι ευκαιρίες παρακολούθησης εργασίας για το προσωπικό µουσείων και τους εκπαιδευόµενους, µε την παροχή άµεσης εµπειρίας σε ξένους φορείς. Κάθε φορέας διαµόρφωσε τις δικές του µεθόδους και καλές πρακτικές συµµετοχής ενηλίκων, κάτι το οποίο αποδείχθηκε πολύτιµο κατά την ανταλλαγή έµµεσων εµπειριών µε τους φορείς-εταίρους. Συνεπώς, στα αξιόλογα αποτελέσµατα της σύµπραξης συγκαταλέγεται η δηµιουργία ενός µεγάλου δικτύου παρεµφερών φορέων σε ολόκληρη την Ευρώπη, µαζί µε τη δυνατότητα που έδωσε για ανεπίσηµη, εµπειρική µάθηση. Η διακρατική διάσταση διευκόλυνε την υπέρβαση εθνικών περιορισµών, επιτρέποντας την έκφραση καινοτόµων απόψεων και την ανάπτυξη νέων ιδεών για τις πρακτικές εργασίες των συµµετεχόντων φορέων. Προκειµένου να καταστεί το πρόγραµµα πιο γνωστό στο ευρύ κοινό, αποφασίστηκε, µεταξύ άλλων, πως η σύµπραξη όφειλε να παράγει απτά αποτελέσµατα µε τη µορφή τριών µόνιµων προϊόντων, στα οποία συνεισέφεραν αρµονικά όλοι οι εταίροι: α) την παρούσα έρευνα, που βασίζεται σε κοινό ερωτηµατολόγιο, β) µια διαδικτυακή έκθεση µε θέµα λογοτεχνικούς χαρακτήρες από κορυφαία έργα των εθνικών µας λογοτεχνιών και γ) έναν ιστότοπο ή ένα διαδικτυακό ηµερολόγιο (weblog) προσβάσιµο στο κοινό, που να λειτουργεί ως φόρουµ για την ανταλλαγή πληροφοριών. Το διαδικτυακό ηµερολόγιο δεν προοριζόταν αποκλειστικά για χρήση ως εργαλείο επικοινωνίας, αλλά και ως γνήσιο διαδικτυακό αρχείο που να τεκµηριώνει τις δράσεις της σύµπραξης, µε την ταυτόχρονη παρουσίαση του προγράµµατος Grundtvig και των συµµετεχόντων φορέων. Είναι προσβάσιµο στο κοινό και θα παραµείνει στο διαδίκτυο πέραν της διάρκειας της επίσηµης σύµπραξης. Η πρόσβαση γίνεται είτε από τις ιστοσελίδες των φορέων είτε απευθείας στο Η εικονική έκθεση µε θέµα τους λογοτεχνικούς χαρακτήρες από τις εγχώριες λογοτεχνίες βασίζεται στην ιδέα ότι οι χαρακτήρες της λογοτεχνίας, ίσως και περισσότερο από τα ίδια τα έργα στο σύνολο τους, παρέχουν σε ευρύτερες οµάδες κοινού άµεση και προσωπική πρόσβαση στη λογοτεχνία. Ο Οδυσσέας, ο βασιλιάς Ληρ, ο ∆ον Κιχώτης, ο Φαύστ


(ή Φάουστ) και η Άννα Καρένινα κεντρίζουν τη φαντασία ακόµη και εκείνων που δεν έχουν διαβάσει τα αντίστοιχα έργα. Εάν αυτό ισχύει για τα κλασικά έργα της παγκόσµιας λογοτεχνίας, µάλλον ισχύει και για τους χαρακτήρες λιγότερο γνωστών έργων. Σκοπός της έκθεσης είναι να προβάλει την ενίοτε όχι και τόσο γνωστή λογοτεχνία των χωρώνεταίρων και να την καταστήσει προσβάσιµη στο ευρύτερο ευρωπαϊκό κοινό. Θεωρητικά, πρόκειται για έργο «εν προόδω» που θα µπορούσε να αποτελέσει αφετηρία για µια σειρά νέων δράσεων συνεργασίας. Η έκθεση βρίσκεται στο, ενώ είναι επίσης προσβάσιµη µέσω των ιστοσελίδων των δικών µας φορέων. Βασισµένη σε µια έρευνα για τις ευκαιρίες µάθησης στο χώρο της λογοτεχνικής κληρονοµιάς που διενεργήθηκε στις συµµετέχουσες χώρες, η παρούσα έκδοση συνιστά το τρίτο απτό αποτέλεσµα της σύµπραξης. Προορίζεται ως πρακτικό εγχειρίδιο που συγκεντρώνει τις ιδέες, τις πρακτικές, τις εµπειρίες και τις γνώσεις που ανταλλάξαµε κατά τη διάρκεια των συναντήσεών µας. Αυτές γίνονται κτήµα του ευρύτερου κοινού, αναδεικνύοντας τις ευκαιρίες µάθησης και αποτελώντας σηµείο αναφοράς για άλλους παράγοντες στο συγκεκριµένο χώρο.

Η Έρευνα Η έρευνα βασίζεται σε έναν εκτενή κατάλογο ερωτήσεων που καταρτίσθηκε κατά τη διάρκεια ενός εργαστηρίου στην πρώτη συνάντηση. Το ερωτηµατολόγιο περιστρέφεται γύρω από τρεις θεµατικές περιοχές θεµελιώδους σηµασίας για την εργασία των δικών µας φορέων και οργανώσεων. ∆όθηκαν οι εξής τίτλοι στα τρία κεντρικά κεφάλαια του παρόντος τόµου: 1) επικοινωνία, ανάδειξη και προβολή, 2) τρόποι προσέγγισης οµάδων κοινού και 3) η ευρωπαϊκή διάσταση στην προβολή της λογοτεχνικής µας κληρονοµιάς. Τα τρία θέµατα αυτά συντόνισαν οι εταίροι από την Ουγγαρία, την Ελλάδα και τη Φινλανδία αντίστοιχα. Η έρευνα διενεργήθηκε µε τη συµµετοχή σχετικών παραγόντων στο πεδίο της λογοτεχνίας κάθε χώρας. Ακολούθησε η παρουσίαση, σύγκριση και συζήτηση των ευρηµάτων κάθε χώρας σε πολλές οµαδικές συναντήσεις. Τα αποτελέσµατα των συναντήσεων αυτών παρουσιάζονται στο παρόν βιβλίο. Τα πέντε κύρια κεφάλαια βασίζονται στις παρουσιάσεις των οµαδικών συναντήσεων. Όπως φαίνεται στα περιεχόµενα, όλες οι ανακοινώσεις έχουν την ίδια δοµή και διαιρούνται στα ίδια υποκεφάλαια, γεγονός που εξασφαλίζει τη συγκρισιµότητα των πληροφοριών σε κάθε ανακοίνωση. Ο αναγνώστης που αναζητά παραδείγµατα προκειµένου να συγκρίνει τις πολιτικές έκθεσης στους αντίστοιχους φορείς δεν έχει παρά να ανατρέξει στο υποκεφάλαιο «Πολιτικές έκθεσης και ιστορία της λογοτεχνίας», στο πρώτο µέρος των πέντε κεφαλαίων. Αν θέλει να µάθει περισσότερα για το πώς οι φορείς επιχειρούν να προσεγγίσουν νέες οµάδες κοινού, µπορεί να ανατρέξει στο υποκεφάλαιο «Βέλτιστες πρακτικές και καινοτόµες ιδέες 186

για την προσέγγιση νέων οµάδων κοινού», στο δεύτερο µέρος κάθε κεφαλαίου. Έτσι, ενώ ο αναγνώστης µπορεί να διαβάσει το βιβλίο σαν σύνολο, αν αναζητεί συγκρίσεις σε συγκεκριµένους τοµείς, µπορεί να το κάνει µε το να συµβουλευτεί τα οικεία υποκεφάλαια κάθε άρθρου. Τι θα βρει ο αναγνώστης στις σελίδες που ακολουθούν; Χάρη στην ευκολία σύγκρισης των επιµέρους ανακοινώσεων, µια λεπτοµερής περιγραφή ολόκληρου του βιβλίου καθίσταται περιττή. Ωστόσο, για λόγους ενδεικτικούς, ίσως αξίζει να δοθούν ορισµένα παραδείγµατα των προσεγγίσεων, προβληµάτων και λύσεων σχετικά µε τα θέµατα που συνδέουν τα κεφάλαια. Όλοι οι εταίροι κλήθηκαν να αντιµετωπίσουν τα εν λόγω ζητήµατα.

Διαφορές και ομοιότητες Αυτό που εντυπωσιάζει περισσότερο µε την πρώτη µατιά κατά την ανάγνωση των άρθρων και τη σύγκριση των εταίρων είναι η εικόνα της ποικιλότητας, όσον αφορά στη γεωγραφία και την ιστορία, την αποστολή και το νοµικό καθεστώς, τους πόρους και τις πρακτικές. Οι εταίροι δεν προέρχονται από µία και µοναδική πολιτισµική περιοχή. Στο πλαίσιο πολυµορφίας της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης, οι χώρες που επιλέχθηκαν για τη σύµπραξη Grundtvig δεν θα µπορούσαν να ήταν πιο κατάλληλες. Οι εταίροι της σύµπραξης προέρχονται από το βορρά και το νότο, την ανατολή και τη δύση της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης. Από ιστορικής πλευράς, καλύπτουν όλο το φάσµα, από ιδρυτικά µέλη της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης µέχρι χώρες που εντάχθηκαν σχετικά νωρίς ή σχετικά αργά, µέχρι και άλλες που εντάχθηκαν κατά τον τελευταίο γύρο διεύρυνσης, το 2004. Υπό αυτή την έννοια, δύσκολα θα έβρισκε κανείς µεγαλύτερη ετερότητα. Μαζί µε τις διαφορετικές ιστορικές και πολιτισµικές παραδόσεις στο υπόβαθρο των οργανώσεών µας, αυτή η γεωγραφική ετερότητα είναι αµέσως αντιληπτή σε ολόκληρο το βιβλίο. Ωστόσο, γίνεται πιο ορατή και συµπυκνωµένη στο τρίτο µέρος «H ευρωπαϊκή διάσταση στην προβολή της λογοτεχνικής µας κληρονοµιάς», όπου, µεταξύ άλλων, οι εθνικές λογοτεχνίες τοποθετούνται στο ευρύτερο περιφερειακό και ευρωπαϊκό πλαίσιο. Ο αναγνώστης θα αποκοµίσει µια εικόνα των πολιτισµικών δυνάµεων που επηρέασαν τον χώρο των εθνικών µας λογοτεχνιών και διαµόρφωσαν τις χώρες και τους φορείς µας. Όσοι ενδιαφέρονται για την πολυµορφία του λογοτεχνικού υπόβαθρου και τις διαφορετικές εθνικές παραδόσεις θα αντλήσουν πολύτιµες πληροφορίες από τα συγκεκριµένα κεφάλαια. Σε αυτή την πολιτισµική ετερότητα έρχεται να προστεθεί και η ετερότητα των αποστολών, του νοµικού καθεστώτος και των οργανωτικών δοµών. Την οµάδα εταίρων αποτελούσαν 187

µια οργάνωση-οµπρέλα λογοτεχνικών εταιρειών, µια εταιρεία µουσείων λογοτεχνών και τρία µουσεία λογοτεχνών-λογοτεχνικά αρχεία. Καλύπτουν όλο το φάσµα, από έναν καλά στελεχωµένο φορέα µε πλούσιες συλλογές όπως το Μουσείο Petőfi, µέχρι µια µικρή οργάνωση-οµπρέλα που βασίζεται αποκλειστικά σε εθελοντική εργασία, όπως το φινλανδικό Nimikot. Μερικοί φορείς συµµετέχουν στην εθνική αποστολή διάσωσης, µελέτης και έκθεσης της λογοτεχνικής κληρονοµιάς, ενώ άλλοι εστιάζονται σε έναν συγκεκριµένο συγγραφέα και το έργο του. Ο αναγνώστης που θέλει να συγκρίνει τα γενικά πλαίσια εργασίας των εταίρων και τις αντίστοιχες αποστολές τους µπορεί να ανατρέξει στα υποκεφάλαια «Γενικά και αποστολή» στην αρχή κάθε κεφαλαίου. ∆ιαφορές παρατηρούνται και στις λεπτοµέρειες των ίδιων των πρακτικών στους φορείς. Ένα τέτοιο παράδειγµα αποτελεί ο τοµέας του εθελοντισµού, όπου οι διαφορετικές προσεγγίσεις αναλύονται στα υποκεφάλαια «Μουσειακό κοινό και κοινωνική ένταξη» και «Ενισχύοντας τη λογοτεχνική κληρονοµιά: εθελοντισµός και σύλλογοι µουσείων» στο δεύτερο µέρος κάθε κεφαλαίου. Ενώ σε µερικές χώρες ο εθελοντισµός φαίνεται λιγότερο διαδεδοµένος, σε άλλους φορείς φαίνεται να διαδραµατίζει κρίσιµο ρόλο. Ωστόσο, παρά τις διαφορετικές προσεγγίσεις, όλοι µας καταφεύγουµε µε τον ένα ή τον άλλο τρόπο στον εθελοντισµό, είτε επειδή επενδύουµε στον εθελοντισµό είτε γιατί προσπαθούµε να καλύψουµε κενά στο προσωπικό, είτε επειδή η παροχή ευκαιριών πρακτικής άσκησης και εθελοντισµού αποτελούν µέρος της ευρύτερης µορφωτικής µας αποστολής και του στόχου κοινωνικής ένταξης. Τούτο οδηγεί στο γεγονός ότι, παρά τις διαφορές, υπάρχουν σηµαντικές και εκπληκτικές οµοιότητες στις πρακτικές, τις φιλοδοξίες και τα προβλήµατα των φορέων. Ένα ευδιάκριτο παράδειγµα είναι το κοινό των µουσείων µας, καθώς όλοι µας στοχεύουµε σε παρόµοιες οµάδες: µαθητές και φοιτητές κάθε ηλικίας, ερευνητές, το µορφωµένο ευρύ κοινό και οµάδες µεγαλύτερης ηλικίας. Ακόµη και αν αυτό συνιστά ένα µόνο παράδειγµα βασικών οµοιοτήτων, είναι σηµαντικό, καθώς αποτελεί το θεµέλιο µεγάλου µέρους των δραστηριοτήτων µας, π.χ. των εκπαιδευτικών µας προγραµµάτων, όπως διαφαίνεται στα αντίστοιχα υποκεφάλαια του ανά χείρας τόµου. Άλλο ένα παράδειγµα της συνύπαρξης οµοιοτήτων και διαφορών ανάµεσα στα πεδία της λογοτεχνικής παιδείας και της λογοτεχνικής µνήµης στις χώρες µας εντοπίζεται στην τρίτη και τελευταία ενότητα κάθε κεφαλαίου που εστιάζει στην «Ευρωπαϊκή κληρονοµιά». Συγκρίνοντας τους καταλόγους συγγραφέων προς τιµήν των οποίων ονοµάστηκαν οδοί, αναγέρθηκαν µνηµεία και εκδόθηκαν γραµµατόσηµα, και των οποίων τα γενέθλια γιορτάζονται, ο αναγνώστης θα ανακαλύψει ότι, πλάι σε µια πλειάδα ονοµάτων που αντανακλούν πολιτισµικές µνήµες της περιφέρειας, ορισµένα ονόµατα τείνουν να επανέρχονται σε ολόκληρη την Ευρώπη – ο Γιόχαν Βόλφγκανγκ φον Γκαίτε, 188

ο Βίκτωρ Ουγκώ, ο Αλέξανδρος Πούσκιν – ενώ τουλάχιστον ορισµένες χώρες-µέλη θυµούνται τους ∆άντη Αλιγκέρι, Μαξίµ Γκόρκι, Φρίντριχ Σίλερ, Ουίλιαµ Σαίξπηρ και Λέων Τολστόι. Προφανώς, µε την αυστηρή έννοια, η Ευρώπη είναι όντως µια λογοτεχνική πραγµατικότητα. Εποµένως, το κύριο συµπέρασµα της έρευνας ίσως να έγκειται σε µια γενική αίσθηση ετερότητας και ταυτόχρονης οµοιότητας ανάµεσα στους συµµετέχοντες φορείς και τις ευκαιρίες µάθησης που προσφέρουν. Στις µελέτες του παρόντος τόµου µπορεί κανείς να ανακαλύψει πολλά ακόµη παραδείγµατα ετερογενών αλλά συγκρίσιµων πρακτικών και ευκαιριών µάθησης στο πεδίο της λογοτεχνικής κληρονοµιάς σε ολόκληρη την Ευρώπη. Φορείς όπως οι δικοί µας µπορούν να συµβάλουν στην αντίληψη της κοινής ευρωπαϊκής λογοτεχνικής κληρονοµιάς που µας συνδέει. Παρά τις διαφορές µας, η συνολική εικόνα που αποκοµίσαµε από τη σύµπραξη αυτή είναι ότι έχουµε κοινούς στόχους και αντιµετωπίζουµε παρόµοια προβλήµατα. Πέρα από τα εθνικά και τα πολιτισµικά στεγανά, υπάρχει µια ζωντανή κοινότητα λογοτεχνικών µουσείων και αρχείων, οίκων συγγραφέων και συλλόγων, σε όλα τα µήκη της Ευρώπης, που µας επιτρέπει να επικοινωνούµε για θέµατα κοινού ενδιαφέροντος. Πιθανόν όλοι οι συµµετέχοντες σε αυτή την Εκπαιδευτική Σύµπραξη Grundtvig να συµφωνούν - τηρουµένων των αναλογιών - µε την εταίρο από τη Φινλανδία, όταν κλείνει τη δική της εισήγηση µε τα εξής λόγια: «Σας ευχαριστώ για την ευκαιρία που µου δόθηκε να παρουσιάσω αδροµερώς την κλασική λογοτεχνία της Φινλανδίας και τη δουλειά της εταιρείας µας σε αυτούς τους υπέροχους, σκληρά εργαζόµενους επαγγελµατίες από την Εσθονία, το Λουξεµβούργο, την Ουγγαρία και την Ελλάδα. Κατά τη διάρκεια του προγράµµατος, µας αποκαλύφθηκε ένας θαυµαστός, πολύπλευρος κόσµος µουσείων λογοτεχνών, που επιδεικνύουν δηµιουργικότητα στην παρουσίαση και επιµέλεια στη συντήρηση». Τούτο αποδεικνύει περίτρανα πως οι επαγγελµατίες και οι εκπαιδευόµενοι του συγκεκριµένου χώρου µιλούν την ίδια γλώσσα και έχουν όρεξη να εµπλακούν σε µια γόνιµη συνεργασία – επισήµανση ουσιαστική, την οποία επιχειρεί να κάνει η παρούσα έκδοση.


Translation of the Introduction


SOKSZÍNŰSÉG ÉS HASONLÓSÁG: GYAKORLATOK ÖSSZEHASONLÍTÁSA ÉS TANULÁSI LEHETŐSÉGEK EURÓPA IRODALMI INTÉZMÉNYEIBEN BEVEZETÉS Irodalmi társaságok és múzeumok az Európai Unió minden országában léteznek. Központi szerepet játszanak az irodalmi örökség megőrzésében és közvetítésében, és nagymértékben hozzájárulnak a kortárs irodalmi élethez. Olyan alappilléreit képezik az élethosszig tartó tanulásnak, amelyek lehetővé teszik, hogy a felnőttek bővíthessék tudásukat és készségeiket. Annak ellenére, hogy hasonló kihívásokkal szembesülnek, és hasonló feladatokat látnak el egész Európában, úgy tűnik, hogy ezek között az intézmények között hiányzik a kommunikáció nemzetközi szinten. Néhány intézmény és szervezet ezért szükségesnek és előnyösnek látta, hogy európai szinten nagyobb számú transznacionális tapasztalatcserét és együttműködést ösztönözzön. Ilyen módon alakult ki az azonos területen dolgozó szervezetek közös projektjének gondolata és ebből jött létre később a Grundtvig tanulási partnerprogram.

A projekt A Grundtvig Tanulási Partnerprogram Tanulási lehetőségek összehasonlítása az irodalmi örökségek terén (Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage) projektje Gesa Schubert kezdeményezéséből származik 190

(Irodalmi társaságok és emlékhelyek németországi szervezete; Arbeitsgemeinschaft Literarischer Gesellschaften und Gedenkstätten (ALG)), aki az ALG feltételeiről előkészítő megbeszélést hívott össze 2010-ben Berlinben. A megbeszélés során körvonalazódott a résztvevők névsora és egyetértés született a partnerkapcsolat pontos koncepcióját illetően is. Az alábbi partnereket értve alatta: Észtország: az Észt Írók Múzeumainak Szövetsége (Association of Estonian Writers’ Museums); Finnország: Finn Irodalmi Egyesületek ernyőszervezte (Umbrella Organization of Finnish Literature Associations; Nimikot); Görögország: Nikos Kazantzakis Múzeum (Nikos Kazantzakis Museum); Magyarország: Petőfi Irodalmi Múzeum és Luxemburg: Luxemburgi Irodalmi Központ és Archívum (Luxembourg Literary Centre/ Literary Archives). A partnerek rövid bemutatkozása megtalálható a kötet végén. E szereplők mindegyikének közös célja, hogy közelebb hozzák az irodalmat a nagyközönség számára, olvasásra ösztönözve és ráébresztve az irodalom értékeire, valamint elősegítve az irodalommal kapcsolatos tanulási folyamatokat, a klasszikusoktól a kortárs szerzőkig. E célok elérése érdekében mindannyian oktatási programokat szerveztek gyermekek, felnőttek és szakemberek számára, az oktatás és különösen a szakmai képzés sokszorosító hatásával élve. A Tanulási lehetőségek összehasonlítása az irodalmi örökségek terén (Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage) projektet 2011-2013-ig jóváhagyta az Európai Bizottság Grundtvig Élethosszig Tartó Tanulás Programja. Az Unió Grundtvig programjának neve a dán lelkész és gondolkodó nevéből származik Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig (1783–1872), aki sokat tett a felnőttoktatásért. A program célja, hogy a felnőttek lehetőséget kapjanak ismereteik és készségeik fejlesztésére, és tanárok, képzésvezetők, segítő személyzet és a felnőttoktatásban résztvevő tanulók számára készült, beleértve a szervezeteket és kutatóközpontokat, valamint azokat is, akik önkéntes csoportokkal dolgoznak. A program a tanulási tevékenységek sorát támogatja, például utazási költségeket és szakmai programokat a felnőttképzésben külföldön dolgozók számára. A Grundtvig Tanulási Partnerprogramok kifejezetten olyan szervezetek közötti, kisebb keretű együttműködési tevékenységek számára lettek kialakítva, amelyek a legtágabb értelemben véve a felnőttképzés területén működnek. A hangsúly a kisebb szervezeteken van, akik európai szinten szeretnék kiszélesíteni aktivitásukat és együttműködésüket. A közreműködő intézményeket arra bátorítják, hogy ellenőrizzék és értékeljék projekttevékenységüket, összekapcsolva azt a helyi közösségek kezdeményezéseivel és nemzeti szinten együttműködve a szervezetekkel 191

és hatóságokkal. Ennek eredményeképpen képesek a legjobb gyakorlatok előmozdítására, biztosítják a partnerkapcsolat széleskörű eredményeinek hatásait és maximalizálják a transznacionális cserekapcsolat értékeit. A Grundtvig Partnerprogram Tanulási lehetőségek összehasonlítása az irodalmi örökség terén (Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage) projekt célja mindenekelőtt az volt, hogy biztosítsák a résztvevők számára a lehetőséget, hogy szakértők segítségével összehasonlíthassák és megvitathassák a felnőttek tanulási lehetőségeit az irodalmi örökség terének azonos területén, de különböző országaiban, és eredményeit a nagyközönség számára megmutassák. A munkaterv egyaránt magába foglalja a résztvevő országok csoportos találkozóit és a múzeumi dolgozók, tanulók munkahelyi megfigyelését (job-shadowing) a résztvevő országok igényeinek és érdekeinek megfelelően. A folyamatorientált partnerkapcsolatnak köszönhetően a munkahelyi megfigyelés (job-shadowing) lehetőségei a projekt középpontjában álltak első kézből származó tapasztalatokat biztosítva a múzeumi személyzet és a tanulók számára a külföldi intézményekben. Minden intézet kialakította saját módszereit és legjobb gyakorlatait a felnőtt tanulók részvételét illetően, és a partner intézménnyel való közvetlen tapasztatok megosztásánál ez felbecsülhetetlen értékűnek bizonyult. Ennek következtében fontos eredmény volt a hasonló szervezetek hatalmas hálózatának megalapítása egész Európában, ami a „gyakorlatias” tanulást lehetővé tette. A transznacionális perspektíva megengedte a nemzeti korlátok leküzdését, az innovatív szempontok alkalmazását és az új elképzelések kidolgozását a résztvevő intézmények gyakorlati tevékenységében. Annak érdekében, hogy a nagyközönség jobban megismerje ezt a projektet, többek között az a döntés született, hogy a partnerkapcsolat kézzelfogható eredményeit három állandó megjelenési formában mutatják meg, amelyhez együttműködően hozzájárult minden partner: 1) a közös kérdőíven alapuló alábbi felmérés; 2) egy irodalmi szereplőkről szóló online kiállítás nemzeti irodalmaink alapvető alkotásaiból; 3) egy közvetlenül elérhető weblap vagy blog, ami az információcsere fórumának szerepét látja el. A blog nemcsak a kommunikáció közvetítésének eszköze, hanem valódi webarchívum is, ahol a partnerkapcsolat mibenléte és tevékenysége is dokumentálásra került, valamint bemutatja a Grundtvig programot és a résztvevő intézményeket is. Ez a blog nyilvánosan elérhető és az interneten marad az egykori partnerkapcsolat élettartamán túl is. Elérhető az intézmények weblapjain keresztül vagy közvetlenül a oldalon. 192

A kitalált karakterekről szóló virtuális kiállítás azon az elképzelésen alapszik, hogy az irodalmi szereplők sokkal szélesebb közönségréteget biztosítanak, mint talán a mű teljes egésze: az irodalom közvetlen és személyes elérését. Az Ulyesses, a Don Quijote, a Lear király és az Anna Karenina azoknak a képzeletét is megmozgatja, akik még nem olvastak kortárs szerzőket. Ha mindez érvényes a világirodalom klasszikusaira, érvényesnek kellene lennie kevésbé ismert alkotásokra is. Ennek értelmében a kiállítás elősegíti a partner országok néha nem túl jól ismert irodalmának megismerését, és hozzáférhetővé teszi azt az európai olvasóközönség nagyobb része számára. A korlátlan lehetőségeknek köszönhetően később újabb és újabb együttműködési projektek előtt nyílhat meg az út. A kiállítás a www. oldalon található és az intézmények honlapjainak segítségével is elérhető. A partnerkapcsolat harmadik kézzelfogható eredménye ez a kiadvány, ami a résztvevő országok irányításával készült és az irodalmi örökség tanulási lehetőségeit számba vevő felmérésről szól. Egy gyakorlati kézikönyvet takar; elképzeléseket, gyakorlatokat, tapasztalatokat és a találkozók tapasztalatcseréjének, ismereteinek gyűjteményét. Kötelességünk volt megosztani mindezt ezt a nagyközönséggel, kiemelve benne a témára vonatkozó tanulási lehetőségeket és tájékoztatást nyújtani más szerzők számára.

A felmérés Ez a felmérés egy vitaindító értekezlet workshopján született kérdések széleskörű jegyzéke. A kérdőív a szervezeteink és intézményeink tevékenységének fókuszában álló három tematikus terület köré épül. A címek e kötet három fő fejezetében az alábbi módon jelennek meg: 1) kommunikáció, promóció és tájékoztatás; 2) a hallgatóság elérésének módjai 3) irodalmi örökségünk támogatásának európai szempontja. A koordináció elsősorban az alábbi országoknak köszönhető: Magyarország, Görögország és Finnország. A felmérést mindegyik országban a téma szakértői irányították. A nemzeti szinten elért eredményeket ezt követően bemutatták, összevetve és megvitatva azt számos csoportos értekezleten. E kötet a megbeszélések eredményeit teszi elérhetővé. Az öt fő fejezet a megbeszélések előadásait tartalmazza. A tartalomjegyzékből látható, hogy a tanulmányoknak hasonló szerkezetűek és hasonló részekből állnak. Ez biztosítja a cikkek információs részének szoros összehasonlíthatóságát. Ha egy olvasó a kiállításpolitikák összevetésére 193

keres példákat a fenti intézményeket illetően, akkor egyszerűen beazonosíthatja azokat mind az öt tanulmány „kiállításpolitika és irodalomtörténet” című első fejezetéből. Ha többet szeretne tudni arról, hogyan próbálnak ezek az intézmények új közönségre szert tenni, megnézheti a “legjobb gyakorlatok és innovatív ötletek az új közönség elérésére” című második részt minden egyes fejezetben. Az olvasó így teljes egységként forgathatja e könyvet, de ha bizonyos szempontok alapján keres megfeleltetéseket, akkor könnyen megteheti azt a megfelelő szakaszok részeinek tanulmányozásával. Mi fog találni az olvasó a következő oldalakon? A könnyű összehasonlíthatóságnak köszönhetően nincs szükség részletes útmutatóra az egyes tanulmányok között. Érdemes ugyanakkor néhány példát hozni a különböző fejezeteket összekötő témákkal kapcsolatos megközelítésekre, problémákra és megoldásokra. Ezekről a témákról a partnereknek közösen kellett döntést hoznia.

Különbségek és hasonlóságok A cikkek olvasásakor és a partnerek összehasonlításakor első pillantásra a legszembetűnőbb a földrajzi, történelmi változatosság, a küldetés és jogállás, az erőforrások és gyakorlatok sokszínűségének benyomása. A partnerek nem ugyanabból a kulturális térségből származnak, ami az EU országok sokszínűségének tekintetében aligha lehetett volna megfelelőbb a Grundtvig Partnerprogram számára. A projekt partnerei az Európai Unió északi, déli, keleti és nyugati országaiból származnak. Arányuk szerint történelmileg az alapítót tagoktól a relatíve korán és relatíve későn, illetve az EU utolsó bővülésénél, 2004-ben csatlakozó országok közé tartoznak. A résztvevő országok skálája ennél már nem is lehetne változatosabb. Ez a földrajzi sokszínűség, illetve az illető intézmények mögötti különböző történelmi és kulturális hagyományok is megfigyelhetők a kötet egészében. Leglátványosabban és koncentráltabban azonban a harmadik rész foglalkozik mindezzel, az „Irodalmi örökségünk európai elősegítésének szempontja” című fejezetben, ahol, többek között, a nemzeti irodalmak szélesebb regionális és európai kontextusukban jelennek meg. Az olvasó képet nyerhet azokról a különböző kulturális erőforrásokról, amelyek öt különböző nemzeti irodalmi területen befolyásolták és alakították ki nemzeteinket és intézményeinket egyaránt. Akiket érdekelnek az irodalmi hátterek és különböző nemzeti hagyományok, értékes információkhoz juthatnak ebben a fejezetben. 194

Ehhez a kulturális változatossághoz társul a küldetések, jogállások és szervezeti struktúrák sokszínűsége. A csoport tagjai irodalmi egyesületekből, az irodalmi múzeumok egy szervezetéből és három irodalmi archívummal rendelkező irodalmi múzeumból álló ernyőszervezetből tevődtek össze. Széles skálájuk az olyan szakképzett állománnyal és hatalmas gyűjteménnyel rendelkező gyűjteménytől, mint például Petőfi Irodalmi Múzeum a kicsi, kizárólag önkéntesekkel dolgozó ernyőszervezetekig terjed, mint például a finn Nikimot. Egyes intézmények osztoznak az irodalmi örökség gyűjtésének, megőrzésének, tanulmányozásának és megjelenítésének nemzeti küldetésében, míg mások kizárólag egy szerzőre és annak alkotásaira összpontosítanak. Az olvasó, aki szeretné összehasonlítani az általános hatáskörű és saját küldetéssel rendelkező partnerek munkáját, megteheti azt a minden fejezet elején található „Általános küldetés” című részben. Az intézmények jelenlegi gyakorlatának részletekben rejlő különbségei is megfigyelhetők. Erre lehet példa az önkéntesség tárgyköre, amelynek különböző megközelítéseit a „Múzeumi közönség és társadalmi befogadás” és „Az irodalmi örökség támogatása: az önkéntesség és a múzeumi szervezetek” című részben elemezzük az egyes fejezetek második részében. Míg egyes országokban az önkéntesség kevésbé gyakori, más szervezetek számára kulcsfontosságúnak tűnik. Annak ellenére, hogy az önkéntesség eszközét különbözőképpen ítéljük meg, mindannyian igénybe vesszük azt, egyrészt azért, mert tevékenységünk alapja az önkéntesség vagy mert megpróbáljuk kitölteni a személyi hiányokat, vagy azért, mert az önkéntesség és a szakmai gyakorlat lehetőségének biztosítása része a szélesebb körű oktatási küldetésünknek és célunknak, a társadalmi befogadásnak. Ez arra mutat, hogy intézményeink gyakorlatában a különbözőségek ellenére mély és meglepő hasonlóságok vannak a gyakorlatot, törekvéseket és problémákat illetően. Egy kiemelt példával élve: a bemutatott múzeumok között többen hasonló múzeumi célközönségben gondolkodunk: gyerekek és diákok minden korosztálya, kutatók, az általánosan művelt nagyközönség és az idősebb korosztály. Noha ez csak egy példa az alapvető hasonlóságokra, igen jelentős, hiszen nagyrészt ez alkotja tevékenységeink bázisát, például oktatási programjainkat, ahogy ez a kötet megfelelő részeiben olvasható. Az irodalmi oktatás és irodalmi emlékezet közötti területek hasonlóságának és különbözőségének másik példája minden fejezet harmadik, egyben utolsó, „Európai örökség” című részében jelenik meg koncentráltan. Összevetve azokat az írókat, költőket, akikről utcát neveztek el, szobrot emeltek vagy bélyeget adtak ki, vagy akinek a születésnapja ünnepelt esemény, arra jöhet rá az olvasó, hogy a regionális 195

kultúrákra reflektáló nevek variációi mellett Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Victor Hugo, Alexander Puskin neve tendenciaszerűen visszatér egész Európában, miközben tagországainkban kevés helyen emlékeznek meg Dante Alighieri, Maxim Gorkij, Friedrich Schiller, William Shakespeare vagy Lev Tolsztoj nevéről. Nyilvánvaló, hogy szigorú értelemben véve Európa egyetlen irodalmi valóság. Ennek következtében a felmérés legfőbb megállapítása lehet az általános értelemben vett sokszínűség és egyben hasonlóság a résztvevő intézmények és az általuk kínált tanulási lehetőségek között. A kötetet lapjain keresztül az irodalmi örökség Európát átszövő sokszínű, mégis összevethető gyakorlatainak és tanulási lehetőségeinek további példáit fedezhetjük fel. A mieinkhez hasonló intézmények megkönnyíthetik a közös európai irodalmi örökség megítélését, ami köteléket jelent közöttünk. A partnerkapcsolatba való teljes betekintés a különbözőségek ellenére is azt mutatja, hogy közös céljaink vannak, és hasonló problémákkal nézünk szembe. A nemzeti és kulturális határokon túl az irodalmi múzeumok és archívumok közössége, az írói otthonok és szervezetek egész Európán keresztül léteznek lehetővé téve a témáról szóló közös vonatkozású kommunikációt. A Grundtvig Partnerprogramban résztvevők mutatis mutandis feltehetően valamennyien egyetértenek a finn partnerrel, aki e szavakkal foglalta össze tanulmányát: „Köszönöm a lehetőséget, hogy a finn klasszikus irodalmat és egyesületünk munkáját széles körben bemutathattuk Észtországból, Luxemburgból, Magyarországról és Görögországból érkező fantasztikus és keményen dolgozó szakembereknek. A projekt során feltárult előttünk az irodalmi múzeumok csodálatos, sokoldalú, kreatív módszerekkel bemutatott és gondosan megőrzött világa.” Ez nagyon jól mutatja, hogy a szakemberek és a tanulók ezen a téren nyilvánvalóan „közös nyelvet” beszélnek és készek arra, hogy részt vegyenek egy gyümölcsöző együttműködésben. Ez a gondolat pontosan kifejezi azt, amelyre ez a kiadvány törekedett.


Translation of the Introduction


VERSCHIDDEN AN AWER ÄHNLECH: LÉIERMÉIGLECHKEETEN AN DE LITERARESCHEN INSTITUTIOUNEN AN EUROPA Aleedung An alle Länner vun der Europäescher Unioun gëtt et literaresch Gesellschaften a Muséeën. Si spillen eng zentral Roll, wann et drëm geet, d’literarescht Ierwen z’erhalen a weiderzeginn, si droe vill zum literaresche Liewe vun haut bäi a sinn eng wichteg Stäip fir de liewenslaange Léierprozess, deen et den Erwuessenen erlaabt, hiert Wëssen an hir Kompetenzen ze erweideren. Obwuel dës literaresch Institutiounen a ganz Europa vergläichbar Aufgaben hunn a mat vergläichbaren Erausfuerderunge konfrontéiert sinn, schéngt op internationalem Plang net genuch tëscht dësen Institutioune kommunizéiert ze ginn. Méi en intensiven transnationalen Austausch a méi Zesummenaarbecht op europäeschem Niveau sinn awer noutwenneg an nëtzlech fir d’Aarbecht vun all dësen Institutiounen an esou ass d’Iddi entstanen, e gemeinsame Projet mat Partner, déi am selwechte Beräich aktiv sinn, op d’Been ze stellen, e Projet, dee sech zu enger GrundtvigLéierpartnerschaft sollt entwéckelen.


De Projet D’Grundtvig-Léierpartnerschaft Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage geet zeréck op eng Initiativ vum Gesa Schubert vun der däitscher Arbeitsgemeinschaft literarischer Gesellschaften und Gedenkstätten (ALG), déi 2010 en éischt Treffen an de Gebailechkeete vun der ALG zu Berlin organiséiert hat. Bei dësem Treffe gouf nieft der Lëscht vu Participanten och e präziist Konzept fir d’Partnerschaft opgestallt. Um Projet hu sech Partner aus Estland, Finnland, Griicheland, Ungarn a Lëtzebuerg bedeelegt: d’Vereenegung vun den estnesche Schrëftsteller-Muséeën, den Daachverband vun de literaresche Gesellschaften a Finnland (Nimikot), de Musée Nikos Kazantzakis, de Petőfi-Literaturmuseum an d’Lëtzebuerger Literaturarchiv. Um Enn vum Buch ginn dës Partner kuerz virgestallt. Dat grousst Zil, dat all dës Akteure matenee verbënnt, ass, de Leit dobaussen d’Literatur méi no ze bréngen, se ze motivéieren ze liesen, hinnen de Wäert an d’Bedeitung vu Literatur bewosst ze maachen an esou Literatur-baséiert Léierprozesser unzestoussen, an déi klassesch an zäitgenëssesch Auteuren agebonne ginn. Fir dat z’erreechen, organiséieren d’Partner Bildungsprogrammer fir Kanner, Erwuessener a Fachleit a schaffe mat Multiplicateuren aus dem Bildungsberäich, virun allem de Léierberuffer, zesummen. De Projet Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage ass vum Grundtvig-Lifelong-Learning-Programm vun der Europäescher Kommissioun fir d’Joren 2011-2013 guttgeheescht ginn. Der EU hire Grundtvig-Programm, benannt nom dänesche Paschtouer, Philosoph a Vollekspädagog Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig (1783-1872), soll et Erwuessenen erméiglechen, hiert Wëssen an hir Kompetenzen ze verbesseren. D’Zilgruppe si Léierpersonal, Formateuren, Mataarbechter a Léierwëlleger an der Erwuessenebildung, dorënner och déi, déi a fräiwëllege Gruppen, Vereenegungen a Forschungszentren täteg sinn. De Programm finanzéiert Léieraktivitéite wéi z. B. Austausch- a Weiderbildungsprogrammer fir Leit, déi an der Erwuessenebildung schaffen. Grundtvig-Léierpartnerschafte bidden e Kader, dee speziell konzipéiert ass fir Kooperatiounsaktivitéite mat begrenztem Ëmfang tëschent Organisatiounen, déi am Beräich vun der Erwuessenebildung – am breede Sënn vum Wuert – aktiv sinn. Virun allem kleng Organisatiounen, déi hir Aktivitéiten a Kooperatiounen op europäeschem Plang wëllen intensivéieren, sollen deelhuelen. Den Institutiounen, déi matmaachen, gëtt geroden, hir Projektaarbecht z’iwwerwaachen an z’evaluéieren, 198

se mat aneren Initiativen op lokalem Plang ze verbannen a mat Organisatiounen an Administratiounen op nationalem Plang zesummenzeschaffen. Esou gi Prozesser, déi sech bewäert hunn, gefërdert, e méiglechst breeden Impakt vun de Resultater vun dëser Partnerschaft gëtt erméiglecht an de Wäert vum transnationalen Austausch maximéiert. D’Zil vun der Grundtvig-Partnerschaft Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage war, de Participante Geleeënheet ze ginn, d’Léierméiglechkeete vun Erwuessenen am Beräich vum literareschen Ierwen ze vergläichen, se zesumme mat den Experten aus deenen anere Länner ze diskutéieren an d’Resultater ze verëffentlechen. Um Aarbechtsplang stounge Gruppesëtzungen an alle Länner, déi matgemaach hunn, souwéi Job-Shadowing fir Musées-Personal a Léierwëlleger, jee no Besoin an Intressi vun de jeeweilege Partner. D’Partnerschaft ass virun allem prozess-orientéiert, duerfir war den Job-Shadowing fir Museés-Personal an erwuesse Léierwëlleger, wou si Erfarungen an auslänneschen Institutioune konnte sammelen, en zentrale Punkt vum Projet. Jiddwer Institut huet seng eege Methoden a bewäerte Prozesser entwéckelt, fir Erwuessener ze motivéieren. Dës an der Praxis an de Partnerinstitutioune matzerliewen huet sech als enorm wäertvoll erwisen. Den Opbau vun engem breede Kontaktnetzwierk vun ähnlechen Institutiounen a ganz Europa, dat en informellt a praxisorientéiert Léieren erméiglecht, war dohier e wichtegt Resultat vun dësem Projet. Déi transnational Perspektiv huet dozou bäigedroen, datt national Aschränkungen iwwerwonne goufen, datt Raum entstanen ass fir innovativ Standpunkter an nei Iddie fir déi praktesch Aarbecht an den Institutioune konnten entwéckelt ginn. Fir dëse Projet bei enger breeder Ëffentlechkeet méi bekannt ze maachen, sollte gräifbar Resultater entstoen, an esou gouf ënner anerem decidéiert, dräi dauerhaft Produiten, zu deenen d’Partner all bäigedroen hunn, ze realiséieren: 1) dës Ëmfro op Basis vun engem gemeinsame Froebou; 2) eng Online-Ausstellung vu literaresche Figuren aus deene wichtegsten nationale literaresche Wierker; 3) ee fir jiddereen zougänglechen Weblog als Forum fir den Informatiounsaustausch. De Weblog ass net nëmmen als Kommunikatiounsinstrument geduecht, ma als e web-baséiert Archiv, dat d’konzeptuell Grondlag an d’Aktivitéite vun der Partnerschaft dokumentéiert an de Grundtvig-Programm wéi och d’Instituter, déi matmaachen, virstellt. En ass ëffentlech zougänglech a bleift och nom Enn vun der formaler Partnerschaft am Netz. Dorop zougräife kann een iwwer d’Homepage vun der jeeweileger Institutioun oder direkt iwwer 199

Der virtueller Ausstellung vu fiktionale Figuren aus der Literatur vun eise Länner läit d’Iddi zugronn, datt literaresch Figuren, vläicht méi wéi d’Wierker als Ganzt, méi grousse Lieserschaften en direkten a perséinlechen Zougang zur Literatur verschafen. Ulysses, Don Quichote, King Lear, Faust und Anna Karenina reegen d’Phantasie och vun deenen un, déi di betreffend Wierker net gelies hunn. Wann dat fir d’Figuren aus de Klassiker vun der Weltliteratur gëllt, da gëllt et och fir déi aus manner bekannte Wierker. D’Ausstellung soll dem breeden europäesche Public en Zougang zur heiansdo manner bekannte Literatur vun de Partnerlänner verschafen. Si ka weider ausgebaut ginn an esou en Ausgangspunkt fir eng Rei vun neie Kooperatiounsprojete sinn. Ze fannen ass se op http://www.literarycharacters. eu/ oder iwwer d’Homepage vun eisen Institutiounen. Dat drëtt konkret Resultat vun dësem Partnerschaftsprojet ass dës Publicatioun. Si baséiert op enger Ëmfro iwwer Léierméiglechkeeten am Beräich vum literareschen Ierwen, déi an de Partnerlänner duerchgefouert gouf. Als praktescht Handbuch faasst se alles zesummen, wat an eise Reuniounen zur Sprooch koum: Iddien, Praktiken, Erfarungen a Wëssen. Si steet dem breede Public zur Verfügung, weist Léierméiglechkeeten op a kann aneren Akteuren an dësem Beräich als Referenz déngen.

D’Ëmfro D’Ëmfro baséiert op engem breede Froekatalog, dee bei eisem Kick-off-Meeting zesummegestallt gouf. De Froebou ass ëm dräi Themeberäicher erëm opgebaut, déi vun zentraler Bedeitung fir d’Aarbecht vun eisen Organisatiounen an Institutioune sinn, an als Iwwerschrëfte fir déi dräi jeeweileg Ënnerkaptitele vun de fënnef Haaptkapitele vum Buch gewielt goufen: 1) Kommunikatioun, Fërderung a Sensibiliséierung; 2) Weeër, de Public z’erreechen; an 3) den europäeschen Aspekt an der Fërderung vun eisem literareschem Ierwen. Dës dräi Aspekter goufe vun eise Partner aus Ungarn, Griicheland respektiv Finnland koordinéiert. Befrot goufe wichteg Akteuren aus dem literaresche Feld vun all Land. Déi national Resultater goufen an enger Rei vu Reunioune virgestallt, verglach an diskutéiert. D’Resultater vun de Sëtzunge goufen an dësem Buch zesummegestallt. Déi fënnef Haaptkapitele baséieren op de Presentatiounen aus de Gruppesëtzungen. Si sinn all d’nämmlecht opgebaut an an déi nämmlecht Abschnitter ënnerdeelt, sou datt déi verschidden Informatiounen aus all Kapitel kamoud kënne matenee verglach ginn. Lieser, déi z. B. d’Richtlinne fir Ausstellunge vun de respektiven Institutioune 200

wëlle vergläichen, kënnen dat am Abschnitt Exhibition policies and literary history am éischten Deel vun de fënnef Kapitelen nokucken. A wa se méi doriwwer wëlle wëssen, wéi d’Institutioune virginn, fir e neie Public z’interesséieren, fanne se Informatiounen dozou am Abschnitt Best practices and innovative ideas in engaging new audiences am zweeten Deel vun all Kapitel. Et kann een d’Buch also als Ganzt liesen oder awer, wann ee verschidden Aspekter wëll matenee vergläichen, just déi betreffend Abschnitter an all Artikel nosichen. Wat fënnt de Lieser op den nächste Säiten? Déi eenzel Bäiträg loosse sech liicht matenee vergläichen, sou datt keng detailléiert Beschreiwung néideg ass, wéi dëst Buch ze benotzen ass. Zur Illustratioun kann et nawell derwäert sinn, e puer Beispiller ze gi fir d’Approchen, d’Problemer an d’Léisungen an e puer vun de Beräicher, mat deene sech d’Partner beschäftegt hunn an déi di verschidde Kapitele matenee verbannen.

Ënnerscheeder an Ähnlechkeeten Beim Liese kritt een d’éischt emol en Androck vun enger Villfalt, wat Geographie, Geschicht, Missioun a Rechtslag, Ressourcen a Praktiken ugeet. D’Partner kommen net aus enger an därselwechter kultureller Regioun. Fir en Androck vun der Diversitéit bannent der EU wëllen ze ginn, hätt een d’Länner net besser kënnen auswiele wéi bei dëser Grundtvig-Partnerschaft. D’Projektpartner kommen aus dem Norden an dem Süden, dem Osten an dem Weste vun der Europäescher Unioun. Historesch gesinn ass, wat d’EU-Memberschaft ugeet, alles ofgedeckt: vum Grënnungsmember iwwer relativ fréi a relativ spéit EU-Membere bis zu deene Länner, déi bei der leschter Erweiderung 2004 derbäikoumen. D’Länner kéinte kaum méi ënnerschiddlech sinn. Dëser geographescher Diversitéit wéi och de verschiddenen historeschen a kulturellen Traditiounen hannert de respektiven Organisatioune gëtt ee sech duerch dat ganzt Buch erduerch ëmmer erëm bewosst. Am beschten an an enger ganz konzentréierter Form gesäit een dat awer am drëtten Deel, The European aspect of promoting our literary heritage, wou, ënner anerem, déi national Literaturen an e méi breede regionalen an europäesche Kontext gesat ginn. De Lieser kritt en Androck vun de verschiddene kulturelle Kräften, déi eis fënnef verschidden national literaresch Felder beaflosst an eis Länner wéi och eis Institutioune geformt hunn. Wie sech fir d’Diversitéit vun de literareschen Hannergrënn an déi verschidden national Traditiounen interesséiert, dee kritt an dëse Kapitele wäertvoll Informatiounen. 201

Bei dës kulturell Villfalt kommen nach ënnerschiddlech Aufgaben, Rechtslagen an Organisatiounsstrukturen derbäi. An der Grupp waren en Daachverband fir literaresch Associatiounen, eng Associatioun vu literaresche Muséeën an dräi literaresch Muséeë mat Literaturarchiver vertrueden. An och hei geet et vum personell gutt besaten Institut mat grousse Sammlunge wéi dem Musée Petőfi bis zur klenger Daachorganisatioun mat exklusiv fräiwëllege Mataarbechter wéi der finnescher Nimikot. Wat d’Aufgabe betrëfft, sou hunn déi eng den Optrag, dat nationaalt literarescht Ierwen ze sammelen, z’erhalen, ze studéieren an zougänglech ze maachen, anerer konzentréiere sech op en eenzelnen Auteur a säi Wierk. Lieser, déi d’Bandbreet vun de Partner hirer Aarbecht an hir respektiv Missioune wëlle vergläichen, fannen déi néideg Informatiounen an den Abschnitter General information and mission um Ufank vun all Kapitel. Ënnerscheeder kann een och an der alldeeglecher Praxis vun eisen Instituter feststellen. Ee Beispill dofir sinn déi verschidde Forme vun der éierenamtlecher Mataarbecht, déi an den Abschnitter Museum audiences and social inclusion a Fostering literary heritage: volunteering and museum associations am zweeten Deel vun all Kapitel analyséiert ginn. Et gi Länner, an deenen éierenamtlech Mataarbecht éischter ongewinnt ass, während se an aneren eng bedeitend Roll spillt. Nawell gräife mer all op déi eng oder aner Manéier op fräiwëlleg Aarbecht zeréck, entweder well et Traditioun huet, well mer Personalenkpäss mussen opfänken oder well et zu eisem Bildungsoptrag an eisem Zil vun enger sozialer Integratioun gehéiert, Méiglechkeete fir Stagen an éierenamtlech Aktivitéiten ze schafen. Trotz den Ënnerscheeder gëtt et awer och staark Ähnlechkeeten an der praktescher Aarbecht, de Bestriewungen a Problemer vun eisen Institutiounen. Een opfällegt Beispill sinn déi respektiv Muséesvisiteuren, well mir, wéi et schéngt, déi nämmlecht Zilgruppe viséieren: Schüler a Studenten, Fuerscher, den interesséierte Public an déi eeler Leit. Dëst ass zwar nëmmen en eenzelt, ma awer wichtegt Beispill fir fundamental Ähnlechkeeten. E groussen Deel vun eisen Aktivitéite berout nämlech op deem Punkt, zum Beispill eis Bildungsprogrammer, wéi an de betreffenden Abschnitter an dësem Buch ze gesinn ass. En anert Beispill fir d’Koexistenz vun Ënnerscheeder an Ähnlechkeeten an de Beräicher vun der literarescher Bildung an der literarescher Memoire an eise Länner fënnt een am drëtten a leschten Deel vun all Kapitel, dat sech mam European Heritage beschäftegt. Wann een d’Nimm vun de Schrëftsteller vergläicht, no deene Stroosse benannt sinn, fir déi Monumenter opgeriicht goufen, vun deenen et Timbere gëtt an deenen hire Gebuertsdag gefeiert gëtt, sou fënnt een eraus, datt, 202

nieft enger Rëtsch vun Nimm, déi regional Erënnerungskulture reflektéieren, e puer Nimm ëmmer erëm a bal ganz Europa opdauchen – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Victor Hugo, Alexander Puschkin –, an un anerer – Dante Alighieri, Maxim Gorki, Friedrich Schiller, William Shakespeare a Leo Tolstoi – op d’mannst an e puer vun eise Memberstaaten erënnert gëtt. Offensichtlech ass Europa eng literaresch Realitéit. Déi wichtegst Feststellung aus der Ëmfro kéint also déi sinn, datt et an der allgemenger Diversitéit Ähnlechkeeten tëschent de Partnerinstitutiounen an de Léierméiglechkeeten, déi si ubidden, gëtt. Vill aner Beispiller vun ënnerschiddlechen, ma vergläichbare Praktiken a Léierméiglechkeeten am Beräich vum literareschen Ierwen a ganz Europa sinn an den Aarbechten an dësem Band ze fannen. Instituter wéi eis kënnen dozou bäidroen, datt ee sech bewosst gëtt, datt mir an Europa e gemeinsamt literarescht Ierwen hunn, dat eis matenee verbënnt. Dës Partnerschaft huet gewisen, datt mir an eiser Ënnerschiddlechkeet gemeinsam Ziler verfollegen an ähnleche Problemer géintiwwerstinn. Iwwer national a kulturell Grenzen ewech gëtt et a ganz Europa eng lieweg Gemeinschaft vu literaresche Muséeën an Archiven, Schrëftstellerhaiser an Associatiounen, déi en Austausch zu Theme vu gemeinsamem Intressi erméiglecht. All déi, déi an dëser Grundtvig-Partnerschaft matgeschafft hunn, sinn, mutatis mutandis, sécher averstane mat de Wierder vun der finnescher Partnerin, déi hir Aarbecht mat de Wierder ofschléisst: “Merci fir d’Méiglechkeet, dëse phantasteschen, fläissege Fachleit aus Estland, Lëtzebuerg, Ungarn a Griicheland déi finnesch klassesch Literatur an d’Aarbecht vun eiser Associatioun kënne virzestellen. Während dem Projet huet sech eis eng erstaunlech, villsäiteg, kreativ duergestallten a gewëssenhaft erhale Welt vu Schrëftsteller-Muséeën erschloss.” Dës Wierder brénge schéin d‘Conclusioun vun eiser Léierpartnerschaft zum Ausdrock, nämlech datt Fachleit a Léierwëlleger an dësem Beräich “déiselwecht Sprooch“ schwätzen a sech mat Freed op eng Zesummenaarbecht aloossen.


Partner institutions


ASSOCIATION OF ESTONIAN WRITERS’ MUSEUMS The non-profit organization Association of Estonian Writers’ Museums embraces almost all the museums in Estonia that are connected with writers or literature. Our main objectives are: valuing and protecting the Estonian literary heritage; presenting and advancing knowledge on Estonian literature, cultural history and writers in Estonia; participating in Estonian and European networks and projects; in-practice schooling and training of the writers’ museums’ employees, protection of their professional interests. The Association arranges joint projects of museums, conferences, events, workshops, exhibitions etc. All together we are aiming at making the writers’ museums more visitor-friendly, modern and professional.


Partner institutions


UMBRELLA ORGANIZATION OF FINNISH LITERATURE ASSOCIATIONS Suomen kirjailijanimikkoseurat – De litterära sällskapen i Finland ry (Nimikot), founded in 2004, is the umbrella organization of Finnish literature associations. In 2013, after nine years of activity, the umbrella organization Nimikot is comprised of 54 member associations with approximately 6,500 members. The most visible form of Nimikot’s activity is the running of the website. The website receives 400 visits per day on average. From the home page, those interested in member associations’ activities can find contact information for the various associations, information about the associations’ work and the author after whom each association is named. Through the site, one can get into contact with or become a member of all of the associations.


Partner institutions


NIKOS KAZANTZAKIS MUSEUM In the island of Crete, in the village of Myrtia, just 15 kilometres from Heraklion, at the place where wine trails meet with the words of Kazantzakis and the gentle Cretan landscape merges with true hospitality, a museum dedicated to the author of Zorba the Greek and The Last Temptation of Christ has been operational since 1983. In a venue where light alternates with shade, visitors are taken on a fascinating journey into the author’s life, words and thoughts through his letters and diaries, personal eects and mementoes from his travels, rarely seen photographs, rare theatrical and audiovisual material, as well as artworks inspired by his literary world.


Partner institutions


PETŐFI LITERARY MUSEUM The Petőfi Literary Museum is the museum of Hungarian literature. It is a national public collection that assembles authors’ written and printed legacies, visual or audiovisual records as well as works of art and relics. The collection of the museum is catalogued and accessible to research. The museum is active in keeping, developing and maintaining the literary memorial houses in the country. Due to its exuberant collections, wide-scale research work, exhibition experience and museum education practices that include museum pedagogy and life-long learning services and numerous public events the museum has become a renowned and outstanding place of professional excellence.


Partner institutions


LUXEMBOURG LITERATURE CENTRE / LITERARY ARCHIVES The Luxembourg Literature Centre / Literary Archives (CNL), a public institute reporting to the Ministry of Culture, is housed in an 18thcentury mansion in Mersch. Founded in 1995, it is a centre for documentation and research on Luxembourg’s literature from the early 19th century until the present day, as well as a focal-point of literary life. The CNL hosts a library, an archive including a manuscript section, media, art and object collections. Its facilities are open to researchers and the general public. In its exhibition rooms, the CNL puts on display regular temporary exhibitions that focus on Luxembourgish literature.




Project participants

Enikő Bauernhuber

Literary programmes organiser and marketing assistant at the Petőfi Literary Museum; MA in French Language and Literature and Hungarian Language and Literature from Eötvös University

Anna Bujtor

Museum pedagogue at the Petőfi Literary Museum; MA in Hungarian Language and Literature from Eötvös University

Claude D. Conter

Director of the Luxembourg Literature Centre; Ph.D. in German Literature from the University of Bamberg; publications on 19th and 20th German and Luxembourgish Literature

János Erlitz

Communication manager at the Petőfi Literary Museum; MA in Culture Managment from the West Hungarian University Savaria Campus; Marketing Communication from Budapest Business School

Gabriella Gulyás

Managing director of the Petőfi Literary Museum; MA in English and Russian literatures from Debrecen University, MEd. from University of Exeter; main area education and management

Anna Illés

Artist at the Museum Data Collection of the Petőfi Literary Museum; MA from the Hungarian University of Fine Arts

Magdolna Kákonyi

Museum pedagogue at the Petőfi Literary Museum; MA in museum pedagogy from Eötvös University

Anneli Kankare

Member of the board of Nimikot (Umbrella organisation of Finnish literature associations) since 2006; commercial education; enthusiastic reader, main subject Finnish literature


Project participants

Berit Kaschan

Curator-pedagogue of A. H. Tammsaare Museum; member of the Association of the Estonian Writers’ Museums; obtained MA (Literary Theory) from the Tallinn University in 2013; main subjects are trauma narrative and intertextuality

Margit Kilter

Guide-pedagogue of Liiv Museum

Csaba Komáromi

Literary museologist at the Manuscript Department of the Petőfi Literary Museum; M.A. in Hungarian Language and Literature from Eötvös University

Siiri Kvell

Researcher at A. H. Tammsaare Museum in Vargamäe; M.A. foresty management from Estonian University of Life Sciences;museum publications and exursions in museum

Antonis Leventis

Head of Planning and Development at the Nikos Kazantzakis Museum; studied archaeology and cultural management; fields of work: digitization, exhibitions, AV productions, multimedia exhibits, editions, shop management, graphic design

Stella Malliaraki

Head of the department of education of the Nikos Kazantzakis Museum; studied archaeology and museum studies; fields of work: Designing and implementing educational activities and programs, outreach activities

Eda Maripuu

Researcher-curator of Muhu Museum

Pierre Marson

Curator at Luxembourg Literature Centre; studied German, philosophy and international relations; teaching degree for secondary schools from Göttingen University; co-author of teaching method for Luxembourgish; publications on Luxembourgish literature


Project participants

Piret Meos

Curator of Eduard Vilde Museum

Marju Mikkel

Assistant, Estonian Cultural History Archive, Estonian Literary Museum; doctoral student in literature and cultural studies, Tartu University; Research interests: Estonian literature of the early 20th century

Ildikó Nagyvári

Programmes organiser at the Petőfi Literary Museum; photographer, librarian; BA from Eszterházy College

Mari Niitra

Director of Liiv Muuseum; PhD student in semiotics at Tartu University; main subjects are children’s literature, cognitive development, myth

Matti Nummenpää

Chairman of the board of Nimikot (Umbrella Organisation of Finnish Literary Associations) since 2004; commercial and technical education; managing director of Kirjakenno

Eszter Pádár

Literary programmes organizer and marketing assistant at the Petőfi Literary Museum; MA in French Language and Literature and Hungarian Language and Literature from Eötvös University

István Rabec

Linguist at the Media Collection of the Petőfi Literary Museum; MA in Hungarian language and History from Komensky University, Bratislava

Eha Rand

The Under and Tuglas Literature Centre, head of the department of Museum. University of Tartu, 1970. The main subject is Culture and Society, Cultures Research (Scientific collections of the Under and Tuglas Literature Centre (cultural history collections)


Project participants

Katrin Roositalu

Director of Ahja Fr. Tuglas’ Museum

Liivi Rosenvald

Curator of Oskar Luts Home Museum; member of the auditing commission of the Association of Estonian Writer´s Museums

Jeff Schmitz

Research associate at the Centre national de littérature in Mersch; studies in German and History at University of Bonn; teaching degree for secondary schools from Bonn University; German teacher at several secondary schools in Luxembourg; publications on 20th century Luxembourgish literature

Pascal Seil

Curator at Luxembourg Literature Centre; M.A. English and Modern Languages from Oxford University; publications on early 20th century literature

Aune Suve

Direktor of A. H. Tammsaare muuseum in Vargamäe, member of the board of the Association of the Estonian Writers’ Museums. In 2008, graduation of Estonian Art Academy, main subject museology. From 2000, Bachelor’s degree in youth work and a profession of seamster-handicraftsmen from 1997

Elle-Mari Talivee

Researcher at the Tuglas and Under Literature Centre museum department; M.A. in Comparative Literature from Tallinn University; doctoral student in cultural studies; main research interests: the city in the literature of Estonia, the stylistics of literature and Finno-Ugric literatures

Arne Tegelmann

Director of Palamuse O. Lutsu Parish Schoolmuseum; member of the Association of Estonian Writers’ Museums; graduated from Tallinn Pedagogical University’s cultural adviser specialty in 2001


Project participants

Kairi Tilga

Director of the Eduard Vilde Museum; member of the board of the Association of Estonian Writers’ Museums

Varvara Tsaka

Director of the Nikos Kazantzakis Museum; studied political sciences and cultural organizations management; fields of work: museum management, financial and human resource management, coordination of the museum projects, organization of various events, editions

Kadri Tüür

Researcher at Estonian Literary Museum, former head of Muhu Museum; member of the Association of Estonian Writers’ Museums; M. A. in comparative literature from University of Turku and in semiotics from University of Tartu; main research interests: 20th century Estonian writers, especially Juhan Smuul; nature writing; ecocriticism

Maarja Vaino

Director of A. H. Tammsaare Museum; head of the board of the Association of the Estonian Writer’s Museums; obtained Ph.D. from Tallinn University in 2011; main subject is Estonian literature in the beginning of the 20th century, the novel genre, poetics, literary history

Janek Varblas

Palamuse O. Lutsu Parish School Museum Development and Project Manager; graduated from Tallinn Pedagogical University’s specialty cultural adviser in 2003; graduated from University of Tartu Faculty of Philosophy in 2008; leader of the Community theater of Jõgeva Town


In addition to the present survey, the Grundtvig partnership Comparing Learning Opportunities in the Field of Literary Heritage presents a virtual exhibition about ďŹ ctional characters from ďŹ ve European countries: Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary and Luxembourg. It aims to promote the sometimes lesser known literatures of the partnership countries and make them accessible to a larger public. It is based on the idea that literary characters, maybe more than entire texts, provide wider audiences with direct and personal access to literature. The project is potentially open-ended and can be a starting point for a range of new cooperation projects. It is located at

More about the project:

ISBN 978-2-919903-34-4